Page 1

EDWARD HOPPER THE ART AND THE ARTIST

GAIL LEVIN


Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2009

http://www.archive.org/details/edwardhopperartaOOhopp


Philip Morris

is

proud

be associated with the exhibition of "Edward Hop-

to

The Art and the Artist" at the Whitney Museum of American Art. arts during the In the course of our corporate activity in support of the and special ties with the 1960s and 19705, Philip Morris has established close Museum and has sponsored several major exhibitions dealing with

per:

Whitney

the history of our country

In contemporary terms,

we

we would do

are,

well,

much

His canvas has logged century,

and appears

and our people. from and who if we want to know where we came lifework of Edward Hopper. I be!ie\e, to turn to the of

to offer a

America

in the

first

two-thirds of the twentieth

comprehensive visual depiction of our modern

character and identity.

With

everyday sense of tion.

and sympathy, he seems to have recorded the nathe cities and towns and along the coasts of our

frankness, precision,

And

life in

because he did so with such stark directness.

Hopper

has

become-

this century. perhaps more than any other-the major artist-biographer of in all its striking fullness presented now is examined he life American The

most extensive and complete exhibition of his history of the Whitwork ever presented. Hopper's career interlaced with the at the

ney

Whitney Museum

in the

at several critical junctures,

and the bequest of

his

work

to the

Museum,

makes the relationship permanent. contribute to the realization For Philip Morris, it is an honor to be able to association between an outstanding of this exhil^ition which expresses the association that, one museum of American art and a great American artist-an

of course,

hopes, will inspire others.

George Weissman Chairman of the Board Philip Morris Incorporated


EDWARD HOPPER


Edward and Jo Hopper

in

South Truro, Massachusetts, i960. Photograph

Š Arnold Newman.


EDWARD HOPPER THE ART AND TUE ARTIST GAIL LEVIN

W-W- NORTON

&

COMPANY- NEW YORK- LONDON IN

ASSOCIATION WITH THE

WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART


association with the Whitney This book, published by W. W. Norton & Company in Hopper: The Art and "Edward exhibition the accompanies Art, Museum of American PhiUp Morris Incorporated and the Artist" at the Whitney Museum, sponsored by

the

organized at the Whitney Museum National Endowment for the Arts. The publication was Schwartz, Editor, James Leggio, Copy by Doris Palca, Head. Publications and Sales, Sheila Angela White, Research Assistant, and Editor, Anita Duquette, Rights and Reproductions.

Anne Munroe,

Assistatil.

Dates of the exhibition

Whitney Museum

of

American

Art,

New York

September 16, igSo-January 25. 1981 (second September 23, 1980-january 18, 1981 (third

floor)

floor)

Hayward Gallery. London; Arts Council of Great Britain February 1 i-March 29, 1981 Stedelijk

Museum, Amsterdam

April 22-June

1981

17,

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Diisseldorf

July 10-September

6, 1981

The Art Institute of Chicago October 3-Noveraber 29, 1981

Museum

San Francisco

December United States by W. Published simultaneously in Canada by George J.

First published, 1980. in the

16,

of

Modern

igSi-February

14,

W. Norton & Company, Inc., New McLeod Limited, Toronto.

Art 1982

York.

Printed under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Tokyo, Japan. Ltd., Co.. Printing and bound by Dai Nippon

All rights reserved

COPYRIGHT

Š

1980 BY THE WHITNEY

MUSEUM OF AMERIC.\N

.XRT

All Rights Reserved

BOOK DESIGN BY ANTONINA KRASS LAYOUT BY BEN GAMIT Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967 the art and the artist

Edward Hopper:

Bililiogiaphy: p. 72

Includes index i.

Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967-Exhibitions I.

Levin, Gail, of

ND237.H75A4

II.

Whitney Museum Art,

New York.

759.13

79-27958

American 1980

ISBN0-393-01374-X

34567890


CONTENTS FOREWORD PREFACE

THE IDENTITY OF THE ARTIST

ix

xiii

3

DEVELOPMENT

15

THEMES

41

NOTES

65

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

72

INDEX OF PICTURES

75

PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS

78

PLATES

79

CHRONOLOGY

300


FOREWORD The works by Edward Hopper now in the Permanent Collection of Whitney Museum of American Art cover the full span of his creative collection of any single

and represent the most extensive public artist.

This resource, central

the life

American

development of twentieth-

to the history of the

century American art and particularly to American realism, was established as a result of the

patronage and generosity of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney,

founder of the Museum. In January

the

1920

first

one-man exhibition

of

Edward Hopper's

paintings was held at the Whitney Studio Club, organized in igi8 by Mrs.

Whitney. During these years Hopper had foimd no support for

and was earning

his living

through commercial art and

Whitney's help came at a time when American

artists

his

work

illustration.

Mrs.

were receiving

little

commitment to Hopper was carried on by the Whitney American Art from its founding in 1930 until the artist's

recognition; her

Museum

of

death in 1967.

When

his wife, Jo, died a year later, she left to the

their entire artistic estate, the largest bequest of the artist

ever

made

to a public institution.

became synonymous. While

this

is

Hopper and

work the

of

Museum

an American

Whitney Museum

we Museum, it must be and we must still attempt

a source of great pride in 1980, as

celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the founding of the said that the bequest contained few masterpieces, to acquire

The

examples of the

bequest of the

artist's finest

Hopper

achievements.

estate presented

an overwhelming administrative burden. impossible to

fulfill

The

what

at first

obligations

it

seemed

to

be

generated were

without assistance. In 1976, six years after the bequest


had been assembled

X

Museum,

at the

Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

the

provided a generous grant to support curatorial research that will culminate in a four-volume catalogue raisonne of Edward Hopper's paintings, drawings, prints, and illustrations, to be published by W. W. Norton &

Company,

in association with the

of the Mellon Foundation, for

Whitney Museum. Without

which we are extremely

the assistance

grateful, the bequest

be in storage, withdrawn from the public, and our knowledge of the artist obscured. Gail Levin, with the help of the grant, was appointed Associate Curator, Hopper Collection, in 1976, and has prepared two

would

still

definitive exhibitions of

Prints

The

Hopper's work.

first

was "Edward Hopper:

Illustrations" in the fall of 1979, part of the prelude to the

and

anniversary year. 'Edward Hopper:

The

Art and the Artist"

is

the second

of these exhibitions, and presents Hopper's paintings and drawings as part of the 50th Anniversary celebration. Both exhibitions are supported by Philip

Morris Incorporated and the National

Endowment

for the Arts.

These two

sponsors, the largest contributors to our exhibition programs, have each played a major role in the life of the Whitney Museum. It is a pleasure to ac-

knowledge

their part in this

All research on

Hopper

endeavor so closely identified with our history. upon the work of Lloyd Goodrich. His

builds

intimate knowledge of the artist derives from their forty-year association, which began when Hopper was a member of the Whitney Studio Club and of The Arts, a magazine supported by Mrs. Honorary Trustee of the Museum, became an Whitney. Goodrich, now Curator in 1935 and was Director from 1958 to 1968. His and the Whitney Museum's continuous recognition of Hopper's work, particularly with the

Goodrich was an editor

major retrospective exhibitions Goodrich organized in artist's ties to

strengthened the

quest. Goodrich's observations

the

Museum,

on the

artist's

1950

resulting in the life

and

1964,

Hopper

and work, published

bein

books, meticulously recorded in papers and notes, and simply remembered, are a resource of primary importairce. We are deeply indebted to him for his research

and

for his enthusiastic assistance with

Edward Hopper was an exceedingly

own how

our present project.

private person who,

through his

efforts and the watchful protectiveness of his wife, sought to determine much of his life and what part of his art would enter history. Gail

Levin has diligently and resourcefully worked to reveal the complicated nature of Hopper's personality and the sources and evolution of his work. Her study now becomes a major, integral part of both the history of the

Museum and the The question

scholarship of American of

what

scholars for a long time,

is

American

art.

in

American

has challenged

art

seeking a cogent answer. For many,

and we are still and dignity of the work

Edward Hopper seem to epitomize the character of much of twentieth-century American art. We to the are gratified to be able to present a complete study of his work This Museum. Whitney public and to secure his identification with the the light, space, solitude,

would not have been works who

possible without the assistance of

have graciously cooperated with

"Edward Hopper: The Art and San Francisco

of

as well as

all

our

many owners of his The exhibition

efforts.

the Artist" will travel

London, Amsterdam, and

to

Diisseldorf,

Chicago and

where the work


of

Edward Hopper

will be presented in

depth for the

first

time.

A

smaller

museums in the United Introducing Hopper to new audiences reaffirms

version of the exhibition will travel to several States

and Europe in 1982. Whitney Museum

that the

tionally recognized as the

is

now,

fifty

years after

its

founding, interna-

most important museum devoted

to

American

Tom

art.

Armstrong Director

Whitney Museum

of

American Art

EDWARD HOPPER

XI


PREPACE This volume

is

intended as a general introduction to the paintings of

Edward Hopper. It is a companion volume to Edward Hopper as Illustrator and Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints (both published last year). The present book will be followed by a catalogue raisonne of Edward Hopper's drawings,

paintings,

and

prints,

illustrations,

be published

to

in

four

work in medium, 1 have welcomed the opportunity here to arrange the artist's work thematically. Since so many of the subjects that recur throughout Hopper's career were first explored in his boyhood work volumes. Because the catalogue raisonne will reproduce each chronological order by

or, at the latest, in the

by examining

The

his

work

oeiwre in

much can

of his early matiuity,

this

be learned

manner.

retrospective exhibition

accompanying

both the 50th Anniversary of the Whitney

this

Museum

publication celebrates

American Art and the at the Whitney Studio Club, the Museum's predecessor. The decision by Hopper and his wife, Jo Nivison Hopper, to bequeath their artistic estate to the Whitney Museum is a measure of their appreciation for the early and sustained support his work received from this institution.

sixtieth anniversary of

Hopper's

first

of

one-man show, held

In the process of compiling the catalogue raisonne, collect all of the

I

have attempted to

Hoppers' correspondence. Either original manuscripts or

copies of the letters from the artist or his wife referred to in this

Whitney Museum

are in the

Hopper

addition,

have assembled for the archives copies of

I

and magazine

archives at the

articles

interviews that have

which

come

to

of all

American

volume Art. In

known newspaper

refer to the artist, as well as typescripts of

my

attention.


Until his marriage in 1924, the records

XIV

Hopper kept

work were

of his

incomplete. Jo Nivison, however, proved to be a devoted and exacting archivist; she deserves credit for the careful ledgers she kept on all of the

works Hopper exhibited,

gave away. But no records exist for those

sold, or

works, mostly drawings, that never lection of the study drawings, cess, is

published here for the

am

I

seum

of

American

which

first

Tom

deeply grateful to

left the artist's studio.

which

raisonne.

1

me

with so important a project as

Edward Hopper, and

generously

se-

time.

enthusiasm, and continuing support.

Foundation,

extensive

Armstrong, Director of the Whitney Mu-

Art, for entrusting

the catalogue raisonne of

An

Hopper's creative pro-

reveal so well

I

encouragement,

for his

wish to thank the Andrew

supported

research

for

W. Mellon

the

catalogue

also appreciate the important support for the exhibition that

publication from both Philip Morris Incorporated and

accompanies

this

the National

Endowment

for the Arts.

Lloyd Goodrich, whose writings on Hopper and extensive unpublished notes on interviews with the artist provide an important resource, has been a constant source of encoinagement and inspiration. He first wrote about Hopper's work in an enthusiastic review for The Arts over fifty years ago. I am grateful for the generous loan of the ledger books Hopper bequeathed to him. His early

and

lasting enthusiasm for Hopper's work, in the spirit

commitment Museum. Whitney

of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney's original in the

Hopper bequest

Additionally,

I

to the

to

Hopper, resulted

John Clancy,

have had valuable conversations with

Barbara Novak, and Brian O'Doherty, who knew the Hoppers well and who generously shared their reminiscences with me. I also wish to thank all

who through their personal recollections have helped me to know Hopper better. For information on Nyack and the Hopper family, I ap-

those

preciate the assistance of Arthayer R. Sanborn,

Maureen Gray, and Alan

Gussow.

would like to thank all of the owners of works by Hopper who have shared them with me and, especially, those who have so generously loaned I

to the exhibition. Others

who have helped me

in

many important ways

Daniel Abadie, Elizabeth Cornell Benton, Florence Blauvelt, Milton W. Brown, Milton Cederquist, Noreen Corrigan, Joan Dayan, Betsy Fahlman, Lawrence A. Fleischman, Sherry Goodman, Linda Hartigan,

include

Homer, April Kingsley, Robert L. Mowery, Bennard B. Perlman, Helen Farr Sloan, Leo Steinberg, Helen Tittle, Berta Ward, and Judith K.

William

1.

Zilczer.

At W. W. Norton support for

this

'k

Company, James Mairs has provided invaluable

publication and supervised

its

The

realization.

sensitive

eye of Antonina Krass, designer of this volume, has added immeasurably to its

quality.

1

am

very grateful for her

So ambitious a series of projects as

and understanding. exhibition and publication and

skills,

this

kindness,

the forthcoming catalogue raisonne could not be attempted,

many

accomplished, without the contributions of

knowledge the cooperation of the Washington, D. C,

staff of

people.

the Archives of

as well as the staffs of the

many

libraries

much

less

gratefully ac-

I

American I

Art,

visited in the


course of

members

my

The

research.

oÂŁ the staff of the

completion of appreciation,

this project.

for

realize

I

dedicated help

1

have received from many

Whitney Museum has been important in the To all of them I wish to express my sincere my good fortune in working with so many

devoted, capable indi\iduals on a day-to-day basis.

The Whitney

members who merit individual acknowledgment

stall

in-

clude Doris Palca. She has coordinated publication arrangements for this

volume, envisioning a beautifully illustrated book from the successful reproduction of so

many

proximation of Hopper's palette of Anita Duquette, of photograph).

who

due

is

the

many

The

in a large part to the tireless efforts

searched relentlessly for both

Among

start.

color plates which aspire to a close ap-

new means and

sources

photographers, Geoffrey Clements merits

amount of work in such a short Nancy McGary, the Whitney's Registrar, and her staff deserve special recognition for making the complex arrangements necessary to bring these special thanks for accomplishing a colossal

time.

works

to the

Museum

for the exhibition.

preparators have also helped

my

make

John Martin and his

this project a success.

May

staff

of art

FitzGerald,

woidd also like to acknowledge Elizabeth Tweedy .Streibert, formerly of the Museum's staff who did the preliminary cataloging work on the Hopper bequest. Librarian, deserves

Angela White,

my

thanks

assistant,

as well.

I

has contributed significantly to both the pub-

and exhibition. Her good humor, dedication, and intelligence have facilitated my work and made it more fun. My secretary, jane Freeman, has

lication

also greatly assisted

me

in this project

through her

ability, conscientiousness,

and cheerful presence. James Leggio has copy edited for his kindness and his help in other ways, I am most

this

volume. For

Barbara Matilsky, while serving as a summer intern, contributed to project, as did

Amy

Curtis

this,

grateful.

and Jacqueline Appleton, volunteer

this

interns.

Noel Manfre, who energetically volunteered her time and superb organizational skills, deserves special thanks.

Above all. Sheila Schwartz has edited this book with sensitivity and wisdom, offering many invaluable suggestions. Her generosity and encouragement ha\e made

my

task a

much

easier one.

My

debt to her

is

immense and my gratitude heartfelt. For the contents and conclusions of this book, I am of course responsible. I hope that the 280 color reproductions of Hopper's paintings, accompanied by his drawings in an affordable volume, will inspire many to examine more closely his important contribution to the art of our century. In writhave realized

owing

to the vast

ing,

I

and

the limitations of both time

tive. If

that,

my work prompts

and

amount

length, this

further study,

I

of information gathered

book could not be

will feel that

I

defini-

have succeeded. Gail Levin

November

29, 1979

EDWARD HOPPER

XV


EDA^ARD HOPPER


THE IDENin^Y 0짜 THE ARTLSl^ "I don't

know what my

identity

sometimes, even you give

it

is.

a push."

role of critics, as expressed here in a

The

critics give

you an

identity.

And

Edward Hopper's cynical view of the statement made late in life, not only

affected the course his career took, but also

shaped

his self-image as

an

With equal cynicism, he remarked of artists in general; "Ninety Hopper per cent of them are forgotten ten minutes after they're dead." was wrong about the critical estimation of his own work. In the years since his death, critics have continually praised his art, calling him "the major twentieth-century American 'realist' and one of the giants of Ameriartist.

'

can painting."

~

In

fact, critics

have long admired the

Hopper's work, and he himself accepted to

him was

abstract art, sition,

this praise.

the considerable regard for his painting

who

his forms,

early

and

on acclaimed the his light.

realist character of

Less comprehensible

among proponents

aesthetic qualities of his

of

compo-

As one writer noted, Hopper won the

respect of abstract artists: "even during the 1950s his reputation was secure,

and

artists

poles of

sometimes coupled Jackson Pollock and Edward Hopper

American individualism and

was dismayed by the shifting

artistic integrity." ^

tide of critical

as

twin

Hopper, however,

attention toward Abstract

Expressionism, an art he considered as untenable as that of the early Euro-

pean modernists he had standing the

critics'

first

ignored in Paris in 1906. Instead of under-

simultaneous regard for both his art and Abstract

Expressionism, he perceived the wide gap separating his carefully planned


and executed compositions from the Abstract Expressionists' gestural

styles,

and probably concluded that their advent threatened the continued ceptance of his representational

art.

sensitivity to critical responses, real or imagined,

Such

ac-

end

Hopper's personality. Until the

of his

life,

was always part of

even after much

success,

he

remained vulnerable to negative criticism of his work-in part because he was highly self-critical by nature and demanding of himself as an artist, but also because comments

These

self-doubt.

feelings

than enthusiastic raised lingering feelings of

less

first

developed during the years he struggled for

From 1908, when he began to participate in group exhibitions, work was initially ignored and then received disparaging notices. His sensitivity to criticism during these formative years made him especially

recognition. his

susceptible

American

to

artists

and

which had been escalating among

nationalism,

cultural

critics since the

turn of the twentieth century. Hopper

found that his deep preoccupation with French culture-acquired during three trips to Paris (1906-7, 1909, and 1910)— was incompatible with this nationalism. His work during the 1910s revealed clear signs of French influence, so he responded to the critics by producing pictures

new American

with acceptably American subject matter. By 1924 Hopper had shifted entirely to painting his surroundings, renouncing French themes. In so doing,

he had

and

art

Edward Hopper,

c.

1908.

to struggle to

culture that

move beyond

had

overwhelming impression

the

of

French

so captivated his imagination.*

Robert Henri, Hopper's favorite teacher at the New York School of Art from 1903 to 1906, had encouraged his students to go abroad, perhaps because he himself had gained so much during his several years of study and work in Paris. Hopper later paid tribute to his teacher when he wrote that Henri made the "inlluence of the French masters of the nineteenth century ... of vital importance to American painting." Âť Yet Henri also promoted the development of a distinctly American art. As one of the organizers of

The

Eight, the

New

York

Academy

in

group of painters who exhibited February

1908,

at the

Macbeth Gallery

in

he challenged the conservative National new art characterized by Americanism in

of Design, calling for a

Henri also took the time to revise a definitive article on The Eight (written by Mary Fanton Roberts for the Craftsman magazine and called 'The Younger American Painters: Are They Creating a National Art?") which chastised artists who borrowed their subject matter-"the

American

idea.

"

ÂŤ

and themes exclusively from European painting, and praised The Eight ^ producing "a home-grown art, out of our own soil."

style

for

Encouraged by the impact of The Eight's exhibition, former students. Hopper

included, organized their

fifteen of Henri's

own independent

show,

held in the upper floor of the old Harmonic Club building on West Fortysecond Street from March 9-31, 1908. This, the second exhibition challenging the artistic

hegemony

of the National

Academy

of Design,

was hailed

in the press as "one step nearer to a national art":

Here are

skyscrapers, people, streets,

country. Here is

is

manners and gestures

the particular air of

beautiful, not because

one may find

New in

it

York.

They

of our time, of our

say of

virtues wfiicli have

New York

that

been admired

it

in


other

but because of

cities,

them an in the

egotistical

work

American

of

its

own

oils.

pride.

It

.

.

.

One must admire

has never before been

his art for the

first

in France (Pis.

loi,

who appeared

exhibition

EDWARD HOPPER

had chosen

time,

to

The Louvre and Seine, The Bridge of the Arts, The

Park at Saint Cloud, and one drawing, Une Demmiondaine

duced

in

shown

painters.*

Hopper, however, here showing include three

peculiar beauties.

and purely national

103,

to

He was

106).

[sic],

pro-

all

thus the only artist in the

have overlooked his American surroundings. in the few critical reviews the

This distinction was not noted, however,

exhibition received, none of which discussed Hopper.

Hopper's work was

showed two

oils,

the

monumental

and

Soir Bleu

New

York Corner, in a group exhibition

York

at 108

The

reviewer for the

West

when he

singled out by critics for discussion

first

at the

much

a

smaller canvas,

MacDowell Club

New

of

from February 11-21, 1915 (Pis. 378, 233). York Herald praised New York Corner— "z.

Fifty-fifth Street

New New

York atmosphere"— but ignored the far larger and more impressive Soir Bleu.^ Other reviewers were not so subtle: "Edward Hopper is not quite successful with his 'Soir Bleu,' a group of hardened Parisian absinthe drinkers, but he is entirely so with his 'New perfect visualization of

York Corner'

and "in Edward Hopper's 'New York Corner' there

";

completeness of expression that fantasy, 'Soir Bleu.' "

'"

is

is

a

in his ambitious

scarcely discoverable

Hopper's obviously French theme and

style in Soir

Bleu did not find favor in an atmosphere of burgeoning nationalism, yet his

modest depiction

an American scene won him much sought-after

of

praise.

The

call for

an American

art

was also prevalent among the

and

artists

of the more avant-garde circle around Alfred Stieglitz. Although Hopper did not subscribe to their modernist taste, he would have been

critics

aware that they too were defensive about American

European models, where European

especially after the

who had borrowed the First

New

art stole the limelight.

freely

1913, artist

had, in the years just after

art,

to realize the

need for a more native

Man

Hartley expressed these feelings in his article "Red

American Plea

for

American

debt to

Even Marsden Hartley, an

from European

World War, come

art's excessive

York Armory Show of

art.i'

An

Ceremonials:

Esthetics," written in Santa Fe,

New

Mexico,

during the summer of 1919:

A national esthetic consciousness is We are not nearly so original as we the excellent

encouragement

of

a sadly

needed element

American

in

fool ourselves into thinking.

redman

.

.

.

We

life.

have

esthetics to establish ourselves firmly

with an esthetic consciousness of our own.

By 1927 Hopper himself was writing

.

.

.12

of

the

necessity

of

creating

a

"native art":

Out attach

of

the

horde of camp-followers, imitators and publicity-seekers

themselves

emerging certain

to

all

movements

artists of originality

in

and

art

as

in

science

intelligence

who

and

politics,

who are

are no longer con-

Edward Hopper,

c.

1915.


tent to be citizens of the world of art, but believe that

future American art should be in their

weaned from

its

now

are giving concrete expression to their belief.

work

or in the near

French mother. These

The

men

"tang of the

We should not is becoming evident more and more in their painting. be quite certain of the crystallization of the art of America into something native

soil"

.

.

.

and distinct, were it not that our drama, our literature and our architecture show very evident signs of doing just that thing. 13

Hopper had suppressed his nostalgia for France four years earlier after making his last etching of a French theme, Aux Fortifications (Fig. 1). That summer of 1923 in Gloucester, Massachusetts, under the encouragement of his friend (and, later, his wife) Josephine Nivison, Hopper began to paint watercolors of his surroundings (Pis. 197-199). In November 1924 he exhibited these watercolors in a one-man show at the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery in

Edward and Jo Hopper. Cape Maine, 1927-

Elizabeth.

at the

Up

New

York

Gity. It

was with

this

"American" exhibition that Hopper,

age of forty-two, finally achieved his

to this point

first

financial success as a painter.

he had been supporting himself

as a

commercial

illustrator,

an occupation he thoroughly disliked. wrote in 1927 of the "tang of the soil," he had already developed his mature style and subject matter. His oil paintings too were concerned with his Ainerican surroundings-primarily city themes in winter

When Hopper

and

coastal

New

England views during the summer. The

of Sunday, Hopper's 1926 painting of a lone

shown

in a

man

critical

reception

seated on a street curb,

group exhibition called "America Today"

at the

Rehn

Gallery

,0

Fig.

1.

Edward Hopper. Aux

Museum

of Art,

New

Fortifications. 1923. Etching. 12 x 15 inches.

York; Harris Brisbane Dick Fund. 1925.

The Metropohtan


that year, alism,

is

indicative of the critics' ongoing preoccupation with nation-

and demonstrates how well Hopper's

currents of the igaos

(PI. 160).

art

seemed

to

fit

EDWARD HOPPER

the intellectual

For example, one reviewer noted:

question of the Americanness of this picture both as to treatment and to

No

subject— a

street,

empty and

silent; a

out of such commonplaceness has

humor and an

worker, clean-shirted and helplessly idle

Hopper

astute characterization of place

In 1927 Lloyd Goodrich, porter, wrote: "It

is

.

.

.

created beauty as well as injected

and type."

who became Hopper's most

hard to think of another painter

ardent

who

is

critical

sup-

more

getting

Edward Hopper." By the 1930s, when cultural nationalism came into full flower and the Regionalists Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wood, and John Steuart Curry

of the quality of

America in

'"'

his canvasses than

were celebrated. Hopper's paintings had Ijecome inore intensely personal and introspective. But they remained, at least superficially, representations of ordinary American scenes. Critics like Thomas Craven and Peyton Boswell,

Sr.,

were calling for the development of an indigenous American

Edward Hopper, Sunday, 1926

(see PI.

160).

would turn its back on French modernism and express "the spirit of the land." 'ÂŤ Only Hopper's close friend and former classmate, the critic and painter Guy Pene du Bois, understood that the "extremely self'the American Scene' " had made Hopper, "one conscious movement art that

.

.

.

most unfashionable of men," into "one of the most fashionable of painters." Yet, as early as 1931, du Bois saw the limitations of this moveof the

ment:

It

believes that only through a complete devotion to the

American

art be created. It believes also that

their national purity in foreign lands. It

American

American scene

will

an

artists are likely to lose

would keep them provincial

in thought,

word and work.i'

And du No

Bois noted prophetically:

painter's importance can rest so simply in that

time. Hojjper

ment and

will be recognized as a painter

which he

paints.

.

.

.

Some-

with a very sound technical equip-

a superbly individual vision. i^

Despite the wisdom of du Bois' remarks,

critics

continued to discuss

A reviewer inMuseum of Modern

Hopper's work in the context of American Scene painting. correctly described his one-man exhibition held at the

Art in 1933 as "the work of a man who has always been stubbornly American, both in technique and subject matter," ignoring the five French caricatures included in the show.^" Obviously, this critic did not know of

Hopper's Soir Bleu

(PI. 378),

exhibited nearly twenty years before, or even

Whitney Studio Club in attributed Hopper's rapid rise to fame to "the fact

of his earlier paintings of Paris 1920.20

Another

critic

shown

at

the

that he has come in on the rising tide of nationalism," recognizing the

"requirements of what was meant by racial quality in American

art,"

and

Edward Hopper. Guy Pene du (see PI. 34).

Bois,

1919


remarked that Hopper's work was "the antithesis duced under domination of French standards."

work

of the type of ^i

pro-

By 1939 Hopper was

praised as "probably the finest living painter of the American scene, [who] -ranks just below Maurice Utrillo as a painter of streets and their houses."

This comment expresses the limitation Hopper saw in being typecast as an American Scene painter, for even some of the critics who promoted this aesthetic continued to regard American art as provincial, in the shadow of the School of Paris.

Perhaps because of Hopper's irritation with

parochial,

the

yet

am-

who narrowly characterized his work as American Scene painting and overlooked his intellectual sophistication and emotional authenticity, in 1941 he chose to exhibit a selection of his 1907-14 paintings

bivalent, critics

at

the

Rehn

which included eleven scenes of

Gallery. This exhibition,

France, forced some critics to recognize that Hopper's art transcended the

limited categorization American Scene painting:

For at

least a

decade and a

half.

sort of plastic speech that, with

Hopper's

augmenting assurance,

Indeed, suddenly confronted with evidence, just one's self to the fact that Paris has so

American

has seemed to epitomize the

style

its

it

may

is

termed "American.

some

require

"

effort to ad-

place in the retrospective pattern of

a painter's growth. 23

Despite this momentary recognition of Hopper's French roots, the point was soon forgotten and the American Scene characterization persisted-as

did Hopper's emphatic protestations: tried is the "American Scene" business. I never painters midwestern the and Curry and Benton to do the American scene as always wanted did. I think the American Scene painters caricatured America. I

The

to

thing that makes

me

mad

so

do myself. The French painters didn't

talk

about the "French Scene," or the

EngHsh painters about the "English Scene." 24

Hopper's intellectual sophistication made to accept the provincialism of "the

respected intellectual achievement as

"an incipient intellectual

who

is

it all

the

more

American Scene business." clear

from

never quite

him That he

difficult for

his description of his father

made

it."

-'5

As

a youth.

Hop-

of per read avidly from his father's library-"the English classics and a lot immerse continued to he on Later translation." French and Russian in

himself in poetry,

fiction,

French and German

philosophy; English literature, as well as the

writers.

Over the years he indicated

his fondness for

writers as varied as Moliere, Victor Hugo, Paul 'Verlaine, Arthur

Josephine N. Hopper, Edward Hopper Reading Robert Frost, c. 1955. Oil on canvas, 25 X

30 inches. Private collection.

Rimbaud,

Marcel Proust, Goethe, Emerson, Thomas Mann, Renan, Sherwood AnderFrost, and son, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, E. B. White, Robert Henrik Ibsen. He also had studied the art of the European old masters his during his years as a student and on his travels abroad. Throughout American and European life Hopper maintained an interest in both cultures.

But he saw no need

for nationalistic ambitions, believing instead

that an artist responds naturally

quality

is

m

to

a painter-he doesn't have

his

own

heritage:

26 to strive for it."

"The American


Beyond

misguided nationalism, painting was too private

his aversion to

an experience

Hopper

for

to allow

it

Hopper saw his art primuch of every art is an seems to me most of all of the

other extra-aesthetic critical concerns.

social, or

own

marily as a reflection of his

"So

psyche:

expression of the subconscious, that

it

important qualities are put there unconsciously, and the conscious intellect.

Indeed,

-'

tangle."

But these are things

Hopper was Sun

after in his 1963 painting

ME."

During

-'*

for

sufficiently familiar

in

of importance by

little

the psychologist to un-

with Freud and Jung to

And when asked what he was an Empty Room (PI. 429), he replied: "I'm

include their books in a caricature (Fig.

after

EDWARD HOPPER

to be described in terms of political,

2).

and etched

his formative years he painted, sketched,

the lack of another model

(Pis. 1-22).

One

Self-Portrait, in oil,

his

motivated by

self-portrait repeatedly, a process of self-analysis not entirely

remains from

his mature years, as well as two rather intense Self-Portrait sketches (Pis. 20,

Hopper's identification of his

21, 22).

with his internal feelings

art

is

empha-

by a quotation from Goethe that he carried around in his wallet and

sized

cited for

its

relevance to artistic endeavor:

The beginning and end of all literary activity is the reproduction of the world that surrounds me by means of the world that is in me, all things being grasped, related, retreated,

moulded and reconstructed

in a personal

form and an

orig-

Fig.

2.

(ung,

inal manner.29

Edward Hopper, Caricature

artist as a c.

of the

boy holding books by Freud and

1925-35. Pencil on paper, 41^ y

3%

inches. Private collection.

That he attempted is

clear

in his

own

paintings to convey his inner state of

his statement for the catalogue of his

Museum

at the

I

from

of

Modern Art

first

mind

retrospective, held

in 1933:

believe that the great painters, with their intellect as master, have attempted

unwilling

to force this tions.

When

I

find

asked

why he

my

and canvas into

of paint

aim

this large

Thus,

a vast it

is

emo-

do

I

believe

inner experience." life

^1

and varied realm."

them

"Great

to be the best

.

.

.

he also wrote,

art,"

in the artist,

and

The

"is the

this inner life will

inner

life

of a

human

^-

important to keep in mind that Hopper was directly con-

cerned with emotional content in his

art,

even though he may not have

intended that content to be clearly interpretable. his paintings

a record of their

to boredom.-*"

for

that

result in his personal vision of the world. is

me

mediums

it is

outward expression of an inner being

leads

selected certain subjects over others, he replied: "I

not exactly know, unless a synthesis of

medium

any digression from

may not always be

for personal expression invites

accessible to us.

And

while the meaning of

Hopper's admitted search

our investigation into the nattire of his per-

sonality as a key to the iniderstanding of his art. In his interviews, in his letters

and those

of his wife, in the large

body of unexhibited work stretchcomments he made

ing from childhood drawings to his last sketches, in the in his ledgers,

and

in the

memoirs and reminiscences

of those

who knew him,

are the clues to the real personality he camouflaged out of a sense of privacy

and

self-protective anxiety (Fig.

3).

Edward Hopper, 22).

Self-Portrait,

1945 (see PI.


most interesting sides to Hopper's character, consistently his missed by the critics, was his romantic nature. While works such as about of 1919-23 etchings Les Deux Pigeons of 1920 and Summer Afternoon

One

lO

of the

(Figs. 4, 5), as well as his later painting, all

Summer Evening

illustrate his nostalgic attitude toward

romance

of 1947 (PI. 367),

in their presentation of

couples courting, the majority of writers have perceived only loneliness. Although loneliness sometimes did concern him. Hopper objected to the s* On a personal critics' emphasis on it: "The loneliness thing is overdone."

he was sentimental about his youth and his experiences in Paris. This was something he shared with his wife Jo, sending her notes and gieeting cards in French all through the years. Once, on the Christmas card he designed for her in 1923, shortly before their marriage, he depicted

level,

them

together, reclining before an

open window, with

the full

moon and

Beneath the spires of Notre Dame visible in the Paris night outside (PL 35). from sky this picture he included six lines about the exquisite evening "La lune blanche," written by Verlaine for his own fiancee. All this was Paris merely wishful thinking on Hopper's part, for he had not been in for thirteen years and he had never been there with Jo.

Edward and Jo Hopper studio,

c.

in

his

New York

1945.

Not many people came

to

know Hopper

intimately over his eighty-four

wit, and intelyears. To Jo, however, he revealed his romantic nature, his the forty-three throughout and courtship lectual sophistication during their and nurtured understood years of their marriage. Also a painter, who both

Q

.ladt

^S'~V

15" Uiiirt'.sw'y^Jlr' tS'lwaO-J-.diC^'r

Fig.

3.

Edward Hopper, page from

ledger on Office Lloyd Goodrich.

ist's

at

the art-

Night. Collection of

---}•-

•"---

-

p


;:>4^^;*^

lig. 4.

Kdward Hopper,

Deux Pigeotu,

l-es

Museum

inches. Philadelphia

of

.'\rt;

1920. Etching. 81/; v

Purchased,

10

lig. 5.

The Harrison Fund.

Edward Hopper. Sunntier

10 inches. Philadelphia

Museum

Ajlertioon, 1919-23. Etching, 814 x of

.\rV,

Purchased.

The

Harrison

Fund.

these aspects of Hopper's personality, Jo his wit,

and

his partner in intellectual

Nevertheless,

and

romance, of

his

literary pursuits.

the Hoppers' relationship was complicated

by Jo's

own

While she faithfully encouraged him, keeprecords and protecting him from curious journalists, she re-

ambitions as an ing precise

was the object of

artist (Fig. 6).

sented the fact that her

own

command much

painting did not

She was possessive, insisting that she model for

all of

attention.

the female figures he

painted. As a couple, they were a study in contrasts: he, very

tall

and

had a quiet, retiring manner; she, a tiny, energetic, nonstop talker, sporting a bouncing ponytail like a perpetual teenager. She was not fond of domestic duties and often refused to cook at all. preferring modest meals in diners or shabby neighborhood restaurants. In his interaction with Jo, Hopper's dry wit was put to good use. He often communicated with her through caricatures he drew to make very definite points. One, produced in the early years of their marriage and captioned "Status Quo," depicts Jo seated at the dinner table across from

imposing (nearly

six feet five inches),

her cat Arthur while

Edward crouches

catlike

on the

floor

begging for

Apparently feeling that she catered

to her cat

more than to him, he also desired to be pampered. In another Meal tune, Hopper depicted himself ignored by Jo: she sits in

the clouds

something

to eat (PI. 55).

caricature,

reading and he, a mere skeleton, begs for food and attention

Another time, he portrayed himself "Non-.A.nger

with claws

man

"

as a tall saint,

being attacked by "Pro-Anger

(Fig. 7).

(PI.

57).

complete with halo,

woman

a

"—tiny Jo complete

Although they never had children, Hopper fantasized

Fig. 6. Josephine N. Hopper, North Window Chez Hopper, Cape. Oil on canvas, 30 x 25

inches. Private collection.

what

their offspring

might have been

like:

in his caricature

Joscddy

at


age of

12

6^2,

child (Fig.

he somewhat pessimistically envisioned an awkward, bowlegged 8).

Hopper's sense of humor, carefully submerged, rarely surfaced in the somber paintings of his maturity.s* Yet among his youthful works are sketches captioned "This

is

a

comic picture you must laugh" and other

boardinghouse 53). In one from 1900, all four diners at a firmly aswho landlady the of consternation request chicken legs— to the cartoons

(PI.

"Gentlemen,

serts:

a

chicken

is

not a quadruped"

(PI.

325).

While he

presented a very serious public veneer, Hopper remained the tease, the prankster, that he had been since his boyhood when he reportedly dipped braids into inkwells.ss Rockwell Kent later recalled their fun while classmates at the New York School of Art, where Hopper regularly participated in taunting new students.ss Another of Henri's students, little girls'

Walter

who from

Tittle,

1913 occupied the studio adjoining Hopper's, also

remembered pranks such once placed on his pillow:

painted replicas of bedbugs that Hopper

for all of his semi-funereal solemnity,

Hopper, of

as the

humor

all his

had an

own. This served him well from time

active to time

and

definite sense

when

his periods

would otherwise have plunged him too deeply into unbearable "blues." jokes.ST usually manifested itself in puckish nonsense, and at times in practical

of inertia It

"NonAnger man" and "Pro-Anger woman," c. 1925-35. Charcoal and pencil on yellow Fig.

7.

Edward Hopper,

paper. 814 x

f,Vi

caricature of

inches. Private collection.

Hopper was extremely determined by nature. He preferred to live modestly than to make compromises in his work. He steadfastly refused to up painting ^vhen for years all he could sell were illustrations. He worked as an illustrator only three days a week in order to allow himself time for his painting and his prints, which represented an important the outlet for personal expression. Even after his later financial successes,

give

Hoppers chose to remain in the simple walk-up apartment buildnig at first moved at the end of 1913. 3 Washington Square North to which he had Well into

his later years,

when he could have

afforded greater luxury, he

carried buckets of coal for the stove that heated his studio (Fig.

whether in

New York

or in the simple house he designed as a

9).

And,

summer home

on Cape Cod in 1934, he preferred bare, unembellished surroundings (Fig. 6). Woolworth's Jo encouraged his thrift, shopping for most of their clothes at

and cans.

hooking rugs from rags she

at Sears,

collected,

She too had known years of financial struggle

a painter. Never

yielding to the

whims

cooking dinner out of as

of fashion,

both an the

actress

and

Hoppers always

would run no more. They also wore their clothes down to the threads. Their only splurges were for frequent theater tickets, movies, and books. Hopper's economy measures,

bought used

cars

and drove each

until

it

even during the successful years, were undoubtedly motivated by habit, but no less by his self-critical nature and lingering insecurity: he never expected success to last.

Fig. 8.

Edward Hopper. Joseddy

6'/2, c.

1925-35- Pencil on paper, 6;^

inches. Private collection.

at

Age

of

X

5V4

Over the years. Hopper attempted to limit access to his personal life. Shy and reserved, he usually preferred to hide behind a controlled public image of an uncultivated, self-made painter, working in the narrow bounds of the .\merican realist tradition, without imposing on his art any intellectual or


Fig. 9.

Edward Hopper

in

liis

New

York studio.

195S.

Photograph by Cieorge Moffett.

private content.

He

keeping up

image, which was carefully orchestrated by

this

insisted

upon

when he was being interviewed

the cooperation of his sister

for a

Time magazine

|r

Marion

Jo.

cover story,

in

In 1956,

Hopper

wrote to Marion that their researchers had "probed quite enough" and

warned

that

me

about

if

anyone

tried to interview her, "tell

or our family."

them absolutely nothing

^s

Despite Hopper's careful concern to conceal and thereby protect his image,

when asked by

admitted:

"1

didn't

had made that "a would be valuable," he

a writer about a suggestion he

book dealing exclusively with the

weak

own

mean

that.

lives of artists I

meant with

their

characters— whether

or strong, whether emotional or cold— written by people very close

to them.

The man's

the work.

Something doesn't come out

of nothi ng.


Fig. lo.

Fig.

II.

Edward Hopper

at

Edward Hopper's home

age one

ye,

Fig.

12.

father.

in

Nyack,

New

\ork.

Garrett Henry Hopper, the

artist;.

Fig.

13.

EUzabeth

the artist's mother.

Griffiths

Smith Hopper,


DE\'EL()PMEN1^ To

fully

edged,

made

is

comprehend Hopper's work, as he himself reluctantly acknowlto come to terms with the artist himself— not the public persona he Hopper,

his facade.

of

but the complex personality concealed beliind work evolved, became one of the most consistent He instinctually knew this, and realized that the search for his

accessible to most,

all artists.

as his

true character, for the reality

mence

which informed

all

must com-

of his art,

at the very beginning:

In every

artist's

The

earlier.

himself;

changes

work

later

artist's

little

from birth

to death.

Changing fashions

in

What he was

is

intellect

the central ego, personality, or whatever

modification.

or not at

development the germ of the

nucleus around which the

it

always found in the builds

may be

once, he always

methods or subject matter

his

is,

alter

work and

called,

with slight

him

little

all.i

In 1878 Elizabeth Griffiths Smith married Garrett Henry Hopper. lived with her

New

is

this

widowed mother

in the small

Hudson River town

of

They

Nyack,

York, in the house at 53 North Broadway built by her father about

Iheir

first child, Marion, was born in 1880 and their second Edward, arrived on July 22, 1882 (Fig. 11). In i8go Garrett Hopper purchased a dry goods store on South Broadway, and his son sometimes worked in the store after school (Fig. 12). The Hoppers were a

1857 (Fig.

and

10).

last child,

solidly middle-class family,

who attended

the neighijorhood Baptist church

(founded by Elizabeth Hopper's grandfather in the middle of the nine-


teenth century), and sent their children to the local private school for the early primary grades.

