the self ancl the city
I nd i g e no u s
oopicol at this moment; rhae it a sniffof rcvo1urion in the air ad~aiticrlcvenoueindcedhnppcningwithm
What is FreeRange? Freerange is a small pirate style coalition of the wding with a god of mentoringinto creation a s d but d consideredpiece of c u l d property. 'Ihe individualsincubating h x h n g e gend y hail from a r c h i d and urban design backgroundsbut amongst others indude video artists, scientists, pirates, mathematicians, musicians, d u s , graphic designers, illustrators, and Proenmmers. It's about 'good' idas, in a dual sense. Good in that t h y arc sensible, applicable and constructive; whether chis be in design, l i m w or politico. It is a h about good in the saue that it will promote same basic sense of common humanity and bettering peoples mlities. (whawr that may man). It is to be a meme generator to counter the hcgcmonic mema cumndy streaming from the ahaves globally.
A,humuuinthismdmadworldtod8y,whurundurtvlding seems a h a t beyond comprehension, we need to ask ouradves on what authority do wx make p h i c r l and monl decisions?
Ate there any unived values that we can apply to the compk situations m find o d w in? Has the watun notion of p q ras 6naUy folded in upon itself? W d global warming and o t k r environmental problem make all bees off and force an ecological h s m upon us? AIC we simply moving dcckchrin an the boat? AIC we oven attendants in this dexily c~piePlktpum?
Oursuggcstionisdutwecanbacomcpirrtesmtpri~ neudangdsnotCOIVbOYd,intdlecRlPlprohrwt~a, fly-by-nigh~cl=pmdu mi& fiee chickens, f k a not h+op. W h e n Lucifu out fmm haven he was as-
sisted by the not oft mentioned n d angels, a p u p that dtr in the space between the abdutcs ofideology and marthy.
IIheyhavethefnewilltoma~callyact,makemonljudgments, change their minds, makc m i d e , create amb'ity, culture jam, exist in geographies of mbvdon, out wit and cee-
r f r r l l d n i s p o l i r i c d a n d is~ tbegawte ofpowm, and& po~m m p t s den it is a m o d obligation to subwt rrllollpmuv*,
benvacn undenmdin8 and targat+ plr)ring p m between oppositer If one embraces this then there is an obligation to act when either order or diooder rnker conml.
In rome ages thisrspuimthcneudangdtoactasrurhiact,oo~r, l& utopian, drramrr, and c m t e visions from chaos. In othcnwhenpanubecom4toostrongandtheuniwserdctirr~ cnua is dthen it is their obligation to be rebels, pirate, artism, phihophers, and dl thoce that ask questions and confwc Which time is it now?
Wo*.ldBbaa % h i $ r M f i . P g 7. ( B b o m w h o b a a o n d a u h k k k a & r u apr firmthat -such ~nudaIgrepmasT~
Issue #1: The City and the Self Freerange is the published workings of a large and diverse group of pcopk aiming to create some critical rdections on our respective places in the world. 'Ihis process will take place over a dozen aditions which will evolve and develop ovcr the coming months and years. We start with a theme that tackles subjecrs both the lvge and personal. Be SrrfanddK City. ?his issue tackles two uncompromising and seemingly incornpnhcnsivdy complex issues. ?he city, in 111 its gbriow fonns, has become the dominant form of human habitation, and the '4'as progressively redefined in the 20th Century has become the fimdamcntal instrument fbr measuring human consciousness. It is often quoted that 2007 marked first dmt in human hiuory that more humans lived in urban conditionr than drewhue. Our current abiities of aomp~huuion,c-ized by divisions of W e d g e into discrete disciplines, is unable to gnsp the awe some complexity of the city and its explosive mix of conudictory human desires and needs. To even discuss the concept of the city is problematic as it implies a set accepted definitioms or id& that apply to dl humans in urban aonditionr 'Ihe first article in this publidon is by Tigilau Saili, called 'hHaqry City which questions some of the implicit assumptions behind discussion of Cities and Urbanism.
