T H E S E M E S T E R LY M A G A Z I N E O F F L O R E N C E U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E A R T S / Y R . 7 I S S . 2 F W 2 0 1 7
FUA + SBU CONFERENCE
1968: Where Have All The Flowers Gone?
FLY Students Step Forward
Looks of the Season
| COMMUNITY |
| LITERATURE |
Florence University of the Arts
Where studies transform
into real-world GANZO* is a school but with non-traditional classrooms where the Apicius students and faculty develop seasonal menus and share them with the general public. Via dei Macci, 85red tel +39 055 241076
FLY* Fashion Loves You supports the FAST fashion academics and collaborates
with emerging Italian designers. Borgo Pinti, 20red tel +39 055 0333174 fly.fashionlovesyou.it
INGORDA* The J School campus press creates books on gastronomy, design, travel, and lifestyle in collaboration with FUA students and faculty. Via dell'Oriuolo, 43 tel +39 055 0332745 jschoolfua.com
* Ganzo, FLY and Ingorda are respectively the CEMI of the Apicius, FAST, J School academic divisions at FUA. CEMI stands for Community Engagement Member Institution, and represents integration projects that are a part of FUAâ€™s academic campuses and open to the greater community. It is where students and faculty can put into practice and experiment with their academic coursework.
LETTER FROM THE EDITORS
CONFERENCE SECTION: 9TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE â€“ 1968: WHERE HAVE ALL THE FLOWERS GONE?
PARALLELISMS IN ICONOGRAPHY AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF REVOLUTION IN ART HISTORY: ITALIAN MANNERISM
DESIGNING THE BIRTHPLACE OF THE RENAISSANCE RIVOLUZIONE 9999: ARCHITECTURE WITH EYES OPEN TO THE FUTURE VESPA: AN ALARM CLOCK FOR 1960S TEENS
FLY LOOKS OF THE SEASON REVITALIZING RETAIL
Table of Contents
31 COMMUNITY IN LINE TO ONLINE: JOB HUNTING REVOLUTIONIZED MOBIKE A FIRENZE INTERVIEW WITH A REVOLUTIONARY WOMAN: THE KUNDA PROJECT
WOMEN WRITERS IN ITALY: TWO REVOLUTIONARY VOICES IN LITERATURE
DISRUPTING WINE TRADITIONS REMNANTS: TRANSFORMING DISCOURSE THROUGH PHOTOGRAPHY
Blending is a semesterly magazine created with and for students of Florence University of the Arts. The magazine is published by FUA’s campus press Ingorda, a member of the Fondazione di Partecipazione Palazzi - FAIE. For information contact firstname.lastname@example.org. Semestrale / Semesterly Magazine Reg. Trib. di Firenze n° 5844 del 29 luglio 2011 ISSN 2284-063X Anno 7 – Numero 2 – Autuno 2017 / Year 7 – Issue 2 – Fall 2017 Direttore Responsabile / Editor-in-chief Matteo Brogi Caporedattore / Editorial Director Grace Joh Coordinamento editoriale / Managing Editor Lauren Pugh In redazione / Masthead Team di studenti / Student Magazine Teams led by Andrea Mancini Layout project by the students of the Special Project Experiential Learning in Visual Communication - Graphic Design course: Noah Gouldhauss Articles by students of the Magazine Editing and Publishing I Course: Bethany Barrant, Shanelle Bonilla, Yu-Chuan Cheng, Isabella Gutierrez, Fe Hmelar, Ting-An Lai, Alma Limon, Sydney Mason, Shannon Murphy, Erika Pistor, Margarita Poroshina, Gina Valentino Copertina e pagine di apertura sezione / Cover and Section Openers Noah Gouldhauss Illustratore / Illustrator Andrea Mancini Redazione / Copy Editors Alice Cini, Chrystalla Christodoulou, Lauren Pugh Pubblicità seconda e terza di copertina / Inside Front and Back Cover Advertisement Pages Concept and Design by Paola Carretero Photographs by Thakorn Jantrochot Ringraziamenti / Special Thanks To Martina Franci, Andrea Mancini, Gianno Rossiello, Nicoletta Salomon Editore / Publisher Florence Campus per INGORDA Editore Via Alfonso La Marmora 39 50121 Firenze Sede editoriale / Editorial Headquarters Corso Tintori 21 50121 Firenze Tel. 055-0332745 Stampa / Printer Artigraf-Toccafondi Via Palestro 11 50013 Campi Bisenzio (FI) Il numero è stato chiuso in redazione nel mese di dicembre 2017 / This issue was completed in December 2017 Copyright © 2017 by Florence Campus, Firenze All rights reserved
Letter From The Editor
e are excited to share with you the culmination of a semester-long collaboration between FUA VWXGHQWVLQVWUXFWRUVDQGVWDÌ†$VDOZD\VRXU)DOOSXEOLFDWLRQWDNHVLQVSLUDWLRQIURPWKHDQnual FUA conference cohosted by SUNY Stony Brook University. This yearâ€™s conference title, :KHUH+DYH$OOWKH)ORZHUV*RQH"5HÃ€HFWLRQVRQWKHV5HYROXWLRQV, invited conferHQFHJRHUVWRUHÃ€HFWRQWKHVIRUWKHLUVZHHSLQJVRFLRSROLWLFDOPRYHPHQWVBlending Magazine takes LWVFXHIURPWKHFRQFHSWRIUHYROXWLRQDQGKRZJURXQGEUHDNLQJFKDQJHVDÌ†HFWWKHSDVWDQGSUHVHQWDV we look towards the future. The writers of this issue examine both big and small revolutions in various disciplines and areas of interest, including Italian design and architecture as well as the post-Renaissance Mannerist period. In DGGLWLRQWRWKHFUHDWLYHÂ¿HOGVRXUZULWHUVRIWKH&RPPXQLW\VHFWLRQDVNWKHTXHVWLRQRIKRZHYHU\GD\ OLIHFDQEHUHYROXWLRQL]HG7KH)DVKLRQVHFWLRQH[SUHVVHVWKHGDLO\HÌ†RUWVRI\RXQJLQGLYLGXDOVKRQLQJ their skills at FLY in preparation for the next step into the industry. Revolutions can come in the shape of happenings heard across the world and they can also be quiet undercurrents that bring about transformation in seemingly subtle ways. Florence as a constant backdrop to the content we publish is especially relevant for the Fall 2017 theme, considering the cityâ€™s role in revolutionary thought throughout history in the spheres of politics, science, the arts, and economy. 3HUKDSVQRZPRUHWKDQHYHUWKHFXUUHQWWLPHVZHOLYHLQFDOOIRUÂ¿HOGVVXFKDVHGXFDWLRQWRSURYLGHWKH tools for opportunity, change, and a vision that is not simply global but capable of seeing and reasoning across cultures. On this note we are proud to include in every issue a special Alumni feature in which we recount the stories of those whose lives and professional journeys have been impacted by a study experience in Florence. With our sincerest auguri that something in the following pages will inspire revolutionary thoughts in our readers, we wish you... Happy Reading, Grace Joh and Lauren Pugh
F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 05
By Amanda Torrisi
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F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 07
PARALLELISMS IN ICONOGRAPHY BY ISABELLA GUTIERREZ AND MARGARITA POROSHINA 08
“THE PASSION ENDURES. WE GAZE IN AWE AT THESE REFLECTIONS AS REVOLUTION REMAINS AS PERTINENT AND COMPELLING AS IT HAS IN PAST CENTURIES. “ Revolution, the muse of eternity. A catalyzation of like-minds who desire change and the betterment of the systems that surround them. Paralleled through the centuries, it takes on many forms. And like those who it inspires, it has its faces, its phases, its moods. In its dignity, it is an artistic rendering of social reform. It boasts a temperament fixed in its desire for equality, yet remains mutable enough to remain eternal in how it inspires our kind. As abstract as it is concrete, it is as relevant now as it was before. We see this illustrated by the creative minds of past centuries, and theorized by the classical and contemporary greats of philosophy. Systems rise and fall. They are reflections of the times we live in and the societies that oversee us. These reflections have endured, becoming crystallized through art and literature. We’ve seen expressions of this through the centuries, but most clearly in times when history saw an urgency for such changes. From the Renaissance to the French and American Revolutions, and even in modern history as conflicts between civilizations escalated into monumental warfare. Injustices inspired protests and an outward expression of human rights. The passion endures. We gaze in awe at these reflections as revolution remains as pertinent and compelling as in past centuries. Modern history in the Western world boasts a prosperous collection of art that reflects its revolutionary nature.