Hopper encouraged lier children's interest in art and theater (Fig. 13). Marion staged puppet shows and plays at their home, often assisted by Eddie, as he was called (Fig. 14).- Eddie, the more precocious, beElizabeth

gan

to sign

and date

drawings by the age of ten

his

(Fig. 15).

The

children

augment their imaginations. Eddie, who drew constantly, copied drawings from volumes by Phil May and Gustave Dore (PI. 58),-^ in addition to making little cutout soldiers and decorating the

were given illustrated books

to

covers of his paint box.

The Hoppers' home was Hudson

of the

Nyack was

located at the top of a

with a clear view

River, only one block away. During Eddie's childhood,

a prosperous port town, with a thriving shipyard that built

racing yachts. All sorts of boats traveled

of their free time

to play with

on the

down by

local

pond

Eddie built when he was about his father (Fig.

17).

up and down the river past and his friends, who spent They also had a variety of boats

fascination of Eddie

Nyack, to the unending

much

hill,

the docks. (Fig.

16),

one of which was a catboat that wood and tools supplied by

with

fifteen,

"It didn't sail very well,"

he remembered— yet at one

time he considered pursuing a career as a naval architect.* Hopper explained that his father bought him materials and encouraged him to build the boat to get

him out

into the fresh air

and away from the books

was constantly reading. The reading suggests may have begun several years

that he

propensity for solitude which this passion for

Fig.

14.

Edward

Hopper and

Marion Hopper.

twelve. cally

earlier.

Hopper suddenly grew to six feet in height, weakening him setting him apart from his contemporaries.

and

Edward Hopper, Box, December Conte on paper, 9I4 x 12I4 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New \ork: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Fig. 12,

15.

1892.

70.1606.8

Fig. 17.

For at about age

Edward Hopper and

his father, Garrett

Henry Hopper.

physi-


Hopper graduated from Nyack High School

in 1899

^^'''^

intention

"^'^^

becoming an artist. His parents prevailed tipon him to study commercial illustration, which they felt would offer a more secure income. That year he began to commute to New York City to attend the Correspondence

EDWARD HOPPER

17

of

School of Illustrating at 114 West Thirty-fourth Street In 1900,

known

Hopper

New

transferred to the

Chase School, located

as the

(Fig. 18).

York School of

Art, popularly

the corner of Sixth

at

Fifty-seventh Street. After two years of studying illustration,

Avenue and he had ac-

quired enough self-confidence to begin to study painting with William

As

Alerritt Chase.

when conducting Saturday art Hopper stated on his announcement

had studied with Chase the faculty in the

Hopper

classes at his

late as 1916,

family's house in Nyack,

But

(Fig. 19).

autumn

it

cards that he

was Robert Henri, who first joined Kenneth Hayes Miller, whom

of 1903, as well as

later cited as his

In retrospect, he obviously

teachers.

felt

that

"Henri was the

Chase's instruction had no particular influence on him:

Fig. 16.

most influential teacher were mostly

was

women

in the life

Men

had.

I

in the class.

and portraiture

probably viewed Chase's

.

.

.

much from

didn't get

Chase; there

Henri was a magnetic teacher. ... Henri."

classes of

^

In later years,

style as regressive, particularly in

Edward Hopper

a rowboat, Nyack,

New

as a child seated in

York.

I

Hopper

comparison with

Henri's.

Hoppers

influence of Chase, "the leading spirit and

large studio at the school;

model before

and once

a

Chase painted in an elegant

realist style,

and broad sweeping brushstrokes.

demonstration of his method.

It is difficult, as

PAINTING

we

in

ILLUSTRATION AND THE

shall see, to precisely

DRAWING,

IN

COMPOSITION OF N. Y.

IS

PIC-

ON AND AFTER

OCTOBER 2ND EVERY SATURDAY MORNING FROM OTHERS AND

9

TO

12.

PUPIL OF CHASE, HENRI. K.H. MILLER AND

A A

FORMER

INSTRUCTOR

THE CHASE

OF

SCHOOL.

Fig, 18.

For terms address sa north broaowav. nyack or

a

Washington

SQU«R£. NORTH. NEW YORK

Fig. 19.

Advertisement tor

^

ILLUSTRATION

TURES AT 53 NORTH BROADWAY, NYACK.

MH HOPPER WAS

"

Hopper's student work.

MR EDWARD HOPPER WILL GIVE INSTRUCTION PAINTING.

work in a from the

a study

characterized by surface virtuosity

which features were inspired by Chase

DRAWING

students'

all

month he painted

his students as a "practical

the

chief instructor" at the school."

Every Monday, Chase gave a public evaluation of

identify

work does show

protestations aside, his earliest student

classes

conducted by Edward Hopper in

his

home

in Nyack.

Edward Hopper

as a

young man.


ÂŤ

But Hopper Metropolitan

responded to Chase's advice that students

clearly

Museum

Chase even lectured to

of Art.

wanted

practice later continued by Henri. Chase

the

visit

his classes there, a

his students to be inspired

by great paintings and defended the need to assimilate the advances of others:

Absolute originality in art can only be found in a

room from babyhood.

a dark

and openly take

frankly

.

.

in all that

.

we

Since

we

We

can.

man who

has been locked in

dependent on

are

are entitled to

it.

others,

us

let

The man who

does that with judgement will produce an original picture that will have value.

men

Hopper's sketch of three

in a gallery carefully observing the paintings

exhibited probably documents his trips with his classmates to study

hand the paintings of the masters (PL 69). Hopper also made sketches after other artists, Chase's

advice.

one

In

[Mariano Fortuny

case,

Carbo,

y

Chase

his

own

He

also

worked delightfully

pen-and-ink study after Fortuny

suggestion

(PI.

64).

His

may

effort to learn

and Olyinpia, and

Millet's

Man

set of

photographs of

in pen-and-ink."

Hopper's

''

well be a direct response to this

from the work of others

apparent in his drawings after Regnault's Salome Fifer

refieci

"Fortuny

students:

1838-74] had a most artistic temperament.

Everything he did was interesting. Get a complete

Fortuny 's pictures.

may

a practice that

instructed

first-

With

a

Hoe

(PI.

63),

is

also

Manet's The

(Pis. 65, 66, 67), as

well

as from his studies alter sculpture by Michelangelo, Rodin, and Thorvald-

sen

(Pis. 61, 62).^Âť

style of drawing, in which he favored large shadowy masses and rubbed backgrounds, which emphasized the paper's texture,

Hopper's early

drawings by Millet, or even Seurat, which he might have known in reproduction (Pis. 70, 71). These are among Hopper's most successful

recalls

youthful efforts as a draughtsman, for he created an evocative atmosphere

by obscuring details with dusky shadows.

Among

Hopper's

earliest paintings are several in grisaille

(PI.

73);

he

had probably learned to work with this palette limited to shades of gray in illustration class. 'i All of the oil paintings from Hopper's student period are dark

and

thickly painted.

He worked

largely

from the

life

models

at the

school, sometimes depicting his fellow students at work (Fig. 20, Pis. 73, 76, searching and experi78). As with most young artists, this was a time of

mentation for Hopper, a time when

his

work yielded

to

a

variety

of

influences.

Chase's influence can be discerned in Hopper's Blond

an Easel

(PI. 76),

Woman

Before

woman

where the elegance with which Hopper depicts a is reminiscent of his teacher's. Hopper's

seen from behind as she paints

preliminary sketch of her long graceful neck and upswept hair as a document of his working process (PI. 77). The model is portrait, raising the possibility that she might be a member

celebrated portrait

mostly women.

class,

which Hopper remembered

as

still

exists

painting a of Chase's

being composed of


EDWARD HOPPER

Fig. 20.

Robert Henri's lifedrawing

Hopper

is

third

from

It is difficult to

mental,

class at the

New York

School of Art,

c.

1903-4.

Edward

right.

distinguish Henri's influence from Chase's in the experi-

imresolved

paintings of Hopper's student

period.

generous in his praise of Henri as a teacher, although not

Hopper was as

an

artist.

While Hopper did not learn much in the way of style from Henri, he did work in the dark tones recommended by his teacher to better render mood and atmosphere. More than teach a specific style, Henri gave his students a philosophy. Hopper wrote that Henri's "courage and energy" did much to "shape the comse of art in this country," and asserted that "no single figure in recent American art has been so instrumental in setting free the hidden forces that can make the its

character and

its

people."

"^

art of this

country a living expression of

Hopper claimed

"first-hand

knowledge" of

Henri's "enthusiasm and his power to energize students," stressing that

"few teachers of art have gotten as

much

out of their pupils, or given

them so great an initial impetus." Thus Hopjjer insisted that Henri had no influence on him "other than his general philosophy of art" which he explained as "art

is life, an expression of life, an expression of the artist and an interpretation of life." Another student in the Henri class, Rockwell Kent, later referred to Hopper as "the John Singer Sargent of the class" who could be expected to produce regularly "an obviously brilliant drawing." " Kent also praised ^'^

Henri's teaching methods, which he contrasted to those of Chase:

Henri's criticisms

They were

made no

pretense to such showmanship as Chase delighted

earnest and, at times, impassioned;

in.

and being almost invariably

19


personal— that

20

none but such

is,

might be working near

kind of personal consultation that Hopper depicted in his

just the

is

at

were mainly in the tones of quiet conversation. is

selves to listen— they

This

and wliile at work, and to hand or who had grouped them-

directed to one student at a time

as

painting Student and Teacher at the Easel, which in sents

Henri

all

likelihood repre-

(Pi. 78).

Henri's philosophy of art contributed to Hopper's development as an artist.

wrote:

In his statement in the catalogue of his retrospective in 1933, Hopper "My aim in painting has always been the most exact transcription

possible of

my

most intimate impressions of nature."

bles Henri's statement:

"The

Ihis closely resem-

great artist has not reproduced nature, but

has expressed by his extract the most choice sensation

him."

i*"

it

has produced

upon

"

After

Hopper

left

the Henri

class,

he worked out-of-doors for most of

the next decade, after which he began to experiment with composing

some

of his oils in the studio through a process of improvisation often loosely

based on memories and sketches, but in the end imaginary. The roots of his method of combining observation and imagination date back to his training

early

managed

to

with

Henri.

advice to his students:

High

In

"Low

art

art gives the feel of night.

former

is

most

his

original

conceptions.

convey an authentic sense of mood, which again

a copy."

^'^

Here one

is

is

just telling things, as, there

The

latter

reminded

is

Hopper

recalls Henri's

nearer reality

is

the night.

although the

of Hopper's subsequent fascina-

tion with the "feel of night" in his etchings Niglil on the El Train of 1918,

Night

in the

Park and Night Shadows, both of 1921 and in

Night Windoivs of 1928 and Nighthawks of 1942

(Pis.

his paintings

381, 386, Figs. 50,

21, 22).

Henri, like Chase, encouraged his students to study

artists of the

past—

particularly Manet, "Hals, Rembrandt, Goya, Degas, and Daumier. But he also encouraged them to read and to attend the theater. Accordnig to

Rockwell Kent, Henri students discussed such writers as Eugene Sue, "Verlaine, Baudelaire, and "the French Decadents in general"-discussions

which he dubbed "hi keeping with influence."

a slightly

morbid overtone

of Henri's

^^

Guy Pene du Bois, who served as monitor of Henri's class during most of the years Hopper attended, recalled that Henri believed he was "creating a class of men" who would have above all "a good strong conscience and the courage to live up to it." 20 The class which du Bois referred to as "an almost miraculously inspired closely knit unit" included himself. Hopper,

and Kent,

Henry

as well as Gifford Beal,

George Bellows, Homer

Boss,

Patrick

Bruce, Arthur E. Cederquist, Oliver N. Chaffee, Clarence K. Chat-

Glenn O. Coleman, Lawrence Dresser, Arnold Friedman, Julius Golz, Koopman, "Vachel Lindsay, Jr., Prosper Invernizzi, Edward Keefe, John Walter Tittle, and Clifton Sprinchorn, Speicher, Carl Walter Pach, Eugene Webb. Henri advised Vachel Lindsay to abandon painting for poetry and terton,

Clifton

Webb went

made names

into acting; but as for the

for themselves as artists.

rest,

a surprising

number


Fig. 21.

Edward Hopper, Aig/U

inches.

Philadelphia

Museum

in the Park, 1921. Etching, 7 x

of

Art:

Purchased,

Edward Hopper, Xiglil Shadows, 1921. Etching, 6% x S^g Whitney Museum of American .Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1048

8%

Fig. 22.

The Harrison

inches.

Fund.

Hopper

Kenneth Hayes

also liked

Miller, his other teacher at the

New

inYork School of Art, whom he later credited with having ^i From Miller, Hopper fluence on much of our contemporary painting." probably learned to focus on a consideration of the picture plane, of spatial organization, recession, and modeling forms "in the round." The

"a fine

latter feature

is

sober

Rubenesque female Hopper deabout 1903-5 (PI. 75). Rockwell Kent

reflected in the painterly

Nude Crawling into Bed of compared the three teachers with whom he and Hopper had studied, saying that Chase had taught them to use their eyes, Henri to enlist their picted in later

hearts, while Miller insisted that they use their heads:

Utterly disregardful of the emotional values which Henri was so insisteiu upon,

and contemptuous an Artist in a

tactile qualities of

not

as a

of both the surface realism

more precious sense than

far

and

virtuosity of Chase. Miller,

either, exacted a recognition of the

paint and of the elements of composition— line and mass-

means toward

the re-creation of

life

but

as the fulfillment of

an end,

aesthetic pleasure.22

Kent saw

Miller's

emphasis on the elements of

Henri's disregard of

style

as a

corrective

to

it.

During Hopper's years

at the

New York

School of Art, his talent was

first

recognized with prizes and scholarships, and eventually with the opportunity to teach the Saturday classes in lifedrawing, painting, sketching,

composition. 23 In 1904 his sketch of a

woman opening an

on the

New

Ait that appeared in the magazine. The Sketch Book

(Fig.

of several student works selected for reproduction in an article

York School 23).-^

of

Although

and

umbrella was one

his

name was

listed as

"Edward Hoppen,"

it

was

a

mark

of


his piogiess to

have his work included among those chosen

to represent the

22 school.

By 1906 Hopper, like so many Henri students, had begun to feel he should travel to Europe to see the works of the great masters firsthand. He had started to work part-time at C. C. Phillips & Company, a New York advertising agency founded by Coles Phillips who had attended the New York School of Art dinung 1905 (Fig. 24). But Hopper was restless with his work as an illustrator; indeed, he never found it satisfying. With his parents' help, Hopper left for Paris in October 1906 and did not return until the following August. Through the Baptist chtnch in Nyack, his parents arranged for him to live with a French family— a widowed mother and her two teenaged sons— at 48, rue de Lille, a building owned by the Eglise Evangelique Baptiste. Years later Hopper recalled: "I could just go a few steps and I'd see the Louvre across the river. From the corner of the Rues de Bac and Lille you could see Sacre-Coeia-. It hung ^j^t.,y!i«

like a great vision in the air

above the

city."

-•''

In a letter to his mother

written soon after his arrival, he expressed his delight with Paris:

Paris taste

is

a very graceful

after the

and beautiful

raw disorder of

planned with the purpose

city,

New

of forming

a

almost too formal and sweet to the

York.

Everything seems

have been

to

most harmonious whole which certainly

has been done.^u

It

was not only the physical beauty of Paris that captured

but also the Parisians: "Every street here

is

his imagination,

alive with all sorts

and condi-

Edward Hopper, drawing reproduced The Sketch Book, April 1904, p. 233.

Fig. 23.

in

Fig. 24.

Edward Hopper

Phillips

is

(right trorit) ji

seated across from him.

uoik

111

C

C. Phillips

i:

Company

in

190G. Coles


and always the

tion ot people, priests, nuns, students,

wide red pants." streets

and

cafes

-~

He

and by

23

hedonism:

their apparent

ing until night, not as they are in

New York

with that never-ending determina-

tion for the "long-green," but with a pleasure loving

does or where

it

EDWARD HOPPER

was fascinated by their constant presence in the

here in fact seem to live in the streets, which are alive from morn-

The people

what

soldiers with

little

it

goes, so that

crowd that doesn't care

has a good time.-*

it

Hopper repeatedly sketched the various Parisian types he observed and also produced a series of humorous watercolor caricatures (Pis. gi-g6). Hopper did not enroll in any school, but rather chose to visit exhibitions on his own and to paint out-of-doors around Paris. He saw the 1906 Salon d'Automne, which he described bad," although

"much more

During

four

his

first

months

mother

to his

its

in Paris

was cold and rainy,

it

As

as in his paintings of the stairway

so that he could

The dark

palette,

and the interior courtyard in his Lniilding matched the one he had favored as a the weather broke in the spring did Hop-

Lille (Pis. 82, 83), also

New

student in

at hoine." -^

a result, his initial city scenes

his surroundings.

were dark, matching his impression of

on the rue de

aims than the shows

liberal in

not paint out-of-doors as he preferred.

most part very

as "for the

York. Not until

per begin to respond to the famous Paris light. Although the weather may have affected his art, it did not dampen his imtnediate appreciation of the city's infinite

Paris as

the Isle

charms:

you must know,

du Cite

[sic]

is

a

most pain table

which was

the first Paris.

city,

on and around

particularly

Here the

streets are very old

and

narrow and many of the houses slope back from the top of the first story which gives them a most imposing and solid appearance. The wine shops and stores beneath are darkened or green contrasting strongly with the plaster or stone above.

On

and chimney pots

the roofs hundreds of pipes

giving the sky a most peculiar appearance. either of slate or zinc.

On

The

up into the air Mansard type and

stick

roofs are all

same blue-grey ]jLrmeates

a day that's overcast this

everything.^"

painting Pans Street, with

His

oil

fies

these

first

impressions of his

soon to capture his heart: "I

its

dramatic blue-gray tonality, exempli-

new environment

do not believe there

is

(PI.

I'he city was

81).

another

on earth

city

so beautiful as Paris nor another people with such an appreciation of the beautiful as the French." ^i As the weather warmed, he began to paint

out-of-doors (Fig. 25) along the Seine

and by

the boat to nearby Saint-Cloud or Charenton

During

this

late

May he

frequently took

(Pis. 104, 105, io6).32

time Hopper saw Patrick Henry Bruce, his former classmate

in the Henri class

who had

settled in Paris in early 1904.

He

later

acknowl-

edged that Bruce had introduced him to the work of the Impressionists in ^s But Hopper did not meet Paris, "especially Sisley, Renoir, and Pissarro." any of the avant-garde who were soon recollection, denied the

importance of

to influence Bruce,

and

his experience in Paris:

in a later

Fig. 25.

Edward Hopper

in I'aris, 1907.


Whom 24

did

I

meet? Nobody. I'd heard of Gertrude Stein, but

ber having heard of Picasso at

watch.

went

I

I

don't remem-

used to go to the cafes at night and

all. I

to the theatre a little. Paris

sit

and

had no great or immediate impact

on me. went

I

to Paris

when

what influenced by things

the pointillist period was just dying out.

Perhaps

it.

did in Paris— the

I

thought

I

was

thing

tlie

I

was some-

I

should do. So the

things— had decidedly a rather pointillist

first

Impressionist] method. But later

I

were more the kind of thing

now.^-i

do

I

it

got over that

and

later things

done

[i.e.,

in Paris

and palette of Hopper's student work and the few months abroad with those produced in 1907, it is evident that he learned much from the Impressionist paintings he saw in the galleries and salons of Paris. The first Paris paintings are small, tentative panels in dark, almost monochromatic tones that recall

Comparing

paintings

the technique

made during

his

first

the dark palette of his student days (Pis. 81, 82, 83). Moreover, the brushFig.

26.

Claude

Monet,

]Valerloo

Bridge,

Misty Moining, 1903. Oil on canvas, 25% x 391,4 inches. Philadelphia Museum of Art;

Bequest of Anne Thomson.

work

in these panels

is

rather smooth, nearly unbroken. Hopper's develop-

ing interest in the Impressionists

is

readily apparent in his ambitious paint-

ings of 1907— in Apres midi de ]uin,

and Le Louvre

et la

Seine

Tugboat

102, 97, 101).

(Pis.

at

Boulevard Saint Michel,

In the last two pictures his

brushstrokes have become noticeably shorter and broken. palette, in response to the color of spring in Paris,

Impressionists,

is

lightened in

all

And

no

less

his

once dark

than to the

three paintings with pastel colors remi-

and Monet. Hopper later recalled of Paris; "The light was different from anything I had known. The shadows were luminous, more reflected light. Even under the bridges there was a certain Imninosity." ^° This same response prompted the pinks, pale blues, and lavenders in Hopper's Pont du Carrousel and Gare d'Orleans, as well as the pinks, blues, and yellows in Apres midi de Juin (Pis. 99, 102). Another niscent of Renoir, Sisley,

light-hued painting of this period, Pont du Carrousel in the Fog

(PI.

100),

evokes Monet's series depicting London's Waterloo Bridge in

specifically

smoke, and sunlight, begun seven years earlier (Fig. 26). Hopper would have seen some of the Monets at Durand-Ruel's Paris fog, gray weather,

gallery,

where they had

Hopper at

later

first

been exhibited in the spring of 1904. as if embarrassed

denied the impact of Paris on his work,

having so eagerly absorbed the

letters

style

the

of

French

he wrote from

experiences he encountered there.

He

visited

many

But the

artists.

Paris clearly indicate his delight in the

new

art

and

exhibitions, attended

and even saw an automobile show held at the Grand Palais.^s likelihood, he also saw Albert Marquet's one-man exhibition at the

the theater,

In

all

Galerie Druet in February 1907.

views of places that followed;

Edward Hopper, Pont du Carrousel Fog, 1907 (see

PI. 100).

in

the

Among

the thirty-nine works were several

Hopper would choose

to paint in

the

months

that

including Marquet's Notre-Dame, Qiiai des Grands-Augustins,

Quai du Louvre, and Pont Neuf, temps de pluie. While not derivative of Marquet, Hopper's palette and prosaic approach sometimes seem to be closer to Marquet's canvases than to some of the Impressionists. In Hopper's

of

Le Pont des Arts

of 1907,

summarizing the human

he appears to have adopted Marquet's

style

with a quick brushstroke

103).

figure

(PI.


EDWARD HOPPER

Edward Hopper, Le Pare du 1907 (see Fig. 27.

The Park

at SaiiitCluud, I'aus.

Photograph by Daniel Abadie.

Certainly, Hopper's desire to repeatedly paint views of Paris corresponded to

Marquet's

own

practice.

Hopper toured

all

"wonderful place

cines, a

night with

at

lined with cafes where the boulevardiers."

^^

its

theatres

Demimondanes

[sic]

and coloured sit

with the

lights

.

.

.

hatted

silk

In the spring he frequented the Tuilleries garden con-

and traveled by boat

certs

admiring the elegant Boulevard des Capu-

of Paris,

to

Charenton and Saint-Cloud, where he painted

Hopper stairway and

out-of-doors (Pis. 104, 105, 106).^* In the large park at Saint-Cloud,

turned his attention to architectural structures, such as a

balustrade or an entrance gate and fence, as well as to the forest that other painters

had found

so attractive (PI. 423).^^ His less than accurate treatment

of the actual perspective of this space results from compositional adjust-

ments he

On

is

already allowing his eye to dictate (Fig. 27).

fiuie 27,

Hopper

for

left

Gallery, the Wallace Collection,

London, where he

"less beautiful ... in contrast to the

about

He

I

went

to

it

is

past belief in

visited

its

where

to visit the

as "the

is

nothing

.

I .

eat ." *"

and announced:

"a sad, gloomy place"

Paris— there

home

like it."

^1

He

first

Rijksmuseum, where he described

most wonderful thing of

his

I

reality— it almost amounts to deception."

have seen, •-

He

also

Haarlem, saw there the Frans Hals paintings, and met Robert Henri,

who was conducting

On

as

to

Amsterdam, however,

Rembrandt's Nightwatch

St.

could not forget the French cooking.

soon referred to London

"W^ho could help returning

the National

gay sparkle of Paris," and wrote

French restaurant on Soho

his discovery of "a little

cheaply and well. \'ou see

visited

and Westminster Abbey. He foimd London

August

21,

a

summer

school for

as

an

students.

illustrator for the

and Brussels and

Hopper sailed for New York. While Sherman &: Bryan advertising agency, he

nearly three additional weeks in Paris,

employed

American

1907, after very brief visits to Berlin

PI.

106).

25

Saint Cloud,


continued to paint. His first chance to show his work came in the group exhibition organized by several former students of Robert Henri to protest the conservative tendencies of the juries at the National Academy. The

26

"Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by Contemporary American Artists" (held at 43-45 West Forty-second Street from March 9-31, 1908) included

Arnold Friedman, Guy Pene du Bois, George Bellows, Rockwell Kent, and Glenn Coleman. Hopper exhibited three oils. The Louvre and Seine, The Bridge of the Arts, and The Park at Saint Cloud, and one drawing, Une Demmiondaine [sic] (Pis. 101, 103, 106). His decision to show only work done there.

in France

is

indicative of the importance he placed

Except for Hopper and his friend

du

Bois,

who

on

his experience

exhibited one scene

American surroundings. Although, as noted earlier, the reviewer for the New York American hailed the exhibition as "one step nearer to a national art," Hopper's work still of Paris, the other artists entered paintings of their

paid homage to the French capital." Edward Hopper. The

liiidge

of the Arts,

1907 (see PI. 103).

bition were not at

all

On

the whole, the results of the exhi-

encouraging to the

artists

who

participated, for the

show was ignored by the establishment and the majority of critics." Back in America, Hopper painted both what he saw around him and occasional remembered views of Europe. His paintings of 1908 included scenes of

France

New

York, such as

(Pis. 261, 120).

He

The El

Station, as well as reminiscences of

was surrounded by his American contemporaries;

his palette became darker as he distanced himself from the influence of Impressionism and reconsidered Henri's teaching. His Railroad Train (PI.

262) was perhaps inspired by his

own

daily trip

New

City-via train to Hoboken and ferry to his studio, but returned each evening to

Hopper went back to the Seine. He also made

Paris in

live

to

New

York

York. There he worked in

with his family in Nyack.

and resumed painting along Fontainebleau, Chartres, and Saint-

March

excursions to

from Nyack

1909,

reported to his mother that he had chanced upon "fellows" whom he knew from New York.ie Due to unusually

Germain-en-Laye.-*^ several

He

rainy weather, he cut short his second stay in Paris, and on July 31 sailed

home.

Hopper produced during this 1909 trip already manifest the solidity which would characterize his mature paintings; they also demonstrate a giowing interest in the dramatic possibilities of light and

The

paintings that

shadow and an awareness of the ability of light to convey a sense of immediacy and vitality (Pis. 113, 114, 115). The color schemes of Ecluse de la Monnaie or Bridge on the Seine are darker in tone, less involved with the high-key pastel colors he had employed in Paris during the spring of cast 1907 (Pis. 118, 117). He is fascinated by the play of sunlight and Edward Hopper, Summer PI. 12s).

Interior, igog (see

The deep shadows beneath the bridge and on the apartment buildings down the narrow street in the background dramatize the painted light in the Bridge on the Seine. The shadows are even more striking in shadows.

the restricted color scheme of Ecluse de

Hopper

la

Monnaie. In these paintings

abandoned the short choppy brushstrokes so notable in the 1907

Paris canvases.

One

of the most remarkable paintings of 1909,

Summer

Interior, suggests

Hopper's future interest in depicting a female nude alone in an interior


(PI. 123), as

Like

many

well as in exploring the possibilities of the interior space

mood

of the later paintings, the

The broad

contemplative.

here

itself.

introspective, calm,

is

areas of solid color— the tilted green floor

EDWARD HOPPER

and and

27

gold wall— set up a dynamic space emphatically accented by the abrupt

The woman's position on the floor, leaning against the bed, with her face cast downward, heightens that sense of emotional intensity wliich Hopper would develop in his mature work. Although Sum/ner Interior was probably painted in America, just after Hopper returned from Paris, both the space and theme clearly recall the paintings of Degas and other French Impressionists. diagonal thrust of the bed.

When Hopper made few weeks in

Madrid, where he saw wonderful old town." July

and

a Ijullfight,

May

1910, he stayed only a

a long-anticipated trip to to

his later

Spain— to

Toledo, which he described as "a

He

then spent another few weeks in Paris and on

New

York. Although he never again visited Europe,

^'

1910, sailed for

abroad in

make

memories remained vivid and the experience had

his

on

1,

his last trip

Paris, preferring to

a significant

impact

development.

Guy Pene du

Bois,

more than any other

writer, perceived the

depth of

Hopper's intellectual sophistication and recognized his close friend's knowledge and admiration of French culture: appeals to him.

He

"Something about the French

has studied their language and knows their literature to

an extent exceedingly rare among Americans.

has painted Paris with

^** Hopper was probably reading French literawent abroad, including the romantic novels of Victor

love in a series of pictures." ture before he

first

Hugo. His design

an edition of

for a cover or frontispiece to

Hugo's

La

3SS^

^^

Fig.

He

I

iVICTOR-l-lilCOl .^m iJM 28.

Edward Hopper,

illustration

Victor Hugo's Les Miserables,

for

1900-1909.

c.

Pen and ink on paper, 8I46 x 6i/i inches. Whitney Museum of .'\merican Art, New ^ork;

Bequest

of

Io.scphine

N.

Hopper.

70.1561.190

Miserables was most likely done as an assignment for his illustration class (Fig.

28).

Later, possibly just after his

trip to

first

France in 1906-7, he

painted an impressive series of watercolor illustrations for an unpublished

L'Annee Terrible,

edition of Hugo's

Commune,

originally published in

an interest in popular French

The and

for

May

period following his

of

Paris

last

impressionist."

and brought home from Paris

and

''O

(PI.

And

trip to

Hopper. In 122).

when

awfully crude and raw here get over Europe."

poems aboiu the Paris Hopper also developed

a copy of the

humor magazine

15, i909.'*8

aesthetic struggle for

reminiscences

of

1872 (Fig. 29).

illustration,

three issues of Les Maitres Humoristes,

Le Sourire

book

a

Einope was

New York

Years later he I

got back.

as late as 1962,

he

It

a

time of economic

he continued to paint admitted,

took

me

"It

seemed

ten years to

insisted, "I think

I'm

still

an

^i

1^70 L'ANNEE TERRIBLE

Hopjjer's second opportunity to publicly exhibit his work was the "Exhiljition of ert

Independent

Henri and held

Artists," organized primarily

at 29-31

Hopper showed only one

oil.

West

Thirty-fifth Street

by John Sloan and Rob-

from April

The Louvre, probably because

1-27, 1910.

of the entrance

fees— ten dollars for one picture and eighteen for two. His painting was not sold,

nor did

it

entries by 102 artists,

mention

were 344 including Henri, Sloan, Arthur B. Davies, George Bel-

receive special

in the press. In all, there

lows,

Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, Ernest Lawson, William Glackens,

Wall

Kuiiii, Julius Goiz,

Rockwell Kent, Guy Pene du Bois, and Glenn Cole-

Edward Hopper, illustration for poems L'Annee Terrible, 1906-7 or 1909. Watercolor and ink on paper, ig%B y 14% inches. Whitney Fig.

29.

Victor Hugo's book of

Museum

of

American

Art.

New

York: Be-

quest of Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1350


man.

28

popular exhibition was compared to the French Salon des Refuses

Tliis

because

included

it

shimned by the establishment,

artists

in this case, the

National Academy of Design. Participating in the show was important for

Hopper because it further identified him as one of the young, independent new movement started by Robert Henri.

artists in the

Among

the paintings in this exhibition repeatedly singled out by critics

was BlackweU's Island (now Roosevelt Island) by Julius Golz, Hopper's fellow student in the Henri class. Referred to as a "surprising picture and "

praised as an "admirable view,"

may have

it

the same subject the following year (PL

which has

a soft blue-gray Tonalist effect,

Hopper

inspired

12^).-'-

Museum

30.

Robert Henri, BlackweU's Island,

East River, 1900. Oil on canvas. 20 x inches. \Vhitney

New

York:

Museum

24%

of .American Art,

Lawrence H. Bloede! Request.

77.1.24

\'ork. at

the

mood

Manhattan

of a gray

day,

may

also

Hopper's knowledge of Henri's 1900 painting Blackivell's Island, East

to

and George Bellows' painting The Bridge, BlackweU's Island Hopper's stress on the feeling of the locale was in keeping with the lessons Henri had taught him. Hopper next participated in a group exhibition held at the MacDowell Club at 108 West Fifty-fifth Street from February 22-March 5, 1912. This was one of a series of jury-free exhibitions initially suggested Ijy Henri, River

Fig.

New

of Art in the spring of 1910. ^s BlackweU's Island,

successfully conveying the bleak

owe

attempt

perhaps indicates his interest in

an exhibition of Whistler's paintings and pastels held in Metropolitan

to

Hopper's BlackweU's Island,

(Fig. 30)

of igog. Certainly

The club allowed groups of eight to twelve artists to own shows for two-week periods. In the February-March

held at the club. organize their

1912 show. Bellows,

Davey, Rufus

J.

du

Bois,

Dryer, and

Hopper. Hopper showed

Leon KroU, Mountfort Coolidge, Randall

May Wilson

five oils:

Preston exhibited along with

Valley of the Seine

and

British Steamer,

both of 1908; The Wine Shop (Le Bistro) and Riverboat of 1909; and the rgii painting, Sailing

(Pis.

120, 122, 113, 125).

dominantly Yrench— Riverboat was painted in Seine and

Only

Le

Bistro were painted in

Sailing, executed the previous

America

Thus,

his selection

Paris,

while

was

pre-

Valley 0/ the

as reminiscences of France.

summer, was American

in theme.

None

of the pictures sold.

Hopper spent the summer of 1912 in Gloucester, Massachusetts, painting with Leon Kroll, a former student at the Art Students League and the more conservative National Academy. Hopper's paintings that summer focused on the pictmesque waterfront and the rocky shore of Gloucester.

In the painting Scjuayn Light, a lighthouse on Cape (PI.

128),

he was largely concerned with rendering

Ann

near

solid

Annisquam

forms with em-

phatic lights and shadows. Hopper's handling of light as a means to achieve

drama (Pis.

is

126,

with the

Harbor and Tall Masts, Gloucester 127). In these Gloucester scenes. Hopper's boyhood enchantment nautical world he had known along the Hudson River reasserted also apparent in Gloucester

itself.

Edward Hopper, BlackweU's (see PI. 124).

Island,

1911

The this

following January

Hopper again showed

at the

time with Kroll, Henri, Bellows, and eight other

MacDowell Club, artists.

Again, too,

he exhibited an example of his most recent work and one of his Paris pictures— Squam Light and La Berge, neither of which sold.


In February 1913 Hopper showed one national

Show

Exhibition of

(PI.

125).

Modern

He had been

which the personal note

the avant-garde

European

is

known

Armory

the

as

EDWARD HOPPER

29

invited to participate by the Domestic Exhi-

bition Committee, which requested of in

painting, Sailing, in the "Inter-

oil

familiarly

Art,"

the artists that they enter "works

all

distinctly sounded."

art attracted

by the American participants seemed painting sold for two himdred and

^*

Despite the fact that

tremendous attention and the works exciting in comparison, Hopper's

less

fifty dollars.'''

This was

painting, and, therefore, of great significance. But

it

his

of a

first sale

did not generate the

and throughout the next decade Hopper continued to able to sell only his illustrations and prints— and even

sale of other works,

struggle financially,

then at very modest prices.

December 1913 he moved his New York studio from 53 East Fiftyninth Street to 3 Washington Square North where, gradually renting additional space as his financial situation permitted and his subsequent marriage necessitated, he would remain for the rest of his life. Since 1912, along with producing commercial advertisements, he had been illustrating for several peIn

riodicuh—Sunday Magazine, The Metropolitan Magazine, Everybody's, and System, the Magazine of Business (Fig. 31). tor exasperating: "Partly

more than

through choice,

three days a week.

I

to

I

didn't often

I

And

do what they wanted."

I >''

as

was never willing

my own

kept some time to do

trating was a depressing experience.

cause

He found working

didn't get very

an

illustra-

Fig. 31. Edward Hopper. "I.iving up to your employment system," printed illustration

for System, July 1913. p. 23.

to hire out

work.

good

Illus-

Hopper's frustration

prices be-

having

at

support himself in this way, as well as his love of everything French, are

revealed in a

humorous

sign he made, written in French, captioned

"Hopper

Maison Fondee 1882" ("House of Hopper, founded 1882," the year of his birth):

Maison

E.

Hopper. Objects of

ings, courses in painting,

and

art

drawing and

utility.

Oil painting, engravings, etch-

literature, repairing of electric

and windows, removal and transportation of trunks, guide

penter, laundry, hair dresser, fireman, transportation of trees riage

and banquet rooms,

rapid cures for the

duced

prices for

in spirit

Maison

E.

Hopper exhibited

Club. In the

first,

such

3

request.

Washington Square

two more group shows

from January 22

and

as flightiness. frivolity

Hopper,

in

and

flowers,

mar-

encyclopedia of art and science, mechanic,

lectures,

widows and orphans. Samples on

istered trademark.

In 1914

ill

I

lamps

to the country, car-

to

February

1,

self-esteem. lie-

Demand

the reg-

(Fig. 32).

at the

he had two

MacDowell

oils,

Glouces-

Harbor and The Bridge (PI. 126). In the second, from April 30 to May 17, Hopper chose to return to work that he had produced in Paris: On The Qiiai, Street in Paris, The Railroad, The Port, and Land of Fog (Pis. 86, 89). Walter Tittle, his neighbor at this time and a former classmate, later recalled that while Hopper was "groping to find himself his principal product consisted of occasional caricatures in a style smacking of both Degas and ter

.

.

.

Forain, and drawing from memories of his beloved Paris."

Hopper spent

the

summer

^'''

of 1914 painting in Ogunquit, Maine,

which

he liked well enough to return to the next summer. His pictures from

Edward Hopper, 1909 (see

PI. 89).

Tlie

Railroad,

1906-7 or


30

MAISON E HOPPER OB JETS D^RT ET

reintwe el de

<a.

I

D'UTILITE

K^»ile,draviires,eaojc fortes, coMrs(Je p«inture,<leciessem,

K(.er<ii-ure,T«|o«H'a.iion

des Idnipos ©lectriques et des fenetres^

ctarpeniier, tlcvncliiS5eiir,coiffeuf7po>n'pier,-|:j^ns-poH;AHoTt

d'drbhes ei- dft fleurs, Jailed dewoces e-t de tdh,9uets,7ectures, encycIopsJie cl'afteto{escience,7n€cciMicieK,^eri.5on»-eif((ie I'Airujur

propr^. Priy rec^uifs ji>ouf les veui/es eiksot-pliQlmeh

Ech<2nii/loK^

szw c/ofn<inde ,Fxicrez

Mivisori'ET-lopper Edward Hopper,

Fig. 32.

.Mflison £.

Hoppf I,

la. Tiieir</ve

de ^nbr/'fue

3

Pl^cc WAshiMptorv

c.

1913-19. Ink

on paper,

J 5

7%

x

inches.

Private collection.

Ogunquit concentrate on the rocky terrain and coastline, and some ot the local architecture (Pis. 131-135)- That autumn of 1914, from October 1031, he was able to exhibit Road in Maine at the Montross Gallery in its "Opening Exhibition" of the season (PI. 131). Hopper's Road in Maine, which captures the solitude of the empty open road enlivened only by sunlight and strongly cast shadows, is an early example of an important

theme

of his

maturity— the open road confronted by the

Several e\ents of significance for

traveler.

Hopper occurred during

1915.

First,

worked his friend Martin Lewis, an Australian artist who, in commercial art and illustration, had begun to etch. He provided Hopper with technical advice on etching and encouraged him to try the medium. like

ner Saloon, 1913

(see PI. 233).

also

ing process (Fig. 33).

but he would soon master the etchsecond important event took place in February

1915,

participated in a group show at the

Hopper's Edward Hopper, Seic York Corner

Hopper,

or Cor-

initial efforts

were

The when Hopper again

tentative,

MacDowell

work was singled out by the critics for discussion. The two paintings he exhibited were the monumental Soir Bleu of about 1914, and a much smaller canvas, ^'ew York Corner, of 1913 (Pis. 378, Club: for the

first

233). Soir Bleu,

time, his

one of the largest canvases he ever painted, represented

a

same time, revealed his conAlthough xenophobic matter. subject tinuing invohement with French

major commitment

for

Hopper and,

at the

an "ambitious fantasy," praising instead the small New York scene. New York Corner, Soir Bleu reflects Hopper's sentimental recollections of a French world of intrigue and romance. 5« True, he had critics

dismissed

it

as only

an observer on the periphery, but it had captured his imagination and left a lasting impression. Indeed, Hopper's French experience provided some of the liveliest and most exotic moments of his only

known

this

memory. In May

world

as

of 1907 he

had written

to his

mother

of the "carnival" of


Mi-Careme, which he explained was "one of the important

of the

fetes

EDWARD HOPPER

31

year":

Everyone goes

to the

"Grand Boulevards" and

lets

himself loose.

picture these in costume, they are not for the most part

with a big nose, or two

girls,

with bare necks and short

of the queens of the halles (markets)

awkward

pretty but look

is

also

which shows ghastly white

This

a.

.

skirts.

.

.

.

.

a

not

clown

The parade

.

.

Do

.

perhaps

.

.

Some

and crowns, particularly

as

are the

neck too thin or a painted face

in the sunlight. 59

explain the eerie look of the standing

letter helps

.

one of the events.

in their silk dresses

broad sun displays their defectsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; perhaps

.

woman

with her

painted face and long thin neck, the presence of the clown, and the scant attire

worn by

left of Soil-

the

women. Hopper

titled his sketch for the

man on

the far

Bleu, "tin maqiiereau" (French slang for procurer), stiggesting

that the ^v'oman with the heavily painted face

prospective clients of the city along

people met to

(PI. 379).

The

is

a prostitute

cafe appears to be located

tlie fortifications,

approaching

on the

outskirts

the old ramparts encircling Paris

where

socialize.

In representing a galante, a pictorial

Hopper was working in the tradition of genre invented by Watteau in the eighteenth fete,

which explores the psychological

subtleties of

human

the fete

'Fig.

century,

natiue withotit

34.

.Antoine Watteau,

Gilles,

c.

1721.

Oil on canvas, 72 v 59 inches. Muscc du

Louvre. Paris.

re-

verting to an overt story. Hopper's clown, dressed in white, recalls Watteau's Gilles, also silhouetted against a

dramatic blue sky

(Fig. 34).

The

strange

Edward Hopper.

Soil

Bleu,

1914

(see

PI.

378).

Fig.

33.

Edward Hopper

in

his

New

York studio. N'ovember

Photograph by Sidney Waintrob, Budd Studio.

20.

19,^5.


woman 32

with the painted

however, suggests

face,

a

more

recent inspirationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

the ghastly colored face of Toulouse-Lautrec's lady in the right foreground

At the Moulin Rouge of 1892

of

(Fig. 35).

Moreover, the

man on

the far

right of Hopper's composition sits in stiff profile not unlike the central seated figure in the Lautrec. Yet for all his borrowings, Hopper created a scene that is conceptually his own. None of the seven figures looks at any other; each one

is

aloof, lost in a

world of personal thoughts. These are

the kinds of figures that populate the pictures of Hopper's maturity. as

if

Hopper endows his painted characters with his

own

It is

introspective

nature.