'Ihe disdplinc of architecture has a unique and diflicult &onshipwith 'Ihe City. On one hand it is an ultimate debration of human built tbrm with almost ewy surtha and structure bdng 'designed' by one human or another.
s e r i e s
sign can emerge to positively affect even ancient urban situations. The text introduces the eastern Italian town of Urbino where the entire walled city is projected as a UNESCO world heritage site. The next contributer Dale Ficham is a Wellington based architect (with an appropriately avian inclined name) who has written a delicately woven text that investigates the concept of Nesting in the City. The organic nature of nesting implies an ability to make imme&ate and creative change to ones environment. Educationalist Felicity Morris explores a more aggressive version of this idealwith her inquiry into the use of male phallic symbols in public graffiti, titled Vanity and Urbanity. With the relentless increase of technology in our lives there is an increasing rupture between the slow pace of physical change and the almost instant ability to adapt digital environments. These digid developments and the radical demographic mobility seen amongst the developed worlds middle classes are forcing a fundamental rethink of previously stationary concepts of the Home. Drawing on research from her graduating project Sally Ogle explores issues of Home, Space andVirmnlity.
An issue of freerange would not be complete with out a bustling polemic. Writer, educationlist, dancer and reformed socialist Noel Meek has written a Dialogue on Street l'heatrrthat urges us not only to discuss notions of public space, but to actively engage in practice of inhabiting them. The last contribution to this first issue of Freerange is a small but well aimed critique of Rem Koolhaas by Mark Kingslcy.
-m(kbws Pub, Franc. N.pkqIb)y
147,000 Tog 1OcuimdtheY~r 1950
450,000 1 cbdwa,8prh 4 5 0 ~ 1 ~ C h h r lAoywl(Ho#n),rnpoa2-cta m 2-shdir ~ ( o n N i o ~ , b 25Osd003ConbnYRoek(klurkrOSTuby q 3 0 0 m 3ClllroSEWpt -8-4wms2 n o m 4 w m ~ 175poO 5 T h h , lmn 150saD 5 KpbJlawr 195POO 6 - w ~ 130~6QLD.EIypt 1 2 5 m 7 Gaw, In& -slam 7 mdRWsbrq c.l(hgrs T r o o m e ~bhrpv(~uyrhrlru),h 1 2 s m a w -M crk @~,SIuekrbh 110,000 8 Oungdwnr, Chlnr )8n~mr~~uku~ e om 10 ~ b ~krhkum), m h d 1~o o m lo ~argna,~hhr
Top 1 0 ~ 0 f t ) w Y ~ 1 0 0 0
Some Big Historical Numbers
moo0 2no.000 2nomO
mm am =m
India Pakbn Turkby India Bnzil RlJB8b SorrltrKoma
Dmocmtk Republic of tho Congo Inn Peru Unibd Khgdom Cdombla Hong-
Kimhaaa lbhmn Lbna London
Tom Jabta NewYorl<ay
Chkw Chinr Mwcko
Some Big Contemporary Numbers
THE HUNORY CITY
B y c o c o ~ A e atics repking nation-stateaas the sourcu of identity? Arc 9 cities by definition dections of modernity? 2006 mrdt#l a point in human histoy when fir the first time mom of us humans live in citicb dsvl any& elre. Humanity is being urbanised. Whnthe&rapproachulmewithidePIfotPrtideclast year I dmught d l quoted ~ ~above were the pick of thc aop. Citia, identity, modanicy, and urbanbarion; chir was the pith of modern &. Yet someding about than irlro lefi me f&g a little unsatfied 'Ihe most diaatisfPing thought was that humanity wzs now more urbanLed than it bad m r been. 'Ihe mcrtion wcmed boldly oppormnkdc and ro very 21n cmtury so completely au&tupinthenonrhPtrhcnowhadbecnmademore impomant chm the p a .
Whatever dw merits dthc dmr'r q p c i o n s , thcy had ochimd dlc inmded le8ult - I was qllickly loddng f$r something to 6x my curious appetite. How d d 2006 be such I b c p my enquixy by huge turning point in the urbanhation and thadbre dmlopment ofhumvl ddiaation? a
A Millennium of Urbanization
Urbanization Trends by Region, 1970-2030 Asbnd~wYI~Ih.higheatmteaof~brtknby~30
To my consternation I was left concluding that I was wrong - I had begun my investigation asking the wrong question. How could I have been so mistaken? What had warped my view? Maybe it was it a trick of geography? New Zealand (NZ) and Australia are the only countries I've ever lived in; and they are highly urbanised. More than 70% of the population live in urban areas. However, this is true of all in the club of 'developed' nations, whether old world or new. Most people in these places live in town not country. Add to that the myriad cities of the developing world, and everywhere in-between, and surely that's half or more of the world's population conveniently totted as another throwaway statistic? Well yes and no and not quite. As my initial enquiry testified there was something deeper than statistics at play. Maybe then it was also my rather quaint idea of what is urban? In my mind's eye urban equals reticulated infrastructure, sealed roads, a local store or two, a school with a sports field, and a church, mosque, or temple if you're lucky. It's cities, towns, and suburbs; but also townships, hamlets, and villages. I grew up in a small coastal village of 500 in northeast Northland (NZ). It had all these things and was a half-hour drive from a town of 40,000 plus but a ciry to me. Now I live in AucMand, NZ's largest urban area.