PARALLELISMS IN ICONOGRAPHY 8LIVSPISJXLIEVXMWXFIGEQIZMXEPMRI\TVIWWMRKXLMWEW;IWXIVR WSGMIX]XYVRIHXS[EVHWLYQERMWQMRXLIXLERHXLGIRXYVMIW 8LIWMKRMƼGERGISJXLIMRHMZMHYEPFIGEQIGIRXVEPXSXLI EHZERGIQIRXSJXLIEVXWERHWGMIRGIWERH[MXLXLMWWSGMIX] WE[ERE[EOIRMRKSJMXWWIRWIW%GSPPIGXMZIVIWTSRWIXSXLMW WLMJXGSYPHFIJIPXERHWIIREPPEVSYRHMXJSWXIVIHEQSVIGYVMSYW MRHMZMHYEPEWIRWMXMZMX]XLEX[SYPHFIWIIRMRMXWTIEOXLVSYKLXLI HIZIPSTQIRXSJRI[EVXXIGLRMUYIWERHZIVREGYPEVWMRPERKYEKI -RRSZEXMSRWMRTEMRXMRKFVSYKLXXLIRSZIPX]SJPMRIEVTIVWTIGXMZI MRXSXLITMGXYVI%TVSHYGXSJLYQERMWQƅWRI[P]XYVRIH E[EVIRIWWJVSQWTMVMXYEPQ]WXMGMWQXSXLIWIPJ;IWIIXLMW QSWXTVSJSYRHP]MR%RHVIE1ERXIKREƅW0EQIRXEXMSRSJ'LVMWX G %RYRSVXLSHS\HMWTPE]SJ.IWYW'LVMWXEJXIVFIMRKXEOIR HS[RJVSQXLIGVSWWPE]MRKSREQEVFPIWPEFMREGSQTSWMXMSR YRXLSYKLXSJMRTVIZMSYWTIVMSHW1ERXIKREHVE[WYWMRXLVSYKL
The Lamentation of Christ, c. 1490, by Andrea Mantegna
The Death of Marat, 1793, by Jacques-Louis David
"MODERN HISTORY IN THE WESTERN WORLD BOASTS A PROSPEROUS COLLECTION OF ART THAT REFLECTS [REVOLUTION AND] ITS ILLUSTRIOUS NATURE." LMWYWISJJSVIWLSVXIRMRKEYWISJI\XVIQITIVWTIGXMZIWSXS QEOIXLIZMI[IVJIIPEWXLSYKLXLI]EVIETEVXSJXLIWGIRI *YVXLIVQSVIMRXSLMWMRRSZEXMZIQMRH[IWIIERMRXIVTVIXEXMSR SJ.IWYW'LVMWXXLEXXVERWGIRHWLYQERWYJJIVMRK,MWLYQERMX] MWMPPYWXVEXIHJSVXLIƼ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
Photo By Gustavo Villoldo, CIA operative - CIA, National Security Archive, Public Domain
The Lamentation Over the Dead Christ, 2008, by Kehinde Wiley Oil on canvas 131” x 112”
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"THE REPRESENTATION OF ICONS [WILL] SEE A GROWTH TOWARDS SEEING THEM BECOME MORE LIKE US, STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE AND DIGNITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL."
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F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 11
An Encyclopedia of Revolution in Art History: Italian Mannerism
he students in the Fall 2017 Travel Writing course were given the task of examining the fundamental óĞÖūÖóŹĀūűÖŀùóĞÖūÖóŹĀūġűŹġóűƕĞġóĞùĀƭŀĀňŀĀňĕ Italy’s most reactionary artistic movements, Mannerism. Starting from the roots of the theme “revolution,” which derives from the Latin revolvere, or “to revolve,” students considered how movements – cultural, political, and, in this case, artistic – tend to be cyclic, where one is a reaction, or counter-reaction, to what preceded it. This holds especially true for the Mannerist movement, in which artists sought to break free from the realistic precision which distinguished the art of the Italian Renaissance.
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Madonna with the long neck, Parmigianino (1534-1540)
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Ten Thousand Martyrs, Pontormo (1529-1530) 12
BB LL EE NN DD II NN GG
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ROSSO FIORENTINO The Annunciation, Bronzino (1540-1545)
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ANDREA DEL SARTO
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Compianto sul Christo morto, Del Sarto (1523-1524)
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Depositon from the Cross, Fiorentino (1521) F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 13
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PONTORMO .EGSTS'EVYGGMPEXIVORS[REW.EGSTSHE4SRXSVQS [EWFSVRSR1E]MR4SRXSVQIRIEV)QTSPM 4SRXSVQSGEQIJVSQEPSRKPMRISJTEMRXIVWFYX WTIRXLMW]SYRKIV]IEVWEWERSVTLERPIEVRMRKXS TEMRXJVSQQEWXIVWWYGLEW0ISREVHSHE:MRGMERH 4MIVSHM'SWMQS%XXLIEKISJIMKLXIIRLI[SVOIH ZIV]GPSWIP]YRHIV%RHVIEHIP7EVXS[LSXSHE]MWWEMH XSFILMWQSWXSFZMSYWMRÆ½YIRGIV
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BRONZINO %KRSPS&VSR^MRSQSWXGSQQSRP]ORS[REW-P &VSR^MRS[EWFSVRSR2SZIQFIVMR 1SRXMGIPPS-XEP]FYXWTIRXQSWXSJLMWPMJIMR *PSVIRGI%WXYHIRXSJ.EGSTSHE4SRXSVQS&VSR^MRS HIZIPSTIHERYRIQSXMSREP]IXYRMUYITSVXVEMX XIGLRMUYIXLEX[EWZIV][IPPVIGIMZIH-RLI [EWLMVIHF]XLI1IHMGM'SYVXEWXLIMVSÆ¾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
Deposizione, Pontormo (1525-1528) 14
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The Deposition of Christ, Bronzino (1540-1545)
-RXLMWTEMRXMRK'LVMWXÆ…WTEWWMSRERHHIEXLEVIFSXL VITVIWIRXIHF]WYFXPIHIXEMPW&ILMRH7X.SLRXLIVI MWEORIIPMRKERKIPLSPHMRKEGLEPMGIERHTVIWIRXMRK MXMRETVMIWXP]QERRIV&ILMRH1EV]1EKHEPIRIXLIVI MWERSXLIVERKIPLSPHMRKEZIMPMRXIRHIHXSGSZIVXLI GLEPMGI8LIWIKIWXYVIWLMKLPMKLXXLITEVEQSYRX VIPMKMSYWTVMRGMTPIWXLEXXLIEPXEVTMIGIÆ…WW]QFSPMWQMW YWIHXSWYTTSVX.SWITLSRXLIVMKLXLSPHWXLIREMPW YWIHMRXLIGVYGMÆ¼\MSRERHXLIERKIPWEFSZIGEVV] E[E]XLIGVSWW8LIVIMWE[SQERMRERE[O[EVH TSWMXMSRHIPMGEXIP]WYTTSVXMRK'LVMWXÆ…WLIEHFILMRH .SLR[LSWYTTSVXWLMWFSH]8LMW[SQERÆ…WWQEPP GSRXVMFYXMSRMWMRXIRHIHXSFIEGPIEVVIQMRHIVSJNYWX LS[QYGL'LVMWXWEGVMÆ¼GIHJSVQEROMRH
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
The Allegory of the Immaculate Conception, Vasari (1540-1541)
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PALAZZO STROZZI: AN EXAMINATION OF HISTORY AND TRANSFORMATION 8LIÆ¼REPIRXV]MW4EPE^^S7XVS^^M GYVVIRXP]LSWXMRKXLII\LMFMXMSR Il Cinquecento a Firenze until .ERYEV]ERHJIEXYVIW 4SRXSVQSSRISJXLI1ERRIVMWX EVXMWXWJIEXYVIHMRXLMWEVXMGPI ;LIXLIVMXFISRISJXLI QER]TVMWSRWXLEXLEZIFIIR XVERWJSVQIHJSVQSHIVRYWIWYGL EWEXLIEXIVSVVIWXEYVERXYVFER VIRSZEXMSRMWTVIZEPIRXXLVSYKLSYX XLIWXVIIXWSJ*PSVIRGI 6IRSZEXMSRMWEPWSXLIGEWI JSV4EPE^^S7XVS^^MERSTYPIRX TEPEGISVMKMREPP]S[RIHF]XLI 7XVS^^MJEQMP]8LIEVGLMXIGXYVEP 6IREMWWERGIGPEWWMG[EW IRZMWMSRIHF]*MPMTTS7XVS^^MSRI SJXLI[IEPXLMIWXQIRMRÆ¼JXIIRXL GIRXYV]*PSVIRGI'SRWXVYGXMSR FIKERSR4EPE^^S7XVS^^MMR ERH[EWGSQTPIXIHMRF] &EGGMSHÆ…%KRSPS%JXIV[EVHW XLIFYMPHMRK[IRXYRHIVEWIVMIW SJGLERKIWJSVEJI[LYRHVIH ]IEVW8LIWIGLERKIW[IVI QEMRP]WXVYGXYVEPWYGLEWER IRPEVKIQIRXSJEWXEMVGEWISV XLIVISTIRMRKSJ[EPPW&YXXLI QENSVGLERKIXSXLI4EPE^^S 7XVS^^MSGGYVVIHMR[LIR XLIFYMPHMRK[EWTYVGLEWIHF] XLI2EXMSREP-RWYVERGI-RWXMXYXI JVSQXLI7XVS^^MJEQMP]ERH PEXIVWYVVIRHIVIHXSXLI-XEPMER KSZIVRQIRXMR9RHIVWXEXI GSRXVSPXLI4EPE^^S7XVS^^M YRHIV[IRXEQENSVGLERKIERH [EWXVERWJSVQIHMRXSEQYWIYQ 8SHE]XLI4EPE^^S7XVS^^MMWXLI FEWIPSGEXMSRJSVJSYVMRWXMXYXMSRW XLI+4:MIYWWIY\'EFMRIXXLI 2EXMSREP-RWXMXYXISJ6IREMWWERGI 7XYHMIW-RWXMXYXISJ,YQERERH 7SGMEP7GMIRGIWERH*SRHE^MSRI 4EPE^^S7XVS^^M-RXLI 'LEQFIVSJ'SQQIVGIERHE TVMZEXIEWWSGMEXIQIVKIHXS QEOIETYFPMGTVMZEXIGSQTER] MRSVHIVXSGVIEXIEFIXXIVW]WXIQ SJQEREKIQIRXJSVXLIFYMPHMRK 8LI4EPE^^S7XVS^^MRS[WXERHW EWSRISJXLIQENSVVIJSVQIH FYMPHMRKWMRXLIGMX]SJ*PSVIRGI ERHLMWLSQIXSQER]GPEWWMG 6IREMWWERGITEMRXMRKWEWEPSGEP QYWIYQERHXSYVMWXEXXVEGXMSR 16
