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POST-GRADUATION EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES “Is there a difference between law graduates with a masters´ degree from Bifröst University and the University of Iceland in terms of employment opportunities after graduation?” 2005-2009.

26. March 2012 GROUP MEMBERS Anna Rósa Guðmundsdóttir Friðrik Gestsson Guðrún Lilja Magnúsdóttir Gunnar Jökull Karlsson Jón Fannar Hafsteinsson Ollý Björk Ólafsdóttir Ólafur Ísak Friðgeirsson


CONFIRMATION ON A TERM PROJECT Term project is independent and every group chooses its own subject. The term project is done by certain instructions and rules and is therefore required to live up to the standards of Bifrรถst University. The University thanks all those who helped students with their preparation and the progress of the projects. Bifrรถst hopes that every project will help to contribute and improve the development for all those involved. Teachers at Bifrรถst University have addressed the final assignment and evaluated it compared the rules of the department.

Project title:

Group Libra

Bifrรถst University, 26. March 2012

Grade: ________

___________________________________ School stamp

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AUTHOR´S STATEMENT

We as authors of this term project declare that this is our independent work and we all contributed equally. All of our work was discussed and agreed, by every member of the group. All of our resources will be cited and we did our best to follow the rules of the course as well as the rules of Bifröst University. It is our goal to define and categorize the difference in job opportunities between the University of Iceland´s and Bifröst University´s law post graduates, and we do so through interviews and surveys. Through our research we shall give a final conclusion as well as give our thoughts on why there is a difference, if any.

Bifröst University, 26. March 2012

_________________________

__________________________

Anna Rósa Guðmundsdóttir

Friðrik Þór Gestsson

_________________________

__________________________

Guðrún Lilja Magnúsdóttir

Gunnar Jökull Karlsson

_________________________

_________________________

Jón Fannar Hafsteinsson

Ollý Björk Ólafsdóttir

___________________________ Ólafur Ísak Friðgeirsson

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this investigative report is to shed a light on job opportunities of newly graduated law students from Bifröst University1 and the University of Iceland2 respectively, and to see if there is a difference between them regarding the aforementioned opportunities. UI has the oldest law department of all the Icelandic universities. BU, however, is one of the youngest and focuses on business law as well as giving students the opportunity to take a masters´ degree in law. It has been stated that graduates from UI have a better chance of finding work right after graduation and are considered the better choice by many. Given the state of affairs in the Icelandic society one would think that it should not be hard for lawyers to find work and that unemployment is relatively low within their field. This report is mainly based on interviews with key figures within the two universities as well as the Directorate of Labour3 and the Lawyers Union4, and on a survey created and sent to graduates between the years 2005 to 2009 from both universities, although BU did not graduate students with a masters´ degree until 2006. The goal is to find out if there is a notable difference in job opportunities for graduates with a masters´ degree from these two universities, as well as if there might be any specific underlying reasons for it.

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Hereafter known as “BU“ Hereafter known as “UI“ 3 Hereafter known as “DOL” 4 Hereafter known as “LU” 2

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FOREWORD

In January 2012, seven students from the foundation program at BU were discussing what job opportunities they would have after graduation from the law department at BU, should they decide to enrol. It was agreed upon that it would be interesting to see the difference between BU and UI in terms of post-graduation job opportunities for students with a masters´ degree in law. They decided to narrow it down to the years between 2005 and 2009, before and after the collapse of the Icelandic banks. The group’s opinion was that the crisis was an opportunity for lawyers, since the number of court cases has multiplied in the past years. Hence it should be easier to find work. The authors believe that this research could benefit BU in improving their law department, should the results be negative, in terms of revising the program and the teaching methods should it be necessary.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents CONFIRMATION ON A TERM PROJECT............................................................................. 1 AUTHOR´S STATEMENT ....................................................................................................... 2 ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................... 3 FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 5 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 6 2. METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 7 3. EMPLOYMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES AMONG LAWYERS IN GENERAL ............. 9 4. SURVEY .............................................................................................................................. 10 5. CURRICULAR DIFFERENCES ......................................................................................... 11 5.1. Bifröst University ......................................................................................................... 11 5.2. University of Iceland .................................................................................................... 12 5.3. Regarding the curricular differences ............................................................................. 12 6. FINDING EMPLOYMENT ................................................................................................. 16 7. CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................... 20 8. FINAL WORDS ................................................................................................................... 21 CREDITS ................................................................................................................................. 22 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................... 23 APPENDICES .......................................................................................................................... 25