But with a population of just wcr 1,000,000 it's M y a functioningaty by international tams, d, it hu tumed thore Northland omluncnu into little more rhan C O Q I ~ h o # o in the back of my mind. One penon's dy is anorh~54 h d w a t a . It turns out that I pastly OWR my dcfinitiod obrarion about what is urban and what is not to NZf British Ibrebeam, 'Ihe di&rencc bemeen cities, towns, towdips, hamkts, md vlllpgerr, between urban and rural, u &r-
en* u n h o o d in diff'nt paxts of the E n w - q d *-rid. (Arymp~moftyp~y~lPnyy ambiguity that few otha European lrngunea d tdcrate). For starters, thcru's no one standard definition of a a~,thctamiswdfbc
atownposscwhgaysutus; m urban l dty Qcacdin% an arbitrary pop* size, a tarm dominating orher towns with pard& mgiond economic w administrative significance; or an qglomemrion including suburban and tllditeuew
S i problem f i e the definition of a town, township, ~ , a n d ~ a n d l e t s n o t ~ ~ ~ t ~ t and isn't urban.
I hear you say, aren't thcy the ral k m i n i n g factors behind the ddnitions? Well no, they aren't the easy answers they seun. For example, Statistics NZ defines an urban area as a d e m e n t with of 400 pasons per km2 but that wouldn't wen f a m as a blip on Japan's urban mtisacal radar of 4,000 persons per km2. Big or small, concentrated or dispersed, urban or rural. 'Ihac ue rally questions of one's relative rensc of ~ win the thrill ; of the new century I think it's d a ary to lose it. 'Ihe city is not a "thing" but a charIc#risticpm. Townr, townships,hamlets, andviUages all exhibit the e ~ ~ l thures id of a city - the process of becoming urban. As Mumford, the influential A m c r i i urban historian said sagely, "...urban and MII ciy and c o u n g atu one nbins not rwo things." This is dose to what I'm getting at.
t about scllc and density,
Rather than get aught up in and mislead by the qua for hard statistics and neat definitions the quaions that I should h?vebcurvlringatthebcghingofthtvdde are: How and why is humanity being u h n i d What is it about human n a m that has driven most of us to live an urbanlii? Thisiswhat rullyliiat thehurt ofthe hue.
Dsepdawn,andwayUwcGcbsenurbvlkingfbra long, long, time. Since the dewlopmmr of @'dm d y - the h t i o n of crop cultivation d d d domaxication some 13,000 ycvs ogo. We humans arc a hungry lot and simply put, food production triggad
populndon growth and population pow& aiggaad fbod producdon on and on and on it went. From a h i l y , m a b a n d , m a m b c , t o a ~ m , m a s t a t c . Fromatempomy shelta, to a hut, to a viUagc, to a town, to a city The rymbioric relationship betunen urbanbadon and fbod
produaianrunrihPwithusmthis&y,dthoughdlclong arms o f d and transport usually stretch f4u beyond the limits of a particular settlement's lgriarltural hinterland. So how did it dl scan? In the beginning the hunter-+crcr~ewasamigratoryLitkPcykclosdyllnLsdm~s o d and -hid fbod sources. PopuMona were d. Found or hunted hod could not cYily swain fistg m d q or large populations. In addidon, without beucs of burden, food surpluses (if any), children, poudons,
wuelimitadtothoscthatcouldkcuriad. In collpyc, agricultw 6nabLed daltuy living which mant children could be born closer t d a . Ibis enabled populadonr to grow b e and k a in a shorter timeframe. It also crated the conditions hr: h n a l fbod and labour surpluses. Duwu &ent pacccrlls. Economic spaci;Plitltion, including non-hod specih. prod* Social antifiation. (2ntdidpolidclV+ous authority
The Hungry City - coco smooth
.--..Saying in one spot meant:
hasdons couldbe~ccumulad Elaborate &and technology could be developad. Rcdisuibudvc, as opposcd to only reciprocal, aconomic cxchan~could take place. Iargc~donscouldbemob~~public mlksand&.