Despite the negative critical reaction to Soir Bleu,

Hopper remained

in-

But he never again exhibited Soir his etchings and even gave four subjects for Bleu. He chose many French prints French titles: Les Poilus and La Barriere, both of 1915-18, Les Deux Pigeons of 1920, and Aux Fortifications of 1923 (Figs. 36, 4, 1). Other prints

volved with French imagery

include subject matter that Street Fig. 35.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. At the 1892. Oil on canvas. 48% x

Moulin Rouge, 55I4 inches.

The An

Institute of Chicago;

Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection.

m

(PI.

is

378).

clearly French:

Paris, and Somewhere in France,

all

Evening, The Seine, Cafe, of 1915-18,

and Train and

Bathers of 1920.

When Hopper

next exhibited at the MacDowell Club in

he showed American

Village of 1912,

Ainerican scenes, as

Dories of 1914-three

oils

criticism of Soir Bleu.

This time

of

his

November

1915,

Rocks and Houses of 1914, and The if

in

response to the

work was ignored by

the reviewers.

Nonetheless, the three paintings were important steps in the evolution of

^,/

Fig. 36.

of

":#->'^

Edward Hopper, Les

American

Art,

New

Poilus, 1915-18. Etching,

cfi/^s

x loV, inches.

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1069

Whitney Museum


a

Hopper's mature

American

style.

Village, the earliest of the three,

window ledge, 130). Hopper would

of a city street seen from high above, over a

forms the foreground of the painting

(PI.

high, oblique vantage point that renders the significant even

Night Shadows

more

(Fig. 22).

The

human

several years later

effectively

a view

is

which

33

use this

figures small

and

in

etching

his

EDWARD HOPPER

itself

1921

in-

blue-gray tonality of American Village, like

that in Hopper's Blackwell's Island, creates a somber, unfriendly

depressing glimpse at small-town America

(PI.

moodâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

245). This, in fact,

how

is

Hopper felt about his native Nyack, which he considered cloistered, gossipy, and provincial. Years later Hopper would develop such city views into powerfully evocative and even more intensely personal works. Here, however, his roots in the tradition of Robert Henri and The Eight are still quite evident.

The experimental ent when American

nature of these years of development becomes appar-

J'lllage is compared with The Dories, Ogunquit, and Rocks and Houses, Ogunquit, painted only two years later in Ogunquit (Pis. 133, 132). Both of these canvases are full of light; the somber tonality seen two years earlier has vanished. But in Rocks and Houses, Ogunquit,

the horizontal composition

is

simple and straightforwardâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; rocks,

England wooden houses rendered however,

is

in subtle tones.

strikingly open, asymmetrical,

and

filled

The

New

trees.

Dories, Ogunquit,

with intense light and

strong color, most notably the deep blue of the water and the softer blues

The

of the sky.

rocks are highlighted with

warm orange

tones, while the

moons on the water. The composition drawn into the painting's depth, through

dories stand out like white crescent is

arranged so that the viewer

the rocky

cliffs

to the strip of

is

land highlighted in the distance. Hopper's

achievements here would later be developed in his sunny canvases of

on Cape Cod. About this time, Hopper began to give art instruction in Nyack, perhaps in the hope of doing less illustration, but certainly to earn more income. The classes were held in his family's house on Saturdays, and his mother provided the young pupils with lemonade and cookies. First he had the students sketch with charcoal on large sheets of paper from plaster casts of antique sculpture, then his mother posed for them, seated in a chair; eventually they worked in oil (Fig. 37). One of his former students, then nautical scenes

about age eleven, recalled her disappointment when Hopper, did develop silly to

who

never

patience for children, told her mother that she was too

much

continue.^

In Feljruary

igif),

eight of Hopper's Paris watercolor caricatures were

reproduced on a page in the magazine Arts and Decoration.^^ In the

magazine to feature his work, he permitted himself caricatures that he

had made

to

in Paris, again indicating the

placed on that aspect of his career

(Pis.

first

be represented by

importance he

91-96).

For the summer of 1916 Hopper went to Monhegan Island, Maine, "a

way out

small island quite a

to sea,"

where Henri, Kent, Bellows, and

Golz had also painted. ''s Monhegan, with ing headlands, eddies,

its

the

forest

"its

rock-bound shores,

thundering surf with gleaming

and

its

crests

its

tower-

and emerald

flowering meadowlands," completely captivated

Fig.

37. Cast of

classes

New

head used by Hopper

held in his mother's

York.

home

in

for

Nyack,


Hopper. 63 Working out-of-doors, he painted the ishmd's extraordinary rugged coastline composed of high bluffs dropping off dramatically into

34

the turbulent sea (Pis. 145-150).

He

Blackhead, his favorite view on the island; land. Whitehead, which stretched out to sea feet,

fifty

panorama

affording a stunning

Monhegan, he returned to escape the

tedium of

weather

is

paint a

little,

to

too."

140-143).

(Pis.

work. "Maine

summerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; that's why

Some

^^

panels of

he worked from its twin headat a height of one hundred and Delighted with

spend the next several summers there, no doubt

his illustration

so fine in the

wood

painted a series of small

I

is

come up here

of the paintings he

and the rest and to

so beautiful to

produced on Monhegan

Island approach abstraction, although in fact they were interpretations of

forms around him

natural

shadow

His uneasiness about producing such abstract

(Pis.

145,

152).

withheld from public view, and or

Summer

as

in

light

and pic-

explain his reluctance to exhibit these works, most of which he

may

tures

Edward Hopper, Yonkers

seen

the remarkably solid,

in part responsible for Alfred Barr's in-

is

correct conclusion that "after a mediocre summer's work in 1915 he began Street,

to devote

1916 (see PI. 234).

most of

his time to pot boiling illustration."

^^

During February 1917 Hopper showed three paintings at the MacDowell among them Summer Street, one of his earliest improvised canvases (PI. 234). Summer Street, which Hopper painted from memory in his

Club,

studio,

was

Yonkers after the

later retitled

and experimental painting with scheme and strong blue shadows,

ment and

The

life, if

in the "First

Independent

it.

An

unusual

bright, almost Post-Impressionist color

a it

is

thickly

pigmented and

full of

mo\e-

not yet completely successful.

following spring.

Ogunquit

city that inspired

Artists

Hopper entered American J'illage and Sea Annual Exhibition" at the American Society

(Pis.

couragement and made no

130, sales.

He

135).

received

little

at

of

attention or en-

His commercial work, however, was

fiour-

ishing; he was now illustrating regularly for the Farmer's Wife and Country Gentleman, and producing covers for the Wells Fargo Messenger and The

Dry Dock Dial, the employee magazine In 1918

Hopper exhibited only

of a shipbuilding

his etchings,

company.

once in a show with the

Chicago Society of Etchers, and again in a group show at the MacDowell Club. That October he won his first award since art school in a wartime poster competition conducted by the United States Shipping Board. His

Smash the Hun, won the first contest of fourteen hundred entries

four-color poster, entitled

hundred

dollars in a

prize of (PI.

155).

three

The

opposing the "German commercial "American posters, prompting design contestants to art idea" and urged the usually taciturn Hopper to write a long letter stating his opinion and contest officials

had gone on record

as

'

revealing his knowledge of poster design:

Edward Hopper, American

I'illuge,

1912 (see

PI. 130).

Almost every poster maker

in .America has been iiiHuenced by the

work

ol the

The best German work carries at a distance, has large modern Germans. design, few tones and simple and harmonious color. Poster technic in Germany .

.

.

has been carried to a perfection that has been attained in no other country, but it

has been

made

of rather

more importance than

idea. 86


Praising the English,

monochrome

in

whom

he said "made good use of black and white or

work," he also indicated his

their

French posters, which he described

Winning

own

and

as full of feeling, "fire

EDWARD HOPPER

35

preference for vivacity."

8"

award brought Hopper more publicity and attention than

this

One newspaper identified him as a "Well Known Ilhim out of the obscurity which he had long endured and placing him in the limelight. Hopper, who had managed to touch

he had ever known. lustrator," taking at last

the very nerve of a nation at war with his emphatic poster design, described his intentions in to

making

the poster. In so doing, he revealed the extent

which he already understood the potential of

a figure's posture, place-

ment, and other formal elements to convey meaning, aspects of

would become

significant in his

In addition to this poster

Refugees, for the American

which

style

mature work.ÂŽ^

Hopper also made others, including With the Red Cross, and various movie posters. Soon,

however, he began to focus his attention on his etchings, which had begun

through numerous juried exhibitions and

to find acceptance

January of 1920 Hopper,

In

one-man show

at

sales.

the age of thirty-seven, finally

had his 147 West

Whitney Studio Club at begun two years earlier by the sculptor Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, was open for membership to any serious artist introduced by another member. Among the artists associated with the club in its early days were du Bois, Coleman, Sloan, Davies, Henri, Glackens, Sheeler, Davis, and Hopper. Evidently it was Hopper's friend du Bois, rather than Juliana Force, the club's director, who arranged first

Fourth

The

Street.

Hopper's

of paintingsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; at the

club, officially

exhibition."'-'

Du

Bois later recalled that the show "was, curiously

enough, composed entirely of pictures painted in Paris." paintings exhibited,

oil

eleven were

painted

in

"<>

Of the

and the remainder dining the more recent summers spent

earlier

chusetts or

Maine

Hopper now

listed

(Pis.

101,

102,

106,

103,

108,

sixteen

France over ten years

111,

122,

the French titles in the catalogue,

128,

rather

in

Massa-

131,

132).

than the

English translations he had used for three of the same paintings in 1908.

That he chose cance he

still

exhibition,

to exhibit primarily his

French works indicates the

signifi-

attached to these pictures and his stay in Paris. During the

concurrent one of drawings and etchings by his former

a

teacher Kenneth Hayes Miller was held in an adjacent space at the club.

Neither the

artist's

New

their

work

The began

work attracted many reviewers, although the reviewer

York Tribune did write: "Both is

well worth a visit."

^1

None

artists

for

express unusual talent and

of Hopper's paintings sold.

response to Hopper's etchings, however, was more positive, and he to

show them with increasing

success,

both financially and

critically.

His etching Evening iVind, which he exhibited that year in Los Angeles

and in New York at the National Academy of Design, prompted one to remark that Hopper had "a genius for finding beauty in ugliness" 38).''^

In 1923 he

won awards

more

at the

Los Angeles Coimty

Etching forced Hopper to deal with compositional

fresh intensity, enabling

him

(Fig.

for his etching East Side Interior of 1922 at

both the Art Institute of Chicago and (Fig, 39).

critic

Museum

issues

with a

to further refine his ideas into stronger

and

consistent designs.'^ His experience producing etchings in the studio

Edward Hopper, PI. 155).

Siiiasli

the

Hun,

1918 (see


Edward Hopper, East Side Interior, 1922. Etching, 13% x 18 Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1020. Fig. 39.

fig. 38.

inches.

Edward Hopper. Evening Wind, 1921. Etching, 6% x 8% Whitney Musemn of American Art. New \ork; Hcqucst of

inches.

Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1022

encouraged him to improvise both subject and compo,sition-a creative process that he carried over into his

oils.

1923, while in Gloucester, Hopper began to paint watercolors of the local landscape and architecture. Except for illustrations

summer

In the

and

caricatures of

of

Frenchmen,

this

was his

first

use of the

medium

since art

He may have been encouraged to experiment by his friend Jo who was already exhibiting her own watercolors, some painted

school days.

Nivison,

Provincetown the previous summer.''^ Both students of Henri and Miller, they first met at the art school, where Henri had painted

out-of-doors

in

a portrait of Jo in January 1906, entitled

The Art Student

(Fig.

40).

By

chance. Hopper and Jo saw each other during summers in Ogunquit and on Monhegan Island. They were included in the same group exhibition in

December 1922 at the Belmaison Gallery at John Wanamaker's in New York, and both spent the following summer in Gloucester where they went on sketching trips together. Although of contrasting personalities, Jo and Hopper shared many interests: both were well-read, had traveled in Europe, loved the theater, poetry, and were romantic. Years later, Jo reminisced that Hopper once "started quoting Verlaine on Bass Rock in Gloucester" and

that she surprised

him by continuing

The Brooklyn Museum

the

poem when he stopped."

invited Jo to exhibit six of her watercolors in a

group exhibition of American and European artists to be held in She recalled: "I got over there and they liked the stuff and

late 1923. I

started

They knew writing and talking about Edward Hopper, my neighbor. him as an etcher, init they didn't know he did watercolors." Jo suggested .

that

Hopper "bring some

.

of his things over for the show."

.

''ÂŤ

Six of his

hung next to back when the time

watercolors were accepted for the exhibition, where they hers.

came

She also remembered that he "carried .

.

.

didn't have

me

my

stuff

hauling them through the subway, what a sorry


have made."

sight I'd

'^~

generous gesture in bringing Hopper to the

Jo's

attention of the Brooklyn

Museum

proved to be significant

ignored her work, they raved about

critics

37

In December the Brooklyn

purchased The Mansard Roof for one hundred dollarsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Hopper's

Museum first sale

his.

EDWARD HOPPER

while the

for,

of a painting since 1913 (PI. 197).

Hopper

remarked of The Mansard Roof that he had painted it in summer of 1923 "in the residential district where the

later

Gloucester during the

...

old sea captains had their houses.

interested

It

me

because of the

and windows, the Mansard roof, which has always intersat out in the street ... it was very windy. ... I think it's one of my good watercolors of the early period." '* This watercolor, tliinh painted, is full of light and loosely executed, but with careful control of the medium. Hopper liked the complex shapes of the Victorian structure and painted a corner view so as to take in more of the angular protu-

variety of roofs

ested me. ...

I

That same summer he had also painted the other five works in the Brooklyn exhibition: Deck of a Beam Trawler, House With a Bay IVindou', Beam Trawler Seal, Shacks at Lanesville, and Italian Qitarter, Gloucester. Critic Royal Cortissoz exclaimed in the New York Tribune that

berances.

he found Hopper's watercolors "exhilarating" and that "we rejoice that he is using the medium." '" Helen Appleton Read wrote in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle that Hopper's watercolors suggested those of Winslow

Homer

and she praised them for their "vitality and force and directness" and as an example of "what can be done with the homeliest subject if only one possesses the seeing eye."

Encoinaged by

his recent success.

On

optimism.

acteristic

s"

July

g,

Hopper entered

a period of unchar-

1924, at the Eglise Evangelique

on West

Sixteenth Street, shortly before his forty-second birthday, he and Jo were

married.

Guy Pene du

Bois,

who was

the best

man,

visited the

Hoppers

in

Gloucester, where they went for the summer, although Jo had wanted to go to Cape Cod. Hopper produced more watercolors over the summer and in that fall the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery gave him his second one-man

showâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; his and

fi\e

well.

his

first

in a

commercial

gallery. All eleven watercolors

additional ones were sold.

The

exhibition was a critical success as

Henry McBride pronounced Hopper

own enthusiasm

"interesting"

for the artist's watercolors

and declared ^^

The more

George Bellows purchased two of the watercolors. to be the turning point in Hopper's

This exhibition proved he was

finally able to cease

entirely to painting.

he had become

He had

working

as

an

already given

illustrator

up etching

preoccupied with watercolor.

that

was "considerable," while

the Tinges critic spoke of "a striking group of watercolors." cessful

he exhibited

Now

suc-

career, for

and devote himself a year earlier,

his

when

renewed sense of

him to work more frequently more ambitious canvases and working toward what would become his mature style. In 1923, he had begun to attend evening sketch classes held at the Whitney Studio Club, which had moved to larger quarters at 10 West confidence, after years of struggle, encouraged in oil, tackling

Eighth Street. For the modest fee of twenty-five cents he could sketch from the

life

model j^rovided

(Pis.

156, 157).

Soon

after their marriage,

however.

Fig.

40.

Robert

Henri,

The Art Student

{Miss Josephine Nivison), 1906. Oil on canvas, 77I4 X 38I4 inches. Milwaukee Art Center Collection.


38

Jo insisted that she alone should pose for him, and for the rest of his life she modeled for all of his female figures. During the 1920s Hopper's mature painting style began to crystallize, perhaps

experience as an etcher.

as a result of his

his plates in his studio,

rather than

work

When Hopper

etched

he had to rely on memory or on sketches. Thus,

directly in front of his subject as he did in the early oils,

he giadually learned to invent his subject matter and composition in the studioâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; an etching such as 41).

His mature

oils

Monhegan Boat was based on

his recollection (Fig.

eventually became presentations of imagined images or

were based on simple sketches he made on location and synthesized in studio. .As his

mature

style

his

emerged, Hopper developed several compositional

formats which he frequently used throughout his career. These include a

simple frontal view parallel with the picture plane, a scene viewed at an angle from above, and a subject placed on an oblique diagonal axis cutting into the picture's depth.

window both

By

this time,

Hopper had experimented with views and out

an exterior space. The

through

a

window

served as both a romantic symbol of the expansive world beyond

and

a Isarrier

into an interior

to

separating the viewer-voyeur from the

drama

\vithin.

In his mature style can be seen the remarkable results of Hopper's youthful

experiments with

light.

Through

the skillful manipulation of light,

shadow, and tone, he could animate an entire composition.

and

strong,

and only occasionally would he

The

resort to the

light

is

clear

more obviously

evocative Tonalist effect of his early paintings like BlackiceU's Island or Atjierican Village (Pis. 124, 130).

Some

of Hopper's transitional paintings, such as Park Entrance of about

1918-20, which he exhibited in 1921 at the the stages in his

development of

sketchy and unresolved but, like

7x9

Edward Hopper, Monhegan Boat, 1919. Etching, Whitney Museum of .American ."Vrt, New York; Bequest Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1044 Fig. 41.

inches.

of

Fig. 42.

a

mattne

Summer

Whitney Studio Club, style.

Edward Hopper, House on

8 X 10 inches. Philadelphia

son Fund.

Park Entrance

Street of 1916,

.Museum

a Hill or

it

reveal is

still

was improvised

The Buggy. Etching, The Harri-

of Art: Purchased,


in the studio (PL 235).

Hopper

said that Park Entrance did not represent

any particular place;*- the tiny figures remain quite generalized,

Summer Hopper

New

and the 1913 painting

Street

York Corner

(Pis.

often excluded figures entirely from his landscapes.

in his mature work, the figures are larger

subdued lighting of Park Entrance

still

as

234,

When

39

233).

present

and given more emphasis. The

recalls the tonal effects of 1912, as

if

he wished to convey the feeling of twilight. Each of these three paintings

is

viewed from above, a vantage point Hopper would use

his

EDWARD HOPPER

in

less

and

less in

mature work.

In his East River of about 1920-23, pletely frontal composition,

sunrise to create at CJiarcnlon,

his

drama (PL

and

Hopper

reverted to a simpler, com-

successfully relied

236).

He had

on the intense

painted in France in 1907, anci would later

matiue paintings

(Pis. 303, 304, 383).

He

later

make

comment from one

use of

it

in

remarked of the impro-

vised East River scene that he thought the water was "pretty

extravagant

light at

used a similar format in Canal

good"â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an

so self-critical. '^^

Moonlight Interior of 1921-23 is 1921 etching Evening Wind (PL 380,

Edward Hopper, Moonlight

Interior, 1921-

23 (see PI. 380).

mood and composition to his 38). The scene is an intimate one,

close in Fig.

making the viewer assume the role of voyeur looking in at the lone nude woman, as the wind suggestively disturbs the curtain at the window. Hopper has effectively used a limited palette of cool blue and green tones to convey the mood. We glimpse not only the woman unaware, but, through the window, a gabled house in the moonlight, setting up a tension between interior and exterior. Here Hopper has arrived at a theme he would continue to explore in his maturity. Hopper exploited the interior-exterior device in a different way in Apartnient Houses of 1923, where a woman at work is seen from above through a window, with the building next door visible in the congested (PL

city

159).

His interesting rendition of this domestic interior again

makes the spectator snoop, pulled in by the unusual angular perspective. In New York Pavements of about 1924, Hopper not only used a view from above, but

also dramatically

the baby carriage (PL 237). this

cropped the figure of the nurse pushing

He had

recently tried out separate aspects of

kind of cropped, angular composition in his 1920 etching House on a

Hill and in Night Shadows of 1921 (Figs. 42, 22). In these etchings, as well as in

New

ful, for

York Pavements, Hopper's understanding of Degas proved helptaught him important compositional devicesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; cropping, emphatic

it

diagonals,

and unusual angles

of vision.

It is

no small coincidence

him with an elaborate book on Degas in I924.*'' With House by the Railroad of 1925, Hopper arrived

that Jo

presented

at

his

artistic

maturity, having resolved a variety of influences and experiments into the

Edward Hopper, New

creation of a personal statement (PL 264). In a skillfully constructed compo-

(see PI. 237).

sition, a

mansard-roofed Victorian house stands starkly alone against the

cutting edge of railroad tracks. This conception evolved from his

1920

etching American Landscape, although in the earlier work details such as

and cows distracted from the drama of the solitary house (Fig. 43). By contrast, the starkness of the House by the Railroad is unmitigated by

trees

the appearance of secondary elements.

And now

the once horizontal line

Yorli

Pavements, 1924


Fig. 43.

Edward Hopper, American Landscape,

1920. Etching, is'-Jie x

Whitney Museum

[iches.

'^'/j

ot

American

New

.\n.

York; Bequest ot

Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1005

of the tracks cuts

inward on

more powerful image, one solitary

moment ities.

house seems to

of the

recall

enduring symbols

American

in

and

art.

a

This

America's more innocent pastâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; a simpler

that has been left behind by

Hopper

to create a deeper space

a diagonal

modern urban

and

life

its

complex-

has presented us with a glimpse back in time, as though seen

by chance while passing through on the way to some other place. House by the Railroad seems to embody the very character of America's rootless society.

time forward, few significant changes occurred in Hopper's art or in his life. He and Jo continued to live at 3 Washington Square North,

From

this

leaving the city every

summer

they spent most of their

for the

summers

New

in South

England coast. From 1930 on, Truro on Cape Cod, where they

built a house in 1934.

Hopper's

art, too,

Hence, unlike most early, style.

middle, and

remained artists.

relatively

unchanged

Hopper's work cannot

late periods, or even

for the rest of his life. easily

more complex

Rather, by the mid-igaos, after he achieved his

formal elements of Hopper's vocabulary altered very

1925 (see PI. 264).

the

Railroad.

variations

an

mature

little.

style,

on the

Moreover, the

Hopper explored in his subsequent paintings were almost all on themes which had fascinated him before-as a child, a student,

subjects that

Edward Hopper, House by

be divided into

divisions based

illustrator,

and

a struggling artist.


THEMES Given the remarkable consistency subject matter,

it

more

is

of

both Hopper's

illuminating to study his

style

mature

and choice

of

art in terms of

and again. These themes were meaning for him. Having considered the nature of Hoppersonality we can better understand the underlying content of his

the themes he went on to investigate again rich in personal per's art.

As Hopper reached

artistic maturity,

he discarded themes that were no

longer of interest to him. After his student period and the years immediately following, portraiture ceased to hold his attention

anyone other than

Jo.

He

eliminated the

many

and he

rarely depicted

small figures that, during

had animated his cityscapes in the manner of John Hopper gradually removed figures from his urban scenes entirely, these scenes became empty evocative settings into which he could project a mood. Hopper also developed certain subjects which at that time were

his formative years,

Sloan. As

unusual, hotel

if

not imique, in the history of artâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; especially his gas stations,

lobbies,

and

offices.

The themes

that repeatedly preoccupied

him

are those

under consideration here, for they reveal the core of meaning in

Hopper's

art.

SOLITARY FIGURES Perhaps most personal are the lone figures Hopper depicted in various settings, particularly interiors.

Interior of 1909

is

one of the

nude female in Summer manifestations of this theme (PI. 123).

As noted earliest

Characteristically, the solitary figure

is

earlier, the

presented

lost

in thought, as

if

a


1

projection of Hopper's

42

shown

.

introspective nature. Sometimes the figure

own

at work, as in Girl at a

Sewing Machine (about

raking leaves in Pennsylvania Coal

Town

man

1921), or the

(1947) (Pis.

158,

159,

is

At

169).

other times, people read, as does the manicurist in Barber Shop (1931), or just wait,

as

Summertime

in

Sunday

French Six-Day Bicycle Rider (1937), or 160, 164, 166). Even when, as in Barber Shop

(1926),

(1943) (Pis. 161,

Bicycle Rider, other

or French Six-Day

figures

are

the

visible,

central

characters are psychologically remote, existing in a private space of dreams

and contemplation. Hopper's interest in the young bicycle racer probably reveals some degree of self-identification

from

his

own

days of bicycle riding (Fig.

44).

Novem-

In

ber 1936, one vear before he painted the French cyclist, he had attended the International Six-Day Bicycle Race held at Madison Square Garden. He later described his intentions in this painting:

I

did not attempt an accurate portrait, but

He

is

supposed

to

it

resembles him in a general way.

be resting during the sprints while his team mate

track or at the time

when "The Garden"

when both members

of a

team are on the

is

full in

and quite French Fis-

Edward Hopper. Meditation.

44.

Miles from

on paper.

Home. 10 v

7^,^

i8qc).

Whitnev Museum

.\merican .\rt. New York: Request Josephine \. Hopper. 70.1605.42

of

no laps are stolen

painted, was young and dark

appearance.

lo

Pen. ink. and pencil

inches.

in

I

.

the afternoon or evening,

alert to see that

from them. This rider that suggested the one

.

on the

is

of

Madison Square Garden. Hopper made many quick pencil sketches from which he then synthesized the final composition in his studio resting (PI. 165). He had actually obtained a photograph of a bicycle rider and eatine, but it served as a reminder at most, not a direct model (Fig. 45).

"While

at

In the final painting, the young athlete's intensitv and concentration is Hopper's imaginati\e interpretation of an emotional experience rather than a physical one.

Among

Hopper's several paintings of

(1944),

women

window or Morning in a

nude a doorwayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; for example, Eleven A.M. (1926), High Xoon (1949), and Morning Sun (1952) (Pis.

alone, often

ing in

solitary figures are those of

or in a state of undress, poised before a

wait-

City

393, 394, 398, 400).

All of these paintings, however, are also concerned with the symbolism of

time and are more appropriately considered in that context the whole, critics have

of loneliness, rather than

quiet and

(see p. 61).

often misinterpreted these solitary figures as

On

symbols

comprehended Hopper's personal preference

for

solitude.

NAUTICAL Hopper's love of solitude also figured in his enthusiasm tor nautical subjects which, as we have seen, began during his boyhood along the banks of the Fig. 45.

Photograph owned by Edward Hop-

per. Bicvcle track.

SixDav

Bicvcle Race.

Hudson

River. His early pen-and-ink sketch of a sailboat expresses the

sense of escape

drawn

and freedom that sailing gave him (PI. though he eventually had

to sailboats-even

Jo's insistenceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; but to every type of seagoing vessel.

can credit such works as his (1926),

Tramp Steamer

(1908),

and Trawler and Telegraph Pole (1936)

171).

He was

to give

To

up

not only

sailing at

this attraction

we

Beam Trawler Osprey

(Pis. 172,

177, 178).


Some it is

of

Hopper's most successful watercolors depict nautical themes, for

medium

in this

and

the joy of sunlight, wind, (1929),

ment

and Yawl Ri/lmg this subject

\vith

a

sea air. Gloucester

Harbor

180,

179,

when Hopper

Swell (1935) bear witness to his personal involve-

matter: although his vessels appear to have been

Some

183).

still

them even have a about ThcMartlui MrKran of

The young fleet

While perhaps some

romance

l.idy th.it

The

McKcan

also.

name

this

title

painted in the

oils (Pis.

186,

185,

187).

Hopper remarked

specific biographical content.

of WcUjIcci (PI. 187):

the picture

n.imcd after has taken us sailing

is

know.

It

Weil-

in

has a sentimeiUal value for us and Martha

title

was gi\cn jjinposily

as far as I

to

evoke the beauty of the sea

harbor so often that the

with

of the

of this feeling was lost

transferred his conceptualizations

studio, these canvases

43

The Dory

(1926),

fore\er frozen in motion, they convincingly convey the seafarer (Pis.

EDWARD HOPPER

painting on location, he was best able to capture

that,

id please her.

.

.

.

There

no

is

vessel

was named after our friend.2

LIGHTHOUSES Hopper was to

combine

drawn

naturally

to lighthouses, for they

gave him the chance

and of architecture. From a simple ink he went on to paint the lighthouses on Monhe-

his love of the sea

sketch of his student days,

gan Island and Cape

Ann

(Pis.

188,

189).

He even made

etchings of light-

houses, but his most effective renditions were paintings produced in

during the

late

Lights, near

Hopper depicted

1920s (Fig. 46).

Cape

Maine

Two

the lighthouse at

Elizabeth, Maine, several times in conte,

color (Pis. 190, 191, 192, 193, 194). In these pictures,

still

oil,

and water-

working

out-of-

doors on location, he captured the stark forms of the architecture set dramatically against the blue sky. Tlie buildings are bathed in sunlight,

which animates these otherwise

static images,

and

Fig.

46.

Edward

house Hill

at

Two

Hopper painting LightLights near Cape Eliza-

beth, Maine. 1927.

creates a lively contrast

with the cast shadows.

GLOUCESTER In the picturesque setts,

New England

Hopper found

coastal village of Gloucester,

the kind of quaint architectural

chanted him, along with the intense sunlight he preferred. He there, with his friend Leon Kroll, during the summer of 1912.

Massachu-

which en-

setting

first

worked

He was

not only attracted by the boat-filled harbor, but he also began to explore the

effect of sunlight

on the interesting buildings

canvas Italian Onartcr, Gloucester

(PI.

196).

of the village, such as in his

This painting

still

the diminutive, generalized figures that populate early oils like

Corner or American Village

When Hopper

(Pis. 233,

includes

New

York

130).

returned to Gloucester in 1923, he began to work in

watercolor, and nearly always avoided including figures, concentrating instead

on

light

and architecture. He worked

outside, in front of the place

he was painting, rendering the intricate forms of the wooden houses. of these watercolors.

The Mansard Roof

of

1923,

One

brought him acclaim

Edward Hopper, Lighthouse PI- 193)-

Hill, 1927 (see


when,

44

197).

as

we have

During

Brooklyn Mu.seum purchased

seen, the

summer

the next

on

in Gloucester

his

it

that year (PI.

honeymoon, he

pro-

duced Haskell's House, where ornate architectural structures cast patterns of shadows in the sunlight (PI. 200). Hopper recalled: "At Gloucester when everyone

would be painting

else

looking at houses.

It is

cornices are bolder.

captain influence

and the waterfront

ships

a solid looking town.

The dormers

cast

The

very

positive

guess— the boldness of ships."

I

Hopper used watercolor with

I'd just

go around

roofs are very bold, the

shadows.

The

sea

^

a sense of confidence,

improvising as he

went along. He would apply the pigments with only a pencil sketch faintly outlining the structures he intended to paint. What interested him was not the creation of textures or the manipulation of the medium, but the recording of the forms

light.

Light was the language through which Hopper expressed

and views before him.

Hopper spent his last summer in Gloucester. One of the watermade during that visit is Prospect Street, Gloucester, a view looking

In 1928 Fig.

47.

Cold storage plant. North Truro.

Cape Cod.

colors

the towers of the Portuguese church (PL 209).

down toward

shapes and forms that fascinated later (PI.

he painted an

as

felt

seemed

it

Hopper

Sun on Prospect

Hopper

210). Later

in retrospect,

oil.

to such a degree that six years

Street,

based upon this watercolor

dissatisfied with the canvas, perhaps because,

to lack

mood

the immediacy of the watercolor

mature

Here are the

or psychological statement, as well

medium. With few exceptions

his

were painted indoors, improvised in the studio from rough

oils

black-and-white sketches, simple notations, and his imagination.

ARCHITECTURE Commenting on

the years he was forced to

work

as

an

illustrator,

insisted: "I was always interested in architectiue, but the editors

people waving their arms."

*

His interest in architecture, which

evident in childhood drawings, persisted throughout his career.

wanted is

He

first

often

and exterior views of buildings, either without or with generalized figures as subsidiary elements. Sometimes he

painted both figures,

Hopper

interior

pictured specific architectural details such as rooftops casionally,

one such

a focal point of

knew how

to

(Pis.

203, 221). Oc-

House with Bay Window, would become might exist in the picture (PI. 213). Hopper

detail, as in

whatever

else

crop forms severely

when

it

suited

him

in order to present

only the most visually absorbing shapes, as in his watercolor Custom House, Edward Hopper, Cold Storage (see PI. 224).

I'lant,

1933

Portland of 1927

(PI. 217).

At times he portrayed architecture

a stage set— particularly in oils like Pretty

Penny was

Penny of 1939

(PI.

as

if it

were

228). Pretty

actually commissioned by the owners of the house in Nyack.'

In his watercolors, however, ings that he

had

Hopper made

nearly accurate, records of build-

closely observed, such as the

Cod, painted in 1933

(Fig.

47,

PI.

224).

He

Cold Storage Plant on Cape apparently chose to paint

buildings not for their beauty, but for their fascinating forms-a rather abstract

sensibility

that

brought to his it was seem strangely animated, as

he tried to deny when

attention.« In Tiuo Puritans (1945), the houses


if

they had personalities

doors read almost like their

presence

felt.

own

their

all

(PI. 231).

Then,

this

too,

shutters,

elements of personalities that

facial features,

recalling early canvases like

The windows,

work has

a

strange,

Dlackwell's Island of

igii

subtle

and

EDWARD HOPPER

45

make

tonality

and Moonlight

Interior oi about 1921-23 (Pis. 124, 380).

Hopper's visual memory was so sharply

cast in

terms of architecture that

according to the kind of architecture they offered.

he even evaluated

cities

In 1953 he wrote

Guy Pene du

Bois,

who was

urging him to travel once

again to Paris:

I

agree with you about the beauty of the buildings in France and one certainly

nothing

sees

impressive in Mexico.

as

not stack up with Notre

Dame

The

great cathedral in Mexico City can

de Paris or Chartres or any of the others.

.

CITIES

Hopper was drawn

to cities, not only for their architecture,

York City

reminded Henri's

Hopper,

1913 (see

PI. 232).

(lueensboiuugh

Brio

but also for

and apartments. Indeed, he had chosen

to live in

New

as late as

1935

to escape the limitations of small-town life.

New

All of

Edward

kind of scenes he observed through windows, in

their interior lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

restaurants, offices,

^f^f^^

.'' .

\'ork

a critic:

was subject matter for Hopper,

"\ou must not

who encouraged

about them."

**

all

forget that

I

who

was for a time

a student of

his students to try to depict the familiar life

Cityscapes occur frequently

among Hopper's

early paintings,

including Blackwcll's Island (igii), Qiieensborough Bridge (1913), and

New

York Corner (1913) (Pis. 124, 232, 233). The gray, misty tonality of these works brightens in the 1916 picture Summer Street, creating a less gloomy

mood

Hopper

(PI. 234).

liked the buildings

and bridges along the

river

and

loved to depict the effects of light on them: in East River a luminosity

makes the tenements and factory buildings seem otherworldly

at sunrise (PI. 236).

human

Hopper's matuie cityscapes were generally undisturbed by ence.

There

activity.

is

Drug

pres-

often an eerie feeling born of this desertion, this absence of Store (1927)

is

such a street seen at nightâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; a

silent,

haunted

place pregnant with possibility, where lights cast unnerving shadows (PI. 242).

When

figures

do appear

in cityscapes they are often diminished, insignifi-

cant in relation to the massive architectural environment. Thus, the tiny

man

figure of a

Bridge Loop

The

walks away, almost out of view, in Hopper's Manhattan

(PI. 247).

Hopper remarked

of this painting:

my mind before starting it, but exhad no other made from the fact, my memory by looking often at the sub-

picture was planned very carefully in

cept for a few black and white sketches

concrete data, but relied on refreshing ject.

.

.

.

The

color, design,

and form have

otherwise, to considerable simplification.^

I

all

been subjected, consciously or

Edward Hopper, Drug 242).

Store,

1927

(see

PI.


He went on

method:

to provide a rare insight into his conceptual

46 I

spend many days usually before

and spend

a

the design, as nearly as possible

shape of

I

find a subject that

this picture.

what

I

wish to do.

"Manhattan Bridge Loop,"

of great lateral extent. Carrying the little

is

The

an

main horizontal

interruption to the edges of the picture,

make one

like well

I

long time on the proportions of the canvas, so that

is

enough it

will

to do,

do

for

very long horizontal

effort to give a sensation

lines of the design

to enforce

this

with

and

idea

to

conscious of the spaces and elements beyond the limit of the scene

itself. 10

A

later

photograph of the

site

Hopper painted

reveals the degree to

which

he was willing to manipulate the space and perspective he observed for the purposes of compositional refinement

(Fig. 48).

Also in 1928, Hopper again painted Blackwell's Island, which he had once depicted in 1911 (PI. 124). This time he paid more attention to the architecture than to the misty atmosphere of the river. Clearly his interest in structure

had developed

often went even

since he

had

first

considered the island. Hopper

further afield to find subjects to paint, crossing the

Hudson

New Jersey tor East Wind Over Weehawken home, he painted The City in 1927, a view of Washington Square (PI. 241). He would sometimes travel uptown to Central Park, where he found material for Bridle Path in 1939 and Sliakespeare at Dusk in 1935 (Pis. 254, (PI.

River to

389).

Along Riverside Drive, near the park next

to the

248). Closer to

Htidson River, he

discovered an intriguing building with a Gothic doorway and a rotuided

48. Later photograph of site Hopper painted in Manhattan Bridge Loop.

Fig.

bay window, which he recorded in August in the City in 1945 (PL 258). Hopper's most famous cityscape is undoubtedly Early Sunday Morning of 1930, which he later noted "was almost a literal translation of Seventh 'i In fact, he originally titled it Seventh Avenue Shops and later pointed out: "It wasn't necessarily Simday. That word was tacked on later by someone else." 1- That "someone else" was obviously impressed by the

Avenue."

uncanny

silence of this painting.

Hopper had used

a

similar horizontal

format, with the structiues parallel to the picture plane, in earlier worksâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; East River of about 1920-23 and Railroad Sunset of 1929 (Pis. 236, 382). In

Early Sunday Morning, however, the sense of immediacy is achieved through the placement of the buildings close to the picture plane (PI. 383). The

shadows of the

cast

by the simlight are

bounds

of the visible, as

effectively conveyed, leading the viewer out if,

as in reality, this

row

of shops extends

beyond the canvas.

TRAVELING MAN Edward Hopper, Manhattan Bridge Loop, 1928 (see

PI. 247).

While Hopper found inspiration in New York City where he resided most of the year, he often grew restless or found himself unable to paint. One of his means of coping with this feeling was to travel with Jo. They went to famous

tourist attractions, as well as to extremely ordinary places. In the

Hopper was often able to discover visually interesting subject matter despite the commonplace surroundings. Although he never retiuned to latter.


Europe

after

traveled in

u)io.

New

he and

[o did

Mexico

visit

times and

several

they

EDWARD HOPPER

England, the South, and the far West. Along the way.

47

and environment of travelers—in hotels, motels, trains, highways, and gas stations. He found a group of settings and moods which offered many expressive possibilities and produced some of his most poignant paintings. Trains had attracted Hopper since his childhood in Nyack when he

Hopper became preoccupied with

often sketched them

(PI.

the psychology

He drew

260).

trains in Paris

road Train in 1908 between trips abroad trains themselves.

(Pis. 8g, 262).

and painted RailPerhaps more than

intrigued by train stations and the chance

Hopper was

glimpses one caught while riding in trains— such as in his 1925 House by

had

the Railroad (PI. 264). Trains careers as an illustrator

and

Hopper during

also preoccupied

Hopper's remarkable consistency in theme and approach by comparing his early

oil

painting

The

Pennsylvania of 1942 and Approaching the sense of change

moment Hopper light

a

is

demonstrated

El Station of 1908 with

Dawn

which

of anticipation,

favored.

always imminent there.

is

when

He charged

the station

in

City of 1946 (Pis. 261, 281, 294).

effectively expressed his fascination with a train station

By 1908 he had

his

as a printmaker.^^

is

It

and

was the quiet

deserted or nearly empty, that

these scenes with drama, conveyed through

and through the shadows

cast

by ordinary structiu'es— but the result

is an aura of eerie expectation. Hopper's tracks, angled from left to lower right, are similar in The El Station and Daiun in Pennsylvania, as is the use

and smokestacks in which actually depicts tracks passing under station, recalls, in its compositional structure, one

of contrasting vertical accents— chimneys in the former

the latter.

Approaching

a viaduct rather than a

a City,

of Hopper's 1906-7 drawings, Figures

etching

The Locomotive

under a Bridge

in Paris,

and the

of 1923 (PI. 90, Fig. 49).

said he

(Pis. 260, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268).

wanted

to express "interest, curiosity,

In Approaching a City he

fear"— the emotions one has

city.i-* j^, works like House by the Railroad Rock Railroad, Rockland, Me., a watercolor of 1926, and New York, Nezii Haven, & Hartford (1931), Hopper used the tracks both to set off buildings and to lead the viewer's eye on beyond the confines ot the picture. Railroad tracks seem to suggest for Hopper the continuity, mobility, and rootlessness of modern life as they merely pass by small towns and rural areas all but forgotten by the forces of progress. In several illustrations and etchings. Hopper had explored the theme of train interiors (Fig. 50). The theme still interested him years later, when he painted Compartment C, Car 2C)j (PI. 272). His subject is a solitary

arriving by train into a strange (1925), Litiie

woman engrossed in reading, while dow goes unobserved except by the

the landscape passing outside the winviewer.

The

overall green tonality

and

the harsh glare of the electric bulbs cast this picture in a light that disturbs

an otherwise calm and quiet mood. One of Hopper's rough sketches this painting

look out

more

tlie

shows that he once considered having the

window

rather than read

deliberately introspective.

(PI. 273).

Hopper. Apiil

Hartford California.

Railroad tracks were clearly of symbolic significance to Hopper throughout his career

Kdwaid

His

final

woman

for

turn and

resolution seems

Foundation,

1959. Pacific

Huntington Palisades.


Il

Edward Hopper, Approaching

a

City, 1946

(see PI. 294).

Fig. 49.

Museum

Edward Hopper. The Locomotive, 1922. Etching. I'fAa v ifil's inches. Whitney oÂŁ American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1039

Edward Hopper, Compartment 1938 (see PI. 272).

Fig. 50.

Edward Hopper, Night on

Museum

of Art; Purchased,

the El Train, 1918. Etching, 71^

The Harrison Fund.

8 inches. Philadelphia

C. Car 2qj.


This kind of mood

is

last

obscuring the exterior world too large.

paintings

entirely.