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1. INTRODUCTION Graduation is a happy day. As newly graduated lawyers get ready to take on life and law with enthusiasm there are many things to consider. First of all, naturally, they need to find a good job, and that is where things might get a little complicated. Why? Because when you go and explore the market for graduate lawyers it seems to matter which university you get your degree from, as it has been stated that graduates from UI have a better chance of finding work right after graduation and are considered the better choice by many. Group Libra decided to research this matter and compare newly graduated lawyers from BU and the UI. As the research progressed the group found out that there seems to be some difference in opportunities for lawyers from these two institutions. It seems like the biggest decision for a college student that wants to study law is not how to do it then rather where to do it. Of course, in the end, everyone makes their own fortune and you are as good at your job as you want to be. Is there a difference between law graduates with a masters´ degree from BifrÜst University and the University of Iceland in terms of employment opportunities after graduation? We did research this matter thoroughly and, as it progressed, with growing interest. This report contains the results from Group Libra.

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2. METHODOLOGY

The goals of this report are to gather information and data on the subject, then compare them in an impartial way so that we are able to bring forward a conclusion to this research. Our research consists of interviews with experts and people with a lot of knowledge in their field and, in particular, the knowledge concerning our research, their opinion as well as the data they provide, will be used in our report. We also conducted a paper and pencil questionnaire via the internet. The survey was mirrored to a different study conducted three years ago, and the methodology surrounding that study will be addressed in the next chapter. The face to face method was used on all of the experts, as well as on all of the people with extended knowledge of the subject for several reasons. First of all the respondents were needed to give a full and accurate answer which might not have surfaced in a phone call or paper-to-pencil survey. Second, the questions used were open and allowed for long and out of context answers surrounding areas of the question that the group could not have foreseen. In this part of the research it must be taken into account that possible biases towards their institution, or in this case their school, may have surfaced. Most of the interview content will therefore not be presented as facts but more as opinions from experts.5 During the research of the material, the group came across a very well conducted survey which met most of its information requirements. The only problem was that it only contained information from one of the two universities. It was then decided to mirror the BU survey with the exact same wording and methodology as the UI survey due to the amount of work and money that would go into conducting our original survey on both of the schools. There are some obvious flaws in this method, and one is that the original survey was conducted partly on pupils just one year after their graduation where as our survey takes place three years after graduation. This may result in memory problems and, therefore, an inaccuracy in any given answer is a possibility.6 In most of the interviews the purpose of the research paper was fully disclosed so that we would not be unethical. However, it would not be of any harm if less information was given

5 6

Hoyle, Rick H., Harris, Monica J., Judd, Charles M. (2002), pages 101-102 Hoyle, Rick H., Harris, Monica J., Judd, Charles M. (2002), pages 98-101

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due to the group’s desire to receive unbiased answers. Since the people interviewed were mostly giving opinions or data on their area of expertise, it is difficult to tell if information was withheld or the answers were completely unbiased. In the survey conducted, it was not mentioned that the answers would be directly compared with answers from the survey conducted by UI, due to the fact that in their survey UI never informed their participants that any comparison would be made with their answers. By bending the ethical part the group preserves the unbiased part which it believes is more important for the conclusion. The ethical part’s main reason for existence is to prevent harm on the participants, and when there is no harm, the group sees no problems regarding the methodology in that particular area.7 The data was largely based on interviews with experts and here is a list of the people and their titles; 

Róbert Spanó, Dean of law, University of Iceland.