S t u a #ith a monoply of fom and c o n f i i d u t i o n , a cencralkd b u r c a w , a d a hiemthy of
thatisnottor?)rchatdthbrerule,of~fioma hunrcr-gdam to agricultural k q k mn intan&d. Plainly, people wae just Q i what W v e always done towby-inraaaingwirhand~ngrhdrmvironmenu to mPlte them more fivourabk to g d d n g and
From that long perspecdve then, the UN bpuhtion Divkion's rdativcly amtic rate of population abdsadon at 3% betwasn 1000 and 1800, -1to 63%in 2030, cannot be v i d in isolation. It is parc of the ebb and flawin a tide of urbanisation that b q p many thousands ofyeanago.
vdopmcnt of new technologies capable of changing the dynamics of estlbliahod fbod production and d#efibte popull~ngrowdh.
For us now in the 21st century the most recent wave of population growh began with technological develop ments of the industrial revolution. Industrialisation changed the economy from feudallmercantile to capitalist. People moved to town from country; settlement patterns intensified. Traditional social structures broke down; h i l i e s shrunk from extended to nuclear. Traditional political structures were overthrown - "off with the King's h e a d was the catch cry. Mass production (including food), mass information (print press), mass communication (postal services), and mass transit (rail and steamship) were spawned. Peasants, serfs, and workers could gather together more easily in denser settlements (towns and cities) fostering conditions for mass fraternity and political participation. From this modem democracy, and ultimately universal suffrage, education, and healthcare could arise. With more and more ordinary folk able to read, imagined national and international communities could form, quite distinct from traditional kinship, place, or empire based identities. However, to fuel the industrial machine 'new' lands had to be claimed, 'new' people's conquered, and 'new' resources extracted. By fair means or foul the technological, economic, social, and political revolution was to be replicated, all across the globe. In this light urbanisation is inextricably connected to the forces of capitalism, indusuialisation, colonisationlimpe-
T h e W11nm-v Citv - Cncn Smooth
ridism, and dmocratiution. But all, dl of thor L m ,
d y che by-product of fiood producdon and population
growth. Turning bradt then to the editor's ideas for udckr, it's clar we're now more urban than w've ever h. Clearly, the ~1viro~tthrtthecityhps~tcd~bCtll~~ fbt the m a d ,,-ni and spirid development of humnntind So our dreams of the aty a d modamity perhapserkeona~rrignifi~~~cethanthc).ercrh before. But we shouldn't lac perspecdve.
We humans are a hungry lot, and out ada axe rhe hungry cities. 'Ihelongviewirthuthebrceofourcivilirtion is an andent h a i o n of consumption and rrproduaio11. The more we racognim and a c k n w that k dcmenu at play, the lwre we undmand what it is about
hum;m~thrtdrivaurtoLiveanurbanlife,d t h d r e h and why humanity is bchq utbantcd. I&
lboutbcingaucroournanrnand*~~roour~emb~~utbos&rin$tin~so~we~rrrrkk the chrlltnger of the city and mwkdy in a condous athmuive, ratha than instinctual 4 @e, way If wcbqinfiomrhtpositionweareabkmaskdwright quacionsandraeLtherightms#nfiomthem
& d n l k o y f i & ~ g ~ b ~ m a n o h p - ~ d k a o p p . ie.,d~re.Arabkrcffasvld~mraghkr*;*ir OX: l r t s d r c b o w t * % &atbtyofai?pens, ~ * d w p b n u l . z h f b o f - ~ ~ %#~0fnbr~pp*~~.Ler's o g l m p r u l r ~ ~ ~ ~ r p n d t i n v h d n n r c p s n b . . ~ o f ~ a m i m y e f ~ v b i o ~ I k n i A a d ~ ~
a ~ ~ o f m u q n , a ) c n i d i a g ~ ~ & c p 1 c r nthmthes l r l r ~ * + ~ U ) / t A ~ l l . I t ~ ~ ~
More and more, more is more. lhmbpwir~d~~rff&rrrrnrnkm,aalorrJam~blrrrbcth a r s n r n b e r s R 6 h r ~ . f ~ & . . ~ # & + h d ~ a p r t -
m h o f bcstjbd... ~ A k *of itjms&gh adlouc bms;~asd&npe$Erarr~~oftbe p&mdpriuan,+dh p e n m m f + ~ S a m r * a n * ~ ~ ~ * * ~ g ~ ~ n m
a d ~ a ~ & kW jmusibyprrmr...'