The curious gaze of woman reading,

the

at

greater severity in Chair Car

The

the

who

left,

seem

looks across the

perhaps a projection of Hopper's

is

49

through the window

chairs, like the space itself,

woman on

the

EDWARD HOPPER

very strange setting:

(PI. 305). It is a

glaring sunlight pouring in

a high ceiling, with

aisle

much

expressed with

one of Hopper's

of 1965,

own

observations while riding in parlor cars.^^

Reaching

bedrooms and canvases, and perhaps the greatest, is Hotel Room,

found provocative these

accompanied by

his various destinations, usually

(PI. 269).

The

hotel

first

of

a large oil of 1931

spare vertical and diagonal bands of color and sharp

Room

shadows in Hotel

The

night.

in

Hopper

Jo,

The

In Hopper's best works, a masterful geometric simplicity achieves

monumentality. electric

settings

lobbies.

woman

slender, pensive

tall,

pondering the

letter she'

drama in the head downward,

present a concise and intense sits

on

a bed,

has just read. Whatever she has learned in the

and upsets her, as Hopper conveys by the clothing strewn about the room. Combining poignant subject matter with such a powerful formal arrangement. Hopper produced a composition of strength and refinement—pure enough to approach an almost abstract sensibility— yet letter confuses

layered with poetic

meaning

Edward Hopper, Hotel Lobby,

1943 (see

PI.

283).

for the observer.

Hopper's interest in the psychology of his figures

revealed by compar-

is

ing his 1943 painting Hotel Lobby with several of the preparatory drawings (Pis. 283, 284, 285, 286, 287). In the painting, an old man, standing near a

woman who

seated

is

presumably

his wife, does not look or turn

toward

room, an attractive

her, but rather casts his gaze blankly ahead. Across the

young woman sits, relaxed and engrossed in her reading. There is very little communication in the picture, only the older woman regards the old man, but he does not respond to her glance. In one of the preparatory drawings, however, a man sits in the place of the young woman. He does not read; rather he stares blankly across the room older

man and woman

her and sits

rests his

engrossed in conversation; the

arm on

the back of her chair.

in the chair adjacent to the couple,

In the evolution from drawings to the tried to accentuate the sense of

lack of emotional figures

interaction.

Still

which

is

sees the

another female figure

final painting.

likely

He

turns toward

in the painting

noncommunication, It

284).

man

is

empty.

Hopper apparently

to reveal a

poignant

the drawings reflect the

that

he actually observed in the lobby, while the painting demonstrates

the changes he

had Jo pose reading

The

(PI.

made

to create

for both the older

drama. Other sketches show how Hopper

woman

in the hat

and the younger woman

(Pis. 286, 287).

drama

psychological

of Hotel

Lobby

is

repeated in Hopper's Hotel

by a Railroad of 1952, only in a more intimate setting— an older couple's

bedroom (PI. reads and he tracks.

297).

What

is

again shown

a lack of

communication. She

Bleak and wistful, impatiently waiting to depart, he seems to wish

he were elsewhere.

A

similar longing for places

(Pls- S'^O' 3°2).

In

beyond the window and

Window of 1956 and Western Motel Western Motel the woman also appears anxious,

sense of waiting characterize Hotel

'957

is

gazes somewhat longingly out the window, at the railroad

a

of as

Edward Hopper, drawing tel

Lobby, 1943

for painting.

(see PI. 284).

Ho-


50

she waits to drive

otl

in the car, -sshich

luggage

in

the

the

Hotel

left

woman— again

from the

Rooms

through the window, with

Interestingly,

Hopper's sketch for

indicates that he initially considered placing a

Window

across

is vi-sible

foreground.

for Tourists of

1945

absence of communication

Hopper portrayed

man (PI.

reading 301).

In

the exterior of a quaint

boardinghouse in Provincetown, Massachusetts: the contrast between the darkened street and the warmly lit interior convey the traveler's sense of transience— at (PI. 290).

last

finding respite from the night in an unfamiliar setting

He made

study drawings of this house, and then traveled there

repeatedly at night while he painted

For inspiration,

Hopper

it (Pis.

291, 292, 293).

also liked to drive, particularly in rural

England (Jo used to complain that he woidd not Hence, highu-ays and (Pis.

for

Tourists,

1945

(see PI. 290).

appear

He obviously shouting at woman The

275, 278, 288. 296).

country road. Edward Hopper. Rooms

filling stations

let

New

her take the wheel).

as subjects in these paintings

enjoyed the solitude of the quiet the gas station attendant in

Four

Lane Road of 1956 was probably inspired by Jo's garrulous nature (PI. is especially 296). Hopper's joyful contemplation of a peaceful country road evident in Solitude of 1944 (PI. 288). Again, as in Two Puritans, this little house seems to have a personality all its own (PI. 231). Hopper's 1962 Road

and Trees is remarkable not only for the enchantingly deep, dark woods which the highway passes gracefully by, but for its striking compositional similarity to his

much

in 1907 (Pis. 303, 304).

stretching across

Canal at Charenton, painted in France Both compositions are arranged in horizontal bands

earlier canvas

the

canvas— simple, frontal compositions that make a

direct visual statement.

Perhaps Hopper's most

highway painting, the 1940 Gas, evokes one can confront alone at nightfall on a composition is arranged to carry our eye past

effective

the anxious feelings of isolation

country road the brightly

No

(PI. 275). lit

actual site

The

oasis into the dense, dark, is

represented;

rather,

various places, and then invented

he rarely

made

oil

his

and threatening woods beyond.

Hopper made own synthesis in

several

sketches of

the studio— in fact,

paintings while away from the studio after the 1920s.

LOCAL COLOR "To me the most important how beautiful things are when

thing

is

the sense of going on.

)Ou're traveling."

i^

\"ou

know

In recording local color,

often in watercolors, he tended to choose unusual subjects rather than typical tourist sights. Always, he portrayed a sense of place with a notably

^/^ Fig.

51.

Edward

mother, July paper,

8%

x

27,

5%

.^

Hopper, letter to Pen and ink

1925.

individual vision. His trip to Santa Fe,

on

inches. Private collection.

Mexico, in the summer of 1925

He found it difficult to work with such picturesque of light. At first he painted a train there, but eventuintensity and beauty ally he made watercolors of local sights— S?. Michael's College, Adobe Houses, and .S7. Fra?icis Tower, Santa Fe (Pis. 306, 308, 310). He and Jo went horseback riding, as he reported to his mother in a letter accompanied by cartoons of him and Jo in their new environment (Fig. 51): was

his

New

characteristic.

Jo and I and some others took a twenty five mile horseback ride through the mountains yesterday. It being only the fifth time I had ridden I thought much


the hard saddle than

more about

when

Two

I

did of the mountains, but they seemed fine

I

EDWARD HOPPER

51

could look at them.i''

other locales that prompted unusual watercolors were Charleston,

South Carolina, which he visited in 1929, and Mexico, where he and Jo first traveled in 1943. In Charleston, Hopper tried the unusual procedure of

making

a finished

drawing before he attempted

a watercolor of the

same

subject (Pis. 311, 312). Interestingly, he never finished painting the sky of

He

Cabin, Charleston, S.C.

and

of a cloth he observed

also executed a very atypical still-life

drawing

later painted in its setting in the Baptistry of

Saint John's (Pis. 313, 314).

On and

his

early

Saltillo, a

taneous, also

1950s),

(he returned several times during the 1940s

Hopper made watercolors

small town in the north

(Pis.

of the local architecture in

These were less sponhad been. He

320, 321).

carefully painted than his earlier watercolors

more

made

Mexico

trip to

first

watercolors of the Mexican landscape and pencil sketches of

some of the natives in colorful costumes. Hopper liked what he saw in Mexico but he did not find there the kind of visual stimulation he had once found in Paris. Writing to Guy Pene du Bois in Paris, Hopper admitted that "France has quite an edge on Mexico," and then explained why he had made several

The

thing

is

trips to

Mexico and never returned Mexico

that to get to

all

you have

to

do

l.e

Hiitro

or

The Wine

(see PI. 122).

to Paris:

put your luggage in

is

your car at the door and drive until you get thereâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; as easy

Edward Hopper, Shop, 1909

as that!

Getting back

somewhat more bothersome because of the U. S. Customs, but one can put up with it and one does not get seasick on the way.is into the States

is

RESTAURANTS From

his youth.

Hopper had observed people

one such scene when he was only fourteen

and

the interaction of the diners

in restaurantsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; he sketched

Here

(PI. 324).

his interest

was in

waiters, in the spatial arrangement,

and

in the setting. Just after he returned from Paris in 1909, he painted Le

Bistro, a reminiscence of a couple sitting in a cafe along the Seine (PI. 122).

He

etched several scenes

set in

French cafes

represented restaurants and cafe scenes. i^

Restaurant of about 1922 of his

mature period, in

(PI. 326),

this

(Fig. 4); as

an

illustrator,

which was the

first

restaurant painting

way:

In a specific and concrete sense the idea was to attempt to

crowded glamour of

a

New

he also

Hopper explained Ncu' York

make

York restaurant during the noon hour.

I

visual

the

am hoping

that ideas less easy to define have, perhaps, crept in also-^**

Here, in a rare admission. issues that so often

Hopper

concerned

reveals his true interest in the intangible

himâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; emotions and

interpersonal relation-

Edward Hopper. New York Restaurant, 1922 (see PI. 326).

ships.

Hopper went on to develop the restaurant theme and achieved an impressive variety of moods through his compositions, light, and the figures he depicted. He shared an affinity for this theme with other members of the

c.


Henri

52

circle, especially

French Impressionists,

John Sloan and William Glackens. Of course, the particularly Degas, Manet, and Renoir, had earlier

explored cafe and restaurant

settings.

Hopper's restaurants, however, were Automat of 1927, he

settings for the introspective figures he favored. In

presented another solitary figure, a young

woman

contemplating her

life

over a cup of coffee (PI. 327). This sense of preoccupation, and even the composition itself, developed much earlier in Hopper's oeuvrc in a work like Soir Bleu. In Automat the woman sits at a round table at the same angle as does the clown in Soir Bleu

(PI.

378),

and even the empty chair

Hopper has replaced

recalls the angle of the chair in the earlier painting.

the lanterns with electric lights, but the horizontal and vertical accents are quite similar. In Chop Suey (1929) the viewer's attention is held in the

foreground by the two entire canvas

is

color (PI. 328).

Edward Hopper, Automat,

1927

(see PI. 327).

the cashier as

Hopper

women

engrossed in quiet conversation, but the

remarkably unified by the interplay of bands of light and Tables for Ladies (1930) presents both the waitress and

if

each were

lost

in a

world of private thoughts

(PI.

329).

paid unusual attention to the items of food lined up in the implied

plate-glass

window

that the viewer looks through. In the

in the shadows, a couple converse, their

background

space,

communication contrasted with

the solitude of the two females in the foreground. In Sunlight in a Cafeteria (1958) Hopper used the restaurant setting to portray the tensions between a man and a woman, who, while sensing each other's presence,

have not met each other's stolen glances (PI. 330). He gazes in her direction, perhaps only pretending to look out of the window to the street beyond, while she lingers on, her coffee finished, shyly pondering the situa-

animated by the sunlight which, as it falls diagonally across the entrance wall, focuses our attention on the drama tion.

The

entire

scene

is

within.

THEATER Hopper's penchant for presenting dramatic encounters may have evolved from his love of theater and movies. His enthusiasm for theater, as we have seen, dated back to his childhood in Nyack and was nurtured by his teacher Robert Henri. Even Hopper's fascination with the plays of Henrik

Ibsen was probably prompted by Henri, for in Henri's book, The Art Spirit, 21 Hopper made Ibsen is cited as "supreme order in verbal expression." like him, was who, Ibsen, to referring cartoon both an illustration and a

concerned with the problems of the individual as

a spiritual

being

(Fig.

within 52).- Both the playwright and the painter considered symbolic value a context of seeming realism. Hopper's respect for Ibsen was also expressed of in the essay he wrote for the catalogue of his exhibition at the Museum forever remain that personalities Modern Art in 1933. Discussing "definite

modern by Edward Hopper, study of illustrac. 1900-1906. Pen and ink on paper, 14% x 15% inches. Whitney Museum of American An. New York; Bequest Fig. 52.

tion

for Ibsen,

of Josephine N.

Hopper. 70.1565.51

art]

the fundamental truth that

makes Moli^re

In Paris

Hopper

at his greatest as

is

new

in them," he observed: as Ibsen."

"[Modern

-^

pursued his love of the theater

and wrote home about He went

what he saw to his mother, an equally enthusiastic fan of the stage. to the opera, saw Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, and he noted:

"I

saw


Coquelin in Cyrano de Bergerac-he looked pretty good to me. -^ Hopper also enjoyed observing French pageantry for, as we have seen, he recalled the carnival of Mi-Careme in his painting Soir Bleu (PI. 378). "

EDWARD HOPPER

53

married in 1924, he found in Jo not only a fellow painter, but a former actress who also adored the theater.^^ Their frequent attendance at plays and movies had two direct effects on his painting: his choice of theaters as subject matter and the development of compositions that

When Hopper

were often influenced by set design, stage lighting, and cinematic devices such as cropping and unusual angles of vision. Two on the Aisle of 1927, Hopper's first important painting on a theater theme, presents an elegantly dressed couple taking their seats near the stage before a play begins (PI. 338). They have arrived early; only one other

woman

is

an adjacent box and she

visible in

this scene as

we

if

is

We

reading.

look

and have taken our

too have just arrived

down

seats in

at

an

Orchestra (1951) depicts a similar theme, another near the stage before the show begins (PI. 350). seated couple stylishly clad

upper balcony.

First

These treatments

Row

recall several of

Hopper's earlier magazine illustrations

Edward Hopper, Two on

the

Aisle,

1927

(see PI. 338).

of theaters.28

Hopper had once depicted before what

is

an empty theater about

a solitary patron seated in

either a stage or an early

movie

screen, in a grisaille of

His theater or movie-house interiors are distinguished from those of other artistsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; for example, John Sloan's Movies, Five Cents of 1902-4

(PI. 335).

1907â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in that Hopper

characteristically focused

on the theatergoers' con-

centration, while Sloan was captivated with the lively interaction of the

The

audience. Likewise, Hopper's 1936 exterior view of (PI. 339) reveals a nearly deserted street corner,

Circle

Theatre

while Sloan's view of the

Carmine Theater in 1912 represented the more animated scene of "wistful ^^ little customers hanging around a small movie show." In The Sheridan Theatre of 1937, Hopper shows a woman resting, leaning against the balustrade (PI. 344). He made numerous preparatory sketches while visiting the theater (Pis. 345, 346), paying careful attention to details of the architecture which, along with the artificial electric lighting, figures

importantly in the painting.

mood through

a vast interior space

Hopper has

Although the architecture remains important in 1939,

Hopper's central concern

is

created

enhanced by emphatic

New

drama and

lighting.

York Movie ot

the figure of the usherette leaning against

presumably having seen the movie more times than she cared to remember (PI. 340). The members of the audience do not draw our attention, for they are intently watching the film. On the contrary, it is the evocative lighting of this fictive world of dreams (both on the screen

a wall, bored,

and in the ornate details of movie-palace architecture itself) which captures our imagination. Hopper appears to have drawn inspiration from Degas for both his composition and his sense of nocturnal drama. As in Degas' Interior of about seum),28 nal,

1868-69 (which was on view at the Metropolitan

Hopper organized

his composition with a sharply receding diago-

thrusting emphatically into space

vanishing point

(Fig. 53).

closely resembles

Mu-

Even the pose

the stance of the

and culminating

in

an

off-center

of the usherette in Neiu York

man

in Interior.

And

Movie

the dramatic

Edward Hopper, (see PI. 350).

First

Row

Orchestra, 1951


Fig. 53.

Edgar Degas, Interior, 1868-69. Oi\

on canvas, 32 x 45 henny Collection.

Edward Hopper, New

York

Movie,

inches.

Henry

Fig. 54.

Edgar Degas, Alusiciam of the Or1872. Oil on canvas, 271^ x '9%

inches. Stadelsches Kunstinstitut ische Galerie, Frankfurt

Girlie Shoic, 1941

Mcll-

1939 (see PI. 340).

chestra,

Edward Hopper,

I'.

(see

PI.

347)-

am

und

Main.

Stadt-


movie house also recall the Degas at the Strand, picture. Hopper made many sketches for New York Movie pose in Palace, Republic, and Globe theaters; for the usherette he had Jo the hallway of their apartment (Pis. 341-343)-

lights

and shadows

of Hopper's dimly

lit

most surprising theatrical paintings. Girlie Show of seductively waving her skirt 1941, depicts a nearly nude burlesque dancer behind her as she prances across a floodlit stage above the members of an

One

of Hopper's

all-male orchestra (PI. 347). Such overt sexuality

is

unique

Hopper's

in

with the musicians' heads,

work. Quite

possibly, in aligning the eye level

Hopper was

inspired by Degas' iXhisicians of the Orchestra, painted in 1872

(Fig- 54)-

The

significance of theatrical

themes for Hopper

is

emphasized by Inter-

last four pictures mission (1963) and Two Comedians (1965), Intermission that he painted before his death in 1967 (Pis. 352, 353). In Hopper again presented a solitary figure, a seated woman calmly waiting

two of the

for the others to return

for the play to continue.

and

Two

years later.

Hopper painted Two Comedians, which Jo described as "a dark stage (and what a stage, strong as the deck of a ship) and two small figures out of pantomime. Poignant." -^ Jo later confirmed that in the tall male comedian of and the diminutive female comedian Hopper had represented the two when for sorts, of farewell a statement, personal them.-"' It was intended as a he showed them gracefully bowing out, he had been ill and would die less than two years later. Hopper's conception of a comedian on stage first

made

occurred in a drawing he

cially close to his sketches for

unpublished illustration showed the

man

Even

holding a palette

in

1905â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which nevertheless seems espe-

Two Comedians a

couple on

(Pis. 336, 354, 355).

stage, as

if

An

early

about to bow, with

(Fig. 55).

Hopper appears

in his last painting,

to

have recalled French

art.

The Recall of the His composition is dell'Arte characCommedia the of Singer, while the costumes suggest those to have ters painted frequently by Watteau (Figs. 56, 34). Hopper appears They cast himself and his wife as the young lovers Pierrot and Pierrette. reminiscent of Daumier's lithograph

appear

as

two comedians who, by their

comedy

ironic

of

all-human

himself as a clown here,

he had also

headed clown Hopper,

it

felt

it is

last act,

Since

existence.

have discovered the most

Hopper chose

tempting to speculate that, at

to

tlie

portray

very

least,

some degree of identification with the downcast, bald-

in his early painting Soir

seems

clear,

Bleu

as a

saw the theater

self as a kind of stage director, setting

(PI. 378).3i

up

metaphor

for

life,

scenes to paint based

and himon events

he saw take place around him, casting his characters from types he obcraftsman served.32 He had learned to use light as only a master stage could to create drama. Although his dramas were imaginary, his directing was inspired. Even in his habit of having Jo pose for all the women he painted, he acted like a director giving a favorite actress many roles to who had actually acted in theater, was well prepared for her play. Jo,

duties.

During the ig20s and 1930s we know the theater, for he saved

many

ticket

that

stubs

Hopper frequently attended and

carefully

recorded the

EDWARD HOPPER

55


Fig.

Edward Hopper, A Couple on

55.

Stage,

c.

1917-20.

Wash on

a

illustration

board, 20 x 15 inches. Whitney iMuseum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1348

Fig. 56.

Honore Daumier, The Recall

graph, 8 X 10^ inches. York; Rogers Fund, 1922.

of the Singer,

The Metropolitan Museum

1857.

Litho-

of Art,

New

Edward Hopper, Ttuo Comedians,

1965 (see PI. 353).


on the reverse of each. The 1920s marked the establishment of mature and original drama in America, with the emergence of a group of inspired playwrights, including Eugene O'Neill, Maxwell Anderson, and Elmer Rice. Just as Hopper's painting was coming of age, he was

name

of the play

EDWARD HOPPER

57

partaking of the fruits of the American theater. In the often brilliant sets designed for these stage productions, as well as in the content of the plays.

Hopper found

On

inspiration for his

February

14,

Scene J which had just

The

own

painting.

Hopper and his wife saw Elmer Rice's Street opened a month earlier at the Playhouse theater.

1929,

set for this Pulitzer

Prize-winning play was designed by Jo Mielziner,

whose mother became the Hoppers' neighbor in Truro on Cape Cod when they began to spend almost every summer there in 1930. That the Hoppers indicated by a letter Jo wrote to Hopper's sister Marion in July of 1936: "My friend, Mrs. Mielziner has invited me to bring you there. She's the mother of that Street Scene set we loved so much. Jo

found

this set

memorable

is

Mielziner, the artist and Kenneth MacKenna, the actor, are her sons. They come sometimes." ^-^ The set, representing the exterior of a two-story apartment house, with its flat facade extending across the width of the stage, may well have inspired Hopper to paint a similar row of New York

apartments in a shallow space, parallel to the picture plane, extending across the face of the canvas (Fig. 57).^^ Originally Hopper had put a figure in

one of the windows,

as in the set,

but he painted

Hopper's Early Sunday Morning of 1930 scene (PI. 383).

The

the

it

out.^s

quintessential

street

buildings are viewed at an angle from above as

seen from a building across the way. In

Fig. 57.

is

fact,

the

if

Hoppers saw Mielziner's

Jo Mielziner, set for Street Scene by Elmer Rice at the Playhouse Theater, January Photograph, theater and Music Collection, Museum of tlie City of .New York.

10, 1929.

Edward

Hopper. Early

1930 (see

PI. 383).

Sunday

Morning


1

5^ I

from the second balcony,

Street Scene set

anti

it

is

experience that

this

may

have suggested the slightly elevated vantage point found in Early Sunday Morning. In a more general way, the dramatic lighting in the painting also speaks for the influence of theater. Hopper's interest in both stage seeing some sets and lighting is confirmed by a comment he made upon foliage illuminated by light

"Notice

how

artificial

coming from a restaurant window

at night:

trees look at night? Trees look like a theater at

night." 3ÂŤ

Hopper was an

"When

told a friend:

I

fan

avid

especially

don't feel in the

go on

a

mood

a regular

week or more. I 1962 Hopper said: "If anyone wants to movie called 'The Savage Eye." "3ÂŤ He

movies for

movies.

of

see

He

reportedly

once

for painting

I

movie binge!"

3"

what America

go to the

As

late as

go and see

is,

a

told an interviewer that he was

looking forward to seeing Jean-Luc Goddard's Breathless, a film set in directors).*' Paris, and that he admired French "producers" (he meant

though seen through a shifting camera lens. Paintings like New York Pavements of about 1924, The Barber Shop of 1931, or Office in a Small City of 1953 might well be frozen frames from a movie (Pis. 237, 161, 363). Recent cinematographers films, have drawn inspiration from Hopper's compositions for their own

Hopper often cropped

his pictures very aggressively as

had once borrowed ideas from

just as he

earlier movies.^"

OFFICES Although

it

is

of his observations of city

356-365).

He had

found the

life,

depicted

many

offices

an intriguing setting

office

as

as a part

Hopper,

a rather unusual subject for painting,

an

(Pis.

for

especially

illustrator,

System magazine, and these sometimes reveal a close relationship with his

Hopper

paintings, particularly Office at Night of 1940 (PI. 356, Fig. 31).

wrote an explanation of this painting at the request of the Walker Art Center, which had purchased

The

New

picture was probably "i'ork

first

suggested by

City after dark and glimpses of

as to leave fresh

many

and lonely

office interior

furniture which has a very definite

rides

on the "L" were

office interiors that

and vivid impressions on my mind.

the sense of an isolated office

it:

My

aim was

m

so fleeting

to try to give

rather high in the

meaning

train

air,

with the

for me.^i

appears that Hopper turned for inspiration once again to the work of the Degas.^- Degas' The Cotton Exchange, New Orleans of 1873 is one of reproduction few paintings of an office interior and Hopper knew it in It

(Fig. 58). ^â&#x20AC;˘'

In Office at Night

Hopper has employed Degas'

high, oblique

view of the floor, tilted out toward the picture plane, and the sharply angled wall of glass windows on the left side. Other similarities to Degas are visible only in the studies for Office at Night: the device of one picture within another and the slat-back wooden chair poised with its back to the viewer, placed in the lower

left

corner of the composition

Hopper's figure of the contemplative iniscent of Degas' portrayal of the old

(Pis.

357,

the desk

is

358,

359).

somewhat rem-

man man Michel Musson, at

father-in-law


Edgar Degas, The Cotton Exchaiige, New Orleans, on canvas, ag^ x 36I4 inches. Musee dcs Beaux-Arts, Pau.

Fig. 58.

of Degas' brother Rene,

who

sits

Edward Hopper, drawing

1873. Oil

for painting. Office at Night, 1940 (see

PI- 359)-

examining a sample of cotton in the

fore-

groimd of the painting. Both figures share a sense of concentration expressed by the eyes, cast downward. Hopper's withdrawn, meditative man probably in

is

]3art

autobiographical,

French Impressionist painting that so

aloofness. Interestingly, this

ated

own

corresponding to his

Hopper was an American sceneâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; painted by Degas during

quiet fascin-

a

visit

with his family in America.

Perhaps what

is

most intriguing in Hopper's Office

at

Night

is

the appar-

ent psychic tension between the curvaceous woman and the man who ignores her. The earliest studies for this work do not reveal her now alluring figure. In the ledger

where the Hoppers recorded

the sketch that designated the painting 1005,' "

and

woman

referred to the

"

this

work, he captioned

'Confidentially Yours,'

as "Shirley," noting that she

'Room wore

a

"blue dress, white collar, flesh stockings, black pumps and black hair and plenty of lipstick" (Fig. 3). At the end of this explanation, which is really only a visual description. Hopper cautioned, "Any more than this, the picture will have to for

none

looked.

is

tell,

but

I

hope

it

will

not

tell

any obvious anecdote,

intended." Nevertheless, the nighttime drama cannot be over-

The

implied sexual and psychic tension

for the viewer,

who becomes

is

a source of intrigue

a witness to the encounter.

Hopper's idea of casting the spectator

as witness goes

back

at least to the

art of the Netherlands with which he was certainly familiar, and it is an ^^ essential component of Rembrandt's Nightwatch which he admired.

When Hopper

saw the Nightiuatch,

ation which revealed that

undoubtedly attracted

it

was not

it

had not

yet

undergone the

really a nocturnal scene.

restor-

Hopper was

to the dramatic possibilities inherent in representing

the contrast of light in a darkened setting. In his explanation of Office at

Night he detailed his preoccupation with

light:

taward Hopper. PI. 356).

Office at Night,

1940 (see


are three sources of light in the picture— indirect lighting from above,

There

6o

the desk light

and the

from outside and

falfing

light

on

coming through the window. The

almost painting white on white,

it

also

made

light that

light

coming

a difficult problem, as

it is

a strong accent of the edge of the

cabinet which was difficult to subordinate to the figure of the

filing

The

made

the wall in back

girl.

the back wall emphasizes the wall's

Hopper painted on

angular thrust, which creates a very oddly shaped room. Thus one writer has described the observer's sensation in this painting as "being suspended in air

.

.

.

unable to determine his

beyond Degas:

own

position."

his canvas entices and holds the

«

Here Hopper goes

spectator

in

a

tense,

intimate, stagelike space by three walls, instead of the two walls in Degas' The Cotton Exchange, New Orleans. Once there, in the arena where the

drama indeed,

Edward

Hopper.

Summer

Evening,

taking place, the viewer confronts the players' psychic intensify-

is

is

engulfed by a powerful emotional dimension.

1947

COUPLES

(see PI. 367).

Hopper's interest in emotional interaction— or, more often, the lack of itis evident from his many representations of couples. The theme appears in paintings as early as Le Bistro of 1909 and

is

developed in etchings such

and Les Deux Pigeons

Night on the El Train (1918) 50, 4). In Rootn in New York, an

woman

newspaper, while the

he

oil is

as

(1920) (PI.

122, Figs.

man

reads his

painting of 1932, a

ignoring turns halfheartedly toward

a piano and picks out a tune (PI. 366). The viewer, looking in through the window, has been assigned the role of voyeur. In Summer Evening of 1947 a young couple, seen in the harsh glare of electric light, appear to be

engrossed in a tense discussion while uncomfortably leaning against the wall of a porch

The

(PI. 367).

sense of estrangement seems to heighten for

Hopper over

the years.

His 1949 Summer in the City shows a woman, rather restless or depressed, with her arms tensely folded, sitting on the edge of a narrow bed, on which a man is asleep-oblivious to her discomfort (PI. 368). In Seawatchers (1952) the couple in the sun gaze joylessly at a beautiful stretch of blue sea; their

communicate set the somber mood of this painting (PI. 369). In Sunlight on Brownstones (1956) a younger couple not only glance away from each other, but do so with bored and disheartened stares (PI. 370). Hopper's concern with this overriding and pervasive sense of

boredom and

failure to

malaise was perhaps summarized in his 1959 Excursion into Philosophy (PI. 371). In this painting, a man with a troubled expression rests on the

edge of an unforgivingly hard bed while a woman sleeps, turned away from him. He has just put down a book: "He has been reading Plato rather late Edward Hopper, Summer (see PI. 368).

in the City, 1949

in

life,

asked

if

"

Hopper reportedly remarked.*" When, late in life. Hopper was he was a pessimist, he responded: "A pessimist? I guess so. I'm not

proud of

it.

At

my

age don't you get to be?"

*^

MILITARY

A

most unusual theme

ally that of the Civil

is

Hopper's fascination with military

War. The

history, especi-

only history paintings he ever executed are


Before Gettysburg of 1934 and Light Battery at Gettysburg of 1940 painter so involved with the 373, 375). These are most unusual for a

Dawn (Pis.

present and his jects

own

began during

and helps

soldiers

Hopper

61

surroundings. Yet Hopper's interest in military sub-

boyhood, when he did numerous sketches of

his

One example, made talent

EDWARD HOPPER

soldiers.

the age of fourteen, both reveals his prodigious

at

to explain the

during his career

as

two

an

later canvases.

illustrator

and

He

also depicted various

in several of his prints.^^

treasured his ten-volume photographic history of the Civil

published in 1912, particularly for

its

War

Mathew Brady photographs which

he admired: "There was something about the way he took pictures. Somebody said it was the lens they had in those daysâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; not sharp. But anyway the pictures aren't cluttered *"

Very simplified."

Dawn

It

is

up with

detail;

you

just get

what

is

important.

not surprising that Brady's photographs inspired

Before Gettysburg and Light Battery at Gettysburg. Most of the

Dawn

Before Gettysburg appear tired and bored as they wait, recalling the people who sit and wait in so many of Hopper's other paint-

Edward Hopper, Sunlight on

ings.

1956 (see

soldiers in

lirounistones,

PI. 370).

TIMES OF DAY

Many

of Hopper's paintings also represent a specific time of day,

sizing a

mood through

entitled

works with an hour or time of day. Hopper seems

empha-

the varying effects of light. Frequently, he actually

definite associations with the various times of

to

have had very

day he chose. One could say

Hopper ascribed symbolic content to evening, night, morning, and middayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; all of which he painted. This interpretation is further supported by his fondness for certain poems about times of the day. On several occasions, for example. Hopper quoted in that, at least

on

a subconscious level.

French from Paul Verlaine's poem, "La lune blanche," on evening:

Un

vaste et tendre

Apaisement

Semble descendre

Du

firmament

Que

I'astre irise

C'est I'heure exquise.s**

Hopper

also liked to

quote from Goethe's "Wanderer's Nightsong," which

he described as "an extraordinary visual picture": Over

all

the hills

Over

all

the dells you can hardly hear a

is

quiet

All the birds are quiet in the

Soon you

sound

woods

will rest too.si

Hopper particularly admired Robert Frost and cited more than once Frost's poem "Come In," which creates such an evocative picture of dusk.^^ In his own depictions of evening, Hopper often conveyed something of a sense of mystery, of the

enchantment which Verlaine, Goethe, and Frost is especially evident in Soir Bleu of

associated with the twilight hour. This

Edward Hopper, Excursion 1959 (see PI. 371).

into Philosopliy,


about 1914, Railroad Sunset o£ 1929, House at Dusk and Shakespeare at Dusk, both of 1935, and Cape Cod Evening of 1939 (Pis. 378, 382, 384, 389,

62

Cape Cod Evening,

418). In

as in

Robert

Frost's poetry,

woods

the

are

dark and deep" and enigmatic; the waning sunlight of evening contrasts sharph- with the dense woods where, in the shadows, nightfall has "lovely,

comment on

already arrived. -'^ Hopper's

the painting confirms that

in fact a personal conceptualization which, like the

his

own

B,

no exact transcription of

a place but pieced together

mental impressions of things in the

»J

was

it

loved, evoked

on evening:

reflections

It is

poems he

from sketches of

vicinity.

The

from sketches and

grove of locust trees was done

The doorway of the house comes from Orleans The figures were done almost entirely without models, and the dry. blowing grass can be seen from my studio window in late summer or autumn The dog is listening to something, probably a whiptrees nearby.

about twenty miles from here.

.

.

.

poorwill or some e\ening sound. ^^

Edward Hopper,

.Vis;/)/

\i

indom, 1928

(see

PI. 381).

Hopper's original impetus to^sard suggestive content,

regarding

at least

times of the da), ma\ have begun under the impact of French Symbolist

poetry which, as

Henri

dass.^'

we have

seen,

he

came

first

to

know

as a student in the

Hopper's interest in Symbolist literature was shared by others

in the Henri coterie, including

when Hopper

quite in fashion

John

first

Sloan.^s

The

Symbolists were

He

arrived in Paris in 1906.

probabl)

read about them in contemporar\ magazines and he might have

The Symbolist Movement in English

to

appeared in

Literature by Arthur Symons, the

own

complete with

for Christmas,

inscription to her in French.^''*

In a painting like Soir Bleu, if

first

^vriters,

Jo a volume of poetry by Arthur Rimbaud his

known

book which was published in 1899 and revised edition in igoS.^^ As late as 1951, Hopper gave in

anahze these

its first

still

Hopper

recalled Symbolist

poems

in spirit

not with specific references. For example, one such poem, "Sensation" by

Rimbaud, begins "Par les soirs bleiis d'ete evenings .") and Hopper's painting seems .

.

.

.

to

."

summer

("In the blue

embody

its

mood, even

to

the silent people staring with apparently blank minds: "Je ne parlerai pas, je

ne penserai rien Likewise,

is

it

.

.

."

("I will

not speak,

I

will

have no thoughts"). s"

comprehensible that the mysterious, intoxicating sky of

Railroad Sunset was conceived h\ an

artist

who had

sa\ored poems like

Charles Baudelaire's "Harmonic du Soir," which reads: altar,

lower.

Edward Hopper, 386).

Xiglithairks.

1942 (see

I'l.

sad and magnificent:

is .

.

drowning

"The

in curdled blood,

sky, like

." ^0

Hopper was equalh

fascinated \vith the night, which he seems to have

equated with both eros and anxiety in works ranging from etching Xight on the El Train to his later Office at i^'ight.

for

Night hawks

Xight JVindows

title

oil

his

1918

paintings— A';g/;/ Windows,

(Pis. 381, 356, 386, Fig. 50).

as a subject

The

initial

impulse

was clearly the tgio etching of the same

by John Sloan. "^^ As in Sloan's etching. Hopper turns the viewer into is more subtle and more sensual. Hopper's more intimate. The nude female, seen from behind, is being \\atched. At the same time, a cintain blowing out of the

a voyeur, but his composition

focus

an

the sun sinks

is

closer,

unaware of


window hints at the restlessness one senses in Wind (Fig. 38) and entices the spectator-voyeur "Nighthawks seems

be the way

to

lonely.

as partictdarly

I

of a large city."

-restaurant

The

etching Evening

Hopper

in.

street.

didn't see

I

EDWARD HOPPER

63

said: it

and made the

was painting the loneliness

I

setting of Nighthaivks, which was "suggested by a

meet,"

streets

":<

expresses the

people out alone in the disquieting night.

these

of

come

think of a night

I

on Greenwich Avenue where two

vulnerability

to

1921

simplified the scene a great deal

restaurant bigger. Unconsciously, probably, "-'

his

The

couple whose hands almost touch accentuate the isolation of the solitary diner across the counter: a juxtaposition of eros and the loneliness .of night.

A

sense

longing appears to be

of

morning. This seems especially apparent

where a nude

woman

Cape Cod Morning

in

to observe the

of 1937

works

in

Eleven A.M. of 1926,

like

window,

in a chair looking out of the

in

Morning

woman gazes out of a window, where a woman in a red dress leans out

where a standing nude

in a City of 1944,

and

sits

Hopper's major association with

of 1950,

world from her bay window

(Pis. 393, 394, 399).

In Five

Edward Hopper, Seven A.M.,

1948 (sec

I'l.

A.M.

and Seven A.M. of 1948, however. Hopper depicted deserted scenes which embodied his thoughts and feelings beyond observed

(Pis. 385, 388),

reality.^*

Seven A.M. presents a storefront where there

is

no

early

morning

activity,

l^ut beckoning woods beyond. Here, the Hopper an escape from the day's trialsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; his

juxtaposed with the menacing

woods may have suggested

to

This feeling contrasts sharply with the positive sense

longed-for solitude.

of expectation in the full

midday sunlight

that illuminates

High Noon

of 1949 (PI. 398).

CAPE COD Hopper's many summers spent in South Truro on Cape Cod enabled him to

He

acquire an intimate knowledge of the area.

painted both the simple

and the natural forms of the landscape. Focusing on the effect of sunlight, he conveyed the drama of the forms he observed and saved them from iaanaiity. Among his initial Cape Cod subjects were Soiitli

buildings, the roads,

Hill, Hills, South Truro, all of 1930, the

Truro Church, Corn spent on the

Cape

Hoppers rented A. because

rain,

(Pis.

B.

404, 405, 407).

For the

first

to enable

summer

four summers, the

Cobb's house, which they called "Bird Cage Cottage"

wind, and animals entered

it

with equal freedom. After

an especially rainy summer in 1933 they built their

enough

first

"^

them

own home

with space Edward Hopper, Cape Cod,

to paint indoors.

c.

SUNLIGHT

On

the Cape,

summer

light

is

Hopper indulged

his love of sunlight in

especially intense.

an area where the

Vet his interest in painting sunlight

dates back to his acquaintance with Impressionist painting in Parisâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; to the

1907 Trees in Sunlight, Fare du Saint Cloud at

Empty Room

(i9(>3),

Rooms

(PI. 423).

His mature attempts

by the Sea (1951) and Sun in an two intense paintings (Pis. 424, 429). Rooms by the Sea

painting sunlight resulted in

1933-

Massachusetts,


was actually inspired by the spectacular view from the Hoppers' house on the Cape down over the dunes to the vast stretch of sea beyond.

64

Hopper claimed

is

a

Any

Second Story Sunlight of i960 was only

to paint sunlight as

an attempt white.

his

white with almost no yellow pigment in the

psychological idea will have to be supplied by the viewer.

of elation about sunlight

son

there are

many

thoughts,

many

on the upper part

of a house.

.

.

.

There

You know,

impulses that go into a picture. «5

Although he occasionally denied the existence of meaning in his paintings, Hopper once sent Lloyd Goodrich a letter he received from the critic James Thomas Flexner praising Second Story Sunlight and interpreting it

Hopper noted of an allegory of "winter and spring, life and death." the trouble of took the letter: "... I thought it would interest you. Since I having a photostat made of it, it may indicate that I am not as modest *^fi

as

as I

Edward

Hopper,

i960 (see PI. 425).

Second

Story

Sunlight,

am

said to be."

®^

While Hopper was in no sense a narrative painter and had long since transcended his own work in illustration, his canvases are much more than mere representations of reality— paintings which do not intend to be just descriptive or topical, but aspire to the universal. By refusing to be narrative and aiming only at suggestive symbolic content. Hopper at his best created paintings which express the psychological pulse of their time and yet speak for all time.

MiW|ti>WWiiWI<l>MWM*itfi«W

Edward Hopper

Budd

Studio.

at the Institute o£ Arts

»Wi»Wir<

iii

and

i

iW^

Letters, 1961.

Photograph by Sidney Waintrob,


"

NOTES THE IDENTITY OF THE ARTIST

1.

in Brian

Both quotes appear

Hopper" Arl

m

O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward

6.

America, 52 (December 1964), pp. 42 and

69. 2.

Brian O'Doherty, "The Hopper Bequest at the Whitney,"

as saying of

America, 59 (September-October 1971), pp- 68-69. Other recent estimates have concurred: John I. H. Baur (quoted in Grace Glueck, "Art Is Left by Hopper to the

Art

in

VVliitney,"

Hopper

New

as "the

Relentless realism,

1

generation";

also

cf.

Rose,

1

3.

September 1971,

Carl

Baldwin,

Vogue,

8.

The American Mainstream,"

Realites, April 1973, p. 117. 4.

See

Gail

Levin,

"Edward

Magazine, 53 (June

1979),

Hopper, pp.

Edward Hopper: The Complete

114-21 Prints

Americans."

and Gail Levin.

(New York:

W. W.

"One Step Nearer to a National Art," New York American, 10 March 1908. This review was evidently written by Guy Pfene du Bois, the paper's critic, who omitted his own name from the list of artists. The exhibition was entitled "Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by Contemporary

Arts

9.

"Shows and Sales. Mr. Bellows Paints Cross-Eyed Boy," York Herald, 13 February 1915. "Strong Man at the MacDowell" and "Exhibit at MacDowell Club," unidentified newspaper clippings saved by

New

with the Whitney Mu-

Norton &: Company seum of American Art, 1979), pp. 15-19 and 27-28. Edward Hopper, "John Sloan and the Philadelphians, The Arts, 11 (April 1927), p. 174. in association

5.

Francophile,"

13 (Febru-

ary 1908). pp. 523, 524, 531.

p. 282.

"Realism:

Homer, Robert Henri, pp. 136 and 139. Giles Edgerton [Mary Fanton Roberts], "The Younger American Painters: Are They Creating a National Art?" Craftsman,

"Edward Hopper:

Greatest American Realist of the 20th Century,"

stand for the

Light Publishers, 1979). 7.

a "firm position as the leading realist painter of his

Barbara

men who

Macbeth Galleries, see Bennard B. Perlman, The Immortal Eight (Westport, Connecticut: North

is

1

had

Eight that "all are

3-15, 1908 at the

American light." "Edward Hopper

September 1971) said: one of our greatest American painters"; Hilton Kramer ("Art: Whitney Shows Items from Hopper Bequest," New York Times, September 1971) declared that Hopper Village Voice, 23

was and

The

American idea." For further details on the "Exhibition of Paintings by Arthur B. Davies, William J. Glackens, Robert Henri, Ernest Lawson, George Luks, Maurice Prendergast, Everett Shinn, John Sloan" from February

York Times, 19 March 1971) described foremost reahst in 20th-century art"; John

Perreault ("Hopper:

William Innes Homer with the assistance of Violet Organ, Robert Henri and His Circle (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1969), p. 131. Homer noted that it was probably Henri who was quoted in the New York Sun, 15 May 1907,

10.

Hopper.


11.

(November 1977), pp. 156-60 and Gail and the European Avant-garde," Hartley "Marsden Levin,

31.

158-63. Critics

32.