Photo by Peter beim Graben
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS: MATTHEW BERNARD, SHANELLE BONILLA, JESSE BORGESE, ERICKA BRODERICK, JORDYN BURNS, KRISTEN CARROLL, CHRYSTALLA CHRISTODOULOU, MICHAEL DORMAN, EMILY DUGAN, CHRISTINA FALSO, BRIAN GINISE, CELIA GRAY, MARGARET HARTOFILIS, RACHEL KUENY, EMILY LALUNA, OCEANA MINTHORNE, GWEN OVER, LIZ PETERSON, HOLLIS POCH, MICHAELA RAFFAELE, ALEXUS SAXTON, MADELINE STUART, ANDREW WHITE COORDINATING FACULTY MEMBER: NICOLETTA SALOMON
F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 17
Designing the Birthplace of the Renaissance BY GINA VALENTINO AND CHENG YU-CHUAN
tefano Rovai is the owner of RovaiWeber Design and has created graphics, signage and typography for some of the most well known museums and exhibitions in Florence. 8LIS[RIVSJ6SZEM;IFIV(IWMKR6SZEMLEW GSRXVMFYXIHIHMXSVMEPKVETLMGWGSQQYRMGEXMSR GEQTEMKRWERHGYWXSQM^IHHIWMKRXSWSQI SJXLIQSWX[IPPORS[RPERHQEVOWMR*PSVIRGI 7YWERRE;IFIVLMWTEVXRIVI\TPEMRWXLEX[LIVI ]SYPMZIMRƽYIRGIWXLIX]TISJ[SVO]SYTVSHYGIWS REXYVEPP]XLIMVWXYHMSWTIGMEPM^IWMRGVIEXMRKHIWMKRW JSVQYWIYQWERHEVXI\LMFMXMSRWIQFPIQEXMGSJ 8YWGERGYPXYVI8LI]EPWSLEZIE[MHIVERKISJ TYFPMGERHTVMZEXIGPMIRXIPIMRGPYHMRKXLITYFPMWLMRK MRHYWXV] +MYRXM1SWXVI%VXI1YWIM%PMREVM3VI XLIJEWLMSRMRHYWXV] 7EPZEXSVI*IVVEKEQS+YGGM )VQERRS7GIVZMRS ERHSJGSYVWIXLI[MRIMRHYWXV]
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WALK INTO STEFANO ROVAI’S STUDIO AND YOU WILL BE GREETED BY A WALL LENGTH BOOKSHELF, RESEARCH FOR HIS LATEST PROJECTS, WHICH SPAN THE LAST FOUR DECADES. THE FLORENTINE PHOTOGRAPHER-TURNED GRAPHIC DESIGNER-SITS BEHIND A GIANT MICROSOFT DESKTOP COMPUTER READY TO SHOW HIS LATEST WORK,
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“USE YOUR HEAD, NOT THE COMPUTER”
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Courtesy of RovaiWeber Design
%TVSJIWWSVEXXLI9RMZIVWMXʚHIKPM7XYHMHM7ER 1EVMRS6SZEMLEWWSQIEHZMGIJSV]SYRKKVETLMG HIWMKRIVWƈ&IORS[PIHKIEFPIERHGYVMSYW9WI]SYV LIEHRSXXLIGSQTYXIVƉ ;LIREWOIH[LIVILIWIIWXLIWXYHMSMRƼZI]IEVWLI WE]WMXHITIRHWSRLMWGPMIRXWƅRIIHWERHXLIRWLS[W ETMGXYVISJLMWWXEJJXIR]SYRKHIWMKRIVWƈ8YXXM KMSZERMƉ F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 19
RIVOLUZIONE 9999 Architecture with eyes open to the future, by Fe Hmelar and Alma Limon
he year was 1968, student revolutions demanding social and political change exploded throughout the Renaissance city of Florence. Scholars and creatives alike used their talents to give voice to their ideas and opinions about the time, and so emerged a group of radical architects - Giorgio Birelli, Carlo Caldini, Fabrizio Fumi, and Paolo Galli - who came together and created a group known as the 9999. Together, they revolutionized the world of contemporary Italian architecture. To commemorate the group and their contributions, art historian and artist, Marco Ornella curated the first monographic exhibition about the group for the Museo Novecento. Especially for the occasion, the Museo Novecento and the Palazzo Strozzi have established joint entrance to access the concurrent exhibitions “Radical Utopias,” both of which focus on the movement. “My intention was to fill an information gap,” Ornella shared. “(I) researched texts on the 9999, in part thanks to an increased interest posed by curators and historians of the movement interested in more politicized artists.” They aimed to physically capture the social and political revolutions occurring in Florence at the time. “The 9999 decided at that time not to adopt a policy matrix, they made the choice to use their skills as architects to implement their own personal revolution. Drawing from their personal and professional lives, they went on to design and construct the Space Nightclub Electronic (1969), a space of freedom that allowed one to freely experiment with their own theories about space and give space to music and experimental theatre,” Ornella said when asked about the relevance
of the movement in regards to the political and social climate. The exhibition includes many unpublished photos, footage and interviews of all the individuals involved in this movement which came out of Ornella’s initial research. The exhibit also gives viewers the opportunity to comprehend the events that led to the group’s beginning in ‘68 with the name 9999. Remarkable events are documented, such as THE HAPPENING PROJECT on the Ponte Vecchio, a project in which overlapping informational layers, visual projections and light effects on the bridge’s sides were employed by 9999 architects to redefine perception of the monument. The show does not attempt to change perceptions, but rather inform museum goers of this important moment in Florentine and Italian artistic, social and political history. “I do not think that the show will change the perception of the subject, but I think that it will add another crucial chapter to one of the most important movements in Italy,” Ornella concluded. But one thing is certain: whether you are an artist yourself, or perhaps your interests lie in some other field, you are sure to leave the exhibit motivated to use your skills as a means of expressing your individual values and opinions.
OPEN HOURS AND PRICING COMPLESSO DELLO SPEDALE DELLE LEOPOLDINE PIAZZA SANTA MARIA NOVELLA 10, FLORENCE EXHIBITION DATES: 28 OCTOBER 2017 – 28 JANUARY 2018 OPENING HOURS: MON – TUE – WED – FRI – SAT – SUN | 11:00 A.M. TO 7:00 P.M. THURSDAY: 11:00 A.M. TO 2:00 P.M. TICKETS: MUSEUM, FULL PRICE € 8.50; MUSEUM, REDUCED PRICE € 4; FREE OF CHARGE FOR VISITORS UNDER 18, SCHOOL GROUPS AND ACCOMPANYING TEACHERS.
Space Nightclub Electronic, 1969
An Alarm Clock for 1960’s Teens By Sydney Mason and Erika Pistor
aving a narrow center and creating a constant buzzing sound, this little moped got the name Vespa which in translation means “wasp.” Italy’s economy was crippled after World War ll, but Piaggio with its new Vespa design quickly boosted the waning industrial economy and forever shaped Italy’s pop culture images. The product was inspired by Cushman Airborne motorcycles that were used by troops after having parachuted down during WWll. The Vespa was the ľňűŹľňùĀūŀÖŀùÖƨňūùÖñķĀƕÖƛŹň travel in the years after the war, and most Italians owned one.