INDIGENOUS URBAN REALITIES? Key to Text
- -hpu- - +o4 Stlament
~ 8 0 c L ~ 2 6 0 6 - - - w m n ~ 1 ~ A bottle of whiskey in his h d, I know rhir is my gnndfichu Andhemmnbmmynune. Onedhdoecnmahopwm, . Wehnlremetkrrthanahnlfdazcntima. 'ILsemomtrgaome,d
~ n r b d u r d , I d t o h i s h a w c .h l i m i n c h e d d ~ ~ a s h t h a s f b r 3 O l r p r'Ihebuild&gymm,its a
Downsthe docltdd pub. Y a n pea, the &rl rmnr bumt andso it finb its b a n thegouad fboroftheold ++A* o f u w , b u t n o t a ~ o f p k a .'Ihecodmonrnowhold d e d c r a t l b e e r b c r i d c t h e m i n e i n g c ~ r c r r w rTrbk sans bus& a BBQ in the amu. A mumunity lim bn+. m
7&riira1rronrc,ofsorff Paopltgatha,Imrrro. Amnnwith an eye patch tcUI mc the mIy of his acmlpd suicide.
W P l t i n g f i D m ~ r d t o h a v e f h i l e d d o n e y e h r r . As an encore, k teb me of the time that Lance went hunt* fiuwekawithagundsixbyllea Hecamebackwithsix w&andakau,butody~kncnnhow. lhisamylc.
caravans, a lean-to, hpeat-grand childten. E d o d d i t i d s p a is prirrd with a li& event: the blue cam- fix visiting dativesfiomYoAin the 1%Us, the bunkrwmbr thetwinsborn
in76,&sidemomformyThaiauntwho, in'85,wmderedwhat sh'd mvtiedinto. Theentire collectionis --built by Ran&
Thebsxh6lleddththings Manonbkfishcpp*rtcdoncdIuloid, packsof cards rubbeband-bound,a colbaion ofrainamm. Ibc whokconePincdinthejumbkofbuiIdinganhowcon~and form ddreir f b d o n . Low-duq open bm&d beside a tiny monopitch longdqx camvans cuddlew n t a t d g the brh and it's porch the mporitory of our w h d q a p ,
aut d m d u i .
lhtrrisamanze. T o b c b q i n a p l a t x i s t o k m w thi- lie; I know the fill of thc dunes at thc mouth of rht estuary and I know the ben lmlfr to a c t m l n m ~is kept on top of thc cupbwd beside the hdge. Lcuning is by kom, by action, by being them. Although not tangata when4 m have bund a place to stand. It is our urban version of mmnpmme whue
- - - - - . r h r t r U P . - - - - ~ i & I ~ I ~ ~ ~ I v i m r ) In IdentYylngm urhn mame, we must fitst naogniait rr ruch.
We&thisbyidd$wsg&.rrkitmuml~~ +&rwnJ~rras*r. 'Ihe&ableraof,tbe~~and the spatial amngcment d i d by the procoool of parrhiri tdl w it is a mprpc. Sscondary to ow recognition of urhn muw,is our m e t i o n of its urbanity: which is pmendy mtriaed to whether or not the m ~ n ris in a city suting.
?hir aurrart definition of urban wrre dar not rlmowkdgc thenrlity. 'Ihetambamodanawrmrcbomoutoft& urha migrationof h4bri in the 19605, and x k m d d p tbe fdm~r~cbuiltintssporuea,rhtdukofurbPaMBorito maintain dnurl continuity. we identifP the znipU-the iastitutiod-mame, h e church-mpne - each built by committees of urban Maori -b togaha through F%hh ~onruuarsuchas thecity, t h e u n i v r n i t y a n d d i g i o n ~ .