Edward Hopper, "Notes on Painting," in Alfred H. Barr. York: Jr., Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition (New The Museum of Modern Art, 1933), p. 17. Quoted in Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 152. Edward Hopper, "Statements by Four Artists," Reality.

33.

Quoted

For Hartley's interest in European art, see Gail Levin, "Marsden Hartley, Kandinsky, and Der Blaue Reiter."

30.

Arts Magazine, 5a

Arts Magazine, 54 (September in

who

the Stieglitz circle

Press,

1961),

.

.

.

.

Marsden Hartley, Plea for American

An American

Ceremonials:

Esthetics,"

ated

and Archaeology. 9

Art

p. 14.

Hopper, "John Sloan," pp. 177-78. "America Today," Brooklyn Daily Eagle,

7

March

i6.

Lloyd

Goodrich,

"The

Paintings

Edward

of

Modern Art. The Men. The Movement. The Meaning (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1934). Guy Pene du Bois, "The American Paintings of Edward

Craven,

17.

Hopper," Creative Art, 18. 19.

8

(March 1931)

Mary

Morsell,

"Hopper Exhibition

21.

Clarifies (4

a

ac-

36.

quaintance of Edward Hopper, 7 May 1979. Rockwell Kent, It's Me O Lord: The Autobiography

of

Tittle,

38.

Edward Hopper "The

scenes of Paris.

Quoted

Wittenberg Univer-

Marion Hopper, 24 August

1956.

The

Time, 68 (24 December 37-39. Hopper was dismayed by the

which he

felt

folksy, unsophisticated

portrayed him inaccurately as a

man who

cracked his knuckles.

Kuh, The Artist's Voice. Talks luith (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 131.

in Katharine

Seventeen Artists

Pic-

With Nationalistic November 1933, p. 12B-C.

to

1949),

Silent Witness,"

1956), cover, pp. 28,

39.

Museum

1955). p-

Pursuit of Happiness" (unpublished

"The

autobiography, written before sity Library, Springfield, Ohio.

content,

Modern

clipping

131.

Walter

Exhibition of Paintings Drawings and Etchings. Whitney Studio Club, 147 West Fourth Street, January 14-28, 1920. Hopper exhibited sixteen paintings of which eleven were

at

unidentified

Rockwell Kent (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.,

p. 12.

tures

as

Americans of To-day,"

story was

Helen Appleton Read, "Racial Quality of Hopper

well

35.

Phase of 1933).

of such

as

28

37.

November

Out

.

.

beauty

of

of

Ibid., p. igi

American Art," The Art News, 32 20.

p. 187.

.

February 1926). Author's interview with Florence Blauvelt, childhood

Hopper,"

The Arts, 2 (March 1927). p. 136. Peyton Boswell, Sr., in The Americana Annual, 19^2 (New York: Americana Corporation, 1932), p. 72: Thomas

72.

p.

without the slightest vestige of caricature that gives to his pictures a peculiarly individual appeal" ("A Limited Group

1926,

p. E7. 15.

Edward Hopper,"

originally

critics

commonplaceness has Hopper creinjected humor and an astute characterization of place and type" ("America Today," Brooklyn Daily Eagle): "Into the conventional ugly setting, Mr. Hopper manages to insert a sardonic humor him.

"Red Man

8.

in O'Doherty, "Portrait:

saw humor in Hopper's 1926 painting Sunday: "Edward Hopper's 'Sunday' shows the artist at home in a medium less frequently essayed by

own

his

(Spring 1953), p.

34. Several

.

(January 1920), 13.

to this soil

1

."

people.

14.

Waldo

Frank. Rosenfeld,

New

have to go back to Maine ... 12.

more .\merican

a

for

York (Urbana: University of pp. 99-100, insisted "Hartley will

for example, in Port of Illinois

called

Paul Rosenfeld and

art include

pp.

1979),

Agrees

Mood," Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 by Jury," The Bulletin Index, 28 September 1939. Edward Alden Jewell, "Early Art Shown of Edward Hop-

DEVELOPMENT

22. "Trial 33.

per," 24. 25.

New

York Sun,

11

January 1941.

Quoted in O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 72. This and the following quote are from William Johnson's unpublished account of his interview with Edward Hop-

26.

October 1956. Hopper recounted that his grandfather had been killed in a "runaway" accident when Garrett Hopper was a small boy, forcing him to go to work at an early age to help support his mother. Hopper said of his father: "He never should have been a merchant." Quoted in O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 72.

27.

Edward

per, 30

Hopper to Charles H. Sawyer, letter of 29 October 1939. Quoted in Lloyd Goodrich, Edward Hopper (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1971), p. 164. Hopper also indicated his awareness of modern psychology in a remark he made about the short stories of Thomas Mann: "Rough going. Well depressing. Freudian. A great writer of fiction" (O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 73).

28.

Ibid., p. 79.

29. Ibid., p. 72.

1.

"Edward Hopper Objects" tor,

(letter

Nathaniel Pousette-Dart),

from Hopper to the ediof Today, 6 (Feb-

The Art

2.

ruary 1935), p. 11. Author's interview with Berta Ward, childhood friend of

3.

Hopper owned,

Marion. for example, Edmund Ollier's Masterpieces from the Works of Gustave Dore (New York: Cassell Publishing Co., 1887).

Hopper's

4.

sister

Goodrich, Edward Hopper, 'p. marked: "It wasn't very good.

17. I

Of

his sailboat,

he

re-

had put the centreboard

and she wouldn't sail upwind very well" (William Johnson interview with Hopper, p. 4). Bennard Perlman, unpublished interview with Edward Hopper, 3 June 1962. Lolan C. Read, Jr., "The New York School of Art," The

well too far aft

5.

6.

Sketch Book, 3 (April 1904), 7. 8.

p. 219.

Ibid., p. 220.

Quoted in "From a Talk by William M. Chase with Benjamin Northrop of the Mail and Express," Art Amateur,

February 1894,

p. 77.


"Notes from

Frances Lauderbach. Chase,"

The American Magazine

talks

oj Arl.

by William M.

September

32-

1917.

Edward Hopper

mother, unpublished letter of 26

to his

May

1907.

Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition,

p. 434.

33-

Barr,

For information on Chase's teaching and taste, see Ronald G. Pisano, William Merritt Chase. In the Company of Friends (Southampton, New York: The Parrish Art Museum, 1979). p- 13- Chase, who himself owned a painting

34-

O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 73. William Johnson interview with Hopper, p. 7.

by Manet, had,

early as

as

1881,

recommended

that

the

American collector Erwin Davis acquire Manet's Boy With a Sword and Woman With a Parrot; Davis subsequently donated these to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, making it the first museum in America to own Manet's work. It would have been wasteful to paint an illustration in color if it was to be reproduced in black and white. He chose Don Quixote as a theme for one such grisaille (PI. was particularly fond of Cervantes' tale, for he Don Quixote and Sancho illustration complete with finished Panza and produced a caption. Years later, after he took up printmaking. he 74).

SB-

38.

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished December igo6 and 6 January 1907. Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished December 1906. Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished

39-

May 1907. Many artists

36-

37-

several early sketches of

40.

Hopper, "John Sloan," pp. 174-75. Ibid., p. 176; Edward Hopper, transcript of taped interview with Arlene Jacobwitz at the Brooklyn Museum, 29

trees there and their autumn colors. Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished

Edward Hopper

to his

mother, unpublished

42.

Edward Hopper

to

his

Kent, Autobiography p. 84. Ibid., p. 81.

44-

Hopper, "Notes on Painting," p. 17. Robert Henri, "A Practical Talk to Those

Who

Study

The Philadelphia Press, 12 May 1901, reprinted in Robert Henri. The Art Spirit, ed. Margery Ryerson (PhilaB. Lippincott Co., 1923). pp. 73-82, as "An delphia: J.

Students

Address

to

Women,

Philadelphia."

the

of

the

School

of

Design

19-

20.

Guy Pene du

46-

Bois, Artists Say

York: American Artist Group,

the Silliest

23-

Inc.,

and

47-

26.

48-

Hopper taught the Saturday classes along with Douglas John Connah, the head of the entire school, and W. T.

49.

The Sketch Book,

3

(April

Quoted Edward Hopper

1904),

in O'Doherty, "Portrait: to his

p.

233.

The

faculty

Edward Hopper,"

mother, unpublished

letter of

Ibid.

Edward Hopper November 1906. Edward Hopper

mother, unpublished letter of 23

mother, unpublished

letter of

30

of

29

52-

31.

unpublished

letter of 9

June

unpublished

to

his

sister,

to

his

mother, unpublished

letter

letter

Bois,

"The American

Paintings of

Edward Hopper,"

Of

the three issues, one was devoted to the cartoons of

(Paris:

.Societe

d'Edition et de Publications, Octo-

1908): ibid., Jean-Louis Forain,

January and Novem-

Quoted in O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. Quoted in Kuh, The Artist's Voice, p. 135. "Around the Galleries," New York Sun, 7 April

73.

1910;

"Panic Averted in Art Show Crowd," Nezu York Mail ir Express, 2 April 1910. Julius Golz (1878-19??) is an

example of one of Hopper's classmates who, initially more successful than Hopper, faded into obscurity. In 1909 Golz taught a summer art class with Rockwell Kent on Monhe-

October 1906.

Edward Hopper November 1906. Edward Hopper December 1906.

to his sister,

ber 1908).

30

27.

his

Du

ber,

28.

to

New

Art.

Edward Hopper

laume

p. 73.

51-

to his

1965), p. 82.

Albert Guillaume, and two to the satirical illustrations of Jean-Louis Forain: Les Maitres Humoristes. A. Guil-

5째-

30.

Identity of the Artist,"

p. 191.

October 1906.

29.

"The

1910.

Hopper, "John Sloan," p. 178. Kent, Autobiography, p. 83.

representative for the magazine was Susan F. Bissell. 25

18

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letters of 29 May 1909, and 7 June 1909. Edward Hopper to his father, unpublished letter of 18 June 1909. Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 18 May 1909. The "fellows" might have been Patrick Henry York School of

and

Benda. 24-

letter of

Bruce, Walter Pach, or other classmates from the

Things (New

Duell. Sloan,

Pearce, Inc., 1940), p. 88.

22.

of 4

George Bellows, however, was singled out for praise when a writer for the Evening Mail dubbed his painting ]immy Flannigan the "pearl of the gutter"; quoted in Charles H. Morgan, George Bellows: Painter oj America (New York: Reynal and Company,

45.

for

Ibid., pp.

274-75. Kent, Autobiography, p. 91.

21.

letter

,

Art,"

:8.

26

mother, unpublished letter of 27

15-

>7-

letter of

8

July 1907.

14-

i6.

of

before Hopper had painted at Saint-Cloud. During the previous autumn, the Russian painter Wassily

July 1907. 43- See the preceding chapter, note 8.

April 1966.

letter

of 8

July 1907. 4'-

executed an etching of the subject.

letters

Kandinsky, then also living in Paris, painted Im Park von Saint Cloud (1906; Stiidtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich), focusing his attention on the thick growths of

He

made

p. 10.

gan Island.

of 8

53

"Paintings in Oil and Pastel by James A. McNeill Whist-


1

The Metropolitan Museum

ler,"

15-May

of intimacy

themes

in

New

of Art,

1910. For a discussion of

31,

York,

Tonahsm,

and expressiveness, interpreting very limited color scales and employing

specific

and

1972), p. 4 54.

68.

Hopper had actually to accept Thomas F.

Hopper

sell his

to

Walt Kuhn, one

he was very of 24 March 1913, from

letter

The

70.

the

indicates

accuracy

of

58.

59.

Man

Tittle's

and "Exhibit at Mac"Strong Dowell Club," unidentified newspaper clippings saved by Hopper. See p. 5 for other reviews of this exhibition. at

Edward Hopper

May

the

MacDowell

letter of

1

73.

sister of the artist

Joseph Cornell,

74.

"Walkowitz and Hopper," Arts and Decoration, 6 (FebruAutobiography,

p.

116.

ommended Monhegan

to

Kent.

Edward Hopper, quoted

It

was Henri who had

in

"Maker

of Poster

Smash the

Visitor here," unidentified clipping from [Rock-

Posters,"

New

York

Sun,

undated

clipping of

a silhouette of a shipyard,

Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition,

p.

11.

West Eighth Street in 1914. Pfene du Bois in Juliana Force and American Art: A Memorial Exhibition (New York: Whitney Museum of American .Art, 1949). p. 44. Impressions in Current Exhibitions," Neu' York

New York Times MagaDecember 1921, p. 5. See Levin, Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints, pp.

Edward Hopper as Illustrator (New York: W. W. Norton & Company in association with the Whit-

80.

81.

of American Art, 1979), pp. 24-25. Ibid. "The modern French poster stands at almost opposite

German.

It

has

more of

real character, a

quality that can in nowise be faked by a calculating use ol design and color, but must be felt. It has the surprise that

comes through an ever fresh sight of the object to be drawn, be it soldier, rifle or a line of barbed wire defense.

1922-January

"The

2,

1923.

The

catalogue for this exhibition

watercolors of Nivison add a gay note of

O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 80. Hopper, interviewed with Verstille Nivison Edward Hopper by Arlene Jacobwitz at the Brooklyn Mu-

Josephine

Royal Cortissoz, "A Fine Collection at The Brooklyn Museum," Neiu York Tribune, 25 November 1923, p. 8. Helen Appleton Read, "Brooklyn Museum Emphasizes New Talent in Initial Exhibition," Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 18 November 1923, p. 2B. Henry McBride, "Edward Hopper's Water Colors Prove Interestingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Also Sell." The Sun, 25 October 1924, p. 4:

"Art:

Museum

poles with the

For example, in "The Hundred Dollar Holiday Exhibition" at the New Gallery, 600 Madison Avenue, December

78. Ibid. 79.

1918

see Gail Levin,

67.

by

77. Ibid.

(before July 25). For additional discussion of this poster,

ney

typified

seum, 29 April 1966, transcript of tape. To Jo's annoyance. Hopper did not recall the circumstances of his entry in the exhibition at the time this interview took place.

rec-

Maine newspaper, summer 1918. Barr, Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition, p. 11. Edward Hopper, quoted in "True American Art Sought in

this

color."

76.

land?] 65.

to

bayonets.

Guy

12,

63. Ibid., p. 120.

66.

Barr,

stated:

75.

is

menace

German

25-36-

Cornell Benton,

24 April 1979.

Hun

real

zine, 4

ary 1916), pp. 190-91.

64.

is

72.

gan. National Collection of Fine Arts, letter to the author,

62. Kent,

directed

Tribune, 25 January 1920, p. 5. "Exhibitions for the Holidays,"

was in Hopper's class along with her cousin Janet Voorhis. Letter from Mrs. Benton to the author, 29 April 1979: related information also provided by Linda Roscoe Harti-

61.

is

"Random

1907.

60. Elizabeth

show the

71. "

mother, unpublished

to his

to

at 9

illustra-

account.

tried

Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney had originally held informal exhibitions of works by fellow artists in her studio in MacDougal Alley from 1907 on. She began the Whitney Studio

1

board probably

Model,

resistance of the

appeal

69.

2.

"Poster

smokestack and smoke."

of the exhibition's organizers.

57. Tittle, "The Pursuit of Happiness," chap. 22, p. existence of French themes executed on American

Shea,

worker to that menace is evident, I and the design. The way the worker's feet are spread out has a meaning to me of a certain solidity and force. They are set there for all time against this threatened invasion. The work to which the special

documents this decision. (The letter is preserved in the Elmer L. MacRae Papers, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D. C.) Quoted in Suzanne Burrey, "Edward Hopper; The EmptyApril 1955, pp. 9 and 33. ing Spaces," Arts Digest,

tion

I

poster

Pete

in

York Sun, undated clipping of 1918:

think, in his pose

but agreed

listed the price as S300,

A

my

The

Victor's offer of S250 as

painting.

New

country, as symbolized by the bloody

pp. 9-11.

cf.

Edward Hopper, quoted Joins Na\y,"

"In

W. Brown, The Story of the Armory Show (New The Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, 1963), p. 65.

eager to

56.

suggestive

vague,

create

Milton York:

55.

to

light

vivacity."

delicate

moods," see Wanda M. Corn, The Color of Mood: American Tonalism i8c)o-igio (San Francisco: M. H. De Young Memorial Museum and the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, of

effects

While it has not perhaps the carrying power of the German work it has more intimacy of drawing. The war posters of the French have been unequalled in fire and

March

"a style

Exhibition of Water-colors," Nezv York

October 1924, section 82.

Edward Hopper

in conversation with

Lloyd Goodrich,

April 1947, as recorded in Goodrich's notes. 83. Edward Hopper in conversation with Lloyd spring 1964, as recorded in Goodrich's notes. 84.

Times, 19

10, p. 13.

Jo gave him Paul Jamot's Degas

(Paris:

21

Goodrich,

Editions de

la


Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 1924), a beautiful book also

Cf.

illustrations.

following

the

filled

Levin,

with

"Themes,"

chapter,

20.

note a8.

Edward Hopper 4

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

September

to

Lloyd Goodrich, unpublished

The Lady from

husband Charles MacArthur. Lloyd Goodrich noted that High Noon of 1949

When

"is

a

Hopper's only comment was "You kill me." Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 149. Edward Hopper to Guy Pene du Bois, unpublished letter of 2

8.

Objects,"

Edward Hopper to the editor, The Art of Today, 6

to

Kuh, The Artist's Voice, p. 131. Hopper "These houses are gone now." Ibid., p. 134.

Levin,

Fran^ais."

15.

Hopper always

also

26.

had

acted

Edward Hopper

See Levin,

in

New York

with

the

Pis.

341,

350,

His

Life

Players. as

Illustrator,

99a, 316, 485, 504.

27

David W. Paintings 1971), p.

28.

29.

Scott,

John Sloan

(Washington,

D.C.:

i8yi-ip^i:

National

117, PI. 73. Plate 57, p.

102,

Gallery

of

and Art,

reproduces Sloan's

Hopper probably saw Degas' Interior at the Metropolitan Museum, where it was on extended loan from the Whittemore collection from 1921 to 1935. This painting is reproduced in Jamot, Degas, inscribed "for Edward Hopper from Jo" and given to Hopper in 1924, the year of their marriage. The Hoppers also owned the catalogue of a Degas exhibition at the Durand-Ruel Galleries in New York in 1928. Jo Hopper to Margaret McKellar, unpublished letter of 14

30.

remarked:

November

1965.

Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 154. For Hopper's anxiety about his progressive baldness, see the unpublished letter of 27 April 1907 to his mother.

Hopper, who was already balding at the time he was in was so self-conscious during these years that he always wore a hat when photographed. From Paris he wrote to his mother to report that his hair had "ceased to fall

p. 106.

32.

in-

16.

terview with Edward and Jo Hopper by Brian O'Doherty. Boston, 1961. Quoted in William C. Seitz, Edward Hopper in Sao Paulo

17.

9 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1969), p. 22. Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letter of 27 July 1925. from Santa

Edward Hopper

to

Fe,

New

Guy Pene du

Edward Hopper

350. 358. 453. as

is

Bois,

unpublished

letter

as Illustrator. Pis.

examples of restaurant

14.

336, 355,

illustrations

and

out in such large quantities." critics

have commented in any depth on the relationBy far the most incisive

Bryan Robertson, "Hopper's Theater,"

New

York Re-

view of Books, 17 (16 December 1971), in a review of Goodrich, Edward Hopper. Robertson touched l)riefly but brilliantly on a number of crucial points, but <lid not explore them

fully.

Marion Hopper, unpublished

of 5

33.

Jo Hopper

34.

July 1936. Norma Springford, Professor of Theatre Arts at Concordia University, Montreal, suggested this influence to Noreen

Mexico.

of 2 August 1953.

Few

ship of Hopper's art to theater.

preferred trains to airplanes because, he

admitted, "I'm afraid to die": typescript of television

See Levin,

Nivison

Washington Square

Edward Hopper as Illustrator, pp. 40-42 and Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints, pp. 22-23

14.

19.

p. 18.

Paris,

and Pis. 49, 74, 62, 87, 100, 103. Quoted in Goodrich, Edward Hopper,

18.

those saved by him.

Josephine

31.

Ibid.

See Levin,

attended a performance of York on December 15, 1925:

25

Charles H. Sawyer, 29 October 1939,

"The Plan of A Painting: An InterManhattan Bridge Loop by Edward HopJanuary 13-March 10, 1940.

12.

This

Edward Hopper to his mother, unpublished letters of 17 April 1907 and 6 January 1907. In this latter letter, Hopper wrote that the Opera and the Theatre Odeon were both "supported by the government as is also the Theatre

pretive Study of

13.

504.

24

p. 11.

Edward Hopper

exhibition entitled

11.

PI.

his last six plays:

Hopper, "Notes on Painting,"

quoted in full in Goodrich, Edward Hopper, pp. 163-64. Sawyer was then Director of the Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, Massachusetts, which organized an

10.

letter

Movies, Five Cents.

"Edward Hopper

per,"

among

the ticket stub was

August 1953.

(February 1935),

48, for

23

Nathaniel Pousette-Dart, published in

9.

PL

Sea, Hedda Gabler, The Master John Gabriel Borkman, and When

We Dead Awaken. Hopper The Master Builder in New

painting by Piet Mondrian

in a lecture.

the

Builder, Little Eyolf,

almost

he told Hopper that he had shown

Illustrator.

concern appears in the work of Ibsen in

Edward Hopper to Samuel Golden, unpublished letter of 2 November 1945, referring to the use of this painting as the frontispiece of the monograph Edward Hopper (New-

High Noon together with

7.

Henri,

See Levin,

1944.

pure geometry."

The Art Spirit, p. 143. Edward Hopper as

21

22 letter ol

York: American Artists Group, Inc., 1945). William Johnson interview with Hopper, p. 17. Quoted in Archer Winsten, "Wake of the News: Washington Square North Boasts Strangers Worth Talking To," New York Post, 26 November 1935. "Pretty Penny," located just up the road from his boyhood home in Nyack, was owned by Helen Hayes and her

Prints,

January 1937.

of 9

1.

Edward Hopper: The Complete

an etching of another cafe scene. Edward Hopper to Maynard Walker, unpublished

to

letter

who sent me her insightful paper on Edward Hopper. Springford made the remarkable deduction with-

Corrigan,


out the knowledge that

Hopper attended

35.

Marion about the set. O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper,"

36.

Ibid., p. 80.

37.

Richard Lahey Papers, "Artists

Street Scene or

50.

of

I

Have Known," Archives Lahey (1927-

painter and friend of Hopper's, reported this conversation in his memoirs as having taken place in front of 61), a

the original 38.

Whitney Museum on Eighth

Eye (i960) was directed

39-

40.

the

Street.

The Savage by Ben Maddow, Sidney Meyers, and

O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper,"

p. 76.

Joseph Strick. O'Doherty, televised interview (see above, note 15). For example. Hopper's Office in a Small City of 1953 recalled the opening scene from Dodsworth, a film by William Wyler of 1936. The film Days of Heaven (1978) recalled Hopper's House by the Railroad in its opening setting; the house in Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (i960) also resembled the one in this painting.

41.

a fuller discussion of this painting, see Gail Levin, "EdNight,' " Arts Magazine, 52 'Office at

ward Hopper's

(January 1978), pp. 134-37. The quotations by Hopper about this painting cited subsequently are also from the explanation sent to Geske,

Kuh, The

Artist's

Voice, p. 135, quotes

Hopper

Rembrandt, Goya, Degas, Eakins, and Meryon 43-

ises to

54.

Museum

57.

58.

59.

Bride of 1434 in the National Gallery. London, which Hopper would have seen on his visit there during early

p.

46.

25

,

above.

"The Timeless Space of Edward Hopper." The Art Journal, 31 (Summer 1972), p. 409. Author's interview with John Clancy, Hopper's longtime dealer in the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery. This comment was Jean

Gillies,

also recorded by 47.

Jo

Edward Hopper

as Illustrator, Pis. 10, 11a, 12a,

16, 235a, 237, 287, 445, 446, 37, 308, 309a,

49.

309b, 310a, 310b,

312, and Levin, Edward Hopper: The Complete Pis. 28, 34, and 46. William Johnson interview with Hopper, p. 24.

Prints,

of the early articles

on Symbolists

in periodi-

time were H. T. Peck, "Stephane Mallarm^," Bookman, November 1898, and "Baudelaire Legend,"

The volume was Arthur Rimbaud, de Fraxice, 1950). He inscribed it: ses grilles

They

also

presque tous

owned

a

Poesies (Paris: Mercure

"a les

la petite

jours.

typescript

of

chatte qui

Joyeux Noel, "Extraits

de

Morceaux Choisis, Autres Fragments sur Mallarm^," by Paul Valery. Arthur Rimbaud, Complete Works, Selected Letters, translated by Wallace Fowlie (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), pp. 16-17.

in C. F. Maclntyre, French Symbolist Poetry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961), pp. 14-1561. Hopper was inspired by Sloan's subjects more than by his theater, style. Compare, for example. Hopper's restaurant,

60.

Quoted

62.

and movie scenes to Sloan's earlier ones, and to Sloan's etching Barber Shop of 1915, which preceded Hopper's oil painting Barber Shop of 1931. Quoted in Kuh, The Artist's Voice, p. 134.

in the ledger entry for this painting.

O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," pp. 72-73.

48. See Levin,

Some

1951."

his

45.

have prom-

Scribner's, 45 (February 1909).

Hopper men-

July 1907. For his reaction to Rembrandt's Nightioatch. see

I

described "the darkest

Library, Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington. Arthur Symons, The Symbolist Movement in Literature (New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc., revised edition. 1919).

as his favorite

Jan van Eyck's Giovanni Arnolfini and

poem

cals of the

tioned "the honest simplicity of early Dutch and Flemish A well-known example where the spectator is

Earlier this

G. Hall, illustrated by Henry McCarter (Chicago: Stone & Kimball, 1895), preserved in the John Sloan Memorial

masters. ..."

becomes witness

."

Hopper would have known some of Whistler's Nocturnes. Henri had also admired Whistler. 56. John Sloan's interest in Symbolist poetry is documented by his copy of Poems of Paul Verlaine, translated by

of Art.

In this article

.

poetry.

d^couvre p. 173.

and deep/But

are lovely, dark .

Notes and Grace Notes (New 'York: Holt, 1923). As quoted in Goodrich, Edward Hopper, p. 129. See the preceding chapter, "Development," p. 20. Earlier Whistler had been fascinated with the depiction of crepuscular scenes and had been influenced by French Symbolist

The

Hopper. "John Sloan,"

keep.

evening of the year"; Robert Frost, "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening," from New Hampshire: A Poem with

It

phia] 44,

York Times Book Review.

"The woods

artists.

was reproduced in Jamot. Degas, owned by Hopper, who also might have seen the painting in Philadelphia in the Degas exhibition of 1936 at the Pennsylvania [Philadel-

.

52.

as listing

artists that he admired: "Rembrandt above all, and the etcher Meryon ... I also like Degas very much." In Rodman, Conversations zuith Artists, p. 199, Hopper had listed

New

.

53.

55.

accompanying letter of 25 August 1948, to Norman A. Geske, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. For

42.

tender and vast appeasement seems to descend

O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 80. Hopper quoted these lines in both German and English. Ibid., p. 80, and Hopper to Adams, letter of 7 August 1955.

51.

"Office at Night," explanatory statement

Edward Hopper,

a

.

p. 78.

Art, roll 378, frames 919-1053.

American

"Now

Ah, exquisite from the firmament with the irised star hour"; Paul Verlaine, Selected Poems, translated by C. F. Maclntyre (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1948), p. 95. Hopper quoted this poem in French in his Christmas card of 1923 for Jo (PI. 35); and to O'Doherty, "Portrait: Edward Hopper," p. 80; and again in an unpublished letter of 7 August 1955 to Donald Adams, editor of

of Jo's letter to

63. Ibid. 64.

Hopper wrote of Five A.AL: "The been in mind a long time before I

idea of this picture had

started to paint it, and that I had seen things some think was suggested by I boats on Long 'Vork New Boston, the on travelling while


Island Sound.

The

original

impression grew into an

65.

66.

James letter

to a

Thomas Flexner to Edward Hopper, of 13 May 1961. Elexner also wrote: "1

the formal

between restraint and the opulence of nature. Restraint represented by the peaked architecture and the old lady for whom all passion is spent; opulence, by the line of trees, the sky, and the marvelously buxom young lady sit-

at-

harbour on the New Enghmd coast"; Edward Hopper to Mrs. EUzabeth Navas, unpublished letter of 12 July 1939. Archives of American Art, roll D251, frames 1033-34. Quoted in Kuh, The Artist's Voice, pp. 135 and 140.

tempted synthesis of an entrance

ting

seasons to be fulfilled."

unpulilished felt

both in

and emotional tensions of your painting

a pull

on the edge of the porch, not waiting for anything in fertile and sure in the movement of the

particular, yet

67.

Edward Hopper 18

May

1961.

to

Lloyd Goodrich, unpublished

letter of


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Baigell,

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Arts Magazine, 49 (September 1974), pp. 29-33. Baldwin. Carl. "Realism: The .American Mainstream," Realites.

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Barker, Virgil.

Arts,

5 (June 1924), pp. 323-25. Barr, Alfred H., Jr. Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition.

New

The Museum

York:

of

Modern

Art, 1933.

"Edward Hopper, Poet-Painter

Bernard, Sidney.

of

Loneli-

"Edward Hopper." Magazine

of Art, 30

College Art Journal,

7

(Autumn

1947), pp. 3-11-

Princeton,

New

Jersey:

Princeton

to the

The

Stoiy

University

of

the

Armory Show. New York: The

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, 1963. Burchfield, Charles. "Hopper: Career of Silent Poetry." Art

News, 49 (March

1950), pp. 14-17.

Burrey, Suzanne. "Edward

Hopper: The Emptying Spaces."

1

Art News, 63 (October 1964), pp. 42-45. Royal. "A Fine Collection at The Brooklyn

Cortissoz,

seum." p. 8.

New

Artists Say

.

Group,

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New York: American and Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, Inc.,

the Silliest Things. Inc.,

1940.

Alexander. Three

light

Hundred

York: Time,

Inc., 1957.

"The

legacy of

and

loneliness."

Years of American Painting.

Edward Hopper: painter

Smithsonian,

of

(September 1971),

2

"The Timeless Space of Edward Hopper." Art (Summer 1972), pp. 404-12. Glueck, Grace. "Art Is Left by Hopper to the Whitney." New York Times, 19 March 1971, pp. and 28. Goodrich, Lloyd. "The Paintings of Edward Hopper." The

Gillies, Jean.

Journal, 32

1

Arts, 2 .

April 1955, pp. 8-ich-. Campbell, Lawrence. "Hopper: Painter of 'thou shah not!' Arts Digest,

(March

pp. 60-67.

De-

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.

Art, 8

Getlein, Frank.

American Painting from the Armory Show

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land, 7 (October 1922), pp. 22-23. "The American Paintings of Edward

New

(May

1937), pp. 274-78.

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Edward Hopper." Vanity Fair, 38 (June 1932), pp. 30-31. Guy Pene. "Edward Hopper, Draughtsman." Shadow-

Bois.

Eliot,

Brown, Milton W. "The Early Realism of Hopper and Burchfield."

du

Artists

ness." Literary Times, April 1965, p. 11.

Brace, Ernest.

Crowninshield, Frank. "A Series of American Artists, No. 3

(March

1927), pp. 134-38.

Edward Hopper. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin

Books, 1949.

Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition. New York: Whitney Museum of .American Art, 1950. Edward Hopper. Exhibition and Catalogue. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1964. .

"

.

Mu-

York Tribune, 25 November 1923, section

6.

.

pp.

"Portrait of the Artist." 37-)-.

Woman's Day, February

1965,


Edward Hopper. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1971. Edward Hopper: Selections from the Hopper Bequest

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.

"Edward Hopper's Water Colors Prove Interesting—

.

Also Sell." The Sun, 25 October 1924,

p. 4.

Whitney Museum of American Art. New York: Whitney Museum of American An, 1971. Heller, N. and Williams. J. "Edward Hopper: Alone in Amer-

Mellow, James R. "Painter of the City." Dialogue,

40 (January 1976), pp. 70-75. ica." American Hopper, Edward. "Books" (review of Malcolm C. Salaman, Fine Prints of the Year, 792;). The Arts, 9 (March 1926),

Magazine, 5 September 1971, pp. 14-17-I-. Morse, John. "Interview with Edward Hopper." Art

the

to

Artist,

"John Sloan and the Philadelphians."

.

The

Arts,

11

(April 1927). pp. 168-78.

"Books" (review of Vernon Blake, The Art and Craft The Arts. 11 (June 1927), pp. 333-34"Charles Burchfield: American." The Arts. 14 (July

.

of Drawing). .

1928), pp. 5-12.

"Edward

.

Pousette-Dart).

Hopper The Art

Objects" of

Nathaniel

to

(letter

Today, 6 (February 1

(Spring 1953).

Museum

Collected correspondence. Whitney

.

New

Presented

mirably

at

Museum

of

Work AdModern Art." New Painter's

York Times, 5 November 1933, p. 12. "Early .\n Shown of Edward Hopper," .

Sun.

New

York

January 1941.

1 1

Kent, Rockwell.

It's

Me O

Lord: The Autobiography of Rock-

New

York: Dodd. Afead & Co., 1955. Kingsley, April. "Edward Hopper." The Provincetozun Advowell Kent.

cate Weekly Summer Guide, 25 July 1974, pp. 12-13. Kramer, Hilton. "Art: Whitney Shows Items from Hopper Bequest." New York Times, 11 September 1971, p. 23Kuh, Katharine. The Artist's Voice. Talks with Seventeen

New

Artists.

York: Harper & Row, 1962,

Lanes, Jerrold. "Edward Hopper: French Formalist, Ash Can Realist, Neither or Both." Arlforum. 7 (October 1968), pp. 44-50.

Edward Hopper at Kennedy Galleries. New York: Kennedy Galleries, Inc., 1977. "Edward Hopper's 'Office at Night.' " Arts Magazine,

Levin, Gail.

.

52 (January 1978), pp. 134-37"Edward Hopper, Francophile,"

Arts

.

Magazine, 53

Edward Hopper Norton & Company

as

Museum

Art, 1979.

.

American "Edward Hopper of

Correspondences."

Illustrator.

in

as

New with

association

Printmaker and

The Print

(September-October

York: the

W. W. Whitney

Illustrator:

Collector's

Some

Newsletter,

10

Edward Hopper: The Complete Prints. New York: W. W. Norton & Company in association with the Whit-

Museum "Some

of

Mary.

"Hopper Exhibition

Clarities

a

Phase

American

Art, 1979.

of the finest examples of

American printmak-

News, 78 (September 1979), pp. 90-93. Henry. "Hopper's Watercolors." The Dial,

1924, pp. 201-3.

of

American Art." Art News, 32 (4 November 1933), p. 12. O'Connor, John, Jr. "Edward Hopper, American Artist." Carnegie Magazine, 10 (March 1937), pp. 303-6. O'Doherty, Brian. "Portrait: Edward Hopper," Art in America, 52 (December 1964), pp. 68-88. "The Hopper Bequest at the Whitney." Art in ica,

59 (September

1971), pp. 68-69 and

Amer-

72.

New

American Masters: The Voice and the Myth.

.

York:

Random

House, 1973.

Perlman, Bennard B. The Immortal Eight. Westport, Connecticut: North Light Publishers, 1979.

"Hopper: Relentless realism, American light." September 1971, p- 27. Price, Matlock. "The Sun's Poster Contest Shows Art's Value in War." The Sun, 25 August 1918, section 3, p. 8. Read, Helen Appleton. "Brooklyn Museum Emphasizes New Talent in Initial Exhibition." Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 18 Village Voice. 23

November 1923, p. 2B. "The American Scene." Brooklyn Daily .

Eagle,

20

February 1927, p. 6E. "Edward Hopper." Parnassus, 5 (November 1933), pp. .

"Racial Quality of Hopper Pictures at Modern Museum Agrees with Nationalistic Mood." Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 November 1933, pp- 12B-C. Robert Henri and Five of his Pupils: George Bellows, Eugene Speicher, Guy Pine du Bois, Rockwell Kent, Edward Hopper (exhibition catalogue). New York: Century .

Association, 1946.

Read, Lolan C, Sketch Book,

Jr.

"The New York School

3 (April 1904), p. 219. Reece, Childe. "Edward Hopper's Etchings."

of

The

Art,"

Magazine

of Art,

31 (April 1938), pp. 226-28.

Burchfield." Perspectives U.S.A., 16 (1956), pp.11 1-19.

Rodman,

Selden.

Conversations

with

Artists.

New

York:

Devin-Adair, 1957. Rose, Barbara. "Edward Hopper— 'Greatest American Realist of the 20th Century.'" Vogue, 158 (1 September 1971), p.

William C. Edward Hopper in Sao Paulo 9. WashingSmithsonian Press, 1967. Soby, James Thrall. Contemporary Painters. New York: The Seitz,

ton, D.C.:

.

May

Modern Art, 1948. Time by Edward Hopper." Saturday Review, March 1950), pp. 42-43(4 Walter. "The Pursuit of Happiness" (unpublished

Museum

ing." Art

McBride,

Amer-

284.

1979), pp. 121-23.

.

ney

in

Richardson, E. P. "Three American Painters: Sheeler-Hopper—

(June 1979), pp. 114-21.

.

Edward Hopper." New York Times

Perreault, John.

York.

Edward Alden. "This American

Jewell,

of Ameri-

4

48 (March i960), pp. 60-63.

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1935), p. 11.

p. 8.

can Art.

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.

"Statements by Four Artists." Reality,

.

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.

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no.

4,

(1971). PP- 74-84-

33 Tittle,

of

"Arrested


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Wittenberg University Library, Spring-

Ohio.

"Edward Hopper: Alienation by Light." Maga(December 1948), pp. 290-95. "Walkowitz and Hopper." Arts and Decoration, 6 (February

Tyler. Parker.

zine of Art, 41

1916), pp. 190-91.

Watson, Forbes. "A Note on Edward Hopper." Vanity

"The Rise of Edward Hopper." Brooklyn Daily November 1933, p- 13-

5

edited by Carl Zigrosser.

Eagle,

New

York: Holt, Rinehart, and

Winston. 1962.

"The Prints of Edward Hopper." American (November 1963), pp. 38-43. .

Fair,

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Winsten, Archer. "Washington Square North Boasts Strangers Worth Talking To." Neiu York Post, 26 November 1935. Zigrosser, Carl. "The Etchings of Edward Hopper." In Prints,

Artist, 27


INDEX OF PICTURES Brackets indicate descriptive works.

The

titles

given by the author to previously untitled

and French

idiosyncrasies of Hopper's spelling

titles

have been

preserved. Acrobats:

Le

PI. 331. PI. 208.

Adobe Houses:

PI. 308; p. 50.

[Adobes and Shed,

Fig. 43; pp. 39, 40.

Beam Trawler Beam Trawler Beam Trawler

130: pp. 32, 33, 34, 38.

Before the Footlights:

Xew

American Landscape: American Village: PI.

Mexico]:

PI. 307.

43-

L'Annee Terrible

(illustration for); Fig. 29;

PI. 177; p. 42.

Pis.

256.

255,

257-

British Steamer: p. 28.

Teale: PI. 176.

The Buggy

PI. 334.

PI.

122;

pp.

or

House on

Hill:

a

PP- 38, 39[Burly Cobb's House, South Truro]:

Fig.

42;

PI. 409.

27. 28. 35. 5>. 60.

Blackliead.

PI. 336.

Apartment Houses: PI. 159; pp. 39, 42. Approaching a City: PI. 294; pp. 47, 48. Approaching a City (drawing for): PI. 295.

Blackwell's

Apres midi de Juin or L'Apres midi de Printemps: PI. 102; pp. 24, 35. PI. 30. [Artist's Bedroom, Nyack]

[Blond

:

Monhegan: Island:

Pis.

245;

pp.

1;

pp.

Blackivell's Island

(drawing

Woman

Before an Easel]:

Woman

Before an Easel] (drawing

Baptistry of Saint John's: PI. 313; p. 51. Baptistry of Saint John's (drawing for): 314; p. 51.

The Barber Shop: PI. 161; pp. 42, 58. The Barber Shop (drawing for): PI. 162.

at

Gare d'Orleans:

The

Bootleggers: PI. 175. of

Beam

[Box]: Fig.

PI. 98.

Trawler:

PI. 173.

15; p. 16.

Car, Freight Car at Truro: PI. 271.

Briar Neck:

PI. 129.

Nyack:

PI. 413.

PI. 29.

Canal at Charenton: PI. 303; pp. 39, 50. Canal Lock at Charenton: PI. 104; pp.

23,

Cape Cape Cape Cape

Cod Cod Cod Cod

Afternoon:

Evening:

PI. 417.

PI.

418; p. 62.

Evening (drawing

for):

Morning: PI. 399; p. Captain Kelly's House: PI. 222.

PI. 419.

63.

Caricature of the artist as a boy holding

Bridge: p. 29.

[Bridge in Paris]:

The Camel's Hump:

25-

Bow

The

PI.

Cafe: p. 32.

Camp

[Boatyard]: PI. 181.

Box

for):

California Hills: PI. 323.

Boat Landing

PI.

p.

18.

[Blond

PI. 311; p. 51.

Charleston, 5.C.] (drawing

312; p. 5''

for): PI. 246. PI. 76;

PI. 88.

[Cabin, Charleston. S.C.]: [Cabin,

[Blug]: PI. 147; p. 34.

6, 32.

28,

33. 38. 45. 46-

[Artist's Studio]: PI. 59.

PI. 259.

Cab, Horse, and Crowd:

139-143; p. 34.

124,

Pis.

for): PI. 77; p. 18.

August in the City: PI. 258; p. 46. August in the City (drawing for): Automat: PI. 327; p. 52. Fortifications: Fig.

Osprey:

PI. 117; p. 26.

Bridle Path: PI. 254; p. 46. Bridle Path (drawings for):

Seal: p. 37.

La Berge: p. 28. Le Bistro or The Wine Shop:

p. 27.

Anno Domini XIXCV:

Aux

Bridge on the Seine:

Barriere: p. 32.

[TIte Battery, Charleston, S.C.]: PI. 316.

Adam's House:

I'l.

84.

books by Freud and Jung: Fig.

2; p. 9.


man" and

Caricature of "Non-Anger

Anger woman": Fig. 7: pp. Carolina Morning: PI. 322. [Cars and Rocks]: PI. 205. Chair Car:

"Pro-

Evening, The Seine:

Evening

12-13.

p. 32.

]\'ind: Fig. 38: pp. 35, 3G. 39. 63.

Excursion into Philosophy:

pp. 60.

PI. 371:

61.

House by

PI. 305; p. 49.

Charleston Doorway:

PI. 315.

The

Chop Suey: PI. 328; p. 52. The Circle Theatre: PI. 339: p. 53. La Cite or lie Saint Louis: Pi. 112. The City: PI. 241; p. 46.

Under

Bridge

a

at

ment]: First

The Coal Box:

First

PI. 406.