Alma Möller, Faculty Director, law department, University of Iceland.

Bryndís Hlöðversdóttir, Dean of Bifröst University.

Halldór K. Valdimarsson, director of the Lawyers Union.

Frank Friðrik Friðriksson, senior economist, Directorate of Labour.

María Þorgeirsdóttir, former masters´ program coordinator at Bifröst University.

Two surveys were used; one conducted by the social science department at UI, and the second was created by the group that mirrored the other study. The data collected through these interviews and surveys will be the main data resources in our conclusion. Both of the surveys, as well as the interviews, will be displayed as a whole along with other appendices. We may also include data from Statistics Iceland as it may be relative.

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Hoyle, Rick H., Harris, Monica J., Judd, Charles M. (2002), pages 45-61

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3. EMPLOYMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES AMONG LAWYERS IN GENERAL Having a law degree offers a wide range of work in all sorts of different areas. As a lawyer it is possible to find work in various fields within the job market. Lawyers can be found in politics, law firms, private companies, the civil sector, teaching positions, consultancy firms and almost everything in between. Therefore, it can be assumed that people with a degree in law have a rather low unemployment rate.8 Knowledge of the law has been a key factor in society for hundreds of years. Lawyers have integrated themselves into all sectors of our society. Today there are four Icelandic universities that have law departments and graduate lawyers. Our society demands lawyers in many key positions in the private sector. Business lawyers have been very popular in larger bookkeeping firms, in the internal revenue office, customs and many other government institutions. Our fast growing market society now demands that lawyers have more business knowledge than it used to. The knowledge of law combined with business knowledge is an emerging form of education. Most disputes in society itself can be resolved by lawyers, in a court of law. While our society is governed by laws and rules, lawyers will always be needed in key positions.9 According to the DOL, unemployment numbers for lawyers are not very high. For example, the estimated unemployment rate within the lawyers´ union is below 3% on average and has been around 2% in the last years. 10 In January 2012 there were about 65 individuals listed as lawyers on the unemployment list. There was an increase in unemployment following the collapse of the Icelandic banks in 2008. Compared to other sectors of society, lawyers do not have a high unemployment rate. Before the financial meltdown there were eight persons with a law degree listed as unemployed on average. After the financial meltdown that number rose to 35 and now up to 65 persons with a law degree listed as unemployed with a law degree on average. 11

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Results from surveys. See app. I and II Hlöðversdóttir, Bryndís. (Verbal reference. 19 . March 2012). See app. III 10 Valdimarsson, Halldór. (Verbal reference 14. February 2012). See app. IV 11 Friðriksson, Frank Friðrik, (Verbal reference. 15. February 2012). See app. V 9

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4. SURVEY The objective of the survey was to investigate the job opportunities of graduates with a masters´ degree in law from BU and UI. The survey from UI was sent via e-mail and activated in the end of November 2009. Up to three reminders were sent to the participants regarding the survey. There were 264 participants of which four did not receive the e-mail and one was on leave. Therefore, 259 received the survey with an answering ratio of 192, or 74.1%. The survey for the BU was sent via e-mail in the end of February 2012 and activated on 28. February. Up to three reminders were sent to the participants regarding the survey. There were 48 participants, which four of did not receive the e-mail. Therefore, 44 received the survey with an answering ratio of 34 or 77.27%. The BU survey was designed to mirror the UI survey so that the correct methodological procedures were used. Sigrún Lilja Einarsdóttir, adjunct at BU´s social science department, assisted with all aspects of the methodology. In addition, the surveys from BU and UI can be found in the appendices chapter and as attachments. This report is intended for comparison between BU and UI. There may be some differences between the graphs and the number of participants, since some of the questions might not have been relevant. All comparison graphs between the two universities are created from the data relevant to each one from the surveys.