Butwhatdthe~rmalurbonmarae? UnWterheurhn n f a d mnnc is mt correrioul;wd~¬u#&mditionrlm~ Lzmgqv. Wemwtreccagnizethembythdrfunction:The gang house inhPblotcd by an dienamd urhn w h a is~ ~ the modem quivaknt of a The tmpomry suucauer d duriag lvld occupations are . . in the s ~ m way dauwm. c the carved meeting howe was duringtheculdreolirvLcc I h e ~ t e h o w ~ r m e d to host EMgi it the continuing d in rhe suburb. 'Ih.appropddon of direrd -u. mnnt describedabove, the atPtion of an i
i8tb'M&ri6adonSofrabmd.at~~ r p a o c t a ~ ' I h e l m C h W 0 n o . ~ of.aarlraHtpmrkdar~6or.rbuMbrG T , d i c c u r r ~ u t . b r r r r ~ ~ i Thaebliale s & ~ dircouaearoundAbriurbanddgn. Isrhitbcco\~~rhrrb no p c K d d d u e in it? Is it too roon to rap our indipmu deripprinCipkr~thatntut.rvpr~~~i*colonhion is d i c d y ditfaent to urban New ZcPlPnd mday? ~ ~ ~ i f m ~ e n g e t h e t c n n u r b a n u , ~ o d y be &ed by phyjcnl dtcr but to indude d;e u d d w i o n of c 7 d n & &psu miq txrqyiq i n j b d w k maw, m m y f i n d a w a y t o m e l c c t h e ~
I*, IE 1
URBINO: A UNIVERSITYTOWN,AN ARCHITEO'S DREAM, A CITY RECREATED by Rajarshi Sahai
Urbino, in the Ma& @on ofmaidand (eastern) Italy, was findad around the sixth century BC, and was Euwan bcfam itwasRruMn.?hed~fPbrcisnxdy~,but ovedaid with Rcnabance additions h m Urbino's pmudest period, when Fmmxco di Giorgio built his m a s t a p h the Dual PJ*a br Duke Fedah & M o n d t m wbch was crlled"thenaartbcr~~howc0fthe~~~utcritic Sir Kenneth Clnrkc. It ha the distinction of being rrgnkd as a UNESCO world heriw site, which cowrs the whok wPUcd aty, induding the University. The 'ideal atf, it mthe biiofRiphrwl,Bramantc,andBQlOCCjandamongche celebrated figuta who l i d that uae Lucl Pacioli, Leonvdo & Vind, and Piem Bembo. MORrrotndy it is known n the birthpk of Vilurtino R o d , the mo&P world champion.
During the Ramknee period Urbino d e d a very high culd~kau#m~yschalnnandu~litrrdandwokcd there. Some of the leading h e a s ofthe time, such as h e BattismAlberti, Murilio Ficiao, md Giorvlni Badone, and m n ~ l i k e P P u l v a n M i ~ ~ c u n c ~ a t t h e court d the M o n e t r o Duke Fcderico 111, who rukd Urbino fiom 1444 to 1482, to mate and implement ouerrPnding c u l d and urban project%
Duriag Fxdrico III's reign the aty beamc a cenae o f b p e a n imporana,aculaurl8ndvdridmoddf$rodrercoum andaohafmmFedcrico~sp.lrcrcanbe~~inthc crrdadMuhiuIGrrinusinHunguydthatofStanishs ITinPnye.Ia~apumcehasbeenrrnurhMy
f r u 1 4 h ~ ~ . ~ t h ~ n k a c l t o a p i a d h rk l 9 h h ehe town was physically in a shoddy Ua nra-dann w, wid1 tourirm ppping up an coommy ot&miuLimited~cothclocPlnrrukcc. 'Ibewk~tsaorofdreuaitradcyCadoBa(dwUai*ady irmmedifirrhim)redidthatthedd~pmr~ltdthc ruri~mrYidaotht~'rIrri*rl.HCjoiaedhurbwith
dsc~*GknarloDeCuio,whohdplrleda kdiqm&inEutopaa~acmrrr:rrall~mbcrdT~X and an d y critic ofc3rthQdoa bfodmnha as a pdomrrr of the e~ll~appachmdofputici~uedimrof~e Sodcaandn argpnircrofhiro m nunmerwhodILAUD.