Coast Guard Station: PI. 220. [Cobb's Barns and Distant Houses]:

Row Row

Pis. 411,

Fortuny:

Pis. 408, 410.

p. 44. PI.

PI.

90:

272:

pp. 47.

PI. 350: p. 53.

Orchestra (drawing

PI. 351.

for):

PI. 385: p. 63.

(drawings

for):

PI. 267.

Conference at Night: Pi. 360: p. 58. at Might (drawings for):

PI. 96:

pp. 23.

Pis.

Corner:

233: PP- 5. 30. 39- 43. 45a Stage: Fig. 55; pp.

A Couple on

Pi.

Girlie

Sewing Machiiie]:

158: p. 42.

Pi.

Gloucester Harbor:

pp. 54, 55.

126,

Pis.

(drawing

Dead

Trees, Gloucester:

Deck

of a

Beam

PI.

Trawler:

Une Demimondaine: pp.

for):

I'l.

5, 26.

133:

Evening

in

PI. 182.

pp. 30, 32.

Dress]:

Haunted House:

PI. 236;

pp. 39, 45.

-id-

East Side Interior: Fig. 39; pp. 35, 36. East Wind over Weehawken: PI. 248;

Wind

for):

High Noon: High Road:

PI.

Pis. 249. 250.

de

la

Monnaie or Le Pont Xeuf:

Pi. 118; p. 26.

Station: PI. 261: pp. 26, 47.

Eleven A.M.:

PI. 393;

pp. 42. 63.

tist's

Mother]: Garrett

The

.irtist's

PI. 376.

Railroad (drawings

for):

Pis. 298.

Lighthouse Hill:

at

Two

Lights: PI. 194.

PI. 193: p. 43. PI.

265: p. 47.

Monhegan: PI. 144. The Locomotive: Fig. 49; pp. 47, The Long Leg: PI. 184. The Louvre: p. 27.

49. tor):

48.

Louvre and Boat Landing: PI. 110. Le Louvre et la Seine: PI. 101; pp.

299-

Hotel Lobby: PI. 283: p. Hotel Lobby (drawings

Pis. 188, 189: p. 43.

Little Cove,

.irtist's Sister]: PI. 27.

a Railroad: PI. 297: p. 49.

P- 49-

Light Battery at Gettysburg: PI. 375; p. 60. Light Battery at Gettysburg (drawing for):

Lime Rock Railroad, Rockland, Maine:

Henry,

138.

Shore: PI. 186: p. 43. Lights: Pis. 190. 191, 192, 195:

The Lighthouse

PI. 28.

PI. 25.

[Hopper, Marion, The

PI.

PI. 107.

Two

[Lighthouse]:

[Hopper,

a

PI. 325: p. 12.

P- 43-

398: pp. 42. 63.

PI. 270.

[Hopper, Elizabeth Griffiths Smith. The Ar-

Hotel b\ Hotel by

of Fog: p. 29.

Light at

PI. 31.

Father]: Pis. 23, 24. p. 46.

over Weehaxrken (drawings

42.

Fig. 8; p. 11.

[Landlady and Boarders]:

The Lee

PI. 215.

PI. 218.

57-

East River:

:

Les Lavoirs a Pont Royal:

South Truro: PI. 407; p. 63. Hodgkin's House, Cape .inn, .Massacliusetts:

383; pp. 39. 4G.

at .4gf of 6'/2

[Landscape with Fence and Trees]:

[Hook Mountain, \yack]: PI.

PI.

34; p. 7.

Hills,

Early Sunday Morning:

Truro House]:

Josie lisant un journal: PI. 54.

PI. 332.

PI. 74. PI.

Joseddy

Haskell's House: PI. 200; p. 44.

32. 60.

33-

The El

pp.

207.

and Lady

Hettie Duryea Meade:

Dories, Ogunquil

Ecluse

179;

Land

PI. 87.

Quixote:

PI.

Ground Swell: PI. 185; p. 43. Guy Pene du Bois: Pis. 32, 33. [Harlequin

p. 37.

The Dory: PI. 18a; p. 43. Drug Store: PI. 242: p. 45.

East

[Jo Sketching at the Beach]: PI. 37. [Jo Sketching in the

198: p. 6.

Les Deux Pigeons: Fig. 4: pp. 10, [Docked Freighter and Tugboat]:

PI. 46.

28.

29. 43-

Gloucester Houses:

in Pennsylvania: PI. 281; p. 47.

Pennsylvania

Pis. 40. 43. 48.

[Jo Sleeping]: Pis. 45, 47.

282.

Don The

PI. 347;

Hopper]:

Jo in Wyoming:

Jo Painting: PI. 44. [Jo Reading]: PI. 41.

Girlie Sltow (drawings for): Pis. 348, 349.

374-

Dome:

Show:

p.

105:

[Girl in White]: PI. 79.

in

Lille,

37-

[]o

PI.

de

Italian Quarter, Gloucester: PI. 196; pp. 37.

PI. 275; p. 50.

[Girl at a

Daxfn Before Gettysburg: PI. 373: p. 61. Daum Before Gettysburg (drawing for):

rue

43-

PP- 23. 25.

PI. 415.

4S

at

Italian Quarter, Gloucester (watercolor):

Gas (drawings for): Pis. 276, 277. Gateway and Fence. Saint Cloud:

44.

Cite: PI. 112.

Intermission: PI. 352; p. 55. for):

Pi.

.56-

"lt.

La

Courtyard

Paris]: PI. 83; pp. 23, 24.

From Williamsburg Bridge: PI. 243. From ]\'illiamsburg Bridge (drawing

Gas:

Cove at Ogunquit: Pi. 134; p. 30. [Cunard Sailor]: PI. 95: pp. 23, 33. Custom House, Portland: PI. 217: p.

Saint Louis or

[Interior

PI. 244.

Corn Hill: PI. 405; p. 63. Corner Saloon or Xew York

Dawn Dawn

[Ibsen: .it the Theatre]: PI. 337.

He

[French IVoman with Basket]:

361, 362; p. 58.

Dauphinee House:

Ibsen (study of illustration): Fig. 52: p. 52.

33-

Conference

PI.

317-

Freight Cars, Gloucester:

Pis. 273, 274; p. 47.

House on Pamet River: PI. 225. House with a Bay IVindotv: p. 37. House with Bay Window: PI. 213; p. 44. House icith Fence: PI. 199; p. 6. [House with Veranda, Charleston, S.C.]:

PI. 296; p. 50.

PI. 165; p. 42.

Car 205

42:

pp. 38, 39.

PI. 64; p. 18.

French Six-Day Bicycle Rider: PI. 164; p. 42. French Six-Day Bicycle Rider (drawing for):

48.

C,

House of the Fog Horn, No. y. PI. 414. House on a Hill or The Buggy: Fig.

Apart-

York

PI. 50.

Four Lane Road:

[Cobb's Barns, South Truro]:

Xeif

Hopper's

Orchestra:

Five A.M.:

412.

Cold Storage Plant: PI. 224; Compartment C, Car 295:

Paris]:

in

P- 47-

[Fireplace

the Railroad: PI. 264; pp. 39, 40,

47-

Fifer: PI. 65; p. 18.

[Figures

City Roofs: PI. 52.

Compartment

Hotel Room: PI. 269: p. 49. Hotel Window: PI. 300: pp. 49, 50. Hotel JVindow (drawing tor): PI. 301. House at Dusk: PI. 384; p. 62.

Pis.

284-287:

5, 24, 26.

35.

The Louvre

in a

Thunder Storm:

PI. 116.


Dam Bridge: Dam Bridge

Macomb'5 Macomb's

October on Cape Cod:

PI. 251.

(drawings

for):

Pis.

Maison

Hopper:

Fig. 32; p. 29.

Office in a

Man

PI. 67;

Olympia:

p. 18.

and

Bridge

Ma7ihattan

Apartments:

Lily

for):

Pis.

On

tile

Small City:

357-359:

146; p. 34.

Sea]: Pis. 149, 151; p. 34.

[Rocky Shoreline]:

p. 29.

PI. 152; p. 34.

PI. 150; p. 34.

145: pp. 34, 56.

PI.

[Roofs, Saltillo. Mexico]: PI. 320;

PI. 240.

Manhattan Bridge Loop: PI. 247; pp. 45, 46. The Mansard Roof: PL 197: pp. 6. 37, 43. Marshall's House:

PI. 223.

Un Maquereau (drawing

[Rooftops]: [Painter

and Model]:

PI. 73: p. 18.

pp.

5. 23.

25. 26, 35.

of

PI.

187,

P-43-

[Parisian [Parisian

Woman]:

Woman

PI. 93;

pp. 23. 33.

Walking]:

[Parisian ]]'orkman\: Fig. 44:

Methodist Church. Provincetown:

PI.

221:

p. 44.

pp. 23.

94;

92; pp. 23, 33.

I'l.

Park Entrance: PI. 235: pp. 38, 39. Parkhurst House (Captain's House):

Le Pavilion de Flore:

PI. 35: p. 10.

(drawing

Brooklyn:

in

New

PI. 163.

York:

PI. 366; p. 60.

Rooms by the Sea: PI. 424; p. 63. Rooms for Tourists: PI. 290: p. 50. Rooms for Tourists (drawings for);

Pis.

291-

Route Route

Eastham:

6.

Pis.

279,

PI. 278; p. 50.

Eastham (drawings

6,

for):

Ryder's House:

PI. 416.

PI. 201.

The sacrament

PI. i6g; p. 42.

Town

Pennsylvania Coal Fig.

for):

in

280.

PI. 115; p. 26.

Pennsylvania Coal Town: (illustration

PI.

p. 51.

PI. 239.

293; p. 50.

33-

p. 42.

Les Miserables

loti;

PI.

PI.

[Paris Street]: PI. 81; pp. 23, 24. iVellfieet:

Mass of Trees at Eastham: PI. 422. Meal lime: PI. 57; p. 11. Meditation, 10 Miles from Home:

Mite. Jo h'oel:

Room Room

El Palacio: PI. 321: p. 51.

Le Pare du Saint Cloud: for Soir Bleu):

379-

The Martha McKean

A

[Rocky Projection at the Sea]:

[Rocky Shore]: PI. [Rocky Shore and

PI. 363; p. 58.

PI. 153.

PI. 206.

IF]:

[Rocky Seashore]:

PI. 66; p. 18.

Ouai:

by the Sea]:

Cliffs

[Rocky Cove

pp. 58, 59, 62.

Fig. 3; pp. 10, 58, 59.

[Ma?t Dritiking]: PI. 80.

with a Hoe:

[Rocky

PI. 420.

PI. 356;

Night (drawings

Office at

252. 253-

E.

Office at Night:

for):

(female

sex

of

xiersion):

PI. 56. PI.

28:

170. p. 27.

People

[Model Jimmy Corsi Dressed

as

Fisherman]:

PI. 72.

Monhegan

Moonlight Interior:

Morning Morning

PI. 380;

in a City: PI. 394: pp. 42, 63.

(drawings

in a City

for):

Pis.

395-

Morning Sun: PI. 400: p. 42. Morning Sun (drawings for): Mother:

5, 24. 26. 35.

PI.

PI. 100; p. 24.

la

Monnaie:

[Seated Old Man]: PI. 91: pp. 23, 33.

Woman]:

Seawatchers:

PI. 68.

PI. 369; p. 60.

Second Story Sunlight:

425; p. 64.

PI.

[Self-Portrait]: Pis. 1-3, 8-16, 19-22; p. 9.

Pont Royal:

The PI.

pp. 30, 34.

PI. 135;

[Seated Nude]: PI. 157.

PI.

118; p. 26.

York Corner or Corner Saloon:

Sea at Ogunquit:

[Seated

Fog:

in the

Le Pont Neuf or Ecluse de

401-403.

l,e

New

p. 32.

Arts: PI. 103: pp.

Pont du Carrousel Pis.

Pi. 63; p. 18.

[Satan in Red]: PI. 333.

Pont du Carrousel and Care d'Orleans:

PI. 26.

PI. 219.

Salome:

99: P- 24.

397-

My

PI. 58; p.

Le Pont des

Salem:

PI. 49.

16.

Les Poilus: Fig. 36;

pp. 39, 45.

Sailing: Pis. 125, 171; pp. 28, 42.

PI. 426.

Perkins Youngboy Dos Passos:

Phil May: Boat: Fig. 41; p. 38.

Sun:

in the

PI. 114; p. 26.

[Self-Portrait Sketches]: PI. 7; p. 9.

Port: p. 29.

Hand

[Self-Portrait with

233;

Pis. 4-6;

Studies]:

Portrait of Orleans: PI. 421.

PP-

New New

5. 30. 39- 43. 45-

York Movie:

PI. 340;

P-9-

Pretty Penny: PI. 228; p. 44. pp. 53, 54.

York Movie (drawings

for):

Pis.

341-

Pretty

Penny (drawings

[Self-Portrait with Hat]: PI. 18; p. 9.

for);

Prospect Street, Gloucester:

Pis. 229, 230. PI.

209;

p.

New New

York

Seven A.M.:

PI. 3(14; p. 58.

Office

(drawing

for):

PI.

365;

p. 58.

New

York.

Le Quai des Grands

Au.gu.stins:

Pis.

111.

Shakespeare

119; P-35-

New Haven and

Hartford:

PI.

Clueensborough Bridge:

PI.

PI. 237;

York Restaurant: PI. 386:

The Railroad:

pp. 39. 58.

Shakespeare

232; p. 45.

Railroad Sunset:

pp. 20, 62. 63.

Notre

Windows:

Dame

Pi. 381;

de Paris:

Notre Dame, No.

2:

47,

[Reclining Nude]:

[Small

Town

Smash

the

PI. 38.

Nude on

a

Couch]:

Le Rive de Josie: PI. 36. [River and Buildings]: PI. Riverboat:

PI. 109.

PI. 113;

PI. 39.

PI. 324; p. 51.

pp. 46, 62. for):

Pis.

71;

[Rocks and Sea]:

Rocks

Pis.

PI.

238.

Street]: PI. 216.

Hun

(study for): PI. 155; pp. 34-

PI.

pp.

378;

5,

7,

30, 31, 32, 52,

55, 61, 62.

Soir

pp. 26, 28.

PI.

(drawing

Bleu

for),

Un Maquereau:

PI- 379-

Soldiers in 132;

30. 32. 33. 35PI.

for);

Fig. 23; p. 22.

Near Washington Square:

Soir Bleu: 85.

Rocks and Houses. Ogunquit:

53.

35-

Road and Trees: PI. 304; pp. 39. 50. Road in Maine: PI. 131; pp. 30. 35. 70;

The

345. 346; P- 53Sketcit Book (drawing):

Skyline.

pp. 20, 62.

PI. 108; p. 35.

18, 37.

18, 37.

pp. 46, 62.

[Restaurant Scene]:

[Nude Female Model on Platform]: pp.

PI. 382;

pp. 20. 21, 33, 39.

November, Washington Square: PI. 51. [Nude Craii'ling into Bed]: PI. 75; p. 21. [Nude Female Model in Studio]: PI. pp.

PI. 389;

Dusk (drawings

at

PI. 262; pp. 26, 47. [Railroad Trestle in the Desert]: PI. 309.

[Reclining Fig. 22;

Pis. 263. 266; p. 47.

Railroad Train:

48, 60, 62.

A'!g/!(

p. 37.

Dusk:

The Sheridan Theatre: Pi. 344; p. The Sheridan Theatre (drawings

PI. 89: p. 29, 47.

Railroad Crossing:

PI. 326; p. 51.

Nighthawks (drawing for): PI. 387. Night in the Park: Fig. 21; pp. 20, 21. Night on the El Train: Fig. 50; pp. 20. Night Shadows:

at

390-392-

York Pavements:

Nighthawks:

PI.

PI. 388; p. 63.

SImcks at Lanesville:

268; p. 47.

New New

Portrait]:

17: P- 9-

Office:

York

Nude and

[Self-Portrait with

44.

343: P- 53-

PI. 148; p. 34.

at the Fort, Gloucester: PI. 202.

pp.

[Solitary

Wagon:

Figure

PI. 372.

in

a

Theatre]:

P- 53-

Solitude: PI. 288: p. 50.

Solitude (drawing

for):

PI. 289.

PI.

335;


Somewhere

Sun in an Empty Room: PI. 429: pp. Sun on Prospect Street: PI. 210; p. 44.

in France: p. 32.

South Truro Church:

PI. 404; p. 63.

Squam St. [St.

PI.

PI. 160; pp. 7. 42. Sunlight in a Cafeteria: PI. 330:

Sunlight on Brownstones:

306;

System (illustration

p. 50.

for): Fig. 31;

pp. 60, 61.

PI.

Tables for Ladies:

82:

Venusâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Thorvaldsen: PI. 61; p. Vermont Sugar House: PI. 227.

PI. 329; p. 52.

a

is

comic picture you

[Victorian House]:

La

must laugh:

Engine; Railroad of Xezc

[Three .Men

Jersey]:

at

an

.4rt

Exhibition]:

PI.

[Waves

Train and Bathers: p. 32. Tramp Steamer: PI. 172; p.

Street in Paris (etching): p. 32.

[Student and Teacher at the Easel]:

PI.

[Trees and Bench]:

pp. 18, 20. [Studies of Light on Portrait Heads]: PI. 377.

Trees

PI. 319.

in

PI.

Pare du

White River Saint

Tugboat

10, 60.

pp.

pp. 25, 63. Boat iL'ith Black Smokestack:

Tug

5: p. 10.

PI. 367;

in the City: PI. 368; p. 60.

at

PI.

]\'ith

121.

pp. 55-56.

(drawings

for):

Pis.

[Tzvo Dories]:

166; p. 42.

PI.

Summertime (drawings

Two

for): Pis. 167, i68.

on the

.4

Seated on Table]:

Woman Woman

PI.

122;

pp.

PI. 60.

in the Sun: PI. 427. in the

Yaifl

Riding

Yonkers or

PI. 136.

.iisle:

or Le Bistro:

Sun (drawing

for):

PI. 428.

354.

355: P- 55-

38, 45-

at Sharon: PI. 318.

the Refugees: p. 35.

[Woman

PI. 97:

A PI. 353:

PI.

27. 28, 35, 51, 60.

Boulevard Saint Michel:

Two Comedians: Two Comedians

Street or Yonkers: PI. 234; pp. 34,

PI. 154.

PI. 302; p. 49.

The Wine Shop

Cloud:

p. 24.

Interior: PI. 123; pp. 26, 41.

Rocky Shore]:

204.

178; p. 42.

PI. 423:

.ifternoon: Fig.

PI. 62; p. 18.

[White House with Dormer Window]:

42.

PI. 137.

Sunlight,

atid

Western Motel:

Trawler and Telegraph Pole:

78:

PI. 214.

Femme:

Vieille

18.

69:

p. 18.

Street in Paris: PI. 86; p. 29.

Summertime:

203;

[Village Church]: PI. 226.

PI. 53; p. 12.

PI. 260; p. 47.

Evening:

PI.

pp. 29, 58.

Tall Masts, Gloucester: PI. 127; p. 28.

This

PI. 156.

Status Quo: PI. 55; p. 11.

Summer Summer Summer Summer Summer

Gloucester:

I'alley of the Seine: PI. 120: pp. 26. 28.

[Stairway at 4S rue de Lille, Paris]:

Sugar .Maple:

pp. 44, 50.

PI. 174.

P-44-

[Stairway] (drawing for): PI. 211.

[Steain

PI. 231;

Church.

Universalist

p. 52.

PI. 370;

[Stairway]: PI. 212.

pp. 23, 24. [Standing \ude]:

Puritans:

[Tu'O Trawlers]:

Sunday:

Light: PI. 128; pp. 28, 35. Francis Tower, Santa Fe: PI. 310; p. 50.

Michael's College, Santa Fe]:

Two

9. 63.

PI. 338; p. 53.

a Swell: PI. 183; p. 43.

Summer

Street:

PI. 234;

pp. 34.

38. 45-

PHOTOCiRAPfllC CREDITS Photographs of the works of majority of captions.

cases,

The

Daniel Abadie,

Armen,

PI.

reproduced have been supplied, in the

by the owners or custodians of the works, as cited in the

following

acknowledgment

art

is

list

applies to photographs for which an additional

due. Vincent Miraglia,

Fig. 27

Peter Balestero,

Pis. 16,

210

Eric E. Mitchell, Philadelphia

344 PI.

Museum

of Art, Pis. 5, 42

Carole Palladino, Fig. 17

241

E. Irving Blomstrann, Pis. 217, 221, 406

Eric Pollitzer, Pis. 177, 186, 198, 200, 231, 236. 288, 305

Lee Boltin, PL 187 Lee Brian, Pis. 35, 36, Will Brown, PI. 304

Bill

Geoffrey Clements,

Sandak,

Pis.

1,

4-8,

30-34. 37-50. 53-78, 80-124,

11-14, 126.

18,

129-141,

1

165-168, 170, 171, 173, 174. 181,

20-23,

25-28,

143-157.

182,

188,

190,

195,

196, 204-206, 211-214, 216, 219, 222, 225,

226,

229,

230,

162,

Pugh, Delaware Art INIuseum, PL 166

Nathan Rabin, PL 387

Fig. 51

232, 234, 235, 239, 246, 249, 250, 252, 253, 255-257, 259,

Inc.,

Pis.

i6i,

185,

247, 318, 340, 350, 394, 399. 418,

429 Elton Schnellbacher,

Pis. 125. 417 Schlopplein Studio, PL 421 Joseph Szasfai, Yale University .Art Gallery,

260, 261, 263, 270, 273, 274, 276, 277, 279, 280, 282, 284-

Tadder/Baltimore,

287, 289, 291-293, 295, 296, 298, 299, 301, 303, 306, 307,

John Tennant, Pis. 172, 297. 393 Malcolm Varon, PL 425 John Waggaman, Pis. 128. 142. 164,

309, 311, 312, 314, 316, 317, 320-322, 324, 325, 331-337.

341-343. 345. 346, 348, 349. 351. 377-379. 382, 383. 388, 390-392. 395-397. 401-403. 408-412, 419, 422, 423. Figs. 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 15, 43, 44, 49, 50, 52, 55

Bill Finney, PI. 175

William McKillon,

PI.

245

19, 22, 23, 28. 29,

30, 36, 38, 39, 41,

Pis. 290, 302. 330.

414, 424 Pis. 339, 347,

404

179. 231, 368,

427

Robert Wallace, Pis. 268. 283 Richard D. Warner, William A. Farnsworth Library and Art

Museum, PL 215 Courtesy Stiidtische Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, PL 160 Courtesy Kuiisthaus Zurich,

Pis. 327.

384


PLATES


Brackets indicate descriptive titled works.

The

titles

given by the author to previously un-

idiosyncrasies of

Hopper's spelling and French

titles

have been preserved. Some of Hopper's works are known by both French and English titles. Where variants exist, the caption follows the form used in the artist's ledgers.


SELF-PORTRAITS During Hopper's formative yean he painted, etched

skelrlied.

and

his self-portrail repeatedly, a process of self-analysis that

reflected his introspective nature.

outward expression of nn inner

"Great

life in

art." lie wrote, "is the

the artist.

." .

.

X PI.

I.

[Self-Porlniil].

la iiiclics.

June

5.

ic)Oo.

Contc on paper.

14

Collection of .Mi. aiul Mrs. Joel Harnett.

^'

%m

^ oL/.tH/t^ l^uU-VtS-

tgas" PI. 2. [Self-Portrait], 1900. Pencil

nedy Galleries,

Inc..

New

York.

on paper,

5%

x

3%

inches. Ken-

PI. 3. [Self I'ortiail], c.

1900. Pencil

on paper.

Collection oÂŁ Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. Blum.

10I4

â&#x20AC;˘<

81/4

inches.


82

SELF-PORTRAITS

[Self-Portrait and Hand Studies], c. Pen and ink on paper. 7% x 5 inches. Whitney Museum of .\merican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. PI.

PI.

4.

[Self-Portrait

and Hand

Studies],

c.

Pen and ink on paper. SiS/ig x 5% inches. \Vhitney Museum of American .Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 1900.

5.

1900.

PI.

7.

6.

[Self-Portrait

5%

c.

Pen Whit-

1900.

inches.

ney Museum of .American .Art. New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1561.115

PI. 8. [Self-Portrait], c. 1900.

15 X 11I4 inches.

ican Art,

Hopper.

New

\Vhitney

Conte on paper. of Amer-

Museum

York; Bequest of Josephine N.

70.1560.81

Hand

Studies],

c.

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70-1 559-24

[Self-Portrait Sketches],

with

Pen and ink on paper, 7i?4<i x 4^^An inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art. 1900.

New

70.1559.28

70.1559.21

and ink on paper, Sis^g x

PI.


SELF-PORTRAITS

PI. 9. [Self-Porlrail].

1003.

83

Charcoal on paper. i8V4 y 12 inches. NaWashington, D.C.

tional Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution,

PI.

10 [Self-Porlmit],

seum

c.

1903. Oil

of Fine Arts, Boston:

The

on canvas, 20I4 x

16 inches.

Charles Hayden Fund.

Mu-


84

SELF-PORTRAITS

PI.

11.

[Self-Portrait], 1903. Oil

Museum per.

PI. 12. [Self-Portrait], c. 1904-6.

ney

Museum

Hopper.

of .'\merican Art.

70.1253

Oil on canvas. 26 x 22 inches. WhitNew York; Bequest of Josephine N.

of .'\merican Art.

70.1650

New

on canvas.

14 x

10 inches.

Whitney

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hop-


SELF-PORTRAITS

PI. 13. [Self-Portrait],

c.

1904-6. Oil

on can-

X lyi^e inches. Whitney Museum of .'American Art. New York; Bequest of Jose-

vas, 28

phine N. Hopper.

70.1254

PI.

seum

of .American

of Josephine N.

inches. Whitney Mu\n. New York: Bequest

Hopper.

70.1410

1904-6. Oil on canThyssen-Bornemisza Col-

15. [Self-Portrait], c.

vas, 20 X 16 inches.

lection.

85


86

SELF-PORTRAITS

Nude and Portrait], 7% x 7 inches. Exists only in posthumous print. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of

humous

Josephine N. Hopper.

ican

PI. 17. [Self-Portfait

c.

with

1918. Etching plate.

with Hat], c. 1918. EtchX 4 inches. Exists only in post-

PI. 18. [Self-Portrait

ing plate,

.Art,

4%

print.

New

N. Hopper.

Whitney Museum

of .Amer-

York; Bequest of Josephine

PI.

zinc,

19.

Self-Portrait,

6x4

1919-23. Drypoint on

Museum The Harrison Fund.

inches. Philadelphia

Art; Purchased,

of


SELF-PORTRAITS

PI.

20.

[Self-Portrait],

1925-30. Oil

on canvas,

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.1165

251/10

x

20%

inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American Art. New

87


88

SELF-PORTRAITS

PI. 21. [Self -Port rail], 1945.

ney

Museum

Hopper.

of .American

Contc on paper, 22yg v 15 inches. WhitNew ^ork: Request of Josephine \.

.Art.

70.336

jSS ^i PI. 22. [Self-Portmit], 1945- C.onte

Nfuseum per.

of .American Art.

70.287

Xew

on paper. 22 v

1-,

inches.

Whitney Hop-

Vork: Bequest of Josephine N.


INTIMATE LIFE his friends, ainnnti As n young man. HoplJcr oftrn depicted his wollirr. fnllier. and sislrr. Oenisionallv hr jiainird juntvaits of he frerjyently porlater, Ycnrs Mende. Durycn let tie them his eln.i.unnte in art .schont Guy Pene du Bois and his girlfriend I cartoons. satirical with her teased .sometimes He paintings. his women in the trayed his unje. Jo. who also modeled for all of waterHopper's .surroundings, too. became subjects for his arl-his studio, his bedroom. Hook Mountain, the view from the years. front near his home, and Wasliington Square in New York City, where he lived for over fifty

PI.

24.

1900.

Henry Hopjni, The .Irtisl's Father], c. Kennedv Galleries, Inc.,

[Garrett

Gouache,

13I4 x 10I4 inches.

PI. 23. [Gatrett Henry Hopper, The .Irtisl's Father], 1900-1906. Conte on paper. 24I4 x

1834 inches.

New

Hopper.

PI.

26.

Whitney Museum

.My

I

-,49

of .American

Bequest of Josephine \.

York: 70

recto

Mother,

c.

1920.

Sanguine on

paper. 21 x t't^ inches. Whitnev

\merican

2.r,.

.\rt.

New

phine \. Hopper.

Museum

York: Bequest of 70.298

of

Jo.sc-

Hopper, The .trtist's Molhet]. Whitney Museum of AmerJosephine N. Hopper. 70.1191

[Elizabeth (iriffiths Smith

1916-20. Oil on canvas. 38 x ^2 inches. ican Art,

New York.

Art,

PI.

New

#

^ork; Request of


go

INTIMATE LIFE

PI. 28. [Hook Mountain. Xyack], c. 1899. Watercolor on paper, 5. x 7 American .-^rt. New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1558.55

PI. 27.

[Marion Hopper, The

Artist's Sister],

and pencil on paper, i4'%e x Whitney Museum of American

1899. Pen, ink, 1

1%

Art,

inches.

New

Hopper.

York;

Bequest of Josephine N.

70.1566.36

PI. 29.

Camp

inches.

Whitney Museum

of

Nyack, 1900. Pen and ink on paper, 10 x 14^ inches.

Collection of Dr. and Mrs. Theodore Leshner.


INTIMATE LIFE

PI. 30. [Artist's

ican Art,

New

Bedroom, Xynck],

c.

1903-6. Oil

on board.

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

151/1,,

70.1412

v

iiViii inches.

Whitney Museum

of .Amer-

g

1


92

INTIMATE LIFE

PI. 31.

Hettie Duryea Meade,

c.

1905. Oil

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation,

PI. 32.

Guy Pene du

ink on paper, 9 x seum of .American

Pen and inches. Whitnev Mu-

Bois,

5%

.Art,

of Josephine X. Hopper.

c.

New

1903.

York; Bequest

70.1561.105

PI.

33.

Guy

Pey\e

du

Bois,

c.

1905. Oil

canvas, 24 x 17 inches. Collection of Pfene

du Bois and \Villiam

Pfene

du

on

Yvonne Bois.

PI. 34.

Inc.,

on canvas. 22 y

New

Guy Pene du

Bois, 1919. Sanguine on

paper. 21 x 16 inches. Whitney

.American Art.

New

phine X. Hopper.

18 inches.

York.

Y'ork:

70.907

Museum

of

Bequest of Jose-


INTIMATE LIFE

^ PI. 35.

^fJl^ C/o.

A Mile. Jo Noel,

^** veifite et tendre

1923.

Gouache on paper,

Bu fii-mctmeivt

7

ÂŤ

8%

inches. Private

PI. 36.

Le Reve de

on paper,

collection.

Sketching at the Beach], ,925-28. Watercolor on paper, 70.1129 ican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. PI. 37. [Jo

gg

137/8

11

x 20 inches. Whitney

Josie,

c.

1924-30. Pencil

x 814 inches. Private collection.

Museum

of

Amer-


INTIMATE LIFE

94

PI. 38.

New

PI.

39.

[Reclining

[Reclining \ude],

Nude on

Charcoal on paper, 15% x

Museum

American Josephine N. Hopper. of

c.

1925-30. Watercolor on paper.

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

.\rt.

a

Couch], 1925-30.

18

inches.

New

70.296

Whitney

York: Request of

PI. 40. [Jo

13%

x

19%

inches.

Whitney Museum of .American

Hopper], 1934-40. Conte on pa-

X 19 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.289

per,

15

.Art.

70.1089

PI. 41. [Jo

paper,

Reading], 1934-35. Cont^ on

1,5^16

Museum

of

x i2%(j inches. Whitney Art, New York:

American

Beepest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.909


INTIMATE LIFE

95

•46

PI. 42.

[Jo Sketching in the

Truro House], 1934-40. Watercolor on

paper, 13I546 x 20 inches. Whitney Museum o£ American Art, York; Bequest of Josephine N, Hopper. 70.1106

PI. 44. Jo Painting, 1936. Oil on canvas, iS X 16 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N.

Hopper.

70.1171

New

PI. 43. [Jo

22I/8 inches. 1935-40. Conte on paper, isVx x Josephine of Bequest York; New of American Art,

Hopper],

Whitney Museum N. Hopper. 70.293

c.


96

IN TIM A IK

LIFE

PI. 45. [lo Sli-epiiig].

seum

of .\meiican

PI. 4(1

Sew

/

:

-

:\

,-

c.

.\it.

'

;,.

1940-45. Watcrcolor anil pencil

New

York: Request of Josephine

|ulv 1946. Watercolor

York: Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper.

on paper, 70.1 159

on N'.

illiiM

i.ii

n in

Hopper.

t$^'1l,

board. iiH^,; 70.1

1

.

18 inches.

Whitnev Mu-

13

uIra WliitiKA \IUM.-iniiol

\nicriiau

.\rt,


INTIMATE LIFE

PI.

48.

[Jo

Hopper], 1945-50- Charcoal on

15%

paper, 18 x

American

of

97

inches.

Art.

New

Josephine X. Hopper.

Whitney Museum York:

Bequest of

70.288 PI. 47. [Jo Sleeping],

ican Art,

New

1940-45. Conte on paper, 15 x

22%

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

inclit-s.

\Vhitney

Museum

of

Amer-

70.292

LÂŤ!1E\L

y PI.

50.

[Fireplace

Apartment], per,

12-5^(1

c.

at

Hopper's

New

York

Pen and ink on paWhitney Museum of

1925-30.

X 7 inches.

American Art, New York: Bequest of phine N. Hopper. 70.811

Jose-

Perkins Youngboy Dos Pnssos, 1941. Contc on paper, 15 x 22 inches. Whitney 70.659 of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. PI. 49.

Museum


gS

INTIMATE LIFE

PI. 51.

\ovember, Washington Square. 1932 and

Museum

.

gDO- Oil

on canvas, 34

of Art, California.

PI. 52. City

Roofs, 1932. Oil on canvas. 29

X

36 inches. Private collection.

,.

50 inches. Santa Barbara


INTIMATE LIFE

PI. 54. Josie lisant cil

on paper,

5%

un journal, 1925-35. Pen-

x Sy, inches. Private collec-

tion.

fe% ^ PI. 53.

This

is

a

comic picture you must

Art.

laugli.

c.

iÂŤ99.

Fen

Whitney Museum of American New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1553.74

and ink on paper.

8x5

inches.

99


STUDENT PERIOD studied painting at the New York School of Art with William Merritt Chase, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and Robert Henri, whom he considered his most influential teacher: "Few teachers of art have gotten as much out of their

Hopper

them so great an initial impetus." This luas a period of much experimentation for Hopper, in which he tried many different techniques,

pupils, or given

styles,

PI. 58.

and

subjects.

Phil May, 1899. Pen and ink on ilUistration board, 131,4 x 5% Museum of ,'\meiican ."Kn, New York; Bequest of

inches, \Vhitney

Josephine N, Hopper.

1900. Pen. ink. and pencil on paper Whitney Museum of .'\merican Art, New ^'ork: BeX 1% quest of Josephine N, Hopper, 70,i5fi6,i47 PI. 59. [.4rtist's Studio], c. 1

inches.

70,1553,104

PI,

(io,

[]Voiiimi Sealed

on Table].

190(1.

Whitney Museum of .American Josephine N, Hopper, 70.1555,4

inches,

Pencil on paper,

Art,

New

14

x

10

York: Bequest of


STUDENT PERIOD

PI. 61.

paper,

Venusâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Thonialdsen,c. 1901. Pencil on 8% x 5% inches. Whitney Museum of

American Art, New York: Bequest phine N. Hopper. 70.1560.1 17

PI. 62.

1901.

lOl

Sketch after Rodin's Ln VieiUe

Pen and ink on paper.

Whitney Museum Bequest

York;

of

of

8'/,

Femme.

x .5% inches.

.\merican

Josephine

of Jose-

\.

.'^rt.

New

Hopper.

70.1561.106

PI. 63.

Sketch after RegnauU's Saloinr.

ink on paper, 10 x 7 inches. Whitney

New

c.

1900-1907.

Museum

\ork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

of

Pen and

American

70.1560.98

Ait.

PI. 64.

ney per.

Forluny,

Museum

of

70.1560.97

c.

igoo-1907. Pen and ink on paper,

American

Art,

New

10x7

inches.

Whit-

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hop-


102

STUDENT PERIOD

4

\.

C~i PI. 65.

Sketch after Manet's

The

Fifer, 1900-

PI.

66.

Sketch

after

Manefs Olympia,

1900-1907. Pen and ink on paper,

Pen and ink on paper, 10 x 7 inches. Whitney Museum of American .\rt. NewYork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

51^ inches.

70.1560.96

N. Hopper.

1907.

ican

,'\rt.

Whitney Museum

\ew

PI.

8%

y

of .Amer-

York: Bequest of Josephine

70.1561.133

67.

Sketch after Millet's

Man

With a Hoe,

1900-1907. Pen and ink on paper, inches.

Whitney Museum

io3^

of .American

York; Bequest of Josephine X. Hopper.

x .Art,

c.

iii%(i

New

70.1565.64


STUDENT PERIOD

I03

[Seated Woman], c. 1900. Charcoal on paper, 16% x 10% Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1560.168 PI.

68.

inches.

PI. 69.

9%

[Three

Men

Bequest of

at

an Art Exhibition], igoo-1903. Conte on paper,

Whitney Museum of American Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1560.51

X 61/16 inches.

Art.

New

York;


104

STUDENT PERIOD

PI.

70.

[Nude Female Model

Charcoal on paper, 12% x

American Art, New Hopper. 70.1560.90

of

9%

^'ork;

in

Studio],

inches.

c.

PI, 71.

1900-1903.

[Nude Female Model on Platform},

c.

1900-

Charcoal on paper, 18% x 12% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1566.118

Whitney Museum

1903.

Bequest of Josephine N.

PI. 72.

[Model Jimmy Corsi Dressed

American per.

Art,

70.1566.7

as

Fisherman], 1901.

Whitney Museum of New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hop-

Pencil on paper, i4l%o x

n

inches.


STUDENT PERIOD

Don Quixote, c. 1902-4. Oil on board, 17 x i2%o Museum of .American .Art. New 'Sork; Bequest of

PI. 74.

ney Hopper.

inches.

1

05

Whit-

Josephine \.

I^

70.1404

10I4 x Ww [Painter and Model], c. 1902-4. Oil on board, Bequest of York; New Art, American Museum of Whitney inches. Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1420 PI. 73.


lo6

STUDENT PERIOD

[Xude Crajfling into Bed], 1903-5. Oil on board, 12I4 x 9% Whitney Museum of .'\merican Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1294

PI. 75.

inches.

PI. 77.

[Blond Easel],

Study for painting, Woman fSeforr an 1903-6.

Contc on

7% x S^%{; inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art, New York; Bepaper,

quest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.1559.22

PI.

76.

[Blond IVoman Before an Easel],

Bequest of

c.

1903-6. Oil 011

Whitney Museum of .American Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1417

i6l%i5 X 12I4 inches.

.Art,

New

board. 'S'ork:


STUDENT PERIOD

PI.

78.

[Student and Teacher at the

F.asel],

c.

on board, 12% x 9% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York: Request of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1303 1903-6. Oil

PI. 79. \(^irl in U'liile], c.

22 X

York.

17%

inches.

1903-6. Oil on canvas.

Kennedy

Galleries. Inc..

New

PI. 80.

[Man Drinking],

canvas.

seum

of

liYft

c.

x giyir, inches.

1905-6. Oil

on

Whitney Mu-

American Art, New York; Bequest Hopper. 70.1648

of Josephine N.

107


Paris enthralled

Hopper, from

to the brief trips

he made there in ipop and igio. In Paris,

his time painting out-of-doors

PI.

8i.

his first visit

and

(October igo6â&#x20AC;&#x201D;]une i^oj)

Hopper

spent

visiting art exhibitions.

[Paris Street],

igo6.

Oil

on wood,

13

x

10

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1296

inches.

PI. 82.

[Stainray at ^S rue dc Lille, Paris], igo6. Oil 13 X 9I4 inches. Whitney Museum of .Amer-

on wood.

ican Art, per.

New

70.1295

York: Bequest of Josephine \. Hop-

PI. 83.

[Interior Courlyard at

1906. Oil

on wood,

-/S

rue de Lille, Paris],

9% inches. Whitney MuNew York; Bequest of Jose-

13 x

seum of .American .Art, phine N. Hopper. 70.1304


PARIS

PI. 84.

[Bridge in Paris], 1906. Oil on wood.

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

9%

x 13 inches.

Whitney Museum

of .American

,\ii.

New

70.1305

Whitney Mu.seum of .\merican pfsr,. [River ,md Buildings]. u,o6-T. Oil on wood, <.j\\ , 13 inches. 70.1301 Art, New \ork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

109


1

lO

PI.

PARIS

86. Street

in

Paris,

1906-7.

Pencil

touches of white paint on paper.

13I/4

and charcoal with x 16 inches. Private

collection.

PI. 87.

Dome,

1906-7 or 1909. Conte, wash, charcoal, and

21% x 9% inches. Whitney Museum of New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hop-

pencil on paper,

American per.

.Art,

70.1434


PARIS

PI.

88.

Cab, Horse mid Crowd, 1906-7 or 1909. Conte, and wash with touches of white on paper, 1814

charcoal,

X 14% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1436

New

J-

PI. 89.

The Railroad, 1906-7 or

igog. Conte. charcoal,

and

wash with touches of white on paper, 1784 v '4% inches. Whitney Museum of American .Art. New 'S'ork; Bequest of [osephine N. Hopper. 70.1437

PI. 90.

[I-igures

Under

a Bridge in Paris], 1906-7 or

1909. Conte and wash on illustration board, 22% x 15I/8 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1339

1

1

1


1

1

2

PARIS

[Seated Old Man], 1906-7 or 1909. Watercolor and pencil on composition board, 15 x 1014 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1329 PI. gi.

PI. 92. [Parisian Workman], 1906-7 or 1909. Watercolor and pencil on composition board, i5i/<c( x loH/Jo inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1333

PI. 93.

[Parisiati

Woman], 1906-7

or 1909. Watercolor

on composition board, iiiyiB x gVic! inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1324


PARIS

ff^

PI.

[Parisiaii

94.

Woman

Walking], 1906-7 or 1909.

Watercolor on composition board, ii^^fi x quest of

PI. 95.

inches.

of

[Cuncird Sailor], 1906-7 or 1909. Watercolor

composition

seum

9%

American Art, New York; BeJosephine N. Hopper. 70.1323

Whitney Museum

Ijoarcl,

of .\merican

phine N. Hopper.

i-i^^c, x .^rt.

10%

New

70.1335

inches.

011

Whitney Mu-

York: Bequest of Jose-

PI. gO.

[French Woma7i with Racket], 1906-7 or 1909.

Watercolor and pencil on illustration hoard, 15 x iol/4 inches. Whitney .Museum of .American Art. New York:

Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper.

70.1331

1

I

3


114

PARIS

PI. 97.

Tugboat at Boulevard Saint Michel, 1907. Oil on canvas. 23% x 28% inches. Whitney 70.1250 of American Art, New ^'ork: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Museum

PI. 98.