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5. CURRICULAR DIFFERENCES When studying law, students must bear in mind that there are curricular differences between BU and UI. There are different emphases and the teaching methods are not the same as well as the areas of study. Therefore it is necessary to take a better look at these differences in order to realise where they lie.

5.1. Bifröst University BU offers a BS degree in law that focuses on business and related subjects, which is unique in the academic environment in Iceland. The studies are interdisciplinary and largely based on lectures and practical assignments, where students need to analyse the law in depth. Other branches, including business economics and management studies along with methodology and finance, are also part of the curriculum. Meetings in small groups are part of the studies which gives a chance for more personal contact with teachers and to discuss and work on assignments. Practical assignments are intended to train the students´ communication skills and ability to work in groups as well as preparing them for the job market. The number of assignments is rather higher than in other universities in Iceland and they are also more comprehensive. BU´s program is computer based for the most part, and it trains students in using computers and information technology to gather data necessary for their work as these are essential tools in today´s work environment. After finishing the BS degree, graduates can access the ML program which is a portal for those who want to enter the more traditional fields of law. After graduating with a ML degree, students have the option of taking the Icelandic bar exam, which grants them the required permission to present cases before a court of law, given that they receive a passing grade. The aim is to graduate lawyers that have comprehensive knowledge of business based math and executives with a solid law based education.12 María Þorgeirsdóttir, former master´s program coordinator, says that the strength of the school is that it is very small, has easy access to teachers, a lot of assignments and a good connection to the labour market. She also states that interdisciplinary studies such as business law, offers a wider range in job opportunities.13

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www.bifrost.is Þorgeirsdóttir, María (Verbal reference. 7. March 2012). See app. VI

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5.2. University of Iceland UI offers a BA degree in law based on traditional studies so that students acquire comprehensive knowledge in the field and learn the necessary methodology required. The curriculum is mainly based on lectures and discussion groups where students discuss the law and get advice from those that are in the masters´ program who are also assistant teachers in the department. Comprehensive assignments are few as the program is lecture and discussion based, as well as having a large amount of reading material. This is a result of a revision in UI´s law department after which it was decided to make the program more modern and interactive. Information technology is not a big part of the studies and students are more or less self-educated when it comes to using it to gather data. After finishing the BA program, students have the possibility to access the masters´ degree program where they have an option to specialise in certain fields of the law. The masters´ degree grants the right to take the Icelandic bar exam which gives lawyers the right to present cases before a court of law, given that they receive a passing grade. The goal is to graduate lawyers that have the knowledge and training necessary to resolve all kinds of legal issues and disputes.14 In the interviews conducted the dean of law at UI talks about their focus and strength of the law department lies in the depth of their teachings in the theoretical law foundation. The students are not offered any selection in courses but the selection is found when students begin the ML program and it is there where they specialize in a particular field.15

5.3. Regarding the curricular differences There is no right or wrong when it comes to teaching methods, for they have their own strengths and weaknesses. It is also crucial to look at the bigger picture and appreciate the fact that there are more ways to become a lawyer than to go to UI. A few years ago UI was the only institution that offered a law degree, but in recent years three other universities have started to graduate lawyers from their own masters programs.16 And as Halldór the Director of LU puts it: You see, there is nothing as dangerous as the stagnation involved in having only one university in the country. I have sometimes said, if we take an analogy from nature, having 14

www.hi.is Spanó, Róbert. (Verbal reference. 15. February 2012). See app. VII 16 Valdimarsson, Halldór. (Verbal reference 14. February 2012). See app. IV 15

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one institution that teaches a subject as important as law, because law is not only about society, it actually shapes it. Shapes it and gives us the formulas. If we only have one institution and that institution shapes the system and vice versa, then we have a cycle that is completely closed. It is actually like a school that only hires teachers that got their education at that same school. It is an intellectual and epistemic masturbation and the fact is that masturbation can never lead to conception. It never creates new life. So it is obvious where this is headed. It is headed for a closed cycle that in the end becomes nothing. So yes, I think it is very positive that more universities are available.17

The curricular differences can be seen in the results from the survey that the group conducted. One of the questions was “overall, how well or badly do you consider that you use the knowledge that you acquired in your studies in your occupation?” and the results were very similar from both universities.

