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DENGUE AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY IN RIO DE JANEIRO


Oecologia Australis 14(3): 641-667, Setembro 2010 doi:10.4257/oeco.2010.1403.04

DENGUE AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY IN RIO DE JANEIRO

Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas1,*, Pantelis Tsouris2, Izabel Cristina Reis3, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães4, Teresa Fernandes Silva do Nascimento1 & Nildimar Alves Honório1 1 Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Transmissores de Hematozoários, Departamento de Entomologia, Caixa Postal: 926, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil - CEP: 21045-900. 2                ! " # $%& '**+ 3 %  /  8 ;  < %/< => 8  > 8 %>?>   & @@ A G K 8  >    CEP: 12227-010. 4  8MA N8  Q %SV$  8 % >MA W   X? Y[ X 8 "  >    & '\] S 8 Janeiro, RJ, Brasil - CEP: 21045-900. <#>& ? ^   Q[ ^#  > Q^8[ > ^  Q[ _^   Q[ `   ^    Q[

ABSTRACT =?  8>  Q `_ [ > >  ;  8 >  _ 8 _ _? ?      `  c % Q Aedes aegypti  ` c f N _  = ? ` \**h\**j  8 S 8 G  8 ` >  _ 8?  8> _  8  >  > [8c 8 > c = ? `  8 k\\k  8 \+* 8` N ?8 N` ** 8` 8   8?  `> ? _q 8?  ` f c8 > 8 +* 8   ` 8? #8  >  =?  >   v 8 [c  c 8   >c  N`` 8c  8  ` _ > <_c c `  N  `  >c ?_ [c  8 8 ` >     S 8 G   c  ] >  8_8  N` `  ` ?    y\**f>2 { >     8c ?  > @*** `[qf>2 _? >c  `  N8 N`  >   favelas >c  `   N` 8 ` y+**** `[qf>2 ` ] >  8_8  _  `?`c [Q8 >8 ># [Q8 8 # [   Q  N`  f    8 >h     88 [c ` 8? c > c  `  N8 8 [c ` >   > cQ ` ` ?    ` c  S 8 G     8?  ?`[ `

8 8  _ > N` |  8  8?  ? 8  8 ? ` 8>  8 \**#\**j ` c  8  ` [_       `?` 8 8?   `      >c G? } = N N %8 " [ / ` ~ 8 8 ` >  >    N   8 [c ` G? }  N8 [  c> = ` 8 [  c> 8 8>  ?c  >  N` 8 ` N 8?   >8 % S 8 G   `  8?   `?`c [Q8   8? 

 >8 > [Q8  8  8?   >8 >#`?` _?8     `  8 [  c> `   `8 ` ` _  8?  >  <_ ` ?`  `  8 ` 8 [  8 8 f? `     `   8c 8 ` ` 8 [  c>

[_8 >?` v  8?  >   S 8 G  Key words& =? Â&#x20AC; S 8 G Â&#x20AC; [  c> RESUMO DENGUE E A HETEROGENEIDADE DA COBERTURA DA TERRA NO RIO DE JANEIRO. Â  8> 8 8?    Â&#x201A;> 8 8 _Q > ;  8 >  8Â&#x201A;  ?_88 / Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


642

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Brasil, Aedes aegypti K ย„ _   > _8 8 8?  =  W 8 \**#\**j 8 8 S 8 G   > 8 8> 8 8?  > ?_ 8   `X > >  8 > [88  > 88 =   W 8  k\\k    \+* >   > ?8   > ** >  8_8 ย… [ `> }?q W8 > 8 ` ;   +* >  8_8    >Mย†  8  8?  ย >A 8 8?  K v 8     >  8  >   8  ;  8>  8   >[ 8 88 >   X W ;  A 88 >     ?>    Mย† ` >  S 8 G K > 88 8 ] >`ย† 8 8_W8  ;   >`> > M ` ?ย‚ 8 y\**f>2 ย 888 8   MA ` > _  @*** `[qf>2 em >K8  W `?8 ย… 888 8 y+**** `[qf>2 __8 > _ >   >   < ] >`ย† 8 8_W8  __> > Q  > [Q8 >K8 # [Q8  # [ 8 MA   >  [ ย† 8 }    >#  8   88 > A  >   >    W 8   ย‚  >  8 > `   M ` ?ย‚ 8 88 8 S 8 G  > 8  [  8   8 [   > |       ? 8  8 8?  8  W 8 8ย‚> \**#\**j < }    8MA de aglomerados de bairros (clusters  > _8 8ย‚ 8 8?  hotspots) em 7 รกreas, denominados G? }   %` " [ /  8  8  ? >8 > >    ;    W8   > [ 8 W 8 G? } < 8  > [  8> 8>  ?>  8 8 ; 8   > 8?  K >8  / S 8 G  `} > 8?  8 } > [Q8 > 8?  8 } >K8 # [Q8  > 8?  8 }  [   _?MA  ย 8 > }   8  8  ;   >> >  8MA       8 8 ;   8  > [  [_8   8>    >A 8 dengue no Rio de Janeiro. Palavras-chave& =? ย€ S 8 G ย€  > [  RESUMEN DENGUE Y HETEROGENEIDAD DE LA COBERTURA DE LA TIERRA EN RIO DE JANEIRO. Y 8> 8 8?     ` _  8 _Q >}   c _ c ` _  8  [  8 _Q >c     ย„>  ย‡  <  Aedes aegypti   ย„ _    8 8 8?  =   W 8 \**#\**j  8 8 SW 8 G  X  8> 8 8?  >} ?_ 8  `   K>  8 > [88 c > 88 =   W 8   ?  k\\k   c \+* >    ** >    8?  `> }? c W8 > 8 ` ;  c +* >  8[8    >   8    8?  Y >X 8 8?   v 8     `>  8  > `  8     } 8>  8     >[ 8  88  W W ;   8 >    | c    [  ` > SW 8 G    88 8 ] >  8 `[ ;   >   ` ?K 8 y \** f>ยˆ Y 888 8  [X   >8 8 @*** `[qf>ยˆ >    [| mientras en los barrios marginales (o favelas), situados >   8  888  8 ?  y +**** `[qf>ยˆ <  ] >  8   __  Q   c >8> [Q8 c Q  # [ 8 X   [   8 }   c >    88      88  X  [  8    [| 8    >|  > ย‡    Q  ` ?88  8   88 8 SW 8 G  X    8?  > 8  [  8   8   [     c         8 8?  ? 8  8   8> 8 \**#\**j < } 8  ?   [_X 8 ? >   clusters 8  8 8   8 dengue (hotspots   }  [ G? }   % " [ /   c 8 < ?  >} >  }   8     > [ 8  [|  G? }     8  > [  8> X?> 8  K>  8  }8 c X>  >  8?  {c  8?  8  Q  > [Q8  8?  8  Q  >8> [Q8 c  8?  8 }  [   _?X    8  > [  `c  W  >ย„ Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