Leader is a large scale full-service advertising and marketing agency whose team is made up of designers, creative graphic artists and executives from Florence and central Italy. Since shortly after War World II, Piaggio has been a producer and vendor of scooters, mopeds, and three-wheeled motor vehicles. In 1965, the Florentine-based firm Leader stipulated a contract with Piaggio for the planning, management, and realization of publicity campaigns for Piaggio products.
Above is one of the posters of the campaign: “Chi Vespa mangia le mele”.
Luca Checchi is a graphic designer from Florence. During his first years with Leader, he worked as a “cartellonista,” which is the name given to those who created hand-drawn advertising images of products. During the years around 1968, Checchi took on the role of art production manager and was responsible for turning creative concepts into something suitable for publishing in the variety of outlets and formats necessary for a particular ad campaign.
F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 21
ĞĀƭūűŹóÖľŧÖġėŀŹĞÖŹcĀÖùĀūŧūňùſóĀùĕňūġÖėėġň was centered on the theme “con Vespa si può,” which translates more or less to “with Vespa, you can (do
anything).” The idea behind the campaign was meant to be rational yet poignant, pointing out the myriad of possibilities and advantages that came with riding a Vespa.
AN INNOVATIVE SLOGAN: LUCA CHECCHI
In the picture MWXLIƼVWX'VIEXMZI8IEQSJ0IEHIV Pubblicità. Sitting: Gilberto Filippetti, the Creative Director. (Courtesy of Luca Checchi)
After two years, Checchi and the team at Leader felt there was a need to make the campaign even more relatable, modern, and attractive. They thought about using lingo that was fresh and unique, and images that stepped outside of the typical “look-tothe-future” box which was prevalent in those years. They sought imagery that left room for interpretation, and that bestowed on the name Vespa the power to transform into whatever was in the eye of the beholder. These were times in which there started to be more artistic movements that drew from everyday life, such as pop art, and that employed very simple graphics with bright, basic colors. This gave rise to a simple, colorful style, which however was not explicit in its meaning, allowing each the pleasure of interpretation.
The slogan “chi Vespa mangia le mele” is difficult to translate, due to the unique combination of wordplay and allusions in the Italian language. It can be literally translated as “he who rides a Vespa eats apples.” However the true essence is something much subtler and spirited. The action – eating, or biting, an apple – is a sensual one, even perhaps a bit sinful. There is an underlying sense of freedom, which was inextricably linked to the name Vespa. Thus the design of the apple, the king of fruits, with two missing bites, became an easily recognizable and memorable symbol.
The new campaign was approved by the most elite members of the Piaggio team, including the Agnelli family, and was launched w ith few obstacles. The reaction to the campaign was somewhat perplexed, yet curious – people were asking what it meant, but they took to it immediately and in fact, af ter a while, many started to adopt the slogan to explain concepts that were other w ise difficult to understand. It became a synonym for and a declaration of the indiv idual’s power of imagination and fantasy.
An Alarm Clock for 1960â€™s Teens
F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 25
FLY LOOKS OF THE SEASON BY BREANA DIAZ, EDEN ANDREWS, AND HANIYYAH DIXON
ĞġűűĀÖűňŀȲňſūƭŀÖķķňňĴűÖūĀġŀűŧġūĀùñƛ a professional, sleek, and bold woman. Casual-chic and fresh street-style are combined to create a revolutionary look, ÖŧŧūňŧūġÖŹĀĕňūùġƨĀūĀŀŹňóóÖűġňŀűȷ§ĞĀķňňĴű űĞňƕóÖűĀŹĞĀŹƕňùġƨĀūĀŀŹűŹƛķĀűÖŀùĞňƕŹĞĀƛ ėňŹňėĀŹĞĀūȷuſūƭūűŹķňňĴĕĀÖŹſūĀűÖġÖƤƤÖ Sempione grey blazer dress with black Ferdinandi shorts. The look is complete with a green and yellow cross body bag crafted by FUA student Veronica Pimentel Faria, along with black Lori Blue pointed heels. Lastly, a Dolce and Gabbana scarf is added to complement the professional yet relaxed style. Our second look features a House of AmZ “Femininity is…” T-shirt paired with overalls by Girbaud. This bold pairing speaks to edgy-street fashionistas. The Gucci shoes and Pinko fur coat give this look a sleek professional twist making it doable for both a business day and a day out on the go.
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FLY Fashion Loves You FLY is the creative learning lab of the students of Fashion and Accessories Studies and Technology at Florence University of the Arts. By Shanelle Bonilla and Shannon Murphy
FLY Fashion Loves You
common question FLY manager Gaia Poli receives from curious customers is, “What is FLY? A school or a store?” In reality, it’s both.
In the front of the house, it is a retail store featuring consignment, vintage clothing from designers such as Gucci and Dolce & Gabbana, and pieces from emerging fashion designers. The back of the space, however, holds the labs where students handcraft their own products, which include apparel, handbags, accessories and straw hats that are put on display in the front of the store, as well as classrooms where they study the skills necessary to run a retail business. FLY is described as the heart of FUA’s school of Fashion and Accessory Studies and Technology (FAST). Through a revolutionary concept known as experiential learning, which FUA employs in all its schools, students are able to combine their academic experience with a real, professional
“I HOPE WE WILL BECOME A HUB OF NEW IDEAS.” environment. FLY is able to shape future fashion professionals by training them in a real store, something Poli says is unusual, especially in Italy. Students run the daily operations of the store, which includes arranging displays, interacting with customers, and hosting events that provide visibility both for FLY and its emerging designers.
October 2017 to January 2018, the featured emerging designer at FLY is Alexandra Zofcin with her brand, The House of AmZ. Alexandra, a former FUA student, conceived and created a capsule collection of ready-to-wear garments, Femininity Is…, which seeks to open up the discourse on what it means to be “feminine” in today’s society.
These emerging designers are sometimes alumni of FAST themselves who are given the opportunity to design and create their own collections that FLY consigns and promotes to the community. Through social media, word of mouth, and events, FLY provides visibility for these designers that allows them to enter the fashion world when other retail stores look to FLY for new merchandise. In fact, from
Other retail stores look to FLY for the next up-and-coming designer or product, which shows just how influential FLY is within the Florentine community. One experiential learning student, Ella DiPietro, says what sets FLY apart from the other high-end consignment shops on Borgo Pinti, where FLY is located, is that the collections are more unique. “Our emerging designers,” states DiPietro, “usually make their
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FLY IS A NON-PROFIT STORE SO ALL PROCEEDS GO TOWARD THE FASHION PROGRAM.
debut here and then go to other consignment shops after.” The collections created by student designers are displayed at the store for three to four months and, in the meantime, FLY develops social media content and tests the products, and then, gives feedback to retailers. Poli describes this work as a “pre-selection.” “Whoever happens to have a collection in FLY,” she says, “is a person with whom it is possible to work. At times, emerging designers are difficult. They are not always flexible, and if I were a full-time retailer, I would be hesitant to work with someone who is not able to accommodate my requests. Therefore, we let other retailers know that a kind of selection has already been made, that there is a good collection, and behind it all, there is a person who is able to collaborate well.” FLY also provides feedback directly to the emerging designers themselves. If there is a product that is not selling, this is shared with the designer so they can alter the collection to meet the needs of the market. According to Poli, “after the experience here, they know what sells and what doesn’t. They know that if their collection is beautiful and receives high praise, but then someone tries something on and doesn’t buy it, we can tell them why. Maybe the fitting is poor, the price is too high, or the quality is not perceived as good for the asking price. We give them a first opportunity for evaluation that then makes them more appealing to other stores.” Aside from its relationship with students and the community, FLY is revolutionary to Poli because part of its mission is to promote the concept of sustainability in fashion. FLY upcycles and collects vintage pieces, giving garments that are still in great shape, or brands that are no longer produced, a second life. By reusing and selling these items, FLY and its customers avoid wasteful shopping through fastfashion chains that sell primarily throw-away clothes. One could also say FLY is revolutionary in the way the work being done here seems to come back full circle. Students learn in the classrooms, create in the labs, then eventually produce authentic collections for FLY that earn profits the store is able to turn into scholarships for future students who may end up being future emerging designers themselves.
The students working in FLY also feel they gain valuable experience they did not have before. As another experiential learning student, Lexis Gervais, says, “I think what’s special about this class is it’s not just focused on the retail. It’s focused on all the aspects of managing and promoting a store. It goes into visual merchandising, running events, social media promotion, all of that, which is basically every aspect of running a store, like a manager, and I haven’t had such a complete 360° experience until now.” When asked why Florence is the best location for a store like this, Poli responded, “because in Florence we are ingenious people.” In the past, Florence had been known as an important place for Italian fashion, and both FLY and FAST work to re-establish Florence as a place of creativity by bringing back hand-crafted arts and bridging the gap between design and manual skills in fashion and accessories. So what’s next for FLY? How will it continue to revolutionize retail? Poli reveals this will be done through more specialization in the vintage selections, more student creations, and by getting as close as possible to its mission, which is to foster the academic experience with the professional environment. “I hope we will continue to be a hub of new ideas with a solid archive of vintage pieces,” says Poli. FLY began as the dream of FUA President Gabriella Ganugi and today, it is an influential business teaching students how to be professionals in the fashion world.