Boat Landing

at

Gare d'Orleans, 1907.

Oil on canvas. 2$y, x 28114,; inches. Whitney Museum of .\merican Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.1229


PARIS

'^^

Pont du Carrousel and Gare d'Orleans, 1907. Oil on canvas, 2384 x 28% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N: Hopper. 70.1230

PL

99.

PI. 100. Pont du Carrousel in the Fog, 1907. Oil on canvas, 23% x 28% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1245

1

15


1

l6

PARIS

Le Louvre et la Seine, 1907. Oil on canvas, 23% x 281^ inches. Whitney Museum American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1186

PI. loi.

of

•V*

A^ %l»«.i;^^.^. *.»__^

^v

Apres midi de Juin or L'apres midi de 1907. Oil on canvas, 23% x 2814 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1 172 PI.

102.

Printemps,


PARIS

S-.'^

Le Pont des Arts, 1907. Oil on canvas, 23^6 x 281/10 American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. PI. 103.

PI. 104.

Canal Lock

at

Charenton, 1907. Oil on

Whitney Museum of American Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1227 canvas,

23% x 28%

inches.

inches.

Whitney Museum of

70.1181


l8

PARIS

PI.

105.

Museum

PI. 106.

Gateway and Fence. Saijtt Cloud, 1907. Oil on canvas, 23 x 28 inches. Whitney oÂŁ American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1231

Le Pare du Saint Cloud,

of .'American Art.

New

1907. Oil

on canvas, 231^

2."<U

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

inches.

70.1180

Whitne\ Museum


PARIS

1

19

..v'i-.:,^^^^!^

iiliii PI. 107.

Les Lavoirs a Pont Royal, 1907. Oil on canvas,

phine N. Hopper.

70.1247

23%

x

281/0 inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American

Art,

New

York; Bequest of Jose-


120

PARIS

PI.

of

PI.

108. Noire Dame de Paris, 1907. Oil on canvas, 231,4 x 2814 inches. Whitney Museum American Art, New York: Bequest of |osephine N. Hopper. 70.1179

log.

seum

of

Xotre Dame, Xo. 2. 1907 or 1909. Oil on canvas, 2$ v ^W^ inches. Whimev American .\rt. New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1222

Mu


PARIS

PI.

no.

I

Museum

).

^^i/i inches, Whitney ouvu- mill llniil Ijiiidiiii::. i9<i7 '" ".>'"> <*'' "" ^-m^^s- -3 70.1249 of American Art. New York; Request of Josephine N. Hopper.

.->Jl^

Le Quai des Grands Augmtins with Trees, 1907. Oil on caiivas, a;i;4 X 283/ Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

PI. 111.

inches.

70.1226

12

1


122

PARIS

PI.

112.

seum

of

Riverboat, 1909. Oil on canvas, 28 x 48 inches. Whitney York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1190

PI. 113.

New

He Saint Louis or La Cite, 1909. Oil on canvas, 23% x 28I/, inches. Whitney MuAmerican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1177

Museum

of

American

Art,


PARIS

Le I'ont liiiyal, U109. Oil cm canvas. 231/, x 281/4 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1175 PI. 114.

Le Pavilion de Ilore, 1909. Oil on canvas, 231/2 x 281/1 of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. PI. 115.

inches.

Whitney Museum

70.1174

123


124

PARIS

PI,

The Louvre

116.

Museum

PI. 117.

of

in a

American Art,

Thunder Storm,

New

1909. Oil

on canvas, 23

x

28%

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

inches.

Bridge on the Seine, 1909. Oil on canvas, 23!^ x 281^ inches. Whitney 70.1176 Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

American

Whitney

70.1223

Museum

of


PARIS

oJ|L

118. Le Pont Neuf or F.clme de la Moniune. 1909. Whitney Museum of American Art, New Yorlc, Bequest PI.

PI. 119.

Le

Museum

of

Oil on canvas, of Josephine N.

23%

x 28 inches.

Hopper.

70.1178

Craiuh Auguitim, 1909. Oil on canvas, 231/2 X 281/2 inches. Whitney American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1173

(hiai dei

125


TRANSITIONAL YEARS in i<)oy. Hopper painted restaurants, interiors, cityscapes, themes that would preoccupy him during his mature years. With these works. Hopper tried to free himself of French subject matter and style. "It seemed awfully crude and raiu here when I got back. It took me ten years to get over Europe."

In the period after his return from Paris

and nautical

PI.

I20.

scenes, all

Valley of the Seine, igo8. Oil

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

on canvas, 26 x 70.1183

inches.

Whitney Museum of .American

Art.

New


TRANSITIONAL YEARS

PI. 122.

Le Bistro or

ican Art,

New

Tlie

Wine Shop,

1909. Oil

Slimmer Interior, 1909. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 Whitney .Museum of American Art. New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1 197 PI.

123.

inches.

on canvas. 23% x 28% inches. Whitney

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.1187

Museum

of

Amer-

127


128

TRANSITIONAL YEARS

PI.

124. Blacku'ell's

American

Art,

New

Island, igu. Oil

York; Ikquest

(if

on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Whitney Museum Josephine N. Hopper.

PI.

125. Sailing, 1911. Oil

Museum

of Art,

of

70.1188

on canvas, 24 x 29 inches.

Carnegie

Institute,

Pittsburgh.

Pennsylvania: Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James H. Beal in

Honor

of the Sarah

M.

Scaife Gallery.


TRANSITIONAL YEARS

PI.

126.

on canvas, 26 x 38 inches. Whitney Museum of York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1204

Gloucester Harbor.

American Art,

New

129

.9.2. Oil

Tall Masts, Gloucester, 1912. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine PI.

127.

N. Hopper.

70.1198


130

TRANSITIONAL YEARS

PI. 128.

Squam

PI. 129.

Briar Neck, 1912. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Whitney \lus( inn ul .\mcrican York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1193

Art,

New

Light, 1912. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 iiuhcs. Privale collection.


TRANSITIONAL YEARS

I'l.

per.

I

'JO.

-i

inci Iriin

70.1185

Villni^

I,ii.

Oil on canvas. 26 x 38 inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American

.Art.

New

131

Voik; Bequest of josepliine \. Hop-


TRANSITIONAL YEARS

132

PI. 131.

Art,

Road

New

in

Manic, 1914. Oil uu camas. 24

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

PI. 132. Rocks and Houses, Ogunquit, 1914. Oil on canvas. 23'}4 x 28S4 inches. Whitney Museum of .'\merican An, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1202

29 inclics. 70.1201

Whitney

Musciiiii ul Aiiicucaii


TRANSITIONAL YEARS

m^jg^

PI.

133.

The

American

on canvas. American New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hop-

134.

PI.

inches. Dories. Ogumiutl. 1914. Oil on canvas. 24 y 29 New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1 196

Art,

Cove

at

24 X 29 inches. Art, per.

70.1199

Ogunquit,

1914. Oil

Whitney Museum

of

Whitney Museum

of

133


134

PL

TRANSITIONAL YEARS

135. Sea at

ican Art,

New

Ogunquit.

1914. Oil on can\as. 241-4 x agl/s inches. Whitney York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1195

PI.

136.

[Two

American

.\rt.

Dories],

New

Museum

c.

of

Amer-

1915-18. Oil on board, 9I2 v lais-jc inches.

York: Bequest of [osephinc X. Hopper.

70.1314

\\'liitiic\

Miisium

of


TRANSITIONAL YEARS

[Trees and Bench], igiO-ig- Oil on wood, Art, New York; Bequest o£ Josephine N. Hopper. PI. 137.

91/2

x 13 inches. Whitney

Museum

of

American

70.1316

Oil on canvas. gVio x .284 inches. Whitney [Landscape unth Iru.r and Trees], c. ....G-c, 70.1667 of Josephine N. Hopper. Bequest York; New Art, American Museum o£

PI

,38.

1

35


MONHEGAN ISLAND In the summer of igi6, Hopper went to Monhegan Island, Maine. Completely captivated by its rocky shores and towering headlands, he worked out-of-doors, painting many views of the island's dramatic shoreline. He liked Monhegan so much that he returned for the next few summers and used the landscape there as a point of departure for the exploration of form and light.

PI. 139. Blackhead, Monhegan, c. 1916-19. Sanguine on paper, 12% x 16 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York;

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

PI. 140. Bhichliead,

American Art,

New

Monhegan,

1916-uj. Oil on wood, giA x 13 inches.

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Whitney Museum

70.367

of

70.1317

I'l. 141. Blackhead, Monlugau, iyi6-iy. Oil un wood, 11% x 16 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1291

PI. 14a.

Blackhead, Monhegan, 1916-19. Oil on wood,

Private collection.

1

1%

x 16 inches.


MONHEGAN ISLAND

PI. 143.

Blackhead, Monhegan,

N. Hopper.

70.1668

1916-19.

Oil on wood,

9%

^ 13 inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American

Art,

New

137

York; Bequest of Josephine


IgS

MONHEGAN ISLAND

PI.

144. Little

American

PI. 145.

Art,

Art,

Cove, Monhegan, 1916-19. Oil on board,

New

Yorlc;

g%; x

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

13

inches.

[Rocky Shoreline], igHj-iy Oil on boaid glj x 12% inches. Whitney York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1672

New

Whitney Museum

of

70.1669

Museum

of

American


MONHEGAN ISLAND

i'l

I

Art,

|(,

New

PI. 147.

,\::rky Shore],

[!Sliilf\.

Y 12 inches. Art.

New

Hopper.

1916-19. Oil on wood, 9!^

York; Bequest of Josephine N, Hoppei.

1916-19. Oil on board,

Whitney Museum

^ork; 70.1319

c}\i,

of .Xmerican

Bequest of Josephine

N.

1

:)

IikIiis.

7o.i'io9

W

liiliu-v

Musciini of Ainci

iiaii

139


140

MONHEGAN ISLAND

PI.

148.

New

PI.

[Rocks and Sea],

it)i6-i<).

Oil on wood,

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

149.

[Rocky Shore and

ican Art,

New

Sea]. 1910-19. Oil

1

1

%

x

ifi

inches.

Whitney Musenni

of

American

.Art.

70.1292

on wood, 11% x

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

i^y'/n

70.1267

inches. \\liitne\

Museum

nf \mer-


MONHEGAN ISLAND

PI.

ir,o.

lean Art,

PI.

151.

[Rocky Seashore],

New

Vorl<^;

[Horky

American

SI,

[(jifh-if).

9%

Oil on canvas,

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

me and

Sen],

1916-19.

Oil

Art. N'ew 'Sork; Bequest ot Josephine

'Âť>

x lais/ui inches.

Whitney Museum

of .\mei-

70.1666

u'""l.

11%

\. Hopper.

i<i

70.1290

inclics.

Whilncv Muscuir

I4I


142

MONHEGAN ISLAND

PI. if,2.

[Rocky Projection

phine N. Hopper.

70.1310

nl the Sen], 191(1-19.

Oil on board, 9 x\-i% inches. Whitney Musciiiii

(if

Ariu-riran Art,

New

York; Request of |osc-


MONHEGAN ISLAND

PI. 153.

[Rocky

American

Art,

by the Sea], 1916-19. Oil on canvas, 9% x 12% inches. Whitney York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1675

Cliffs

New

[Waves (mil liarky \h(n,'\, 1916-19. Oil on wood, 11% x if) n American Art, New York; Bequest of |oscphine N. Hopper. 70.1288 PI. 154.

Museum

of

Whitney Museum of

143


FIRST RECOGNITION After years of struggle. Hopper began to receive recognition when he won his first award since art schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; in a wartime poster competition conducted by the United States Shipping

Board, in which there were fourteen hundred entries. For his poster Smash the Hun, he received the first prize of three hundred

dollars.

Street.

ning

Hopper had his first one-man exWhitney Studio Club, located on West Fourth

In January igzo,

hibition at the

During the

classes

early ig20s, he frequently attended the eve-

held at the club, where a model posed and

paid a fee of twenty-five

artists

cents.

PI.

155.

1918.

Study for poster, Smash the Hun,

Gouache on

inches.

The

illustration board. glA x 6-%

Charles

Rand Penney

Collection.

156. {Standing Nude], October 26, 1923. Sanguine on paper, 19 x ii^%6 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; PI.

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

PI. 157. [Seated

Nude],

c.

70.661

1923. Charcoal

on

paper, 19 x 121^ inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Jose-

phine N. Hopper.

70.401


SOLITARY FIGURES lost through the end of his career, Hopper was interested in the solitary figure existremote, psychologically is often in thought. Even when other figures are visible, the central figure

From

his early maturity

ing in a private space.

PI. 158.

[Girl at

Sewing Marluric],

c.

1921. Oil

on canvas,

19 x 18 inches.

Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection.


146

SOLITARY FIGURES

Apartment Houses, Lambert Fund Purchase. PI. 159.

1923. Oil

on canvas. 25Y2 x 31%

inches. Courtesy of the Pennsylvania

Academy

of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia:


SOLITARY FIGURES

PI, 160.

Washington. D.C. Sunday, 1926. Oil on canvas, 29 / 34 inches. The Phillips Collection.

147


148

PI. 161.

SOLITARY FIGURES

The Barber Shop,

1931. Oil

on canvas, 60 x 78

inches.

Neubcrger Museum, State University of

Drawing

New

^ork

at Purchase.

The Barber Shop,

1931. Conte and charWhitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.853

PI. 162.

for painting.

coal on paper, 1214 x

^^""""l s*Q r -«. 8«W=.»V

17%

inches.


SOLITARY FIGURES

PI. 163.

Room

in

Brooklyn, 1932. Oil on canvas, 29 x 34 incches. Courtesy of the

Museum

of line Arts. Boston: Charles

149

Henry Hayden Fund.


PI. 164.

French Six-Day Bicycle Rider, 1937. Oil on canvas,

17 x 19 inches. Collection of

Mr. and

Mrs. Albert Hackett.

PI. 165. Drawing for painting, French Six-Day Bicycle Rider, 1937. Conte on paper, 7% x Sy, inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.451


SOLITARY FIGURES

PI. 166.

Summertime,

1943. Oil

on canvas, 29%

x 44 inches.

Summertime, 1943. Cont^ on paper, «% X iiVs inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine X. Hopper. 70.460 167.

Drawing

for painting.

1

Brown. Delaware Art Museum. Wilmington; Gift of Dora Sexton

,«^;<(ti=*s->;'ia

PI.

15

PI.

168.

814 X

II

quest of

£.*^^ t^l-'l.' -

Drawing for painting, Summertime, 1943. Cont^ on paper, York; Beinches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New Josephine N. Hopper. 70.458


152

I.

SOLITARY FIGURES

169.

Pennsylvania Coal Town, 1947. Oil on canvas, 28 x 4째 inches.

The

Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio.

PI. 170. Drawing for painting. Pennsylvania Coal Town, 1947. Conte and pencil on paper, iil/^ x 15 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.229


NAUTICAL Hopper's

New

interest in boats

began with

York, then a prosperous

his

childhood in Nyack,

Hudson River

port with a thriv-

ing shipyard. At the age of fifteen, he built himself a catboat

and

later

he considered a career as a naval architect. His en-

thusiasm for nautical subjects continued throughout his

though he eventually gave up sailing because he was too good a man to lose that way.

life, al-

his wife insisted

PI. 171. [Sailing\,

Museum Hopper.

PI. 172.

Tramp

ton, D.C.

Steamer, 1908. Oil on canvas, 20 X 29 inches.

of

c.

1900.

American

Ink on paper, 5% x 8% inches. Whitney New York; Bequest of Josephine N.

Art.

70.1553.77

Hirshhom Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian

Institution,

Washing-


154

NAUTICAL

PI.

173.

Bow

of

Beam

Trawler, 1923. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. Collection of

iMi.

and Mrs.

Malcolm Chace.

PI.

174.

[Two

American

Art,

Trawlers], 1923-24.

New

Watercolor on paper, 13/8 x 19/8 inches.

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.1091

Whitney Museum

of


NAUTICAL

Monf^'t^AfoppiM.

PI. 175.

The

Bootleggers, 1925. Oil on canvas, 30 x 38 inches.

The

Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester,

New Hampshire.

155


NAUTICAL

156

PI.

176.

inches.

New

Beam Trawler

Teale, 1926. Watercolor

Munson- Williams-Proctor

Institute,

on paper,

Museum

14

x 20

of Art, Utica,

PI. 177.

Beam Trawler

Osprey,

c.

inches. Private collection.

York: Gift of Mr. Fred L. Palmer.

PI. 178.

Trawler and Telegraph Pole, 1926. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 19% inches. The Art Museum. PrinceThe Laura P. Hall Memorial Collection.

ton University;

1926. Watercolor

on paper,

14

X 20


NAUTICAL

PI. 179.

tute,

Gloucester Harbor, 1926. Watercolor on paper, 191^ x 14 inches. Munson-Williams-Proctor Insti-

Museum

of Art, Utica,

New

York; Property of John B. Root.

1^

PI. 180.

The Dory,

1929.

Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum. Kansas

City, Missouri; Gift of Mrs. Louis Sosland.

157


150

NAUTICAL

PI. 181.

New

PI.

182.

seum

[Boatyard], 1934-38. Watercolor on paper,

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

[Docked

Iieiiihiii

,nid

13%

x 20 inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American

Art,

70.1111

Tugboat], 1934-38. Watercolor on paper,

of .American Art, .New York; Bequest of Josephine \.

Hopper.

is'"'!);

70.1095

x 20 inches.

Whitney Mu-


NAUTICAL

PI. 183.

Yawl Riding a

Sivell, 1935.

^Vatercolor on paper, 201/16 x

281/4 inches.

Woiccster Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts.

159


l6o

NAUTICAL

PI.

184.

The Long Leg,

1935. Oil

on canvas, 20 x 30

inches. Virginia .Steele Scott Foundation, Pasadena.

California.

PI.

185.

(.round

Sirell,

William A. Clark Fund.

1939. Oil

on canvas, 36

x 50 inclits. Corcoran (Jallcrv of Art, Washington, D.C.:

i

he


NAUTICAL

PI. 186.

The Lee

Shore, 1941. Oil on canvas,

281/S

X

161

43 inches. Private collection.

PI.

187.

The Martha McKean

collection.

of Wellfteet, 1944. Oil

on canvas, 32 x 50

inches.

Private


LIGHTHOUSES As early as his student period. Hopper's love of the sea drew him to the dramatically stark architecture of lighthouses. His paintings from Cape Ann and Monhegan Island include lighthouses, but his best paintings of this subject were done in Cape Elizabeth, Maine, during the late ip2os.

c. 1900. Pen and ink on paper, 4I4 x 6 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1561.31

PI. 188. [l.ighthotise],

PI. 189. [LiglillKjtiif],

t

.

iyi6. Oil

on

hoaiil. ij^^

^

'

;

1

nu

li<^

I'n^aU- loiUt imn.


LIGHTHOUSES

PI.

igo.

PI.

191.

Two Lights, c. 1927. Watercolor on paper, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Light at

American

Art,

Light at

gomery, Alabama.

Two

Lights. 1927. Watercolor on

papn

isiS/io

.â&#x20AC;˘(I .

1

|

x 20 inches. Whitney

Mnseum

of

70.1094

inches. Collection of lUounl. Iik

Muni

163


164

LIGHTHOUSES

PI. 192.

Light at

Two

Lights, 1927.

Come and

charcoal on paper, 15 New York; Be-

X 22l/i6 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.683

PI. 193.

Lighthouse Hill, 1927. Oil on canvas,

28^

x 3934 inches. Dallas

Museum

of line Arts; Gift of Mr.

and Mrs. Maurice Purncll.


LIGHTHOUSES

PI

94.

The Lighthouse

at

Two

Lights, 1929. Oil

on canvas. 2QV2 x

The

43'/4 inches.

Metropolitan

Museum

of Art,

New

York;

Hugo

165

Kastor

Fund, 1962.

PI.

195.

of

Light at

Two

Lights, 1927. Watercolor

Whitney Museum of American Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1143

igi.'j/^e

inches.

Art,

on paper, i3l%6 x

New York;

Bequest


GLOUCESTER Hopper spent artists. It

was

the

summer

nition as a painter.

painted Prospect

PI. 196. Italian

of igi2 in Gloucester, Massachusetts, a quaint

also in Gloucester, during the

summer

He and

Street,

70.1214

New England

first

made

23%

to many won him recogagain summered there, and Hopper

coastal village

which appealed

the watercolors which initially

Jo returned there in 1924 for their honeymoon. In 1928 they one of the few watercolors that he ever used as a study for an oil.

Quarter, Gloucester, 1912. Oil on canvas,-

phine N. Hopper.

of 7925, that he

x 281^ inches. Whitney .Museum of .American

.Vrt,

New

York; Bequest of Jose-


GLOUCESTER

PI. 197.

PI.

igH.

Dead

The Mansard Roof.

1923.

Watercolor on paper, 13% x 19 inches.

Trees, Cluiue^ler, 19^3. W.ileiLnh

inches. Private collection.

p.ipei, 13 X 19

PI.

i9<).

The Brooklyn Museum, New

House

-.villi

^ork.

lence. 1923. Watercolor on paper.

inches. Collection of C.eor^e

M. Irwin.

167

11%

x

\i


l68

GLOUCESTER

PI. 200. Haskell's

PI. 201.

House, 1924. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. Private collection.

ParkhuTst House (Captain's House), 1924. Watercolor on paper. 1314 x 19 inches. Private collection.


GLOUCESTER

Pl. 202.

Rocks

at the 1-ort. Gloucester, 1924.

Watercolor on paper. lyY^

x

k^H

inches. Collection

of Mr. and Mrs. Alvin L. Snowiss.

Vfil

PI. 203. Universalisl

Church.

Museum, Princeton

University;

(

,laui r.Uci, 1926. 1

he Laura

P.

Watercolor on paper, 14 x 19% inches. Hall Memorial Collection.

The

Art

l6g


lyo

GLOUCESTER

PI. 204. [ir kite

of

American

House with Dormer Windon'],

Art,

New

c.

1926-28. Watercolor on paper,

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

11% x

18 inches.

70.1154

^^

Whitney Museuii


GLOUCESTER

PI. 207.

Gloucester Houses, 1928. Watercolor

on paper. 16

x 22 inches. Private collection.

PI. 208.

Adam's House.

1928.

Watercolor on paper,

Museum. Kansas; The Roland

P.

Murdock

16 x 25 inches.

Collection.

Courtesy of the Wichita Art

171


172

GLOUCESTER

PI. 209.

Prospect Street, Gloucester, 1928. Watcrcolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. Private collection.


GLOUCESTER

PI. 210.

Sun on Prospect

Memorial.

Street. 1934. Oil

on canvas, 28 x 36

inches.

The

Cincinnati Art

Museum, Ohio; The Edwin and

Virginia

173

Irwin


ARCHITECTURE In ig^^. Hopper commented on his early work as a commercial illustrator, "I was always interested in architecture, but the editors wanted people waving their arms." He painted and sketched buildings throughout his life, often preferring them over other subject matter.

Drawing for painting. [Stairway], Conte on paper, 1914 x 12% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. PI.

c.

211.

1925.

70.849

Oil on wood, ifi Whitney Museum of Amer-

PI. 212. [Stairway], c. 1925.

X

11%

inches.

ican Art.

New

N. Hopper.

York: Bequest of Josephine

70.1265


ARCHITECTURE

ft

li

PI. 213.

House with Hay Window,

New

Wateicolor on paper,

House]. 1925-27. VVatercolor on paper, 70.1432 ^'ork; Request of [oscphine N. Hopper.

PI. 214. [I'ictorian

Art,

1925.

137/^

15 x 20 inches. Private collection.

x

19%

inches.

Whilnev Museum

of

American

175


176

ARCHITECTURE

'-3l2ra

Haunted House, 1926. Watercolor on paper, Art Museum, Rockland, Maine. PI. 215.

PI. 216. [Small Town Street], c. 1926-28. Watercolor on paper, 13% X 20 inches. Whitne) Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hoppe*70.1 125

14 x 20 inches.

PI. 217.

19%

William A. Farnsworth Library and

Custom House, Portland, 1927. Watercolor on paper. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut,

inches.

13-%

x


ARCHITECTURE

PI. 218. Hocigkin's

Gallery,

New

York.

Home,

CnJH

In,,.

Masmchuseth.

,9.8. Oil

on canvas, 28

x

of 3^ i"ches. Private collection: Courtesy

177

(

^1

ISjfO


178

PI.

ARCHITECTURE

22a Coast Guard

Station, 1929. Oil

on canvas, 29 x 43

inches, the Montclair Art

Museum. Montclair, New

Jersey.


ARCHITECTURE

Salem,

PI. 2iy.

New

lyijy.

Contc on paper.

15 x 221^6 inches.

Whitney Museum

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.307

Methodist Church, Provincetown, 1930. Watercolor on paper, inches. Wadsworth Athcncum. Hartford, Connecticut: The 20 25 X Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin .Sumner Collection. PI. 221.

of

American

Art,

179


ISO

ARCHITECTURE

PI. 222.

seum

PI.

223.

of

Captain Kelly's House, 1931. Watercolor on paper. 20 x 24% inches. Whitney MuAmerican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1160

Marshall's House,

Connecticut.

1932.

Watercolor on paper,

14

x 20 inches.

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford,


ARCHITECTURE

PI.

Cold Storage Plant,

224.

inches.

The Fogg Museum

1933.

of Art.

l8l

Watercolor on paper, 20 x 25 Harvard University. Camljridgc.

Massachusetts.

PI. 22r,,

of

Housr on Pamet River.

American

Art.

New

York.

1934.

36.20

Watercolor on paper, 20

/ 25

inches.

Whitney Museum


182

ARCHITECTURE

PI. 226. [Village

of

American

Church],

Art.

New

c. 1934-35. Watercolor on paper, igiix 25 inches. Whitney Museun York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1086

PI. 227. Vermont Sugar House, 1938. Watercolor on paper. 131^ Harrison Investments.

,.,

igy^ inches. Collection of


ARCHITECTURE

PI. 228.

Pretty Penny, 1939. Oil on canvas. 29 x 40 inches. .Smith College

PI. 229.

Drawing

10% X

Whitney Museum |osephine N. Hopper. 70.983

16 inches.

quest of

Penny, 1939. Contc on paper. of American .\n. New N ork; Be-

for painting. Pretty

Museum

PI. 230.

of

.\it.

Drawing

Northampton, Massachusetts.

for painting. Pretty

Penny, 1939. C;onte on paper.

Whitney Museum of American quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.681

10% X

16 inches.

183

Art,

New

\ork; He-


l84

ARCHITECTURE

PI. 231.

Two

Puritans, 1945. Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Private collection.


CITYSCAPES

Hopper was

fascinated with

cities,

from Paris-which he once

described as "graceful"-to "the raw disorder of New York." For most of the year New York was his home, the environment

which inspired him. In the city, he found the settings and moods for some of his most poignant paintings.

PI.

232.

Queensboroiii^li

lliuhj^e.

1913.

Whitney Museum of American Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1 184 inches.

PI. 233.

Modern

New Art.

York

Comer

or Corner Saloon, 1913. Oil on canvas. 24

New ^ork; Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Fund.

29 inches.

Oil on Art,

The Museum

canvas.

New

of

2r,l{,

x

37!/^

^ork: Request of


PI. 2;i4.

)ouki-rs or Siuniuii .Street, 1916. Oil

seum

American

of

Art,

New

on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Whitney York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1215

PI- 235- P'"'!' Entrance, c. 1918-20. Oil on canvas. 24 X 29 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1194

Mu-


CITYSCAPES

PL

236. East River,

c

.

1

ya..-23. Oil

on canvas,

32

X 46 inches.

Private collection.

187


105

CITYSCAPES

PI. 237.

Walter

New

York Pavements, 1924. Oil on canvas. 24 x 29 inches. Chrysler

P. Chrysler, Jr.

Museum

at Norfolk, Virginia;

on loan from the

collection of


CITYSCAPES

PI "38 Skyline,

Near

U'iisliingto7i

Munson-Williams-Proctor

109

^'%t; inches. Square, 1925. VVatercului on papei, 151,11; Museum of Art, Utica, New York; Edward W. Root

Institute,

Bequest.

PI. 239.

â&#x201E;˘

'nches. on paper, ,3^0 ^ of .American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine

[Roopops].

c.

Whitney Museum N. Hopper. 70.1114

,926. \Vatercolor

Watercolor on Mr. and Mrs. Joel Harnett.

Afnuynts.,^.

PI. 240.

ManhalUm

Br,d,e and IMy

paper,

,3% x .9%

inches. Collection of


igo

CITYSCAPES

PI. 241.

The

City, 1927. Oil

on canvas, 28 x 36

inches. llnivcr.sity of Arizona.

Museum

of Art. Tucson, Arizona.


CITYSCAPES

PI. 242.

Drug

Store, .927. Oil

on canvas, 29

x 40 inches. (;.„> t«v of Ihc

Museum

of line Arts, llostou; Bequest of

John

I

Spaul.H.iK

191


[ga

CITYSCAPES

PI. 244.

Drawing

burg Bridge,

â&#x20AC;˘fmmmmimBmm^^ PI. 243.

From Williamsburg

Museum

PI. 245.

of Art.

New

Bridge, 1928. Oil on (ainas,

liij

.

|;;

iiKiu-s.

I

hr Mt-tiopolitaii

York; George A. Hearn Fund.

Blackwell's Island, 1928. Oil on canvas, 35 x 60 inches. Private collection.

for painting,

From Williams-

Contc on paper. 81/4 x 113,40 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.457

PI.

246.

1928.

Drawing

for

painting,

Blackwell's

Conte on paper, ioMg x 14 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Island,

70.454

1928.


CITYSCAPES

PI. 247.

Manhattan Bridge Loop,

.928. Oil

setts: Gift of Mr. .Stephen C. Clark.

on canvas.

3,5

'93

Academy. Andover. Massachux 60 inches, .\ddison Gallery of American Art, ]>hillips


194

CITYSCAPES

PI. 248.

East

Wind Over Weehaukeii,

1934. Oil

of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia; Collections

on canvas, 24% x 50I4

inches. Courtesy of the Pennsylvania

Academy

Fund Purchase.

PI. 249. Drawing for painting.- £(«( Wind Over Weehawken. 1934. Cont6 on paper, 10 x 14 inches. Whitney Museum of .'\merican Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.252

PI. 250. Drawing for painting, Eml Wind Over Weehawken. 1934. Conte and pencil on paper, 10 x 14 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.250


CITYSCAPES

PI. 251.

PI. 252.

Macomb's Dmii Uridgc.

Drawing

for painting,

1935. Oil

on canvas,

Macomb's

;(-,

â&#x20AC;˘

(in ini lies

I

In-

Urooklvn Museum.

New

195

York.

Dam

Bridge, 1935. Conte on paper. 87^ x 23^^ inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art, New York:

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.440

Pencil 1-1. PI 253. Drawing for painting, Macomb's Dam Bridge, 1935. on paper, 9% x 1814 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.990


196

PI. 254.

CITYSCAPES

Bridle Path, 1939. Oil on canvas, 28 x 42 inches. San Francisco

Museum

of

Modern

Art;

Anonymous

Gift

-^niiil

ifc|J''fe'flifi4

^m&&

PI. 256.

Drawing

for painting, Bridle Path,

Conte on paper, 8% x 1% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.463 1939.

1

PI. 257.

1939.

ney

Drawing

for painting. Bridle Path,

Conte on paper. 22140 x

Museum

15 inches.

Whit-

New

York;

of .\merican Art.

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.857

PI.

255.

1939.

ney

Drawing

for painting. Bridle Path.

Conte on paper,

Museum

8% x 1% 1

inches.

Whit-

New

York:

of .'\merican Art,

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.219


CITYSCAPES

PI. 258.

PI. 259.

paper,

August

in the City. .945- Oil

Drawing

8%

x

1

1

York: Bequest of

on canvas. 23

.

30 inches. Norton Callery and School ol

August in the City, 1945. Conte on Whitney Mu.seum of American Art. New Josephine N. Hopper. 70.456 for painting.

inches.

.\.l.

Wcs,

Pal,,,

Beach. Morida

197


TRAVELING MAN Hopper

and Mexico, seeking In so doing, he became interested in the psychology and environment of travelersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; in hotels, motels, trains, highfrequently traveled in America

inspiration.

ways, of

and

many

filling stations.

These became the haunting themes

of his paintings.

PI. 260.

[Steam Engine; Railroad of

paper, 8 x 10 inches. Whitney

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

PI. 261,

70.1182

The El

Station, 1908. Oil

on canvas, 20 x

-"(|

Whitney Museum

of .'\nierican .Art,

New

.\'en'

Museum

of

Jersey],

c.

American

iSgti. .Art,

Pencil on

New

York:

70.1553.11

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.


TRAVELING MAN

PI. 262.

American Railroad Train, 1908. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Addison Gallery of Academy, Andover, Massachusetts: Gift of Dr. Fred T. Murphy.

Art, Phillips

Whitney Railroad Crossing, c. 1922-23. Oil on canvas. 29 x 39% '"c'k^^Hopper. 70.1 189 N. Josephine Bequest of American Art, New York; PI. 263.

Museum

of

I

99


20O

264.

TRAVELING MAN

House by the Railroad,

nches.

The Museum

of

Modern

Art,

New

York.


TRAVELING MAN

Watercolor on paper. PI. 265. Lime Rock Railroad, Rockland, Maine, 1926. Museum, Princeton University; The Laura P. Hall Memorial Collection.

14 x iqVh inches.

The

Art

'X^i-<tS

PI. 266.

Rmlroad

Crossing, .926. Watercolor on

paper, ,sV> x igVi inches. Private collection.

201


202

TRAVELING MAN

xc v^AJt D tiapf^ " I'l.

L'67.

Freight Cars, Gloucester.

sachusetts; Gift of

191.8.

Edward W. Root.

Oil on canvas, 29 v

.(o

inches. Addison Gallery of

American An.

I'hillips

Academy. Andover. Ma


TRAVELING MAN

PI. 268.

Fund.

New

York,

New Haven, and

llaitjuid. 1931. Oil

on canvas, 32 x 50

inches. Indianapolis

Museum

of Art;

Emma

203

Barter Sweetser


204

TRAVELING MAN

PI. 269.

Hotel Room,

1931. Oil

on canvas, 60 x 65

inches.

Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection.


TRAVELING MAN

PI.

Watercolor on paper, 20 x 28 inches. Whitney York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1163

270.

New

PI. 271.

High Road,

Box

1931.

Car, Freight Car at Truro, 1931. Watercolor, i3y4 ^

Museum

of

19% ukIks. Private

American

collection.

Art,

205


206

TRAVELING MAN

PI. 272.

Compartment

C,

Car 293,

1938. Oil

on canvas, 20 x

18 inches.

IBM

Corporation, .\rinonk.

New

York.


TRAVELING MAN

207

Coinparlment C, Car 293, 1938. Conte PI. 273. Drawing for painting, on paper. 8 x 10V2 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.431

v^'^^aatf**.!^.

PI. 274.

Compartment on paper, 15^6 x 22 Whitney Museum of American Art, Drawing

for painting,

C, Car 295, 1938. Conte

A^H

inches.

f

''^hfir^

New

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.430

^:


20e

TRAVELING MAN

PI. 275.

Gas, 1940. Oil on canvas, 2614 x 40I4 inches.

The Museum

of

Modern

Art,

New

York: Mrs. .Simon

Guggenheim Fund.


TRAVELING MAN

Drawing for painting. GÂŤ5, 1940. Cont^ on paper, 8% x 11% Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.225 PI. 276.

inches.

PI. 277.

Drawing

paper, 15 x

Hopper.

for painting.

22I/8 inches.

70.349

Cm,

1940.

Whitney Museum

Contc and charcoal with touches of white painl on American Art, New Vorl<; Bequest of Josephine N.

of

209


210

TRAVELING MAN

PI. 278.

Route

6,

Eastham, 1941. Oil

uii

tanvas, ^7 ^ 38 inches. Sheldon

Swope Art

Gallery, Terre Haute, Indiana.

^^ PI. 279. Drawing for painting. Route 6, Eastham, 1941. Conte on paper, 10I4 x 16 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.445

Route 6, Eastham, 1941. Conte on Whitney Museum of American Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.330 PI.

280.

paper,

Drawing

lol/^

x

for painting.

16 inches.


TRAVELING MAN

PI. 281.

PI. 282.

Dawn

in Pennsylvania, 1942. Oil

on canvas. 24% x 44% inches. Private

Drawing for painting, Dawn in Penn1942. Conte on paper. 15 x 22% Whitney Museum of American Art.

sylvania, inches.

New

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.850

collection.

2

1

1


212

TRAVELING MAN

PI. 283.

Hotel Lobby, 1943. Oil on canvas, 32!^ x

40%

inches. Indianapolis

Museum

of Art;

William Ray Adams Memorial Collection.


TRAVELING MAN

PI. 284.

81^ X 11

quest of

PI. 287.

15 X 22

Drawing for painting. Hotel Lobby, 1943. Conte on paper, inches. Whitney Mu.seum of American Art, New York; BeJosephine N. Hopper. 70.1 17

Drawing for painting, Hotel Lobby, 1943. Conte on paper. inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Be-

quest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.839

Conte and pencil PI. 285. Drawing for painting. Hotel Lobby, 1943. on paper, 8IA x 11 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.116

PI. 286.

Drawing

for painting.

Hotel Lobby,

1943,

Whitney Museum of American quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.996 15 X

22%

inches.

Conte on paper,

Art,

New

York; Be-


214

TRAVELING MAN

-^^'^'^^'^«^^'*"^'^^ PI. 288.

""i«a>gi:s-3,j'i«:'

'i^i-suf.'^.- "'!^--w

Solitude, 1944. Oil on canvas, 32 x 50 inches. Private collection.

PI. 289.

Drawing

for painting. Solitude, 1944.

Conte on paper, i5%o

X 22% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.855

New

York; Be-


TRAVELING MAN

PI. 290.

Rooms

for Tourists, '945

.

Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Yale University .An Calleiy.

New Haven.

215

Connecticut; Hcqucsi ul Sicphcn

Carlton Clark, B.A., 1903.

'^T^'^ssssfci j-i-r^.

^-^ ^-[f

'jl! -r

-A-l

Drawing for painting, Rooms foi Tourists, 1945. Conte and charcoal on paper. 10% X 16 inches. Whitney Museum of AmerPI.

;;9i.

ican Art,

New

N. Hopper.

York: Bequest of Josephine

70.438

\i

Tourists,

Drawing for painting. Rooms foi 1945. Conte on paper, 15 x 22I4 inches. Whitney Museum of .American Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Drawing for painting. Rooms for 1945. Conte on paper. 10% x 16 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of |oscphine N. Hopper.

70.848

70.221

PI.

292.

I'l.

293.

Tourists,


2l6

TRAVELING MAN

^

PI. 294.

Approaching

a City, 1946. Oil

^'

on canvas, 27 x 36 inches. The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.

PI. 295.

Drawing

paper, i^Yie x ^'ork:

Approaching a City, 1946. Conte on Whitney Museum of American Art, New

for painting.

22%

inches.

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.869


TRAVELING MAN

PI. 296.

Four Lane Road,

1956. Oil

on canvas,

27I/2

x i^Vl inches. Private collection.

217


210

TRAVELING MAN

PI. 297.

Hotel by a Railroad,

ington, D,C.

i9r,2.

Oil on canvas, 31 x 40 inches. Hiishhoin

Museum

anil Sculpture

Caideu.

Sniitlisuniaii Institution.

Wash-


TRAVELING MAN

219

Drawing for painting. Hotel by a Railroad, 1952. Conte on Art, New York; paper, 12 x 19 inches. Whitney Museum of American Hopper. 70.427 N. Josephine Bequest of PI. 298.

Drawing for painting. Hotel by a Railroad, 1952. Cont^ on Art, New paper, 19 x nl-ym inches. Whitney Museum of American Hopper. 70.874 York; Bequest of Josephine N. PI. 299.


220

TRAVELING MAN

PI. 300.

Hotel Window, 1956. Oil on canvas, 40 x 55 inches. ThyssenBornemisza Collection.

U\

I;

PI. 301. Drawing for painting. Hotel Window, 1956. Contc and pencil on paper, 81/4 x 11 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.161


TRAVELING MAN

PI. 30..

Wesurn Motel.

.957. Oil

Carlton Clarke, B.A., 1903.

on canvas, 30% x 50%

inches. Yale University Art Gallery.

New Haven,

22

1

Connecticut; Bequest of Stephen


222

TRAVELING MAN

Canal at Charenton, 1907. Oil on canvas, 2314 x 2814 American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

PI. 303.

of

PI. 304.

Road and

inches.

Whitney Museum

70.1246

Trees, 1962. Oil on canvas, 34 x 60 inches. Collection of Mr.

and Mrs. Daniel W. Dietrich

II.


TRAVELING MAN

PI. 305.

Chair Car, 1965. Oil

oil

canvas, 40 x 50 inches. Private collection.

223


LOCAL COLOR Although he rarely painted oils on his travels, Hopper produced many watercolors which recorded specific locales. Often choosing unusual subject matter rather than the sights that might appeal to the average tourist, he conveyed a sense of place with an individual vision.

PI. 306. [St.

Michael's College, Santa Fe], 1925. Watercolor on paper, inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York;

13% X i9l%6

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

PI. 307.

seum

of

New Mexico], 1925. New York; Bequest of

[Adobes and Shed,

American

Art,

Watercolor on paper, 13% x Josephine N. Hopper.

i9'94(i inches.

70.1121

70.1158

Whitney Mu-


LOCAL COLOR

PI. 308.

Adobe Houses,

1925. Watercolor

on paper, 13% x 19% inches. Private collection.

[Railroad Trestle in the Desert], 1925. Watercolor on paper. '3'%6 X 9% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1099

PI. 309.

225

PI. 310. St.

Francis Tower, Santa Fe. 1925. Watercolor on paper, 1314

X 1914 inches.

The

Phillips Collection,

Washington, D.C.


226

LOCAL COLOR

PI. 311. [Cabin, Charlesinn, S.C], 1929.

of

American

Art.

New

Watercolor on paper,

'S^^/ia

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

i9'%6 inches. Whitney

Museum

70.1147

/W f^f^-^r

PI. 312. Drawing Whitney Museum

for watercolor, [Cabin, Charleston, S.C], 1929.

of

American

Art,

New

Conte on paper,

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

15

70.670

x 221^6 inches.


LOCAL COLOR

PI.

313. Baptistry of Saint Joltn's, 1929.

Watercolor on paper, 13% x 19% inches. Private collection.

-^

Drawing for painting, Baptistry of Saint John's, Conte on paper, 22% x '5 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.302 PI.

314.

1929.

227


228

LOCAL COLOR

PI. 315.

Charleston Doorway. 1929. Watercolor on paper. 14 x 20 inches. Private collection.

[The Battery, Charleston, S.C.], 1929. Watercolor on paper, inches. Whitnev Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1145 PI. 316.

PI. 317.

13% X i9^%6

paper.

[House with J'eranda, Charleston,

13%

x 20 inches. Whitney

S.C.], 1929.