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INTRODUCTION DENGUE IN BRAZIL AND IN THE CITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO =?  8> `_ [ > >  8 >  ;  8 _ _8 ?     worldwide " Q> et al. 1990, Harris et al. 2000, Nogueira et al. \**@ ` 8      Q N`   >c   ?   ` N 8 8?    88  >|   [ ``  [> " [ ''j `Q>c \*** =?    [ 8 >8 [c  `?`c c`  ` > ;   ` Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762). Ae. aegypti is ` >  >  8?  _  N 8N8 " [ & Kuno 1997, Halstead 2007, Honรณrio et al. 2009b) 8 ` c f N _   Q Y M #8# _ et al. 2004). % Q ` N >  ` ***** c   8?   8  \**j ~{qย{ \**j % `  8  \**#\**j S 8 G  8 ` >  _ 8?  8> _  >  > [8c 8 > c Y M # 8#_ \**j = ? `  8 k\\k  8 \+* 8` N ?8 N` ** 8` 8   8?  `> ? _q 8?  ` f c8 > 8 +* 8   ` 8? #8  >  <=<#SG \**j ?  #c   '+&****  ? N` _  8> ` \**j 8> c  8 [c =</ย‰#\ _  N `Q8 [c  `?` 8  _   `8 %  k]ยŽ  8`  8

 8  8_8  ย@ c 8  8 = _ 8 S 8 G #<=<#SG \**j Teixeira et al. \**j { X et al. \**' `   ` S 8 G   ` c  S 8 G  S 8 G c  `  8 [?? c  `  c 8 ` [ `_c 8 [c 8?  8>  ? >? 8 8 _c Y Q et al. \**j % `    c ` c  S 8 G ` `8 8?  8  ??  > kj*\ 8?   8 

 \k@]  ***** `[q c  ` \**\ 8>  +k  \+*' 8   ` #8> c  \**]        y] >  8_8   ยƒ  8 ย„8 8 S 8 G #ยƒ \** DENGUE TRANSMISSION =?  >   v 8 [c  c 8   >c  N`` 8c  8  ` _ > =?    8c>   > _ _    c `    ` ` > >>    ` `?` _   > of Ae. aegypti 8 ` _ > `

 [  ย> ? ` >|    v ? 8?  >  &  ` [ 8  __ 8 [`_   `  > ;  _  Ae. aegyptiย€  ` > ; 8   8_ >  ` 8?  _   Ae. aegyptiย€  ` _  `8 >> c  `  ? _   cย€ 8 _ ` 8c 8[   8 > _>  ` > {8 ''* " et al. 2003, Honรณrio et al. 2003, Teixeira et al. 2005, Honรณrio et al. \**' =   ` c`  [`_   Ae. aegypti, 8?    ?c 8  [# 8 # [  c>  ` c  ` > >     N` ` 8?  _  8  > ;  _  8  [  8    ` >  c    Y M #8#_ ''+ Ae. aegypti  ?c [ 8  ` [Q8   ` c  S 8 G  c _8 ` [   ? _ `  8 ` `?` 8c  __  8 [8 >   _c      ` et al. \**\ f et al. \**k Y M #8#_ et al. 2004).  ย‘  8 _c 8  ; c `   _      c v 8 [c      ` _c [N    `  >   N _   8 

 N [c ` ` 8  8  8 8  S 8 G      8 _c 8 Ae. aegypti   _   > 8 [ 

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


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8 URBAN ECOSYSTEMS  N 8 [c ` >   _8 [ ; c    > ` N8   <_c c ` 

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as dengue (Rosen 1999). Rapid urbanization is ?c 8   `      `  8 [ _ > f N  c c N? 8 ?[?    ` f

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8   [  ย  `?` ` >     8c   N  >   8 8 [c 8 N` N`c   >   ?`[ `

8  S 8 G N`  > 8     `   >>     >c %88 @k  >  @j ?`[ `

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Table 1. ` \* ?`[ `

8 N` ` `?` 8   S 8 G  \** /?`[ `

8  f8  8?  ` 8      8   > `   \***

Neighborhood

Camorim Anil Â&#x201E;8   ; } " > "8Â&#x201A; Â Q  Catumbi 8 8 " [   

 8 " [  

Catete Cidade de Deus "  S 8  8 > "8 Â&#x201A; Centro " [

Dengue Incidence per 100,000 inhabitants

Nb. Dengue cases

Human Population

kj]j k*j@ 2516.0 2391.4 2221.6 2205.9 2029.3 1564.2 1330.9 k*@j 1095.9 1070.9 1067.9 **+j 1000.2 934.2 j'\ j'] jkk* 763.2

30 665 55 594 76 3 391 202 129 252 +j 103 232 kj\ 101 351 2 654 745 326 665

j] 21 551 \ j] \+ jk' 3 421 136 ' \]j 12 914 9 693 ' \'j + kj* ' ]j 21 724 kj *] * *'j 37 572 297 494 jk @] 39 135 j k\

Table 2 ` \* ?`[ `

8 N` ` `?` 8   S 8 G  \**j /?`[ `

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Neighborhood

Camorim   Â&#x201E;8 Caju   

 

Anil GK Costa Barros Â&#x2030;?> "8 G8> Â >K   } 8 8 " [ "8Â&#x201A; Â Q   8 " [ Â&#x192;?  Â&#x2030;?> ;  Cidade de Deus Zumbi Ramos

Dengue Incidence per 100,000 inhabitants

Nb. Dengue cases

Human Population

22646.3 'jj \j@+@ \]j 10213.5 9440.6 '\j@* j'j 6762.6 6340.0 ]\j\k @j]@] @j*jk 5719.3 @]j+' 5347.9 @*'j 5042.6 ++@j] +\kj@

j + +]j \j 2 242 1 971 '*j 2 001 649 1 753 590 1 630 \jj 563 1 102 249 727 @j] 1 917 91 1 591

j] \+ jk' \ j] 17 679 ' \'j ' ]j 21 551 7 392 25 922 9 306 25 946 4 910 9 693 ' \]j + kj* 13 594 11 536 kj *] 2 041 37 537

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


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*

N8 N >8 _8  NNN   ?  ?

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


651

=</"V< Â /= YÂ /= Â&#x2030;<S {< <S"</<% Â&#x160; %/ S% =< GÂ /<%S

8  ` 8?  8  >  > 8 `   8[   >  >  

 `?` 8?  8  S 8 ? ` \**#\**j 8> N 88  [ k 8 + ?  @ 8 ] ` > `   N 8  `         ?`[ `

8 N` `?`  >[  8?   ` >   N 8  ` 

  ???  ?`[ `

8 ? 8?  `   `  [_8   N 88 [c >  [8  8?  8  >[

 ?`[ `

8 8 8  `    N >8 G? } = N N %8 / ` " [ ~ ` c  \** 8 8 ` c  \**j  [ k 8 +

Table 3.    ?`[ `

8 ? `?` 8?  8   \**  S 8 G Â&#x20AC;  >[ 8 >   8?    ?`[ `

8 > 8?  8  ***** `[ ` >       8 ` > 8c ?   >  8    > 

Cluster Number

Cluster Name

1

G? }

2

Downtown

Neighborhood

Dengue Incidence per 100,000

Human Population

Area (km2)

Human Density/ km2

% of Slum

Slum Area (km2)