Overall, how well or badly do you consider that you use the knowledge that you aquired in your studies at UI/BU in your occupation? 60% 56%

50% 49%

43% 44%

40%

UI

BU

30% 20% 10% 7%

0%

1%

0%

0% Very well

Rather well

Neither well or badly

Rather badly 18

As shown, the numbers are in favour of BU. Although 92% of UI state that their education is rather or very useful to them, which is a very high percentage, it can be seen that BU has 100% in the same categories.19

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Valdimarsson, Halldór. (Verbal reference 14. February 2012). See app. IX (pic. 1) 19 Results from surveys. 18

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Although one can be titled as a lawyer after graduating with a masters´ degree, it is necessary to pass the bar exam to be allowed present cases before a court of law. Bearing that in mind, one of the most crucial question was how well or badly did the school prepare you for the bar exam.

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As shown on the chart, 97% of UI students think that their studies prepared them rather well or very well for the bar exam, while 58% BU students feel they were rather or very well prepared.21

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See app. IX (pic. 2) Results from surveys. See app. I and II

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A question as to whether they had passed the aforementioned exam was also included and the numbers were again quite similar.

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Both schools have around 50% although BU has a slightly higher percentage. It seems that UI´s focus on the foundations of law and their extensive reading is resulting in a better outcome in their students preparation for the bar exam. On the other hand, BU students are slightly better prepared for the actual work that is ahead of them, which can probably be traced back to BU´s assignment policy.23 The fact that BU´s students feel less prepared and still have a higher percentage in finishing the bar exam is a very interesting result.

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See app. IX. (Pic. 3) Results from surveys. See app. I and II

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6. FINDING EMPLOYMENT In the interviews, the group sought out to find out how easy or difficult students think it is to find work after graduating with a masters´ degree in law. In an interview with Alma Möller (UI) she stated that many companies and institutions contact her with the intent of hiring students before graduation. She mentioned UI´s 6 ECT course, where students have the possibility to work for 3 months within firms and institutions that often leads to job offers at the end of the course.24 When asked if students graduate from UI with a job offer, Róbert Spanó (UI) states that it is very common and he believes that more students graduate with a job offer than not.25 Bryndís Hlöðversdóttir, current dean of BU, was asked if she knew whether students are joining the workforce or continuing their studies after graduation. Her reply was that most students go on the job market after graduating with a masters´ degree. Furthermore, she mentioned that most have found it very easy to find work and are finding it in various parts of the market. Not only in companies and the financial sector, but also in consultant firms and tax related jobs. For instance, KPMG´s tax division consists mostly of former BU students.26 The former masters´ programs coordinator, María Þorgeirsdóttir, says that during her time in that job, the main problem was that students had already gotten jobs before graduation.27 To find an unbiased opinion, the director of the lawyers union was interviewed and asked a few questions. In relation to whether he is aware of a difference between BU and UI graduates in terms of job opportunities, his answer was: Yes. The answer to that is quite simply yes. It depends on which sectors you look at. Everything related to the system (legal etc.) or conventional legal functions and lawyer work then the answer is yes, graduates from the University of Iceland are considered as first choice for those jobs. In regard to other jobs the University of Iceland has an edge there also, although it is not as obvious or perceptible. And there are lots of things that indicate that business law is not fully appreciated out on the market. I cannot realise whether it is because it is not introduced well enough or if it is due to lack of organization. It is however noticeably

24

Möller, Alma. (Verbal reference. 15. February 2012). See app. VIII Spanó, Róbert. (Verbal reference. 15. February 2012). See app. VII 26 Hlöðversdóttir, Bryndís. (Verbal reference. 19. March 2012). See app. III 27 Þorgeirsdóttir, María. (Verbal reference. 7. March 2012). See VI 25