FLY FASHION LOVES YOU Borgo Pinti 20r, 50121 Firenze Ph.+39 055 2633190 ﬂy.fashionlovesyou.it Info@fashionlovesyou.it
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TO ONLINE: Job Hunting Revolutionized
by BETHANY BARRANT and LAI TING AN t is no secret that technology has revolutionized job hunting in many ways. In combination with technological developments, the improvement of the social and political climate over the past century has granted greater access to education, more political freedom, and more wide-spread ƼRERGMEPSTTSVXYRMXMIWJSVQER]8LIWIVEHMGEP social, political, and technological changes have all contributed to increased competition, with a number of people with similar credentials applying to the same jobs. In a world of QMRYXISRPMRIETTPMGEXMSRWXLEXGERFIƼPPIH out from the comfort of one’s home, it has become harder and harder to stand out. Indeed, much has changed in the world since 1968, when “back in the day” personal connections in combination with eagerness and ability to perform were the factors that most helped TISTPIƼRHNSFW
F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 33
JOB HUNTING TECHNIQUES COME
hat is the key to success? 8SHE]SRIGSQQSRERW[IVXSXLEXUYIWXMSR is “networking.” What holds to be true is that a personal connection is what seems to score TISTPINSFW8LEXGSRRIGXMSRGERFIQEHIHYVMRKXLI interview, on LinkedIn, in a social setting, a professional organization, or through a colleague. In a world where WGVSPPMRKERHW[MTMRKXLVSYKLTVSƼPIWGERWSQIXMQIW lead to judgements about an individual’s online selfprojection, we have taken away the need for a personal connection. Yet this can actually be a mistake for both the employers and potential employees. Often, employers give the job pool the sole contact option of sending a direct message through a professional social site because the application process has moved entirely online. Potential employees often do not make the time to visit the possible future place of employment and therefore leave it to the employer to make assumptions about their capabilities and personality based off a single uploaded document. Communicating your skill set and personality in person, whether you are job hunting or not, makes a greater impression on people than a resume or CV. 8LMW GER PIEH XS NSF SJJIVW ERH STTSVXYRMXMIW MR XLI JYXYVISVIZIRMQQIHMEXILMVIɸ
here have been many key changes to the workforce since the 1960s beyond the introduction to the internet. We conducted an interview with Andrea Mancini, Florence University of the Arts â€“ FUA professor with a Fine Arts degree and an extensive professional history. *VSQLMWĆźVWXNSFSFXEMRIHMREXEREHZIVXMWMRK agency to his current job at FUA started two years ago, Mancini shared that he found most of his jobs through networking with the people that he knew. While Mancini is a professor, he is also a professional freelance concept artist for advertising and editorial. 8MQIWLEZIGLERKIHWMRGI1ERGMRMLEWNSMRIHXLI workforce and he has grown with technology in order XSOIITYT8SI\TERHLMWRIX[SVOLILEWERSRPMRI portfolio and uses freelance job sites such as Upwork and AddLance to get contracted for work all around the world. 8LIMHIESJPS]EPX]LEWGSQTPIXIP]FIIREPXIVIHMRXLI sense of being loyal to a doctor or even your boss. He believes that in the future, there will be universal mobile applications connecting people to skilled workers, such as doctors, graphic designers, fashion stylists, and lawyers - immediately connecting people to the services they need, when they need them. Current and future generations no longer remain PS]EPXSXLIWEQIGSQTER]XLIMVIRXMVIPMZIWMXMWUYMXI normal to constantly be on the lookout for the next best thing, or feel the need to change your current work environment.Mancini feels that to thrive in the workforce in the future, it will become necessary to
HOWEVER, WITH JOBS BECOMING SO LIQUID, THE LACK OF GUARANTEED BENEFITS WILL MAKE IT EXTREMELY HARD TO SAVE AND PLAN FOR THE FUTURE.
have a plethora of skills which one has masteredB L E N D I N G at some level. People will most likely be changing NSFWUYMGOP]XSQEOIQSVIQSRI]MRERI\XVIQIP] specialized position. Not only will this be important to increase your pay, but also for job security, as many times employers view employees as expendable and VITPEGIEFPI,S[IZIV[MXLNSFWFIGSQMRKWSPMUYMHE PEGOSJKYEVERXIIHFIRIĆźXWFVMRKW[MXLMXERIKEXMZI WMHIĆ MXQE]FIQSVIHMĆžGYPXXSWEZIERHTPERJSVXLI future. ,S[MWXLMWEPPVIZSPYXMSREV]#8LIMRXVSHYGXMSRSJ the internet along with many other technological EHZERGIWLEZIFIRIĆźXIHTISTPIMRQER][E]W [LIRYWIHETTVSTVMEXIP]4ISTPILEZIFIRIĆźXIHERH TVSĆźXIHJVSQXLMWMRXLIX]TISJNSFWXLI]EVIRS[ EFPIXSSFXEMR =SY8YFITIVWSREPMXMIWERH-RWXEKVEQ promoters) without a formal education. More and QSVITISTPIGERĆźRHSYXEFSYXWIVZMGIWERHTVSHYGXW through online portfolios and business websites. However, the people that truly thrive are the ones that can market themselves both online and in person. In the past decade or so, many people have made an added effort to improve their social skills online while forgetting to maintain their social skills in person. .SFLYRXMRKXIGLRMUYIW[MPPGSQIJYPPGMVGPI[LIRNSF seekers are able to evolve with technology to employ self-marketing and networking skills both online as well as in person.
MOBIKE A FIRENZE
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Mobike è una piattaforma di bike-sharing lanciata a Firenze negli ultimi mesi che mira a ridurre l’inquinamento atmosferico e a risolvere il problema dei collegamenti a corto raggio all’interno della città.
Photos by Noah Gouldhauss
Mobike is a bike-sharing platform that was introduced in Florence this year. It seeks to reduce air pollution and to reduce the difficulty of short-distance travels within the city center.
STORIA E CENNI Mobike è la prima piattaforma di bike-sharing del mondo che non richiede postazioni fisse e utilizza una tecnologia di bloccaggio intelligente. Mobike è arrivata a Firenze nel mese di luglio 2017 e dopo 5 mesi ci sono più di quattromila biciclette che circolano in tutta la città. Mobike è stata fondata e dal gennaio 2015 è di proprietà di Beijing Mobike Technology. In soli due anni, Mobike si è espansa per operare in 160 città all’interno della Cina; a Singapore; a Manchester, Regno Unito; e a Firenze e Milano, Italia. Al momento Mobike non è ancora disponibile negli Stati Uniti. In città come New York e Jersey City sono già attivi servizi molto diffusi come Citibike ma ci sono dei costi fissi o delle tariffe annuali, mentre Mobike richiede solo il costo dell’utilizzo singolo. Oltretutto il sistema attuale di Mobike viene messo in forte discussione negli Stati Uniti per via di una funzione antifurto che dà una scossa elettrica a chiunque cerchi di rubare una bicicletta bloccata. Ci sono opinioni diverse sul merito di questa funzione che bloccano per adesso l’approdo di Mobike negli Stati Uniti. DESIGN E FUNZIONE Mobike è stato creato non solo per aiutare l’ambiente, ma anche per risolvere il problema per chi rimane bloccato da qualche parte che è un po’ troppo lontano a piedi, ma non abbastanza da prendere un taxi, Uber, servizio automobile o cose del genere. Ci sono tre diversi tipi di Mobike: Classic, Lite (Leggera), e Seconda Generazione. La differenza tra la versione classica e la versione leggera è nel titolo - il peso è diverso. Inoltre, Mobike Lite ha un cestino in alluminio nella parte anteriore, mentre quella classica non lo ha. La seconda generazione non è ancora diffusa ma si dice che abbia un cavalletto di alluminio in contrapposizione a quello di plastica dura che hanno invece le due versioni attuali. Per utilizzare una Mobike bisogna scaricare l’applicazione gratuita dall’AppStore Apple o da Google Play. Dopo aver scaricato l’applicazione, Mobike chiede agli utenti di creare un account e registrarsi con il loro numero di telefono e numero di passaporto di identificazione mobile per gli utenti non cinesi. Dopo aver creato un account e averlo registrato con successo, si può iniziare a pedalare. L’applicazione utilizza la posizione dell’utente e la tecnologia di localizzazione in bici per aiutarvi a trovare la baci più vicina. All’interno dell’app, è possibile selezionare la bici che si vuole prenotare per 15 minuti in modo che nessun altro possa prenderla. Una volta arrivati alla bici si esegue la scansione del codice QR sulla bici con il telefono e la bici produrrà tre suoni brevi e un fruscìo, che significa che la bici è stata sbloccata. Una volta aperta, si può pedalare per tutto il tempo che si desidera, e parcheggiare, in sostanza, ovunque si desideri. Mobike specifica che le biciclette dovrebbero essere parcheggiate nelle Mobike Preferred Locations (MPL) o qualsiasi altro punto di parcheggio pubblico. Quando si arriva a destinazione e si parcheggia la bici, è sufficiente far scorrere la serratura ed i dettagli del viaggio si presentano sullo smartphone.