Anil

k*j@

21 551

3.79

@]j]+

2.52

0.10

Camorim

kj]j

j]

2.16

92.00

0

0.00

Cidade de Deus

**+j

kj *]

1.54

24756.02

3.63

0.06

 

23914

\+ jk'

3.37

kj*\

5.1

0.17

"8Â&#x201A; Â Q 

20293

' \]j

@j

12204.90

27.46

0.43

Catete

10679

21 724

0.66

kk**]j+

9.76

0.06

Catumbi

15642

12 914

0.50

25972.26

35.76

*j

Centro

jkk*

39 135

@]j

]jj]+@

0

0.00

" 

10002

* *'j

1.09

9295.29

0

0.00

 

10709

' ]j

1.79

@kj+'k

*j

0.01

Â&#x201E;8

25160

\ j]

0.34

]kjjk

0

0.00

3

Island 11

; }

22216

3 421

1.36

2521.90

0

0.00

4

/ `

  

k*@j

' \'j

j@+

j'k'kk

j

0.04

5

" [

 8 " [

10959

+ kj*

9.49

461.96

0

0.00

" >

22059

136

9.61

14.16

0

0.00

" [

7632

j k\

135.14

644.70

0.65

*jj

8 8 " [ S 8  Bandeirantes

13309

9 693

3.53

2745.76

0

0.00

9342

37 572

31.23

1203.09

j

*@j

> "8

j'\

297 494

119.30

2493.62

0.74

*jj

Â&#x201A;

j']

jk @]

23.45

3563.91

j]\

2.02

6

~

1

%8 Â&#x201D; ; } %8

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


SÂ #S<% Â  Â&#x192; " et al.

652

Table 4.    ?`[ `

8 ? `?` 8?  8   \**j  S 8 G Â&#x20AC;  >[ 8 >   8?    ?`[ `

8 > 8?  8  ***** `[ ` >       8 ` > 8c ?   >  8    > 

Cluster Nb

Cluster Name

1

G? }

Anil Camorim Cidade de Deus   "8Â&#x201A; Â Q 

Dengue Incidence per 100,000 '\j@ 22646 5043 'jj 5719

2

Downtown

Caju  

Â&#x201E;8

3

Island 21

4

Human Population

Area (km2)

21551 j] kj *] \+ jk' ' \]j

kj j@ 1.5 3.4 1.6

Population Density/ km2 @]j]k 92.0 \+]j@ 7370.6 12194.9

\]j\ 9441 \j@@

17 679 ' ]j \ j]

5.3 j 0.3

  } Zumbi

@j]] 4459

4 910 2 041

/ `

  

GK Â&#x192;?  Ramos Costa Barros G8> Â >K

10214 j' @k+j +\kj 6763 ]\j\

5

" [

 8 " [ 8 8 " [

7

Pedra

Â&#x2030;?> "8 Â&#x2030;?> ; 

Neighborhood

Slum %

Slum Area (km2)

2.5 0.0 3.6 5.1 27.5

0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.4

3316.9 5373.2 6429.4

j' *j 0.0

0.5 0.0 0.0

0.5 0.2

10673.9 10742.1

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

' \'j 7 392 13 594 37 537 25 922 25 946

2.2 *j 1.0 2.7 j 2.0

j'k+k jj*** 13327.5 13699.6 +j\] 13305.6

j 5.2 42.5 3.3 41.4 7.5

0.0 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.7 0.1

@]j@ @j*j

+ kj* 9 693

9.5 3.5

461.5 2745.9

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

6340 5079

9 306 11 536

39.1 kj

\kjk jk@k

0.6 1.4

0.2 0.2

Â&#x201D; %8Â&#x20AC; \Â&#x201D; %` 8 " _8  %8

Figura 5 S 8 G 8?      \** 8 \**j  ?8  ?  k   8  _ c 88

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


=</"V< Â /= YÂ /= Â&#x2030;<S {< <S"</<% Â&#x160; %/ S% =< GÂ /<%S

=?  8   ` 88   N `?`  8?  ` Â&#x192;   Â&#x192;  8?  8   j &   Â&#x201D; *  * 8   \ Â&#x201D; **  \  k Â&#x201D; \  @*  + Â&#x201D; @*  \@*  @ Â&#x201D; \@*  +*  ] Â&#x201D; +*  \***   Â&#x201D; \***  @***  j Â&#x201D; @***  \**** Â&#x192; \** = ? \** >    f8  Â&#x192;Â&#x2018;  ]    Â  > >   "8Â&#x201A; Â Q 

653

   ; }   k 8 " >   @ ` N N` Â&#x192;Â&#x2018;   = ? \**j `    N 8 N` >    ?  Â&#x192;Â&#x2018;  j    $ >[   k 8 S>    + N`` f8    /?`[ `

8 8  _ 8 8?  ? 8    `    N c8 (Figures 5 and 6).

Figura 6. S 8 G 8?    8  _ ` 8   ? 8 8?    \** 8 \**j [f 8   ?8  ?  k   ` 8  _ c 88

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


SÂ #S<% Â  Â&#x192; " et al.

654

[_   ` >  8c>  ? 8  N8 N >8 _8 in www.

  ?  ? ` N ` ` = N N    8  8  ?  ?`[ `

8

 `  ` Q   [ %> 8 Y| `    >   N` 8?   8? c  ` Nf \  \** = ? ` 8>  ? Nf @*  @\  ` 8  \** 8 [??  \**j 8?  N N88 N` `    _ S  { N_   8 [  ` `?` 8 8 8  ` ?`[ `

8 [ ??  ` G? }     ?`[ `

8  8  8?    \** ` ?`[ `

8 N >  8  Â    ;    >[  8 8 8 88 V_} Â  ` ?`[ `

8    N 8c Â&#x161;@** `[qf>2     8 8 N` \**** `[qf>2 8 ;    >[ N`  `[  ?8 % \**j

c ;    >[  8  8?   =?   N  8 [N ` Nf   @  >>  \**j  >   ` \*

 # >? ?`[ `

8 N` `    > > N` 8?  8 f8    8 N`  ` ?`[ `

8 N 8? % `  8  > Nf    ?  \**j ` N  ` f  8?    ` >| c  ` ?`[ `

8 8   ` N |  " [ > >   8 ` ?`[ `

8 88     8  ` 8  ? ? f  Nf 12 and 13 (end of summer, beginning of autumn) of \**j GK Â&#x201E;8 8 > > N `  ?`[ `

8  ?   Nf @ 8 ]   > N`  ` ?`[ `

8  8  8  8?   8   ` N RIO DE JANEIROâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S NEIGHBORHOODS HETEROGENEITY c   _ 8 _8  ?  `

 ` @j ?`[ `

8  [ @ 8 ?