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harder to find a job if you graduate from the University of Reykjavik or Bifröst and it does not only apply to law. The University of Iceland is still “it“. That is just the way it is.28

In this answer from Halldór, it can be seen that UI seems to have an advantage. To find out why that is. he was asked about the reputation of the universities and if UI had the better one. There is also something else you have to realise and that is that the University of Iceland and our current system grew up together. They are actually twins. You (Bifröst) are like an adopted child that suddenly shows up. It just takes time and it has to define itself within the family etc. It is not complicated at all. When we look into it, yes I notice a lot of negative criticism on your school and some say „This education is no good“, and I ask „Why not?“ and the final answer is always „Because it is not the same as in the University of Iceland“. That is just the standard. Furthermore, as soon as an adopted child shows up it is of course a bit of a threat to the twins´ status. That is just the way it is.29

A question to how easy or hard it was to find work after graduation was asked, and the results are very similar.30

31

28

Valdimarsson, Halldór (Verbal reference. 14. February 2012). See app. IV Valdimarsson, Halldór (Verbal reference. 14. February 2012). See app. IV 30 Results from surveys. See I and II 31 See app. IX. (pic. 4) 29

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Also asked was if at any point, the graduates were unemployed and there was quite a difference in the results. However in this specific chart it must be taken into account that the BU survey is conducted two years later than the UI survey and therefore all of the BU students have been on the labour market for a longer period of time, which increases the chances of being unemployed at some point.32

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32 33

Results from surveys. See app. I and II See app. IX. (pic. 5)

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A lawyer´s field of work is very broad and to find out into which sector of the labour market the students are going, this question was included in the survey.

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These numbers show that a similar percentage is doing administrative work in the civil sector although UI´s ratio is a bit higher. It seems that more UI graduates are working in law firms although it is known that at least three BU students started their own law firms. Their vote might have gone from “at a law firm” to the “self-employed” category, but even with those few votes going over it is clear that UI has a higher percentage working at law firms. BU graduates are relatively more numerous in the financial sector and in the self-employed category. These results broadly reflect the differences in the academic emphases between the two universities.35

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See app. IX. (pic. 6) Results from surveys. See app. I and II

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7. CONCLUSION It is clear that graduates with a masters´ degree in law are sought after in various sectors of the job market. After reviewing all the interviews, surveys, and statistics, it is evident that even though UI graduates more than five times as many lawyers as BU, there seems to be no real difference in job opportunities between the two universities. From the survey conducted by UI, as well as the groups´ own survey and interview at LU, it shows that lawyers who graduate from UI are clearly in demand on the labour market. However, when comparing the two surveys it became evident that there is no real difference in employment opportunities, whether you graduate with a masters´ degree from BU or UI. The question asked in the beginning “Is there any difference between job opportunities for newly graduated lawyers from Bifröst University and the University of Iceland?” can then be answered. Yes, there is a difference in job opportunities in the way of what job sectors the graduates are entering. There is no real difference in the demand for lawyers from UI or BU. If we take into account that BU has only been graduating students from the masters´ degree program since 2006 and that UI has been graduating lawyers since 1911, we can see that the BU has succeeded in building a law department that is on par with the best in Iceland. The educational differences between these two universities are very clear. BU´s aim is to graduate lawyers that have comprehensive knowledge of business based math and executives with a solid law based education. UI´s goal is to graduate students that have the knowledge and training necessary to resolve all kinds of legal issues and disputes. The final conclusion is, that although it has been stated that graduates from UI have a better chance of finding work right after graduation and are considered the better choice by many, it seems to have no real foundation. The only notable difference is which sectors of the labour market they enter after graduation.