Whn he f k invited to anbark on a mPrraplPn for UrbiaoherndiQdthcunvnin~detaildp~ his ~ ~ KYI aRbook. Urbino becam the psiadpal vehicle f;or h . ~ ~ O s ~ u a f o r r e a d i n g t h d ~ . thtcirfbrundcrs~rpba,imfbnnrandspues,udhorr ~rr&crbothioroeirlh&oyandarmntrmtc.Hehrrbuilt much in Urbim, both conold and d i n g new o m
andwhichnonahdcr,ravedade6iningdeintkbdc f&ic of Urbino. 'Ihew proved ripe br son- into u n i ~ t y ~ t i c s , d D e C v l o h r c ~ ~ p 6 d dwm.'Iheideo,~er,wastopraaverheidentiyandrpirit ofthe&uchitccwe.ForexampktheoldchuKhcrconrrresd tohculderstillreminthcfwaar,andthcsdrcPlt&bklof thc o d g W smcme, provided with the p m W Z;rd of duap,ontheineidaneun-finirhedplPrtakddrewof nmcdahin thdrpumt~rm.depicuthe~~llarnmndarrwith wbich these buildings were truted. 'Ihefacultiesof~yinrkwithaiqd~ofdrc htraricolto~,dedto~~nclpfutsctionr,ga~ d r a n a n d d w c i t y a n e w ~ .Decylapdualtymurqgcdto imp.nadcriQnmethodthatatanyeventhdwohda hi+rqualicpthanMbeenry?plicdinUrbinointheprrviow
~ThemtrhodfdlovmdinUrbino(whicht00krhpein dwIbrmdamrrtmplrurin1964)isfircinuingbauueit rharrrthuitpdi*iddorchld~~cendtothe ddizationofagoodmwnpl.n.ItishudtothinkoF urochtr contemporary uchitea who hu c a n t r i w ro much to one p b . Witbut his intefvention the whdet ofrhtownditsuni~y~uldhavetakenadifBaratd Plmart amidy lnon daauctirr wn. Ordinuy old build*
wh.c~~htcrwasarevidofthe~tytndtk tom, with uwnd 20,000 students s t d y i a g in the university, ~~~r&locllrrridentr~rnCtrethrnnrict(&ch cm,b~abetamedasanqpdne~.?h&~inruch hugnwsburhmbccomeapermnarntacmomicbacbPKthe c i q a d the p r m a d dad identity d the city,promoting
agoodhightintololivlLifcandLulguagc'Ihlargcnuroba p - h w Mund4 a of Jqwp majoric]rof f a d e population in the university, which ampled withaddedWDUCdci~rOPLCitf~d~~ fcuboth~.
Tdy the people of Urbino,
take pride in the bmutihrlly p& culture and identity of the city. W i t h la position as a unitnnity of internationalrepute br Imlian lami- Urbino has nvived (partly, at least) its past &Iy as a city of c u b and learning.
be for t
1-rime ire to'
on on, 'orizontalhas been abandoned Transa r m y has disappeared r e p h e d by a bast crust of prm'sional occupntiorz:
Nesting in the City
l h e net is not only a shambolic-looking baskt of tw& of which bids d home, or even c h d - u p p l ~ muwid t in a honey comb brm, like that of a hornet'# ncct, it can ?bO be ascribed as a spatiid uchaype.
By this I mean them is an innate undemanding that the wod 'nat' by its very d&tion
induces a sense of home or what it
fundunrnd nlrtionrhip between oneself and the outride d - in thl, context. the city. a
Gaston Bachdvd ducidata this ida as bcing that of a primal which are imqes that bring out the pridtivmes in us.
I am intaerred in this de6nition of what an
ianyle b, r it
m n c c d s from bang a metapharial dauiption into an ontological one, as the very ~ m t of w being.
Itixldtrcrring~1~thcsewydcrirrtmdth~aas an d o n of not only how one views the world but also hen one views o d .
'Ihbbwkre~~msrpnimpof~llt~~frludtnuioa, &mu& its m a y and wied brmc of r a p ~ t a t b nwhether , thmugh Litcnnue, artorvdritccweacerrn
D~bccomcrabnnof~bmvacnrala,duougb theimrnanrityofthe city m tha intimvgofchcKV.
Oae not OJIIY pro pen to paper when one dnm, one's ~ n b . L o m a p p c d d i t k t h k ~ a r a e i w thrtc*d#rintohuwoneintqxctstheag
VANITY AND URBANITY by Felicity Morris V.niy:cnjoyingydrvaae'sselfteaectsdruch~inminorr, l i t e m a m , a n , ~ o r & Itcanbedighdypenerymd ~. indulgent, but it isalso cmnbrtingtowesomethingso~, sodngthatonecanrdateto. ?hentmmcanceinth feding that someone & poues~sthe or understanding that is contained in you. 'Ihaefon, you ace not done You rrr prut of a p u p . You bdong.