 8  8 [c  > ` N8 ? _  > ? ?`[ `

8  [ ] { > 8c also _8 > ? ?`[ `

8  [ 

Table 5. ?  8  _ c   ?`[ `

8 `  >    `?` 8?  8   S 8 G  {?`c [Q8 ?`[ `

8  /?`[ `

8 88  >   @j c 8?   # >? ?`[ `

8  ` N

10

Â&#x201E;8

\**q\**j

100.00

Urban NonConsolidated % 0.00

19

 

\**q\**j

99.14

0.00

Neighborhood Order

Neighborhood

Highest Dengue Year

Densely Populated %*

Anthropic Field %

Medium Vegetated %

Highly Vegetated %

Water %

Sandbank, Beach, Mangrove %

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

*j]

0.00

20

GK

\**j

99.02

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

*'j

0.00

27

Ramos

\**j

']j*

0.00

3.20

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

\j

Centro

2007

96.79

0.00

0.33

\j*

0.00

**j

0.00

31

G8> Â >K

\**j

95.74

0.00

1.64

0.02

0.00

1.14

1.45

35

Cidade de Deus

\**q\**j

93.24

2.92

0.00

2.01

0.00

0.00

jk

37

Zumbi

\**j

92.20

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

j*

kj

Catumbi

2007

91.06

0.00

j'+

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

43

  

\**q\**j

j'*k

j

j\

0.61

0.00

0.67

0.00

54

  }

\**j

j+k]

0.00

0.00

j+

0.00

0.00

7.17

67

Â&#x192;? 

\**j

jk

0.00

0.01

\]j

0.00

0.00

0.00

71

Caju

\**j

76.34

0.00

16.16

0.00

0.00

2.03

5.47

j@

Catete

2007

]jj+

0.00

j@

jk'

0.00

0.00

4.26

j'

Costa Barros

\**j

66.40

20.99

9.47

\j

0.00

0.00

0.34

95

 

\**q\**j

63.17

10.60

21.14

0.00

0.00

0.00

5.09

'j

"X

2007

59.97

0.00

0.10

kj\

0.00

0.00

1.66

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


655

=</"V< Â /= YÂ /= Â&#x2030;<S {< <S"</<% Â&#x160; %/ S% =< GÂ /<%S

Continuação Tabela 5

Highest Dengue Year

Densely Populated %*

Urban NonConsolidated %

Anthropic Field %

Medium Vegetated %

Neighborhood Order

Neighborhood

100

"8Â&#x201A; Â Q 

\**q\**j

@j+'

6.14

]@j

1.21

106

Anil

\**q\**j

55.42

11.64

23.30

1.57

Highly Vegetated %

Water %

Sandbank, Beach, Mangrove %

0.00

0.00

@j

\jk

0.00

5.24

123

; 

2007

k]j

0.65

0.00

57.40

0.00

0.00

@*j

131



2007

33.60

1.67

@jk+

k]j

0.00

0.00

2.70

134

8 8 " [

\**q\**j

31.35

50.01

6.65

1.66

6.07

0.00

4.25

137

2007

29.03

4.37

39.72

9.25

16.65

0.00

*'j

2007

27.49

10.99

\j

+j@

2.50

1.63

29.74

149

> "8 S 8  Bandeirantes " [

2007

6.59

19.05

23.43

9.76

7.11

0.97

kk*j

153

Â&#x2030;?> ; 

\**j

2.37

22.42

13.52

6.36

31.91

1.05

22.37

154

Camorim

\**q\**j

1.36

*jj

13.70

7.01

65.65

0.63

10.77

155

Â&#x2030;?> "8

\**j

*j

j@+

kj\

11.90

+j]k

0.12

6.19

139

157

" >

2007

0.00

0.00

j**

+kjj

32.21

0.00

15.92

@j

 8 " [

\**j

0.00

17.74

\\]j

+j'

j@@

0.22

2.91

Â&#x203A;=c   8 Â&#x201D; `?`c [Q8  N`    N` _c >8  >[  Â&#x20AC; [  #  88 Â&#x201D;   [ ? N`Â&#x20AC; k `  8 ; _  8       ?  Â&#x20AC; >8 > _?  Â&#x201D;  Â?@*Â&#x17D; _?   _?Â&#x20AC; `?` _?  Â&#x201D;  Â&#x2022;@*Â&#x17D; _?   _?Â&#x20AC; N Â&#x201D;   _8 [c N [ 8  `  f _  [c ` Â&#x20AC; 8[f [` 8 >? _ Â&#x201D;   N` c  ` `

Table 6 /?`[ `

8  S 8 G `  >    `?` 8?  8 88 [c ` ?  8 [c  >   8  \**q\**j  >   8 \**j   /?`[ `

8 88  >   @j c 8?   # >? ?`[ `

8  ` N

Neighborhood Order

Neighborhood

Slum area%

Population 2000

Area km2

Human density

4

Mangueira

42.52

13594

1.02

13327.45

5

Costa Barros

41.35

25922

1.75

14812.57

j

Catumbi

35.76

12914

0.50

\@j\j**

16

"8Â&#x201A; Â Q 

27.46

'\]j

@j

12194.94 32915.15

50

Catete

9.76

21724

0.66

56

Caju

8.86

17679

5.33

3316.89

57



j]\

jk@]

23.45

3563.37

62

Jardim AmĂŠrica

7.45

25946

1.95

13305.64

74

JacarĂŠ

5.15

7392

0.84

8800.00

76

 

5.10

\+jk'

3.37

7370.62

j

Cidade de Deus

3.63

kj*]

1.54

\+]j@

90

Ramos

3.26

37537

2.74

13699.64 @]j]\j

'j

Anil

2.52

21551

3.79

105

S 8  8

j

37572

31.23

1203.07

106

  

j*

'\'j

2.16

j'k+\]

113

Vargem Pequena

1.37

11536

13.81

835.34

119

 

*j

']j

1.79

@kkj

120

> "8

0.74

297494

119.30

2493.66

122

" [

0.65

jk\

135.14

644.75

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


SÂ #S<% Â  Â&#x192; " et al.

656

Continuação Tabela 6

Neighborhood Order

Neighborhood

Slum area%

Population 2000

Area km2

Human density

123

Vargem Grande

0.62

9306

39.05

238.31

131

 8 " [

0.00

+kj*

9.49

461.54

132

Camorim

0.00

j]

j@+

92.04

135

Centro

0.00

39135

@]j

]jj'']

kj

CocotĂĄ

0.00

4910

0.46

10673.91

140

" 

0.00

**'j

1.09

9264.22

141

" >

0.00

136

9.61

14.15

+j

; }

0.00

3421

1.36

2515.44

149

8 8 " [

0.00

9693

3.53

\+@j'

153

Â&#x201E;8

0.00

\j]

0.34

6429.41

@j

Zumbi

0.00

2041

0.19

10742.11

Â&#x2030;  N  8 [8  8  _ 8  [ @

Table 7. /?`[ `

8  S 8 G 88 [c ` > 8c /?`[ `

8 88  >   @j c 8?   # >? ?`[ `

8 ` N \**q\**j  >   8 \**j  

Neighborhood Order

Neighborhood

Human density

% Slum area

Population 2000

Area km2

4

Catete

32915.15

9.76

21724

0.66

7

Catumbi

\@j\j**

35.76

12914

0.50

10

Cidade de Deus

\+]j@

3.63

kj*]