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8. FINAL WORDS When the members of group Libra started the research on their topic question they immediately stumbled up on a myth. It seemed that UI with their old and established law department had a dominating advantage when it came to job opportunities for newly graduated lawyers. As they kept on digging and researching they discovered some cracks in that myth. In only six short years graduating law students, BU has managed to get quite remarkable results when it comes to reputation and job opportunities for their graduate lawyers. Especially in marketing and business while law firms seem to be hiring UI graduates. That seems to be the main difference between the two universities and it does make sense because of their different emphasis in curriculum. Furthermore the results of the surveys made by group Libra amongst graduated lawyers’ show that graduates from BU and UI have just about equal chances of finding work after graduation and the only real difference lies in the number of graduates from these two schools. Therefore it is safe to assume that the myth has been busted and the market is ready for variety and competition.

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CREDITS

The authors would like to thank all participants, interviewees, the staff of BU, UI, Directorate of Labour and the Lawyers Union for all their help and support. Special thanks to Felix Rafn Felixson, Valgerður K. Einarsdóttir, Sigrún Lilja Einarsdóttir, Lilja Ósk Diðriksdóttir and our teacher Kristín Ólafsdóttir for all their help and support.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Bifrost University. (e.d.). www.bifrost.is. Retrived 5. March 2012 from Bifrost University: http://www.bifrost.is/islenska/namsleidir/vidskiptalogfraedi-bs/ University of Iceland. (2012, 20. March). www.hi.is. Retrived 5. March 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/felagsvisindasvid_deildir/lagadeild/nam/logfraedi University of Iceland. (2005, 26. February). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_26_februar_2005 University of Iceland. (2005, 25. June). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_25_juni_2005 University of Iceland. (2005, 22. October). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_laugardaginn_22_oktober_2005 University of Iceland. (2006, 25. February). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_25_ februar_2006 University of Iceland. (2006, 24. June). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_24_juni_2006 University of Iceland. (2006, 21. October). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_21_oktober_2006 University of Iceland. (2007, 24. February). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_24_ februar_2007 University of Iceland. (2007, 16. June). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_16_juni_2007 University of Iceland. (2007, October 27). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_27_oktober_2007 University of Iceland. (2008, 23. February). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_23_ februar_2008

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University of Iceland. (2008, 14. June). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_14_juni_2008 University of Iceland. (2008, 25. October). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_25_ oktober_2008 University of Iceland. (2009, 28. February). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_28_ februar_2009 University of Iceland. (2009, 20. June). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_laugardaginn_20_juni_2009 University of Iceland. (2009, 24. October). www.hi.is. Retrieved 5. March, 2012 from University of Iceland: http://www.hi.is/is/skolinn/brautskraning_kandidata_24_oktober_2009 Hoyle, Rick H., Harris, Monica J., Judd, Charles M. (2002) Research methods in social relations. United States of America: Wadsworth Thompson Learning Ingibjörg Lilja Ómarsdóttir og Ragna Benedikta Garðarsdóttir. (2009, december). Könnun á afdrifum brottskráðra nema frá Lagadeild Háskóla Íslands árin 2005-2009. Reykjavik: Félagsvísindastofnun Háskóla Íslands.

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APPENDICES

I.

Bifröst University - Survey

II.

University of Iceland – Survey

III.

Interview with Bryndís Hlöðversdóttir

IV.

Interview with Halldór K. Valdimarsson – Lawyers Union

V.

Interview with Frank Friðrik Friðriksson – Directorate of Labour

VI.

Interview with María Þorgeirsdóttir – Former masters´ program co-ordinator at Bifröst University

VII.

Interview with Róbert Spanó – Dean of law at the University of Iceland

VIII.

Interview with Alma Möller - Faculty Director, law department, University of Iceland

IX.

Comparison charts and data

X.

Statistics from the Directorate og Labour

XI.

Questions used in the survey – University of Bifröst

XII.

Statistics – Number of graduates with a masters´ degree. Bifröst University and the University of Iceland

XIII.

Statistics – Number of students and graduates used for size comparison purposes

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Group libra employment opportunities