BACKGROUND Mobike is the first bike-sharing service to offer a dockfree parking system thanks to an intelligent lock system. It was introduced in Florence in July 2017 and now counts over 4,000 bikes in the city. The company was founded by Beijing Mobike Technology in January 2015, and in just two years its services have expanded to over 160 cities within China as well as in Singapore, Manchester in the UK, and Florence and Milan in Italy. BIKE DESIGN AND FUCTIONALITY Mobike was created to not only reduce pollution but to fulfill the travel gap for getting to places too far to reach on foot but too close for a cab or car service. There are currently three types of Mobikes: Classic, Lite, and Second Generation. The differences are indicated by these names that each stand for varying weights. The Lite version has an additional aluminum basket that the Classic doesn’t, and the Second Generation that has yet to be released is said to have a more advanced and wear-proof kickstand. To access Mobike, it’s sufficient to download the free app and create an account, which requires a phone number and passport ID for non-Chinese users. The app tracks the user’s position, signals the nearest available bikes, and allows users to reserve bikes for up to 15 minutes. To start a ride, users can scan the QR code and after emitting a brief warning beep the bike is unlocked and can be used at the rider’s leisure and parked in either Mobike Preferred Locations or in any public parking space. To lock the bike, it’s as simple as closing the lock handle and verifying the rental details on the app. COST It’s free to download the app. Mobike requires a refundable deposit for the first ride. The base cost is 50 eurocents for every 30 minutes of usage, and riders can refill/top up their account credit as they wish. Credit never expires, and riders also have the option of choosing Mobike passes
COSTO L’applicazione Mobike è gratuita in App Store e nel negozio di Google Play, tuttavia c’è un deposito rimborsabile per la prima corsa. La tariffa base è 50 centesimi ogni 30 minuti e gli utenti possono ricaricare i propri account quando
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MOBIKE A FIRENZE
vogliono. I crediti non scadono mai e c’è anche la possibilità di acquistare i pass che hanno varie durate e consentono corse illimitate di due ore nel periodo selezionato. Una volta superate le due ore di una corsa effettuata con il pass, le tariffe standard vengono applicate al costo totale. Un grafico completo e la descrizione è disponibile all’interno della pagina delle FAQ sul sito web Mobike. COME SI SENTONO LE PERSONE SU MOBIKE? Dopo aver fatto alcune ricerche, abbiamo deciso di uscire e condurre un paio di interviste con alcuni utenti Mobike. Per svolgere le nostre interviste, abbiamo fatto ai nostri intervistati otto domande: • Quanto spesso usi Mobike? • È facile da usare? • Quanto costa? • È affidabile? • Cosa ti piace e/o ti piace maggiormente di Mobike? • L’app funziona bene? • Ti capita mai di avere problemi a trovare una bici? • Prevedi eventuali effetti negativi della Mobike sulla città di Firenze? I nostri colloqui erano con due studenti: uno di FUA, Cameron Cipolla, e uno dell’Università di Firenze, Emelina Virga:
valid for varying lengths. Passes allow for unlimited rides of two hours each, after which regular time-based charges are applied. For updated costs and regulations, it’s important to review the FAQ section of the Mobike webiste. REAL REACTIONS TO MOBIKE After initial research on Mobike services and regulations, we conducted a few interviews with real Mobike users who responded to eight questions: • How often do you use Mobike? • Is it easy to use? • Tell us about the cost. • Is it reliable? • What do you like most about Mobike? • How efficient is the app? • Do you ever experience difficulty finding a bike? • Do you foresee any negative effects of Mobike on Florence? Our interviewees were Cameron Cipolla, an FUA student, and Emelina Virga, a student from the local Italian university in Florence.
Emelina: “Mobike è senz’altro affidabile e facile da usare. Se sei fuori città forse ci metti più tempo a trovare le bici ma in centro ci vogliono al massimo cinque minuti”. Le impressioni di Emelina erano per la maggior parte positive ma in risposta all’ultima domanda ha condiviso questo pensiero: “Anche se Mobike ha un basso impatto sull’ambiente, potrebbe influire sul turismo perché molti turisti si rendono conto che possono vedere più zone della città in maniera autonoma e a costi bassi. Insieme al problema ricorrente del degrado urbano, forse questo aspetto di Mobike sarà percepito negativamente col tempo”. Anche la studentessa di FUA Cameron Cipolla ha espresso commenti positivi su Mobike. “Adoro Mobike e la sua facilità di utilizzo. Mi piace che il parcheggio non sia legato a una stazione fissa, ed è comodo soprattutto per le donne quando rientrano a casa la sera. E’ un nuovo modo per esplorare la città e soprattutto divertente”. In risposta all’ultima domanda, Cameron ha continuato a spiegare che “l’unica nota negativa di Mobike sono le bici stesse.” Il problema principale che ha sottolineato sono le gomme sottili e la difficoltà di guida sui sanpietrini. Ogni tanto quando c’è poco segnale l’applicazione si blocca e rallenta lo sblocco della bici. Dato che Firenze è già complicata da attraversare con le automobili, chissà se con l’aumento di utenti diventerà difficile anche andare in bici”.
“Mobike is definitely reliable and easy to use. If you are out of the city it may take a little bit longer to find a bike, but if you are within the city center, it will take no longer than 5 minutes,” said Emelina. Although Virga had mostly positive comments about her experience with Mobike, in response to the last question that was asked, she did share a downside to Mobike: “Mobike does little to negatively impact the environment but it is changing the tourist industry. Tourists are realizing they can see more of the city for a small price and become more autonomous. This might be seen as a negative thing in addition to degradation, obviously with time.” Carmen also had positive things to say: “I love Mobike, and I love that it is so easy. I like that you do not have to walk to a certain point to a get a bike and return it there. As a woman, this is very convenient when returning to my apartment later in the evening. I feel that it’s a new way to explore the city, and it’s really fun.” In terms of any negative perceptions, Carmen mentioned the bikes themselves. The bike tires are on the thinner side and it can get difficult to drive over cobblestone streets. “Also, there will be times when the app will glitch and it can take you a long time to unlock your bike, especially if you don’t have very good cellular service. It is hard to get around Florence with any vehicle, so if many people start using Mobike it may get even more difficult to ride through Florence,” Carmen shared.
CONCLUSIONE Complessivamente, nonostante alcuni difetti della piattaforma bike-sharing, Mobike sembra avere un impatto positivo sulla città di Firenze. Sulla base della qualità del servizio e di come le persone hanno reagito a questa iniziativa, concludiamo che Mobike sarà in giro per parecchio tempo.
CONCLUSION Overall, Mobike seems to contribute a positive impact on the Florentine cityscape despite some minor issues experienced by users. Based on the app quality and how users have been responding to this new initiative, it looks like Mobike is here to stay.
Interview with a Revolutionary Woman: The Kunda Project By Blending Staff
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F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 39
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Who is involved in this project?
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FACEBOOK: WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/KUNDAWOMENSCOMMUNITY FACEBOOK ITALIA: WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/KUNDAITALIA YOUTUBE: WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/KUNDALAVAGINA INSTAGRAM: KUNDA_LAVAGINA CONTACT INFORMATION: INFO@KUNDALAVAGINA.COM WWW.KUNDALAVAGINA.COM
F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 41
WOMEN WRITERS IN ITALY Two Revolutionary Voices in Literature By Chrystalla Christodoulou
hen trying to conceptualize the connection between literature and revolution, the relationship of parent and child comes to mind. A child cannot come into being without the parent, and a person becomes a parent only when there is a child. In a parallel way, revolution and the written word seem to exist only with and because of the other. We write when we are in need of a revolution, or when we are in the midst of one, when we are trying to make sense of one. Likewise, it seems impossible for a revolution to take place without its purpose being examined, supported or negated through literary analysis.
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“BORN IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OVER A CENTURY APART, ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING AND ELENA FERRANTE ARE STILL INEXTRICABLY CONNECTED, AS BOTH WERE REVOLUTIONARY WOMEN AUTHORS WHO LIVED IN AND WROTE ABOUT ITALY.”