1.54

41

Costa Barros

14812.57

41.35

25922

1.75

45

Ramos

13699.64

3.26

37537

2.74

+j

Mangueira

13327.45

42.52

13594

1.02

49

Jardim AmĂŠrica

13305.64

7.45

25946

1.95

70

"8Â&#x201A; Â Q 

12194.94

27.46

'\]j

@j

j\

Zumbi

10742.11

0.00

2041

0.19

jk

CocotĂĄ

10673.91

0.00

4910

0.46

93

" 

9264.22

0.00

**'j

1.09

94

  

j'k+\]

j*

'\'j

2.16

95

JacarĂŠ

8800.00

5.15

7392

0.84

*j

 

7370.62

5.10

\+jk'

3.37

110

Centro

]jj'']

0.00

39135

@]j

115

Â&#x201E;8

6429.41

0.00

\j]

0.34

117

Anil

@]j]\j

2.52

21551

3.79

121

 

@kkj

*j

']j

1.79

130



3563.37

j]\

jk@]

23.45

131

Caju

3316.89

8.86

17679

5.33

135

8 8 " [

\+@j'

0.00

9693

3.53

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


657

=</"V< Â /= YÂ /= Â&#x2030;<S {< <S"</<% Â&#x160; %/ S% =< GÂ /<%S

Continuação Tabela 7

Neighborhood Order

Neighborhood

Human density

% Slum area

Population 2000

Area km2

137

; }

2515.44

0.00

3421

1.36

kj

> "8

2493.66

0.74

297494

119.30

147

S 8  8

1203.07

j

37572

31.23

+j

Vargem Pequena

835.34

1.37

11536

13.81

149

" [

644.75

0.65

jk\

135.14

152

 8 " [

461.54

0.00

+kj*

9.49

155

Vargem Grande

238.31

0.62

9306

39.05

156

Camorim

92.04

0.00

j]

j@+

157

" >

14.15

0.00

136

9.61

Â&#x2030;  N  8 [8  8  _ 8  [ @

 > ?`[ `

8  `Q8 [c  8_c  8  _ c 8 ` > 8c >  N  8      `  [[ `[8 8 c `    N  >8  [? `?` _?     N [` 8[f 8 >? _  > `     [  >    _N  ` ` >     [ j ~` ` > 8c    N 8  N ` > 8c  f " [ Â&#x2030;?> "8 Â&#x2030;?> ;  " > S 8  8 8  N ` ?`[ `

8   [ ??    G8>  Â&#x153;  A  8  V [ j `8  \# 8

  ` 8   > > N` ]@Â&#x17D;

     _8 [c `?` _?   +# 8   ` > 8c N [_8  > '* `[qf>2  +** `[qf>2  [ j `     ` N8   > ` S `  **Â&#x17D;  > ?`[ `

8  >  8c   8 N` @@*** `[qf>2 `  8 +**** `[qf>2  [ j    >  [ `8    k]*** `[qf>2  +**** `[qf>2 N` 8 8 [` N  [8  >     Â&#x192;   ` >? ?`[ `

8 f ` > 8c _  _c ` >

Table 8. /?`[ `

8  S 8 G 88 [c  8 _   ` > 8c [8  8  _   [ @ /?`[ `

8 88  >   @j c 8?   # >? ?`[ `

8 \**q\**j  [ 8 \**j   8 ` ?`[ `

8 8  `   >    ` N

Neighborhood Order

Neighborhood

Corrected Human density

Human density

1

S `

@@]j*

36114.1

2

 [

40011.6

35946.5

4

Catete

34379.7

32915.2

9

Catumbi

25828.0

25828.0

11

Cidade de Deus

25145.9

24685.7

39

Gloria

15809.2

9264.2

45

Costa Barros

14861.6

14812.6

46

GardĂŞnia Azul

14796.1

12194.9

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


SÂ #S<% Â  Â&#x192; " et al.

]@j

Continuação Tabela 8

Neighborhood Order

Neighborhood

Corrected Human density

Human density

51

Ramos

13699.6

13699.6

52

Jardim AmĂŠrica

13660.8

13305.6

@j

Mangueira

13327.5

13327.5

j

Zumbi

11650.9

10742.1

j\

CocotĂĄ

11498.3

10673.9

100

G8>  Â&#x153;

9254.5

kj*@+

101

Bonsucesso

8994.5

8934.3

102

JacarĂŠ

8887.1

8800.0

109

Curicica

7765.9

7370.6

j

Centro

6895.5

6890.0

121

Saude

6429.4

6429.4

122

Anil

6185.4

5686.3

126

Santo Cristo

5419.8

5373.2

129

A  8

4472.5

j@]

130

V

4356.5

2766.4

133

PaciĂŞncia

3662.6

3563.4

134

Caju

3585.8

3316.9

137

Pedra de Guaratiba

3062.2

2745.9

kj

Campo Grande

3027.4

2493.7

141

PaquetĂĄ

2650.1

2515.4

143

Vargem Pequena

1870.0

835.3

144

Recreio dos Bandeirantes

1819.0

1203.1

150

Guaratiba

1096

644.8

152

Vargem Grande

528.8

238.3

153

Barra de Guaratiba

522.6

461.5

155

Camorim

401.0

92.0

157

Grumari

27.3

14.2

@j

;    >[

0.0

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URBAN ECOSYSTEMS IN RIO DE JANEIRO `  ` 8?   8 ?`[ `

8 _8 8 ?8? ` > 8c  >  [  `?`c _?8  `  8  >8 > _?8 8#[`#>? _  8 8  8  ` 8  [ Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010

 c>    8?    N proposed (Table 9).


4

3

2

1

  } ; } Zumbi

Island 11

  

C.Barros GK G Â >K Â&#x192;?  Ramos

Caju Catete Catumbi Centro "X 

Â&#x201E;8

Downtown

/ `

Anil Camorim C. Deus   "8Â&#x201A;

Neighbor hood

G? }

Cluster Name

j'++ +j]\ jjj 13661 13327 13699

8600 (Âą5153)

+'j 2650 11651

2 41 5 7 43 3

0 0 0 0

8 (Âą13)

9 10 36 0 0 1 0

8 (Âą10)

10859 (Âą8490)

k@j] 34379 \@j\j ]j'] @j*' 5420 6429 12931 (Âą11619)

3 0 4 5 27

Slum %

]j@ 401 25146 7766 14796

Human Density

90 66 99 96 j 97

j+ 37 92 71 (Âą30)

76 69 91 97 60 99 100 85 (Âą16)

55 1 93 63 @j 54 (Âą30)

Urban %

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

14 (Âą27)

3 67 0 0 0

High Veg* %

2 9 0 2 0 3

0 0 0 0

16 9 9 0 0 0 0 5 (Âą6)

15 (Âą8)

23 14 0 21 17

Anth %

0 3 0 0 22 0

22 (Âą31)

9 57 0

0 j 0 3 kj 0 0 8 (Âą15)

2 (Âą2)

2 7 2 0 1

Med Veg %

1 0 0 1 0 0

7 5 j 7

5 4 0 0 2 0 0 2 (Âą2)

8 (Âą5)