Museum

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Watercolor on

of .'\merican Art,

70.1146

New


LOCAL COLOR

PI. 318.

tion,

ll'hite

River

at Sliarun,

1937.

Watcicolor on paper,

1

X 27I4 inches.

1

Ik S.iia

New York.

Pl. 319.

Sugar Maple, 1938. Watercolor on paper, 14 x 20 inches. Private collection.

Ruby Founda-

229


230

LOCAL COLOR

PI. 320. [Roofs, Sallillo,

ican Art,

PI. 321.

New

New

Mexico], 1946. Watercolor

El Palacio, 1946. Watercolor on paper,

York.

on

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

50.2

20%

x

paper, 21 x 29 inches.

Whitney Museum

of

Amer-

70.1162

28%

inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American

Art,


LOCAL COLOR

PI. 322.

Carolina Morning. 1955. Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Whitney

Spaeth by his family.

67.13

Museum

of

American

Art,

New

York; Given in

memory

23

1

of Otto L.


aga

local color

PI. 323. California

Hilh, 1957. Watercolor on paper,

21% x

29I4 inches. Hallmark Collection, Hallmark Cards, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri.


RESTAURANTS From

He

childhood.

later

tion,

Hopper was

developed

and the

this

fascinated with the interaction of people in restaurants.

theme, achieving a diversity of moods through

light,

composi-

inches. Hackley Art

Museum,

figures he depicted.

New York Restaurant, Muskegon, Michigan.

PI. 326.

c.

1922. Oil

on canvas, 24 x 30

^^^ilMS} 'M^2| tiHH--'"'

/...w/,-4,

PI. 324.

ney

[Restaurant Scene], 1894. Pencil on paper.

Museum

Hopper.

of

American Art,

70.1561.161

New

5x8

inches.

Whit-

York; Bequest of Josephine N.

i...it,..i^..,/..,l,.,...a.

,..^'

c. 1900. Pen and ink on Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1566.146

PI. 325.

paper,

[Landlady and

ii%x

i4'/4

Boarders],

inches.


234

RESTAURANTS

PI. 327.

Automat,

1927. Oil

on canvas, 281^ x 36 inches. Des Moines Art Center, Iowa; James D. Edmundson Fund, 1958.


RESTAURANTS

P!. 328.

Chop

Suey, 1929. Oil on canvas, 321/x

,.;

3KI/8 inches, tiollcction of

Barney A. Ebsworth.

235


236

RESTAURANTS

PI. 329.

1931-

Tables for Ladies. 1930. Oil on canvas, 4814 x

60%

inches.

The

Metropolitan

Museum

of Art,

New

York; George A. Hearn Fund,


I

RESTAURANTS

PI. 330.

Sunlight in a Cafeteria, 1958. Oil on canvas, 40I4 x

6o1/r inches.

Yale University Art Gallery,

New Haven.

Connecticut.

237


THEATERS Hopper's love of theater began in childhoodâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; he assisted his sister in staging puppet shows and plays at home. Encouraged by his teacher Robert Henri to attend theatrical performances. Hopper later went to movies or plays as an escape, when he found himself unable to paint.

c. 1898-99. Pencil on paper, 5 x 7l%6 inches. WhitAmerican Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N.

Acrobats,

PI. 331.

ney

Museum

Hopper.

of

70.1553.21

BEFORE TRE FO#TilCBTS.

c. 1900. Pen and ink on paper, ^l^o Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1558.82

PI. 334.

X

5%

Before the Footlights,

inches.

PI. 332. [Harlequin and Lady in Evening Dress], c. 1900. Watercolor on illustration board, 14%^ x 10% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1629


THEATER

PI. 333.

ney

[Satan

Museum

Hopper.

m

of

Red], 1900. Oil on board. 12V4 y 9% inches. WhitArt, New York; Bequest of Josephine N.

American

PI. 335- [Solitary

x

9%6

quest of

70.1419

Figure in a Theatre],

c.

1902-4. Oil

Whitney Museum of American Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1418

inches.

Art,

239

on board, 12%

New

York; Be-

.^^

inches. PI. 336. Anno Domini XIXCV, 1905. Conte on paper, \Sy, x 24 Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1532

1900-1906. Pencil 337. [Ibsen: At the Theatre], board. 22 15 inches. Whitillustration x on and wash PI.

ney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1355


240

THEATER

PI- 338-

Two

on the

Aisle, 1927. Oil

on canvas, 4014 x 48V4

inches.

The Toledo Museum

of Art; Gift of

Edward Drummond Libbey.


THEATER

PI. 339.

The

Circle Theatre, 1936. Oil

on canvas, 27 x 36 inches. Private

collection.

24I


242

THEATER

PI. 340.

New

York Movie, 1939. Oil on canvas,

32% x

401,^ inches.

The Museum

of

Modern

Art, Ni


THEATER

243

I'l. 341;. Drawing for painting. Next' York Movie: Palace. 1939. Conte on paper, 8% x i% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper, 70.111 '

^<Mv,ÂŤd

Drawing

PI. 341.

for painting.

New

//^^Âťv

York Movie, 1939, Conte on paper, Art. New York; Be-

Whitney Museum of American quest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.447

15% X 7%

PI.

343.

inches.

Drawing

for painting.

New

York Movie, 1939. Conte on New York:

x 15 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.272

paper,

n

rf<***


244

THEATER

PI. 344.

The Sheridan

Thealir.

ly^sy.

Oil on canvas, 17

,.

25 inches.

The

.Newark .Museum.

.\eu' Jersey;

I'urcliase 1940, Felix

Bequest 1-und.


THEATER

3'^

Drawing fov painting. The Sheridan Theatre. .936-37. Conte on paper, American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.958

PI. 345.

of

I'l.

34().

Drawing

of ,\merican .\rt.

for painting.

New

Vorl<;

The Sheridan

Tlieaire, 1936-37.

Ucquest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Conte on paper. 70.963

41/0

41/j

7%

<

,<

71/s

inches.

inches.

-^^3

Whitney Miisenm

Whitney Museum

245


246

THEATER

PI. 347. Girlie Shou\. 1941.

Oil on canvas, 32 x 38 inches. Private collection.


THEATER

PI.

348.

Drawing

for painting. Girlie

Show,

1941.

247

Conte on paper.

Museum of American Art, 'SVi X 15 inches. Whitney quest oÂŁ Josephine N. Hopper. 70.295

New

York; Be-

PI.

349.

22%

X

Drawing 151/16

for painting, Girlie Shou', 1941.

inches.

Whitney Museum

Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

of

70.301

American

Conte on paper. Art,

New

York;


24°

THEATER

PI. 350. First

Row

Orcheitra, 1951. Oil on canvas, 31 x 40 inches. Hirshhorn

ington, D.C.

-t-'-'-W^TTTi [

•iTF I

Museum and

sculpture (.arden, Smithsonian Institution. Wash-


THEATER

f

I

PI. 352.

Mrs. Morris B. Pelavin. Intermission, 1963. Oil on canvas, 40 y 60 inches. Collection of Mr. and

249


250

THEATER

PI, 353.

Two Comedians,

1965. Oil

on canvas, 29 x 40 inches. Private collection.

y/f

#

i


r OFFICES Beginning

in igi2,

Hopper

depicted

many

offices as

zine. Later, as part of his obsei-vations of city life,

setting,

although

PI. 356. Office at

it is

an

illustrator for

he found the

office

System magaan intriguing

an unusual subject for paintings.

Night, 1940. Oil on canvas, 22% x 25 inches. Walker Art Center. Minneapolis, tfie T. B. Walker Foundation.

Minnesota; Gift of

PI. 357.

1940.

Drawing

for painting. Office at Night,

Conte on paper, 814 x

11

inches.

Whit-

ney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.168

Drawing for painting. Office at Night. 1940. Conte and charcoal with touches of white paint on paper, 15% x 18% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New

Drawing

for painting. Office at Night,

PI. 358.

PI. 359.

York;

1940. Cont^ and charcoal with touches of white paint on paper, 15 x 19% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.340

70.341

Bequest

of

Josephine

N.

Hopper.


252

OFFICES

PI. $60. Coiiffietice at \igli I, ig^(j.

Collection.

Oil on canvas,

i;;-"^

.

40 inches. Courtesy of the Wichita Art

Museum. Kansas: The Roland

1'.

Munlock


OFFICES

PI. 3fii.

Museum

PI.

of

Drawing for painting, Conference at Night. 1949. Conte on paper, 81/0 Hopper. 70.172 of American ,\rt. New ^orlc; Bequest of Josephine N.

Drawing for painting. Conference at Night, 1919. Conte on paper, American Art, New 'lork; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.842 362.

i.r,

y

y

11

inches.

inches.

Whitney

Whitney Museum

253


254

OFFICES

r'w-

PI. 363. Office in a

Small City, 1953. Oil on canvas, 28 x 40 inches.

The Metropohtan Museum

of Art,

New

York; George

.\.

Hearn Fund.


OFFICES

PI. 364.

PI.

Meiu York Office, 1962. Oil on canvas. 40 x 55 inches. Collection of Blount,

365.

paper,

Drawing

81/,

x

n

for painting.

inches.

New

York

Whitney Museum

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Office,

of

70.822

1962.

American

Pencil on Art,

New

Inc.,

Montgomery. Alabama.

255


COUPLES Hopper sometimes focused on

livo

people encountering one another, conveying effectively their anxiety or dismay. a pessimist who felt that others rarely measure up to one's ideal.

He

was

a

romantic at heart, but at the same time

PI. 366.

Room

in

Xeiv York, 1932. Oil on canvas. 29 x 36 inches. F. M. Hall Collection: Iniversity of Nebraska Art Galleries. Lincoln.


COUPLES

PI. 3(57. SiiiiiDier

Ei'ening, 1947. Oil

on canvas. 30

,<

42 inches. Colleclion of

.\Ir.

and Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney.

257


258

COUPLES

PI. 368.

Summer

in the City, 1949. Oil

on canvas. 20 x 30 inches. Berry-Hil!

Galleries. Inc..

New

^

01k.


COUPLES

PI. 369.

Seawatchers, 1952. Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Private collection.

259


26o

COUPLES

PI. 370.

Sunlight on Broxvmtones, 1956. Oil on canvas,

Murdock

Collection.

29% x 39%

inches. Courtesy of Hie Wichita Art

Museum.

Kansas:

The Roland

P.


COUPLES

PI. 371. l-lxdii'.iini into

Philosophy,

iijsfl.

Oil on

cam as,

311

X

jd IirIk'S- Pi i\ali- uillixliim.

261


THE MILITARY loved military history, and as a cliild ofteyj made drawings and cutout figures of soldiers. As an illustrator and etcher he also depicted soldiers of several nationalities and eras. His interest later focused on the Civil War and he returned to

Hopper always

this subject for several paintings.

PI.

373.

Dawn

Before Gettysburg, 1934. Oil on

caiivai,

1.-,

20 inches. Private collection.

ÂŤ>_<'

**nw<CAW4>v

PI. 372. Soldiers in

Whitney Museum N. Hopper.

Wagon,

1896. Pencil

of .American ,\n.

70.1554.14

New

on paper,

7%

x 10 inches.

York; Bequest of Josephine

PI. 374. Drawing on paper, 'j'^Yn, x

for painting.

n

inches.

Dawn

Before Gettysburg, 1934. Conte of .American Art, New

Whitney Museum

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.424


MILITARY

PI. 375.

Light Battery

at

Gettysburg, 1940. Oil on canvas. 18 v 27 inches. Nelson Gallery-Atkins

Friends of Art.

PI.

376.

Drawing

for painting. Light

Conte on paper, 11 Vi y .\rt. New Vorlv; Bequest

15!/^

inches.

of Josephine

Battery at Gettysburg, 1940.

Whitney Museum .\.

Hopper.

of .American

70.425

Museum, Kansas

263

City, Missouri; Gift of the


TIMES OF THE DAY

Hopper

repeatedly represented different times of day, emphasizing

mood through

entitled his painting with specific hours. In his use of time as an expression of

the varying effects of light. Often, he even

mood. Hopper

probably inspired by French

zoas

Symbolist literature.

PI. 378.

Soir Bleu, 1914. Oil on canvas, 36 x 72 inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American

.\n.

York: Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper.

New

70.1208

Light on Portrait Heads], on paper. 10x8 inches. Whit-

PI. 377. [Studies of c.

1903. Pencil

Museum of .\merican .\rt. Bequest of Josephine \. Hopper.

ney

PI. 379.

Un Maquereau (drawing

ing, Soir Bleu), 1914.

8%

inches.

Art,

New

Hopper.

New

York;

for paint-

Conte on paper,

Whitney Museum

70.318

York;

70.1553.78

Bequest of

10 x

of .\merican

Josephine

X.


TIMES OF DAY

PI. 380.

PI. 381.

New

Moonlight Interior, 1921-23. Oil on canvas, 24 x 29 inches. Private

Night Uindoivi.

York; Gift of John

1928. Oil

on canvas, 29

Hay Whitney.

x

34 inches.

I

collection.

he Mu.scnin of Moilcin Art.

265


266

TIMES OF DAY

PI. 382.

Hopper.

Railroad Sunset. 1929. Oil on canvas, 2814 x 70.1170

47%

inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American

Art.

New

York: Bequest of Josephine N.


TIMES OF DAY

Pi. 383.

Early Sunday Morning, 1930. Oil on canvas, 35 x 60 inches. Whitney

Museum

of .'Vmerican Art.

New

York.

31.426

267


268

TIMES OF DAY

PI. 3S4.

Home

at

Dusk, 1935. Oil on canvas, 36 x 50 inches, \irginia

Museum

of Fine

.Viis.

Richmond,

\irginia.


TIMES OF DAY

PI. 385.

tive

AM.,

c.

1937. Oil

on canvas, 25

x 36 inches.

Courtesy of the Wichita Art .Museum. Kansas;

The Roland

P.

Murdock

269

Collection.


270

TIMES OF DAY

P). 386.

\ightlunvks, 1942. Oil on canvas, 3314

X

6oi/^ inches.

The An

Institnte of Chicago: Friends of

American

Art.

Drawing for painting, Nighthawks, Conte on paper, 7% x 14 inches. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. Blum. PI.

387.

1942.


TIMES OF DAY

PI. 388.

Seven A.M., 1948. Oil on can\as, 30

,

40 inches. Whitnev

Museum

of .American .Art,

New

York.

50,

27

I


272

TIMES OF DAY

PI. 389.

Shakespeare at Dusk. 1935. Oil on canvas, 17 x 25 inches. Collection oÂŁ John Astor.


TIMES OF DAY

H.^

273

^t^

^^!^ m:^''

PI. 391.

paper.

Drawing 41/;

x

yT/^

York; Bequest of

for painting, Shakespeare at

Dusk, 1935. Pencil on

Whitney Museum of American Josephine N. Hopper. 70.127 inches.

.Art,

New

Drawing for painting. Sliakcsjieare at Dusk, 1935. Contc on x 11% inches. Whitney Museum of .\merican Art. New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.281 PI. 390.

8%

paper.

^,

PI.

392.

Drawing

for painting. Shakespeare at

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.453

Dusk, 1935. Pencil on paper,

^syifi inches.

Whitney Museum

of

American

Art.

New


274

TIMES OF DAY

PI. 393.

Eleven A.M.. 1026. Oil on

^a[l^.l^. .,s

.

31,

mdics. Hirshhorn

Museum and

.Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. D.C.


TIMES OF DAY

PI. 394.

Morning

in a City, 1944. Oil

on canvas, 44 x 60 inches. Williams College

Museum

275

of Art. Williams-

town, Massachusetts.

Drawing for painting. Morning in a Conte and pencil on paper, 8I4 x inches. Whitney Museum of .American

PI. 395.

City, 1944. II

Art,

New

Hopper.

York; 70.207

Bequest of [osephinc

N.

Drawing

Drawing

for painting.

Morning

in a

City, 1944. Cont<5

Morning in a on paper, 22% x 15 inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

Cont^ on paper, 8% x 11% inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.294

70.208

PI. 396.

for painting.

PI. 397.

City,

1944.


276

TIMES OF DAY

PI. 398.

High Noon,

1949. Oil

on canvas, 28 x 40

inches.

The Dayton

Art Institute, Ohio.


TIMES OF DAY

PI. 399. Cajye

Cod Morning,

1950. Oil

on canvas, 34

-

40

inclies.

The Sara Roby Foundation,

New

York.

277


278

TIMES OF DAY

PI. 400.

Morning Sun,

1952. Oil

on canvas, 28% x

40I/8 inches.

Columbus Museum

of .Art. Ohio;

Howald Fund Purchase.


TIMES OF DAY

PI. 402.

12 X

PI. 401. 1

Drawing for painting. Morning Sun, 1952. Conte on paper, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; BeJosephine N. Hopper. 70.244

19 inches.

quest of

1

Drawings for painting. Morning Sun, 1952. Conte on paper, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Be-

X 814 inches.

quest of Josephine N. Hopper.

^,J

PI. 403.

Drawing

for painting,

Morning Sun,

Conte and pencil on paper, 12 x iS^^n inches. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper. 1952.

70.291

279

70.243

fc>'^V

^'><J^''*^


CAPE COD The Hoppers spent

their

first

summer

for four summers, in ii)}4 they built surrounding houses, trees, and vistas.

PI. 404.

in

South Truro, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod

their

own

South Truro Cliurch, 1930. Oil on tmivas, 29

liouse

on the Cape. In

his jyaintings

v 43 indies. Privalc cuUecliuii.

After renting A. B. Cobb's liouse from these summers. Hopper depicted the

in ip^o.


CAPE COD

PI. 405. Corti Hill, 1930.

Oil on canvas, 29 x 43 inches. Marion Ki

Collection.

PI. 406. The Coal Box, 1930. Watcrcolor on paper, 14 Wadsworth Athcneuni, Hartford, Connecticut; Tlie Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection.

--

20 inches.

Ella

Gallup

McNay Art

Institute,

28

1

San Antonio, Texas; Sylvan and Mary long


202

CAPE COD

PI. 407. Hills,

South Truro. 1930. Oil on canvas,

27%

x 43I/8 inches.

The

Cleveland

Museum

of

An: Hinman

B.

Hurlbut Collection.


CAPE COD

203

.S-iiH^'

PI. 408.

[Cobb's Barns, South Truro],

phine N. Hopper.

70.1207

c.

1931. Oil

on canvas. 34

x 50 inches.

Whitney MLiseum

of .American Art,

New

York; Bequest of Jose-


284

CAPE COD

PI. 409. [Burly

Cobb's Hoii^c,

Soiilli

Truro],

York; Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

c.

1930. Oil

on canvas, 247i

:

3O

iiiclit-s.

W'liitney

Museum

of

American

Art.

New

70.1210

PI. 410.

[Cobb's Barns, South Truro],

and red crayon on paper, Museum of American .Art, phine N. Hopper. 70.684

15

x

New

c.

Conte Whitney

1931.

22I/& inches.

York; Bequest of Jose-


CAPE COD

and Distant Houses], of Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1206 PI.

411. [Cobb'5 Barns

PI. 412.

paper,

[Cobb's Barns and Distant Houses],

21%

x

c.

1931. Oil

1931.

on canvas,

inches.

28I/.

x 42 inches. Whitney

Watercolor on

Whitney Museum of American Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1081

29%

York; Bequest of

c.

Art,

New

r^

-••"w

Museum

of

285

American Art, New York; Request


286

CAPE COD

The Camel's Hump, Edward W. Root Bequest. PI. 413.

1931. Oil

on canvas. 32I4 x

sol/g inches.

Munson-W'illiams-I'ioctior Institute.

Museum

of .^rt. Utica.

New

York:


CAPE COD

PI. 414.

Home

New Haven,

of the

fog Horn, No.

},

1929.

Watercolor on paper, 13%

Connecticut; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. George

Hopper

gi'i

Fitch, B.A. 1932.

inches, ^ale University Art Gallery.

287


200

CAPE COD

PI. 415.

Daupliinec Houit, 1932. Oil on canvas, 34 x

rfiVi inches. I'rivate collection.


CAPE COD

PI.

|i(i.

I!\ili'i\

Ranger lund.

flume, 1933. Oil on canvas, 36 x 50 inches.

Museum

of Fine Arts, Boston; Gift of the National

Academy

of Design,

289

Henry


290

CAPE COD

PI. 417.

Cape Cod Ajternoon.

1936. Oil

on canvas. 34

x

50 inches. .Mubcum oÂŁ

.Vrt.

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


CAPE COD

PI. 418.

C«pe Cod Evening,

PI. 419.

Drawing

paper. 814 x

11

1939. Oil

on canvas, 30 x 40 inches. Collection

Cape Cod Evening, 1939. Conte on Whitney Museum of .American An. New

for painting.

inches.

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

70.183

Mr. and Mrs. John Hay Whitney.

29

1


292

PI.

CAPE COD

420.

October on Cape Cod, 1946. Oil on camas. 26

,.,

42 inches. Collection of l.oretta and Robert k. I.itton.


CAPE COD

PI. 421.

Portrait of Orleans, 1950. Oil on canvas, 26 x 40 inches. Private collection.

293


SUNLIGHT Speaking of

his distaste for illustration,

Hopper once

insisted:

wanted to do loas to paint sunlight on the side of a house." Recording the drama of sunlight was a lifelong interest.

"What

I

PI. 423.

23%

X

Pare du Samt Cloud, 1907. Oil on canvas, Whitney Museum of .American .'\rt. New York; Josephine N. Hopper. 70.1248

Trees in

28%

Bequest of

Suiitiglit,

inches.

(ci>AAa

PI. 422.

Mass of Trees of American

Museum

at Easthaiit,

Art,

New

July-August

1962. Watercolor

on paper,

York: Bequest of Josephine N. Hopper.

21 x

70.1164

28%

inches.

nOMta

Whitney


SUNLIGHT

PI. 4i;4. WciuKii

by

llie

.ScÂŤ,

Carlton Clark, B.A. 1903.

1951. Oil

on canvas, 29

x 40

inches.

^

ak UnivcLsity

.\it

Gallery,

New Haven,

Connecticut; Beqiusl

ol

295

stiphcn


2g6

SUNLIGHT

PI. 425.

Second Story Sunlight,

i960. Oil

on canvas, 40 x 50

inches,

Whitney Museum

of

American

Art.

New

\ork.

O0.54


SUNLIGHT

PI. 426.

People

in the

son and Son, Inc.

Sun, i960. Oil on canvas, 40 x 60 inches. National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution; Gift of

S.

297

C. John-


298

SUNLIGHT

PI. 427.

in the Sun. igfii. Oil on canvas, 40 X 60 inches. Whitney Musexim of American Art, New York; Promised and Par.\nni\crsarv Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Albert Hackctt in honor of Edith and Lloyd Goo<lrich. P. 18,80

A Womnn

tial .-,oth

PI. 428.

the Sun,

Drawing c.

1961.

for painting,

A ]Votnan

in

Conte on paper, 18I4 x 11%

inches. Private collection.


SUNLIGHT

PI. 429.

Sun

iyi

an Empty Room,

1963. Oil

on canvas, 28% x S9V2 inches. Private collection

299


CHRONOLOGY The

information in this chronology has been compiled from the

ledgers

and

published reviews. raisonne.

various

letters,

The

titles

museum

artist's

archives, exhibition catalogues,

and

A

complete chronology will follow in the catalogue

of

Hopper's works may be given in French or English,

according to the listing in individual exhibition catalogues. 1882

July 22,

Edward Hopper born in Nyack, New York, son Henry Hopper and Elizabeth Griffiths Smith

1906

an illustrator by C. C. Phillips & Company,

New

Hopper.

October, to Paris, lived at 48, rue de Lille in the building of the Eglise Evang^lique Baptiste. Continued

High School. As a wood provided by

1899- Winter, 1900

as

24 East Twenty-second Street,

1888- Attended local private school, graduated from Nyack 1899

Employed

of Garrett

studied

illustration

1907 at

the

1900-

New

1906

Keller

at 114

West Thirty-fourth

Homer

Boss,

Patrick

du

School of Art.

visited

and West-

19, left London for Holland. Visited Amsterdam and Haarlem where Robert Henri was conducting a summer school for American students. July 26, arrived

in Berlin.

August

I,

arrived in Brussels for two days before re-

turning to Paris.

Henry Bruce, Arthur

Arnold Friedman, Julius Golz, Jr., Rockwell Kent, Vachel Lindsay, Walter Pach, Eugene Speicher, Carl Sprinchorn, Walter Tittle, and Clifton Webb. Along with Douglas John Connah and W. T. Benda, taught the Saturday class in drawing from life, painting, sketching, and composition at the New York Pfene

London where he

July

Cederquist, Clarence K. Chatterton, Glenn O. Coleman,

Guy

27, left Paris to travel to

in Paris.

minster Abbey.

New

Street.

York School of Art, studied illustration with Arthur and Frank Vincent DuMond, then painting under Robert Henri, William Merritt Chase, and Kenneth Hayes Miller. In class with Gifford Beal, George

Bellows,

June

Henry Bruce

the National Gallery, the Wallace Collection,

Correspondence

School of Illustrating, a commercial art school in

York City

friendship with Patrick

teenager, built himself a catboat with his father.

York.

August

Bois,

21, sailed for

Worked 1908

March

as a

New

commercial

York.

artist in

New

York.

9-31, included in "Exhibition of Paintings

and

Drawings by Contemporary American Artists" at the old Harmonic Club building, 43-45 West Forty-second Street,

New

several other

York;

exhibited

for

the

first

Henri students; exhibited three

time oils.

with

The


Louvre and Seine, The Bridge of the Arts, and The Park at Saint Cloud, and one drawing, Une Demimondaine. The exhibition was organized by Arnold Friedman, JuHus Golz, Jr., and Glenn O. Coleman. Also included were paintings by George Bellows, Guy Pfene du Bois, Lawrence T. Dresser, Edward R. Keefe, Rockwell Kent, George McKay, Howard McLean, Carl Sprinchorn, and G. Leroy Williams.

October 10-31, included son

Avenue, 1915

New

Took up

in

"Opening Exhibition,

Sea-

Montross Gallery, 550 Fifth York; exhibited one oil. Road in Maine.

1914-1915,"

the

at

etching.

February 11-21. included in "Exhibition of Paintings," The MacDowell Club of New York; exhibited two oils: Soir Bleu

and

New

York Corner (Corner Saloon). Ex-

hibition also included the paintings of George Bellows,

1909

March

arrived in Paris via Cherbourg.

18,

John

Visited Fontainebleau.

November

June, visited St.-Germain-en-Laye.

The MacDowell Club

on Holland-America Line arriving on August 9.

July 31, sailed

April

New

to

1916

at

York; exhibited one

29-31 West Thirty-fifth Street, oil.

New

1917

The Louvre.

sailed for

1,

New York. New York,

began to earn painted in

After returning to

by commercial art and and in the summers.

illustration;

of

New

York; exhibited three

oils:

Rocks and Houses, and The Dories.

in Arts

re-

and Decoration.

Summer on Monhegan

Mid-May, returned to Paris. May 26, left Paris for Madrid. While in Spain, visited Toledo and attended a bullfight. Returned to Paris on June 11. July

Village,

February, eight of his Paris watercolor caricatures

produced

organized by John Sloan, Robert Henri, and

Arthur B. Davies,

others.

18-28, included in "Exhibition of Paintings,"

American

York,

included in "Exhibition of Independent

1-27,

Artists,"

Eugene Speicher, and

Second summer in Ogunquit, Maine.

May, painted out-of-doors along the Seine frequently.

1910

Sloan, Randall Davey,

Island,

Maine.

February 15-25, included in "Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by Mary L. Alexander, George Bellows, A.

Stirling

Calder,

Clarence

K.

Chatterton,

Andrew

Dasburg, Randall Davey, Robert Henri, Edward Hop-

Leon Kroll, Thalia W. Millett, Frank Osborn, John Sloan," The MacDowell Club of New Yo k; exhibited three oils: Portrait of Mrs. Sullivan, Rocks and Sand, and Summer Street. per,

his living

free time 6, included in the "First Annual ExhibiAmerican Society of Independent Artists; exhibited two oils: American Village and Sea at Ogunquit.

April lo-May tion,"

1912

February 22-March ings,"

5,

included in "Exhibition of Paint-

The MacDowell Club

Fifty-fifth Street;

exhibited

of

New

five oils:

The Wine Shop,

York, at 108 West

and British Steamer. Also included were paintings by George Bellows, Randall Davey, and Guy Pene du Bois. of

the

Seine,

Summer

Summer on Monhegan

Sailing,

in Gloucester, Massachusetts,

1918

in France.

included in "Exhibition of Water and Drawings by Four Groups of Artists," The MacDowell Club of New York, along with Louis Burt, Clara M. Davey, Randall Davey, Benjamin Greenstein, Bernard Gussow, Robert Henri, Amy Londoner, Marjorie Organ, Louise de G. Rogers, John Sloan, Ruth Townsend, and others; exhibited eight

April

where he painted

one

oil.

Moved

1914

Sailing, to

included in the Armory

15,

Exhibition

(International

which sold

of

lived until his death.

January

22-February

ited

two

April

Artists,"

included of

Summer on Monhegan

New

in

"Exhibition

New The

and

Street in Paris. in

Ogunquit, Maine.

Island,

Maine.

October, Hopper's poster Smash the

York,

first

Hun, which won

prize in the "citizens" class nationwide competi-

tion of the National Service Section of the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation, was exhibited with those of nineteen other contestants in the window of Gimbel's department store on Broadway.

of

York; exhibBridge.

included in "Exhibition of Water and Drawings by Four Groups of The MacDowell Club of New York; exhibited Qiiai, Land of Fog, The Railroad, The Port.

the

12,

Pastels,

etchings.

17,

Pastels,

On

Summer

Show

exhibited

the

Gloucester Harbor and

30-May

Colors,

1,

The MacDowell Club

oils:

Art);

for S250.

where he

Paintings,"

Modern

Washington Square North,

3

27-May

Colors,

January 9-21, included in "Exhibition of Paintings," The MacDowell Club of New York; exhibited two oils: La Berge and Squam Light. February 15-March

1, included in "An Exhibition of EtchChicago Society of Etchers; exhibited Somewhere

March 25-May ings,"

with Leon Kroll. 1913

Island, Maine.

River Boat, Valley

1919

Summer on Monhegan

1920

January 14-28, Hopper's first one-man exhibition. Whitney Studio Club, 147 West Fourth Street, New York;

Island, Maine.

showed sixteen oils painted in Paris and in Monhegan, Maine: Le Bistro, Le Pont des Arts, Le PontNeuf,


Married Josephine Verstille Nivison on July 9, 1924, at the Eglise Evangelique on West Sixteenth Street, New York. Guy Pene du Bois was Hopper's best man.

Notre Dame de Paris. Juin, Apres-midi de Frintemps, Le Pare de St. Cloud, Le Qiiai des Grands Augustins, Le Louvre et la Seine, Les Lavoirs, Black Head, Monhegan. The Little Cove, Monhegan, Rocks arid Houses, Squam Light, La Cite, and Road in Maine. 1921

Summer

October-November, Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery, New York, exhibition of recent watercolors. All eleven shown and five additional ones were sold. The exhibition was a success, enabling Hopper to give up commercial work and illustration. (His illustrations were published in

included in "Annual Exhibition of

March 20-April 20, and Sculpture by Members Whitney Studio Club; exhibited one Paintings

the

of oil,

Club,"

The Park

Entrance. 1922

^^arch 25-April 23, included in "Annual Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by Members of the Club,"

Whitney Studio Club; exhibited three one

oil.

New

Scribner's through 1927.)

1925

included in "Tenth Annual Exhibi-

30,

tion,"

York Interior.

the

Anderson

New

Galleries;

York Corner.

June through late September, visited James iMountain, Colorado, and Santa Fe, New Mexico, where he painted

October, exhibition of ten Paris watercolor caricatures at the

May 18-May

Whitney Studio Club at exhibited two oils: Yonkers and

and

etchings,

in Gloucester, Massachusetts.

Whitney Studio Club.

seven watercolors. 1923

Attended the Whitney Studio Club evening sketch and made numerous lifedrawings. February i-March

11,

class

1926

included in "Exhibition of Etch-

Chicago Society of Etchers, The Art Institute of Chicago; exhibited two etchings: East Side Interior and ings,"

la

Monnaie, and Notre Dame de

Paris~

twenty-five dollars for the etching East Side Interior.

February, included in "Today in American Art," Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery; exhibited one oil, Sunday.

February 4-March

April 13-May

Evening Wind. Hopper was awarded the Logan Prize of

25,

Pennsylvania Academy exhibited one

oil.

New

included in "118th Exhibition of

ings by

York Restaurant.

hibited twenty-one prints and nineteen watercolors.

Exhibition"; exhibited two

Le

Militaire

Made

Took then

Paris watercolor caricatures:

and Sargent de

Ville.

Summer

the last of his etchings.

in

20,

included in "A Group Ex-

Sculpture by .American and European Artists," at the

Beam

Trawler, House

Deck of Window, The

six watercolors:

with

a

Bay

Mansard Roof, Beam Trawler Seal, Shacks and Italian Qiiarter, Gloucester. December 7, 1923, The Mansard Roof

the

Brooklyn

1928

January

20,

Summer

for $100.

Maine,

February 3-iMarch 23, included in "119th Annual ExPennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia; exhibited one oil, New York Interior.

made

his

last

print,

a

in Gloucester, Massachusetts.

to visit

drypoint. Portrait

before returning

1929

to

New

January 21-February K. a

M. Rehn

Trip

to Oguncjuit,

Clarence K. and Annette Chatterton of

Vassar. Traveled through

hibition,"

Quarter, Gloucester.

Purchase of automobile.

of Jo.

purchased

March 20-April 22, exhibited in "Fourth International Water Color Exhibition," The Art Institute of Chicago; included four watercolors: Deck of a Beam Trawler, Houses of Squam Light, Beam Trawler Seal, and Italian

Rockland, Maine, for seven weeks,

to

into Vermont.

at Lanesville.

Museum

Eastport, Maine, for several days,

to

Summer at Two Lights, Cape Elizabeth, Maine. Visited Mrs. Summer at Two Lights. Visited Mrs. Catherine Budd in Charlestown, New Hampshire, on return trip. Made an excursion across the Connecticut River

hibition of Watercolor Paintings, Pastels, Drawings, and

Brooklyn Museum; exhibited

to

trip

Bangor.

then on to Gloucester, Massachusetts.

Gloucester,

1927

November 19-December

train

Traveled by boat

Massachusetts. Began to paint watercolors regularly.

a

"Exhibition of Water Colors and EtchSt. Botolph Club, Boston; ex-

1,

Edward Hopper,"

of the Fine Arts," Philadelphia;

February, included in "National Arts Club, Humorist's

1924

February 17-March 6, included in an exhibition at the Boston Art Club; exhibited five oils: The Louvre, Le Pont des Arts, Le Quai des Grands Augustins, Ecluse de

2,

New Hampshire and Vermont York. one-artist exhibition

Gallery of twelve

oils,

at

Frank and

ten watercolors.

group of drawings.

April

i-May

11, trip to

Charleston, South Carolina.

May 1-25, included in "Annual Members Exhibition," Whitney Studio Club; exhibited one oil. New York

Summer, visit to Topsfield, Massachusetts, home of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel A. Tucker. Second stay at Two Lights, Cape Elizabeth, Maine. Trips to Essex and Pemaquid

Restaurant.

Point.


1930

Edward and Grace Root

Visited with

lege, Clinton,

New

Massachusetts, on

Hampton

at

Col-

1939

York, before going to South Truro,

Cape Cod. Rented A.

"Bird Cage Cottage," on

B. Cobb's house,

Returned to New York early from summer at South Truro in order to travel to Pittsbuigh, Pennsylvania, to be on the jury of the Carnegie Institute. Painted no watercolors this year or next, but painted

a hill.

Truro 1931

Honorable Mention and cash award. Pan-American Exhibition.

1931- Summers

Cage

"Bird

in

Cottage"

Baltimore

First

1940

South

in

Massachusetts.

1932

March, elected an associate member of the National Academy of Design, which he declined as they had rejected his paintings in years past.

Took

space at 3 Washington Square North,

1941

Wendell Willkie against Franklin

for

Summer (May through by

additional studio

New

Spring, trip to Albany to jury exhibition.

Utah.

and north through CaliReturned via Wyoming and Yellowstone Park. Returned to house at South Truro

Nevada

York.

November-January 5, 1933, included in the first Whitney Museum of American Art Biennial (and in almost every later Whitney Biennial and .Annual).

late in

1942

Murray Bay, Quebec Province, Canada, then visited Ogunquit and Two Lights, Maine, and Boston. Returned to South Truro, Massachusetts, to "Bird Cage

West Coast Drove through

July), traveled to the

Colorado and

Visited

car.

desert to Pacific Coast

Oregon

fornia to

1933

to

in

Roosevelt,

1932

Trip

South

Traveled from South Truro to New York to register vote. Returned to New York early from the Cape order to vote

Truro,

oils in

studio.

Coast.

August.

Awarded Ada

S.

Garrett

The

Prize.

Art

Institute

oi

Chicago.

to

1943

March, traveled

to

Washington

to

be on the Corcoran

jury.

Cottage."

October to

Summer, having no gas to travel to Cape Cod, made trip to Mexico by train. Visited Mexico City, first Saltillo, and Monterey, returning in early October. Painted four watercolors from roof of Guarhado House, Saltillo, and two from window of Monterey Hotel.

purchased land in South Truro and returned

1,

New York

later that

month.

November i-December 7, the Museum of Modern twenty-five

thirty-seven

oils,

exhibition

retrospective Art,

New

York:

at

exhibited

and eleven

watercolors,

1944

prints.

South Truro. Trips

to

Boston and Hyannis

tor

automo-

bile repairs.

1934

January 2-16, retrospective

at the .4rts

Club

of Chicago,

Early May, went to South Truro, Massachusetts. While building studio house at South Truro (in which they

1945

The

1935

9.

and they remained through

late

Institute

.\rt

Medal and Honorarium,

Art Institute of Chicago.

May, elected member of the National and Letters.

summer except where noted), the the Jenness' house. The house was

spent every successive

Hoppers stayed at completed on July November.

Awarded Logan

1946

Institute of Arts

Awarded Honorable Mention, The Art

Institute

ol

Chicago.

May, drove

Awarded Temple Gold Medal, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and First Purchase Prize in watercolor. Worcester Art Museum. Trip from South Truro

to East

four water-

Grand Tetons; August through Novem-

ber in South Truro. 1947

Montpelier, Vermont.

Mexico. Painted

Saltillo,

to

colors. July in

November,

trip

Indianapolis

to

to

serve

on jury of

Indiana artists exhibition. 1936

Visited Plainsfield, Vermont.

1950 1937

Awarded

First

Medal, Corcoran Gallery of Art.

Detroit

September, visited South Royalton (White River Valley),

September, Stayed

in

i-March

26,

of

retrospective exhibition at the

American

visit

South

to

South

Truro,

Massachusetts,

through

Acquired rear studio Jo Hopper.

late

1951

Institute of Arts

May

28, left

in June,

Washington Square North

for

Awarded honorary

by the Art Institute of

by car lor third trip to Mexico via Chat-

tanooga, Tennessee. at 3

exhibition shown

Chicago. Hopper attended the openings in Boston and Detroit and received his degree in Chicago.

Royalton during hurricane.

November.

Art;

Fine Arts, Boston, in April, and the

degree. Doctor of Fine Arts,

Vermont, 1938

1

Whitney Museum at the Museum of

A. Clark Prize and Corcoran Gold

W.

February

Santa Fe,

New

In Saltillo for a month. Visited briefly on returning. Stayed in

Mexico,

South Truro until November.


1952

Hopper was one

the

of

four

American Federation of Arts

by

chosen

artists

the

1962

represent the United

to

cluded

States in the Venice Biennale.

Summer

December,

Mexico. Stayed eight days in El Paso, la Presa Guanajuato, and

left for

month

spent one

at Mitla,

1953

returned to

1,

to

Received award from the

catalogue

a

Botolph Club, Boston.

St.

the

at

of

Worcester Art Museum.

Arizona Art Gallery.

Mexico, where he

May,

illness

kept

Awarded M.

Hopper from

Khonstamn

V.

painting.

Prize for Painting,

The

Art

Institute of Chicago.

Joined Raphael Soyer and other representational paint-

September 29-November 29, major retrospective exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art;

publishing Reality (on editorial committee).

June, honorary degree, Doctor of Letters, Rutgers Uni-

shown from December (through January

versity.

Art Institute of Chicago.

September 15, Hampshire,

July, South Truro. to

New

Charlestown,

Gloucester and on

to

to visit Mrs.

1965

William

Art

fall in

Mexico through May

j.

July

Summer and

New

South Truro.

Gold Medal

Painting presented

for

Institute of Arts

21, retrospective

of

St.

and, April

1965) at the

shown

7-May

9,

at the

De-

at the City

Louis.

degree, Doctor of Fine Arts, Phila-

delphia College of Art.

Youngstown, Ohio. 31, left for

Museum

Awarded honorary

First Prize for Watercolor, Butler Art Institute,

Awarded

March

February 18-March

troit Institute of Arts

Proctor.

1955

publication

went

painted two watercolors.

ers in

1954

later

July 4 through late November, in South Truro. 1964

New York from

show

Retrospective exhibition

Oaxaca. Visited Puebla and

returned via Laredo.

March

1963

Posada de

Texas. Visited

prints;

fifty-two

raisonnd:;

South Truro.

in

October-November, "The Complete Graphic Work of Edward Hopper," Philadelphia Museum of Art; in-

and Letters

in the

name

death of Hopper's

Last painting.

by the National of the Ameri-

16,

sister

Marion

in

Nyack,

York.

Two

Comedians.

1966

Awarded Edward MacDowell Medal.

1967

May

can Academy of Arts and Letters. 1956

Awarded Huntington Hartford Foundation December

fellowship.

arrived at Huntington Hartford Founda-

9,

tion, Pacific Palisades, California.

1957

June

6, left

15,

Edward Hopper died

in his studio at 3

September

22-January 8, 1968, Hopper's work was United States Exhibition at the Bienal

featured in the

de Sao Paulo

Huntington Hartford Foundation.

9.

July 22 through late October in South Truro.

New York Board

Received

of Trade's

Salute

the

to

Arts Award, and First Prize, Fouth International Hall-

mark Art Award. 1959

J^^^y '5' '째

October

vember

trip

Design.

this

summer.

Manchester,

exhibition

Visited

guests of Mr.

i960

to

for

New

Hampshire,

for

No-

one-artist exhibition at Currier Gallery of Art.

December, of

South Truro

shown

Providence,

Rhode Island School Rhode Island, as the

at

and Mrs. Malcolm Chace.

January, exhibition at Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut.

Received Art in America Annual Award. artists' group who had published John Koch to protest the predomi-

Spring, met with the

Reality at

home

of

nance of the "gobbledegook influences" of abstract at the

Art.

Whitney Museum and

the

Museum

of

art

Modern

Wash-

ington Square North.

Henrv X'ainum I'oor prescnling the Colli Medal for Painting to Edward Hopper for the American Academy of Arts and Letters,

May

25, 1955.


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