Photos by Noah Gouldhauss
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F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 45
DISRUPTING WINE TRADITIONS Apicius Alum Devin Parr on the Next Revolutions in the Wine Industry By the FUA Alumni Association
DEVIN WAS RECENTLY NAMED ONE OF WINE ENTHUSIAST’S “TOP 40 UNDER 40” TASTEMAKERS IN THE WINE INDUSTRY, AND WE CAUGHT UP WITH HER TO FIND OUT WHAT SHE HAS BEEN UP TO, AND MORE IMPORTANTLY, WHERE SHE IS GOING NEXT
Photo by Scott McDermott
FUA and Apicius alumna Devin Parr defines herself as So-Cal wine gal, a culinary enthusiast, an aspiring ninja, and the mother of two boys, two Shih-Tzus, and one grown man, who, teasing aside, is her very supportive and capable husband. Though she grew up between Toronto and New York City, Devin ended up at UC San Diego for college. It was there that her love affair with Southern California began, and after completing the wine expertise program at Apicius International School of Hospitality in 2007 - 2008, studying under professors such as Massimo Coppetti and Lapo Bartalesi, this love affair was what led her to return there in 2015 to serve as the Director of Marketing for Temecula Valley Southern California Wine Country.
What made you decide to come to Florence to study wine at Apicius? Why wine? %JXIVKVEHYEXMRKJVSQ9'7(-QSZIHXS0%ERHFIKERE GEVIIVMRZMHISKEQITYFPMGVIPEXMSRW&YXWM\]IEVWMRXS MX-LEHXLMWMXGL]JIIPMRKXLEXWSQIXLMRK[EWQMWWMRK- [EWRĆ…XYRLETT]VIEPP]Ć?-NYWXORI[XLIVI[IVISXLIVXLMRKW MRQ]PMJIXLEXFVSYKLXQIKVIEXNS]3RISJXLSWIXLMRKW [EWGSSOMRK-LEHKVS[RYTMRXLIOMXGLIRMRWTMVIHF]Q] KVERHQSXLIVERHQ]QSXLIV[LSXEYKLXQIWSQISJQ] QSWXMQTSVXERXGYPMREV] ERHPMJI PIWWSRW-FIKERPSSOMRK EXGYPMREV]WGLSSPEWERSTXMSR%XXLIWEQIXMQI-EPWS LETTIRIHXSFIVIEHMRKEFSSOGEPPIHĆˆ,IEXĆ‰[VMXXIRF] &MPP&YJSVH[LMGLHIWGVMFIHEKEWXVSRSQMGPMJIMR-XEP]ERH Q]JEXI[EWWIEPIH-FPEQI ERHXLERO &MPPJSVXLIXYVRQ] PMJI[EWEFSYXXSXEOI-VIWMKRIHJVSQQ]NSFEX)HIPQER MR0SW%RKIPIWERHIRVSPPIHEX%TMGMYW-RXIVREXMSREP7GLSSP SJ,SWTMXEPMX]1]QSQĆ˝I[SYX[MXLQIXSLIPTQIQSZI MRXSQ]PSZIP]PMXXPIETEVXQIRXSR&SRMJEGMS0YTM8LSWI [IVIWSQIQEKMGEPHE]WÉ¸ É¸ ;LMPIWXYH]MRK-JIPPJEVQSVIMRPSZI[MXLXLI[MRI GPEWWIW-[EWXEOMRKXLERXLIEGXYEPGSSOMRKGPEWWIWWS -XVERWMXMSRIHXSXLI[MRII\TIVXMWIGYVVMGYPYQ;MRIXS QILEWEP[E]WFIIREFSYXEPPXLIXLMRKWXLEXLMXQIMRXLI LIEVXĆ JEQMP]ERHWXSVMIWERHXVEHMXMSRĆ?XLIIEVXLKVMX-XĆ…W FSXLTSIXV]ERHWGMIRGIERHZIV]ZIV]EGEHIQMG-XĆ…WFIIR NYWXWL]SJXIR]IEVWWMRGI-FSEVHIHXLEXTPERIXS-XEP]ERH -LEZIRIZIVSRGIVIKVIXXIHXEOMRKXLEXPIET
É¸ Tell us about your experience as the Wine Country Marketing Director for Visit Temecula Valley and the Temecula Valley Winegrowers Association. What are some SJXLIQSWXI\GMXMRKEWTIGXWSJXLINSF#'LEPPIRKIW#É¸ É¸ -GSRWMHIVQ]WIPJI\XVIQIP]PYGO]XSLEZIXLITSWMXMSRXLEX -HS-VITVIWIRXERI\XVESVHMREV]VIKMSRJYPPSJTISTPIERH TIVWSREPMXMIW[LSTSYVXLIMVLIEVXWERHWSYPWMRXSQEOMRK HIPMGMSYWXSTUYEPMX][MRIWERHGVIEXMRKQIQSVEFPI I\TIVMIRGIWJSV[MRIPSZIVWERHXVEZIPIVWEPMOI-XĆ…WER I\GMXMRKVSPIFIGEYWIMXWTERWXLI[SVPHSJ[MRIXSYVMWQ XLVSYKL:MWMX8IQIGYPE:EPPI]Ć YRHIVWXERHMRKXLEX[MRI MWEQENSVTMPPEVMRXLIQMPPMSRXSYVMWQMRHYWXV]MR 8IQIGYPE:EPPI]Ć É¸EW[IPPEWXLI[SVPHSJUYEPMX]KVETI KVS[MRKERH[MRIQEOMRKXLVSYKLXLI8IQIGYPE:EPPI] ;MRIKVS[IVW%WWSGMEXMSR É¸ 8LIQSWXI\GMXMRKEWTIGXSJQ]NSFMWKIXXMRKXSVITVIWIRX EFSYXHMJJIVIRX[MRIVMIW[MXLMRXLIVIKMSRIEGL[MXL HMJJIVIRXTLMPSWSTLMIWERHYRMUYIZEPYITVSTSWMXMSRWERH [SVOMRKGPSWIP][MXLXLIQEPPXSXIPPXLIWXSV]SJ8IQIG YPE:EPPI]7SYXLIVR'EPMJSVRME;MRI'SYRXV]EWE[LSPI )ZIV]HE]MWGSQTPIXIP]HMJJIVIRXJVSQXLIRI\X3HHP] IRSYKLLS[IZIVXLMWMWEPWSXLIKVIEXIWXGLEPPIRKISJQ] TSWMXMSR-XĆ…WPMOILEZMRKHMJJIVIRXFSWWIW8LERO+SH JSV[MRIVMKLX#
â€œWINE TO ME HAS ALWAYS BEEN ABOUT ALL THE THINGS THAT HIT ME IN THE HEART â€“ FAMILY AND STORIES AND TRADITIONâ€ŚTHE EARTH...GRIT.â€? 7MRGIXLIR-LEZIHSRI[MRIWEPIWSRXLIWXVIIXWSJ2I[ =SVO'MX]VYRWIZIVEP[MRIWXSVIWMR1ERLEXXERPEYRGLIH ERIZIRXWERHGSRWYPXMRKFYWMRIWWGEPPIHĆˆ'LEQTEKRI ERH,SXHSKWĆ‰PIHREXMSREPJSSHERH[MRITVSKVEQWJSV QIHMEGSQTER]&SXXPIRSXIWWXEVXIHEFPSKGEPPIHĆˆ8EWX] .YMGI4PIEWIĆ‰[LMGLHSGYQIRXWQ]EHZIRXYVIWMR[MRI ERHTEVIRXMRKGSQTPIXIHQ];7)80IZIP%[EVHMR;MRI ERHFIIRREQIHSRISJ;MRI)RXLYWMEWXĆ…W8ST9RHIV 8EWXIQEOIVW2IIHPIWWXSWE]-Ć…ZIEPWSIRNS]IHE038 SJ[MRIEPSRKXLI[E]
Courtesy of Devin Parr
F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 47
ALUMNI SYXPIXWQEOMRK[MRIPIWWEFSYXNYWXWGSVIWERHJYXYVIW ERHQSVITEVXSJEFMKKIVPMJIWX]PITMGXYVIƁEVIEPP WTEGIWXS[EXGL-GSYPHKSSR-KIXEPPƼVIHYTXEPOMRK EFSYXXLMRKWPMOIXLMW What is one thing you learned in Florence, about wine or something else, that has stuck with you throughout the years?