5 10 2 5 17

SBM

Table 9. V[  c> 8  8?   S 8 G 

k*@j

22216

22216

13315 (Âą5711)

\]j\ 10679 15642 jkk* 10002 10709 25160

24656 (Âą9529)

k*j@ kj]j **+j 23914 20293

Dengue 2007

10214 6763 j' ]\j\ @k+j +\kj

5163 (Âą995)

4459

@j]]

9441 \j@@ 11148 (Âą2414)

12136 (Âą6990)

'\j@ 22646 5043 'jj 5719

Dengue2008

Y N Â `  Â&#x192;8 > =_c Â&#x192;8 >#{?`   8 Â&#x192;8 >#{?`  > {?` V[ Y N Â&#x2030;?8 Y N Â `  Y N =_c

Y N#Â&#x192;8 > Â&#x2030;?8

Â&#x192;8 >   8 Y N  > Â&#x192;8 >#{?` V[

Â&#x192;8 >#{?`   8 Â&#x192;8 >  > {?` V[ Y N Â&#x2030;?8 Y N Â `  Y N =_c

Â&#x192;8 > =_c

Â&#x192;8 >#{?`   8 Y N  > Â&#x192;8 > V[ Â&#x192;8 > Â&#x2030;?8 Â&#x192;8 > Â ` 

Urban Ecosystem =</"V< Â /= YÂ /= Â&#x2030;<S {< <S"</<% Â&#x160; %/ S% =< GÂ /<%S 659

Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010

7

6

5

" [ " > " [ " [ S

"8 Â&#x201A;

Â&#x2030; "8 Â&#x2030; ; 

~

Pedra

Neighbor hood

" [

Cluster Name

Continuação Tabela 8

1 2 2 (Âą1)

32 (Âą4)

29 34

0 0 7 31 27 13 (Âą15)

88 (Âą13)

Urban %

40 (Âą11)

+j 32

9 (Âą12)

17 0

11 (Âą12)

9 32 7 6 3

0

High Veg* %

14 (Âą1)

14 13

40 60 50 (Âą14)

15 (Âą8)

23 j 23 7 13

3 (Âą3)

Anth %

12 6 9 (Âą4)

9 4 7 (Âą4)

24 (Âą21)

+j 44 10 2 15

4 (Âą9)

Med Veg %

6 22 14 (Âą11)

1 3 2 (Âą1)

17 (Âą14)

3 16 33 4 30

0

SBM

j'\ j'] 8919 (Âą4)

12660 (Âą5656)

10959 22059 7632 13309 9342

13058

Dengue 2007

Â&#x203A;{?` Â&#x2030;?#{?`c Â&#x2030;?8 Â `#Â `  Â&#x192;8 Â&#x2030;?#Â&#x192;8 > Â&#x2030;?8 Â&#x192;#8 [` 8 >? _

1200 (Âą948)

1 1 1

5 (Âą6)

3345 (Âą450)

529 j*

1 9

1 (Âą1)

1305 (Âą1187)

3027 3663

0 0 1 0 2

17 (Âą18)

12230 (Âą2620)

523 27 1096 3062 j'

Slum %

Human Density

5710 (Âą892)

6340 5079

9497 (Âą5391)

13309

@]j@

6937 (Âą1541)

Dengue2008

Â&#x192;8 > =_c

{?` Â&#x2030;?8 Â&#x192;8 > Â ` 

Low Urban

Y N#Â&#x192;8 > Â&#x2030;?8 {?` Â `  Â&#x192;8 >#{?` =_c Low Populated Y N  >

Y N#Â&#x192;8 > V[

Y N#Â&#x192;8 >   8 Y N  >

Â&#x192;8 >#{?` =_c

Low Populated Y N  > Low Urban Â&#x192;8 >#{?` Â&#x2030;?8 Â&#x192;8 > Â ` 

Urban Ecosystem

660 SÂ #S<% Â  Â&#x192; " et al.


=</"V< Â /= YÂ /= Â&#x2030;<S {< <S"</<% Â&#x160; %/ S% =< GÂ /<%S

DISCUSSION Â > ? `   ` > 8c 8

?Q  > > 8 8  _   N`   _ > ` ?   8   S 8 G    ` c  8 8  `   ` [  >8 ` 8?  >     ` ` > 8 >    >>8 8 > ` `  N f 8 ?     >> ? 8   ` [; c  Ae. aegypti in Rio de Janeiro. Human density and organization {?`c [Q8 8 8c   8 ?`[ `

8  `    > ? ` >|  f     Ae. aegypti infestation and dengue " [ ''j ~{ \** Ae. aegypti is more _  `?`c [Q8 8 8c   8 ?`[ `

8  S 8 G f et al. 2003, Carbajo et al. 2006, HonĂłrio et al. \**' {?`   _  Ae. aegypti   8 N` `?` f  8?  >  [ `   8>  N   8> 8    \** Y Q et al. 2003, HonĂłrio et al. \**' \**'[ \**'  >   8 ?Q   ` [ [ 8 `   _?  8  f [  ?[?    8 _ N88 ` >  8   8  `?` f  8?  >  =   > 8  `  8c 8 [f  \**k %  > ?`[ `

8   fc `  >  8 8 ` N  > `_ 8 { N_ `

_ ? N`  ` ?`[ `

8 N` `  >   8 ` 8  >    > ? N`   8  >[ % >   > f      8 ` [   > 88 ` f

 ? 8 8?       >  8 `_ 8   8>   `     >  dengue transmission. {?` 8?  8  ?`[ `

8 f 8 8 " [ Â&#x201E;8 $ >[ "X   N` `    > 8 `   >  c> slums per se   [ >8   f     8?  >  %  > ` ?`[ `

8  > ?  `    8 [c  >    > GK @Â&#x17D;      >   @Â&#x17D; 88 8 =  +Â&#x17D; Â  kÂ&#x17D;   Â&#x17D; 8 Â&#x2030;?> "8 Â&#x17D;  [ k

661

 ` ` `8  >  c  ?      # >? ?`[ `

8 f Â&#x192;?  +kÂ&#x17D;

     >     +Â&#x17D;  >[ k]Â&#x17D; 8 "8Â&#x201A; Â Q  \jÂ&#x17D; Microclimate ` >  S    N> 8 ` >8   > > _   8 >c 8   8   8 8  _  >c  `  8 [Q   8 >  _   > > _[ f >  _   N8 8   >    fc  c     `  > _ >  ` ` > 8 > ` ` > 8 >  8 [c `   8? _ > N`   8   8

   >  8 ` > _[ >c  8

 >  8 ` >8c 8 `  8

 > ;   __ 8 [`_  Â `?`      8

 8 >   N  [ c >8 [c ` >[ > S # et al. \**] {?` ` >     8c 8 ` _[c  8 [   `   >  N  ?` N` _      >[8 _[  ` >8c 8 >   ` > _[  8 N` _8   Ae. aegypti infestation rate and 8?  ~{ \** Â&#x2030;      88  [ ` ? [   8       8?     c ?_  S Q# Q et al. \**   8?  `?` >[ >  `  ` 8?  _    [   8 ~ et al. 'j  Ae. aegypti biting rate Â&#x192;8 8 '@] > ;   __ S 8 et al. ''*  f et al. 1993, Tun-Lin et al. 2000) and `   _  c 8 8?  transmission (Reiter 2001).   ` 8 Y8[? 'j N``  [    `  `  ` [c    Y?   8 `  N`   _ c    _? \  @oC warmer ` `   8? _?8  [  `  [ [ [ ` 8 ? ` 8c 8 8 ` [f  ?` Y8[? 'j S \** % ` _? ` 8  [  `?`  \Â&#x2019; <_ >    Â ?c#<Â  VÂ \*0). ~8 v N >   > ;  8   Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


662

SÂ #S<% Â  Â&#x192; " et al.

8 8   [Q  ~8 v N  8   c 8   >  8 [   8   `   [ 8? `  ?  > _> S \** Â&#x192; `c    ? 8 NN8   c 8   ` ` 8  S     8   ` `?`      `  _? 8 >_     S \**  v  N [ 8 [8? `[ _[c Land cover ` 8 [N `?` >8 > 8  N [Q8     >     `  >[    % `?`c [Q8  ` 

?   `  >   >8    ?    > ?     f 'j' Y?  >[      >  f  `_  ? 

?  Â&#x160; 8 { \**] <_   `  [    >  > 8    `?`c 88    ` >8c 8 `  fc  [ 8  _?8  8  `?`c [Q8  % [  8   ?  ` ? 8 _   

?  >8 f 'j' ?[? et al. \**j ~8 8   8 [c ` 

    >   N8 8 ` >8c  8   >  ~>  < \** ?[? et al. \**j  >c  [ >  N [ 8 8    fc  buffer or lower temperatures in some areas (Ramos

  \**] ` c  ` > 8 >  ?` N` ` 8?  [Q  8 > >    `   ` _  c ;   >c ? >  8 8> ?` _ et al. 2006, Hemme et al. \** `   8?   8 [  c>  S 8 G `? ` [ ` ` >  [ 8 >  8c   8    ` `?` ` f`

8  8 8?  8    ~{ \** % `   ` \**#\**j 8?  8>  S 8 G ` ?` >8 >  `?` _?8  N   ?c 8  `?`c [Q8  {?` 8?  8  N ; c [_8   N [Q8  N   8 G? } " [ 8 8   >8 > [Q8  N#>8 >   8 Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010

%8 8 ~   8 `?`c [Q8 `?`c   8 = N N 8 / `   ?`[ `

8  S 8 G  [ ' %88 `  8 >  >     >  8?  8 8  >[  ?`[ `

8 _ _8 N   8 [c  >8 >#`?`   8 >8 > [Q8 [  c>  ` G? }  N8  [ ' `     8   8 8? [ ?    >8 ># #`?` _?8  G? } 8 ` `?` 8?  8  y\@*** 8 y\*** _?  \** 8 \**j _c  [ ' ` G? }  N8 [  c>  `Q8 [c [?   [N \ >    ` 8    8 ` |    ` \      8 [c ` Â    Â&#x192; Â Â&#x153; 8  >?  ` |     ` ? [    ` N 8 %    ` 8 >f8 ? N` c >c [   [ 8?   %  N `  ? ` > > N ` ?`[ `

8 ` `8 ` `?` 8?  8  k****  S 8 G 8 ? ` \**#\**j 8> > >Â&#x2018; 8  _  `Q8   N [Q8 Â&#x17D; [   N ` > 8c +** `[qf>2), `?`c _?8 *Â&#x17D; 8 N`   >  [ ' Â  ` >8 ># #`?` _?8  `?`c 8 [c 8?   88 `    >8 [c ` ?`[ `

8  " [ 8 8 ` ?`[ `

8  >? ` " [ 8 8   `_   >>  `  ` `   c   8   N [Q  8 `?`c 8_ ?8? 8  _?  ` " [ 8 8   `_ >8 >  `?` _?   _?  N  8 N 8 >? _ %  8 8 " [ 8 S `_ yk*Â&#x17D;  [  N` Â&#x2030;?> "8 Â&#x2030;?> ;  8 " > `_ Â&#x161;\Â&#x17D; [    > \**k 8 [ ' 8 8 " [ " [  8 " [ Â&#x2030;?> "8 8 Â&#x2030;?> ;  `_ ?     ` [    #   88  Â&#x2022;Â&#x17D; [ @ ` " [ 8 8    8 [  88     [  c> N` ` >    8?  N8  _ c  _8 c [c _?  (Table 9). Â&#x192;8 >#`?` [Q8  N  >8 >   8 ?`[ `

8  >8 > _?8  N


=</"V< Â /= YÂ /= Â&#x2030;<S {< <S"</<% Â&#x160; %/ S% =< GÂ /<%S

8 [c ` %8 8 ~   ; } %8 8  _ 8>  \** N` 8?  8  `? y\**** _? ; } ` 8 kÂ&#x17D;     [ 8 ]*Â&#x17D;  >8 > _?8  N` \@** `[qf>2  [ ' ` ?`[ `

8    } 8 $ >[  %` 8 " _8  %8  >8  >     \**j N` 8?  8   y@*** _?  `   } 8 $ >[  `?`c [Q8 `_   > 8 y**** `[qf>2  [ ' ` ~    >8 [c ` ?`[ `

8  > "8 8 Â&#x201A;  `Q8 [c @*Â&#x17D; `  8 k*Â&#x17D; [  ` > 8c  yk*** `[qf>2   N  >   *Â&#x17D; 8 'Â&#x17D; _c Y N#>8 > _?  >8 > 8_c 8  _? N 8 8[ ` ~   Â  8 `?`c [Q8 `?`c   8 ?`[ `

8 N   f [c 8?   ` \**#\**j 8> ` N `    ` = N N 8 / ` ?`[ `

8 ` ?`[ `

8 8c  > ` ?`[ `

8  ` G? }     >8 [c 8c   8 [Q8  N` _ c   % ` = N N   ?`[ `

8 ` 8 Â?'*Â&#x17D; [  _?    |   8 "X Â?]*Â&#x17D; [ Â  _?  jÂ&#x17D;  `  

 8 [c  > Â  ?`[ `

8 [ ??  ` / `     Â&#x2022;'*Â&#x17D; [  N` `    ` ?`[ `

8 Â&#x192;?  8     N`` ` ?` `_? Â&#x2022;]]Â&#x17D;  `   [  y+*Â&#x17D;  8 [c  > G8> Â >K GK S>  8    `_ y@Â&#x17D; slum area. /?`[ `

8 `      ?c `_  N 8  ` > 8_ > `?` `8 > c  N  ?_c  N  > 8 8   " [ ~ 8 8     > [ ?  ` > "8 8>_ ?   88  [ `  N  8_ > 8  S 8 G  > > Â&#x2030;?> ;  8 S 8  8 `8 >_ ` >     ? N`  ` ''*Â&#x2018; j\Â&#x17D; Â&#x17D; 8 ]\Â&#x17D; _c N`

c @Â&#x17D;  Â&#x2030;?> "8Â&#x2018; 8      ` 8  _c 8?   8 88 8 S de Janeiro 2003).