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courtesy of devin parr
COURTESY OF DEVIN E V IIN EV N PARR PA PAR P AR A RR
-PIEVRIHXLIXVYIZEPYISJKIRYMRILSWTMXEPMX][LMPIMR -XEP]-XEPMERWLEZIQEWXIVIHXLMWEVXFIXXIVXLERER]SRI MRXLI[SVPH;LIVIZIV]SYKS]SYEVIXVIEXIHEWJEQMP] [LMGLGVIEXIWQIQSVMIWERHQIERMRKJYPI\TIVMIRGIW XLEXWXMGO[MXL]SYJSVEPMJIXMQI;LIXLIVMXƅWFIMRK KVIIXIH[MXLEWQEPPKPEWWSJ4VSWIGGS[LMPI]SY[EMXJSV ]SYVXEFPISVIRNS]MRKEKPEWWSJ:MR7ERXSERHFMWGSXXM [MXLXLIGLIJPSRKEJXIVXLIVIWXEYVERXLEWGPSWIHIEGL QSQIRXJIIPWLERHTMGOIHNYWXJSV]SYɸ ɸ What advice do you have for an Apicius student studying wine today? 8EOIIZIV]STTSVXYRMX]EZEMPEFPIXS]SY[LMPIWXYH]MRK XSEXXIRHXVEHIXEWXMRKWERH[MRIIZIRXW8LSWI STTSVXYRMXMIWGERFILEVHXSGSQIF]IZIR[LIR]SY EVIEQIQFIVSJXLIXVEHI]SYVWIPJ-VIGEPPEXXIRHMRK &IRZIRYXS&VYRIPPS%RXITVMQE'LMERXM'PEWWMGS:MRMXEP] ERMRGVIHMFPI*VERGMEGSVXEXEWXMRKEPP[LMPIEWXYHIRX EX%TMGMYW8LIWI[IVIPMJIGLERKMRK[MRII\TIVMIRGIW JSVQIERH-GERƅXWE]XLSWISTTSVXYRMXMIWTVIWIRX XLIQWIPZIWXSQIXLEXSJXIRER]QSVIIZIR[MXL]IEVW SJMRHYWXV]I\TIVMIRGIYRHIVQ]FIPX%PWS-ORS[MXƅW LEVHFYXIQFVEGIXLIWTMXXSSR7IVMSYWP]-XƅW]SYVJVMIRHɸ
Remnants: Transforming Discourse through Photography
MISTY, 16 YEARS SINCE ASSAULT, 2017
INTERVIEW BY THE STUDENTS OF THE FUA FALL 2017 GALLERY AND EXHIBITION CURATING COURSE
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JENNY, 18 YEARS SINCE ASSAULT, 2016 F A L L W I N T E R 2 0 1 7 - 49
When did you get started in photography? MK:-[EWETLSXSKVETL]QENSV XLVSYKLSYXYRHIVKVEHEXXLI 9RMZIVWMX]SJ%OVSRMR3LMSERH GYVVIRXP]-EQKIXXMRKQ]QEWXIVƅW HIKVIIEXXLI9RMZIVWMX]SJ-S[E -XSSOEPPFIKMRRIVTLSXSKVETL] GPEWWIWEX*9%MRQ]JVIWLQER ]IEVSJGSPPIKI*SVQ]XL FMVXLHE]-KSXE&EVFMITSPEVSMH GEQIVEERHFIGEQILSSOIH SRMX-UYMXIZIV]XLMRK IPWIƁHERGIIXGMRQ] life and focused solely on TLSXSKVETL]
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What were your experiences studying in Italy like? Have XLI]MRƽYIRGIH]SYVGYVVIRX photography projects at all? 1]I\TIVMIRGI[EW YRJSVKIXXEFPI-WXE]IHJSV IMKLXQSRXLW .ERYEV]XS %YKYWX *PSVIRGI[EW FIEYXMJYPERH-XSSOMRGVIHMFPI GPEWWIWXLEXWLETIHQ] TVEGXMGI-ƅZIFIIRFEGOUYMXI EJI[XMQIW-EQEP[E]W HVE[RXS*PSVIRGI[LIRSR ZEGEXMSR-EQI\GMXIHXSWXEVX EGSRZIVWEXMSREFSYXXLI GYVVIRXWMXYEXMSRVIKEVHMRK WI\YEPEWWEYPXMR*PSVIRGI
GRACE, 3 YEARS SINCE ASSAULT, 2016
-FIKERGSRXIQTPEXMRKERMHIEFMK IRSYKLXSGVIEXIGLERKIWMRGI- [EWERYRHIVKVEHYEXIWXYHIRX -GEQIXSMXREXYVEPP]EJXIVFIMRK TIVWSREPP]WI\YEPP]EWWEYPXIH8LI TVSGIWWSJHIZIPSTMRKXLIMHIE JSVXLITVSNIGXXSEGXYEPP]WXEVXMRK XSSOEXPIEWXE]IEVERHELEPJ How long did you work on the Remnants project? -EQGYVVIRXP]WXMPP[SVOMRKMRMX FYXFIKERMXMRXLIWYQQIVSJ -[MPPEPWSI\TERHMXMRXSXLI -XEPMERW]WXIQ[LMPIZMWMXMRKLIVI
,S[HMH]SYƼRHWYFNIGXWFSXL the individuals in the portraits and the locations from “In Her Own Home”? 1SWX97GMXMIWLEZIETSPMGI PSKSRXLIMRXIVRIX[MXLTSPMGI VITSVXWERHEHHVIWWIW[LMGLMW LS[-JSYRHXLILSYWIW-KSXYT VIEPP]IEVP]XSEZSMHVYRRMRKMRXS ER]SRIERHTLSXSKVETLIHSRXLI WXVIIX*SVXLIWYVZMZSVW-WXEVXIH [MXLKSMRKXS[SQIRƅWWLIPXIVW FYX-VIEPM^IHEWOMRKXLIQXSFI TEVXSJEREVXTVSNIGX[EWRSX ETTVSTVMEXI7S-QEHIETSWXSR *EGIFSSOERHEWOIHTISTPIXS WLEVIMXERHGSRXEGXQI
;LEX[EWXLIQSWXHMƾGYPX aspect of this project?
-EQI\TERHMRKQ][SVOMRXSXLI -XEPMERW]WXIQSJHIEPMRK[MXL WI\YEPEWWEYPXERH[MPPFIKMR TLSXSKVETLMRKWYVZMZSVW-LEZIE GSRXEGXEX9RMZIVWMX]SJ&SPSKRE JSVERGMIRX(2%XIWXMRK8LMW TVSNIGXGSYPHKSSRJSVIZIV FYXXLIVI[MPPFIETSMRX[LIVI MX[MPPRIIHXSIRH-XXEOIW EPQSWXE]IEVSJWIRHMRK IQEMPWERHQIIXMRKTISTPI XSKIXTIVQMWWMSRXSXEOI TMGXYVIW What kind of feedback have you received thus far from Remnants? Were they responses that you were expecting?
How long did you consider this subject matter as a possible exhibition before starting the project?
-LEHEHMƾGYPXXMQIKIXXMRKXLI TSPMGIXSGSSTIVEXIERHSTIR XLIMVHSSVW-WIRXEFSYX IQEMPWIZIV]HE]GSRXEGXMRK IZIV]TSPMGITVIGMRGXMRXLI GSYRXV]-GSYPHƼRHERIQEMP
You have decided to continue this work in Italy. How has that unfolded?
-ƅZIVIGIMZIHQSWXP]TSWMXMZI JIIHFEGO8LIVIHIƼRMXIP] LEZIFIIRXMQIW[LMPI QEOMRKXLI[SVOXLEX-JIPX- [EWHSMRKWSQIXLMRKWSVXSJ TVSFPIQEXMGERH[SYPHLEZI XSWXITFEGOERHEREP]^IXLI QSVEPERHIXLMGEPMWWYIWSJMX ERHEHNYWXXLIQIXLSHSPSK] %PPMREPPXLIVILEZIFIIR RSFEHVIEGXMSRWNYWXKSSH GSRZIVWEXMSRW4VMZEG]ERHWEJIX] EVIXLIQEMRGSRGIVRW[LIR QEOMRKXLI[SVO-ƅZIJSYRHXLEX EGSQQSRVIEGXMSRXSHSQIWXMG EWWEYPXMWXLIUYIWXMSRƈ;L]HSRƅX XLI]NYWXPIEZILMQ#Ɖ8LI]SJXIR GERƅXPIEZIFIGEYWISJƼRERGMEP HITIRHIRGIGLMPHVIRSVFIGEYWI XLI]EVIMRPSZIERHFIPMIZIXLIMV EFYWIV[MPPGLERKI8LMWMW[L] [IEVILEZMRKXLMWGSRZIVWEXMSR XSGLERKIXLEXUYIWXMSRWXLEX[I EWOMRWXIEHSJXV]MRKXSGLERKI XLIERW[IVWXLEXYRJSVXYREXIP] LEZIRƅXERHEVIRSXPMOIP]XS GLERKIYRPIWW[IVIHMVIGXXLI GSRZIVWEXMSR What do you hope people will take away from this exhibition? -JXLMW[SVO WTEVOWIZIRNYWX SRITVSHYGXMZI GSRZIVWEXMSR-ƅZI HSRI[LEX-WIX SYXXSHS
ANGELA, 21 YEARS SINCE ASSAULT, 2016
Florence University of the Arts
a MIND & BODY
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Published on Dec 7, 2017