663

Temporal patterns from previous epidemics Â&#x2030;  [_   ?`[ `

8 8 >  > _  c Â&#x192; \** ` N ` ` >   8  8   _  8> > >  > ?`[ `

8  ` G? }  N8 `8 ` `?` 8  8 ? =>[ \**k = ? ` \**@#\**] 8> =>[ \**@ G c  Â&#x192;c \**]   > ` ?`[ `

8 `    ` G? }  N8 `8 ? `?` 8  Â&#x192; \** Â c  ?`[ `

8 8 >  > _  c \**k#\** Â&#x192; \** ` N ` N` 8?   8> 8?    8  _ ` c [  N` 8?   8> 8?     8  8 8   ` c ` > 8   > 

  ` >  ` >     ` \**# \**j  8 >c 8 [c ` G? }  N8 = N N 8 / `    ?`[ `

8 ` = N N    c 88  N8  ` ?`[ `

8 CONCLUSIONS Â  88 ` [8   > ;  [  ?c   ` 8  [ ?_   `  ` [  c>   ` 8 ?`[ `

8 Â    >c ` >    ? _> >c 8  8      _ ?8?   > ;  [  ?c  ` ?`[ `

8 8    >     `   ` N`  c Y M #8#_ \**j ` \* 8?   # >? ?`[ `

8 ` 8 [  88  c       % S 8 G   `  8?   `?`c urbanized areas, a dengue of medium urbanized  8  8?   >8 >#`?` _?8  = ` 8 [  c> 8 8>  ?c  `   N` 8 ` N 8?   >8    `   8 [  c> `   `8 ` ` _  8?  >  % > >  `?`c _?8 8  N ` >   8  N` 8?    8 `?`  `  _ _>  Ae. albopictus ` [ _ ;   8  [ N8 [c  `  8 ` N 8  f    Oecol. Aust., 14(3): 641-667, 2010


664

SÂ #S<% Â  Â&#x192; " et al.

` _ >  ` ` f 8    8? v  8    >   > _ N 8 N >?> ` > `` >?>  >  ?c 8   8 _      >c v  ` Nc 8?   >8  S 8 G Â&#x192;` et al. '' %` \**+ < S>f c \**j % `  8c 8?   N ? 8  N? 8?   [ [ 8          ?`[ `

8 f?    ` >   8 8

 `  8   8 `  S 8 G   N ` > 8c >8 >  `?` _?8 ?`[ `

8      8c `?` 8   8?   ` `Q  [8  8   8c     ` > [`_  8 > [c ` ? >   8 >c  > > ? `  > _ ` 88?  8?  8 ` [  c>  S 8 G  / N`8? `  8c  [    [ 88?  ` 8c>  8?   S 8 G [c ? `  ` [N 8?   8 c  8  _?

/Y% S " YVS</Â&#x;#=<#Y%Â&#x2030;<%S  S 1994. Principais Mosquitos de Importância SanitĂĄria no Brasil.   Q S 8 G  SG \\@ V/{  Â&#x20AC;  YÂ&#x2030;< GSÂ&#x20AC; Y%Â&#x192;  Â&#x192;Â&#x192;Â&#x20AC; =V S < GSÂ&#x20AC;  SS YÂ&#x2030;Â&#x20AC; %YÂ&#x2030;  GY " Â&#x192; SS    Â&#x192;/ <%S# %Y{  ~ /$<Y<S  S \**\ M 8 Aedes aegypti >  >  8X   >   > W do Rio de Janeiro. Revista de SaĂşde PĂşblica, 36: 244-245. =<Â&#x2DC;<S <{Â&#x20AC; <YY%  Â&#x20AC; Â&#x192;% {  Â&#x20AC; Y Â&#x2DC;< =S S~Y /=  \*** <?c 8 > v N ` ?` ` [  c> Annual Review Energy Environment \@&]j@#+* <"Y<S  " \**  S 8 G   Â&#x192; 8M >} " [& > _A ?   > >} S & X>  ** anos. RelatĂłrio TĂŠcnico.  Â?`& qq` >  ?>[? _ [q >q [ q [ ÂĄ  ? q|ÂĄ>ÂĄ_ ÂĄ ?   >8Â&#x2022;    Â&#x192;c \nd 2010). <YY% <  S Â&#x192; /Â&#x2DC;V Â&#x160; / \**j  ?    ` >& `  ? [ >  ` N 8 Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment ]& 8 &*j'*q***]\ </Â&#x2030;%S/Â&#x192;</  Y S < %/  "</Â&#x160;#<  V 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: ` Y[  c  "  ? FIOCRUZ    >  `  8  `  c   c>  S   _ [  >> = Â&#x192; ` [[8 [c c _? ` =    `f  = W > 8 Â Â&#x201E;| /    Â&#x192;  8 Â&#x201E;8 8 S 8 G   `? N` 8?  8

\** Â?`&qqNNN? _q`qÂ&#x2022; Â   Â  \nd 2010). Â Â&#x2030;%<S Â&#x20AC; =<"Â YY%<S /Â&#x20AC; SÂ #S<% Â  Â&#x192;"Â&#x20AC; VYÂ /"<S GÂ&#x20AC; Y%Â&#x192;Â  GSÂ&#x20AC; YV% "Â S= #Â&#x192;VSÂ  GÂ&#x20AC; Â&#x192;</Â&#x2DC;< <Â&#x20AC; Â&#x192;/=<  Â&#x20AC; Y%Â&#x2030;<%SÂ  Â&#x20AC; ~<%Â&#x192;Â // <  VS%  \**] <c 8>  

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`> `? _&  ` c 8  ?   ? [ ``

?c     [Q      Â &  `

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8?  `> `? _ Â  %  /N Â&#x160; f /Â&#x160;

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=</"V< Â /= YÂ /= Â&#x2030;<S {< <S"</<% Â&#x160; %/ S% =< GÂ /<%S

665

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"V$Â&#x192; / Â&#x192;"Â&#x20AC; Â&#x2DC;VS% "Â&#x20AC; S Â&#x2030; GÂ&#x20AC; Y<S Â&#x192;Â&#x20AC; Â&#x2030; $¢V<$  Â&#x192;S%<S Y ''* =?  `> `? _   [ 'j&   _  8>  ?  8c American Journal Tropical Medicine Hygiene +\& '#j+ { Y < =  ''* " [ 8>  ?c  8?  `> `? _ Southeast Asian Journal Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 21: 636-41. { Y < =  \** =?  Lancet, 370: 1644-1652.

YÂ&#x20AC; %YÂ&#x2030;Â #%/<Y  YVS</Â&#x;#=<#Y%Â&#x2030;<%SÂ  S \**'  <_   8 Â&#x192; 8?  =?   _ 8 Â&#x2030;  =c  S 8 G  Q PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3:.... 8 &*kq|  pntd.0000545. %/ % V  SÂ %Y<%S =< "<"SÂ %Â < < Â ÂĽ %Â # %"< \***  8> ?} \*** ??8      }  8   8  8 _  #+< %   8 " ?  <W S 8 G  

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