Ikkrniq: the environment which is constructed bp a group of humnnrtocontainbuildin~tohoweandempla).andcnrucPin othahumnru,andto~indthe~inbetmenthore smrtura ?he numba of peoplewho a c d l y have a say in this mation is pdy ow-neighed by the people who live within it. ?hnfbtc,thechPnccsof~cnvironmentPauPlly~io inhabitants are kssencd.
a chPnoc 00 oonml the en+-t aud lec otbsn knowthatthcbbnkandrraicwallofthepond~ortk invidng canvim of a toilet door doa not ne&ct you in any w u ~ And now i t k
IuedmthinLthrrtrhenmrrm~ofgratKtidadat linekcrrrarthah 'Thefint~'06aBidard'gpfEid Itlmd an Obviow purport. Its thou$lt pfovoimlgc lingued kurgrthan thetimeit to& toditandso~lzGeharrbsodcned my undasmnding of my d a m and the thoughts of other idividwlrwhoinhabitit. Iuadustoodit I w a s p h d b y i t It is pouible that it articulated id#r that I had thought buthdnotfaundthem#armapr~~~yct IwascomCi,d
thatsomcone&hdmadcthatrp~cctheirrdthatithid enveloped me in i t ?he otha mm the ' b d d h f ype (note
thPtifIddtib~wiehit.Idurititabrolrrnhw.Vinity iniopunbm'Lmn~plymthowrPho~~1'tme3. Thiswas t h e ~ 6 p t h o f p a i n t o n t h e ~ ~ o r t h e d o d d s dinvitation on the mikt d 'Ihcy rhocL eirher because oftheir explicit or b a d nature, raising a question of purpara.
But there is no line. I thought thae m s because, guynlt)., I do not we myself in the latter. Yet both ace e r p d of t~mcone'sfnmmtion that thar is no rc&ction of rhma*cr in that innocuousdor suburb.
?he--woftherymbolofthcphPIlusin~isulQPmple of such fiwtntion It's the dog marking ia territory with the adamation that '%is is mine.' 'Ihe im~gehPr not weakaxd in its ~ ~ ~ o t o clike i o nthe word 'dick' has. It's the of man-hood and domiwrct. Grrrr. It's about vwrl parru. The pmcaoe of p u t m a (fillria) ova ad- in @'&tirtil c o n m i n s t h e ~ o f m a k p o'IhewrntofrkQg ~~~ I n r b q r ' h i g h s c h o o l t h e r e u c ~ d r o r mIn~ t a t bookg on derls; on chain; on skhm; on their.hricndr' drink-bottles so when thcg sup, it laab dubim But never on thdr own p r o m . Eve&% they own is dcady imbwdwith them. J u n l i k e t h c d o g t h a t o n f y ~ t e s o n t h e ~ ~ mu.
'LBt~~ofponnrwaEensthesubjecton~itth. 'Ihepidunofthern~bsesdl~wtwnhnow into a phallus not a microphone. ?hc wriour nrrwogc a politician srp~usais cut down by the appendage drnrn on h a rLih It may Mlike li&t-beYtad gsrffiti, but why was the &tbresteaedinthcfkplace? titafabqthatrbcacd phlU~comman&parrcr!
?herr t no obvious f d alternative. Some fan& lraw ficd chcindimbntodraw breasuon but t h k d n o t rrfw#rt* ~ o r p c m u ! r , b u The s ~ piwmcc of b m u muld not deter or Pliuutt mrkr, U c the
In aur urban cnvimnm~tothur have been nominusd to mate thcenviroMwntkw. ? h ~ o f c r r r d o n h P I b a n g h d m ~ n b o d o n o t ~ r r t k Oac,hdnady c t ~
oriixdUy,&mit-msceone'ssdfreeectsdinrk~ ~ d q l i v e a n d t o l e t o t h a r & d m n i n i t a m7hqleave amackmkothcnknowthattheyerirteven&thqhave
diPpparsdinmbddin~whkhtheydUnocdcriqLW b d tobeabkmdcftKdenhnurt3anplmaax,kriaa#r, dai&nenandPrchitacahiito&thatk~Itsa&driag HowlPzgofustoIctothacrcotcau~tionhurMark yourterrioory. SdcyourownnaEcrioninpourprddleofurine.
Home, Space, and Virtuality By Sally Ogle
Although 'virtual' is a turn that is puodund with cmmputu sim-ns dthc d worldvimulicy is a concept dut hu bem inarirccnabralonprtimcthPathedmdogyrequindto nndaavdonoftheworldbehindascreen.?hevirtualcpnk defined as hunt potential within the cdstbg the potential fix what is now, to become something else.
"Ihevirrmlisdrespaceofanorgeaceofthanew,thun~ the~whichat~momeatloodrtkprsrnaof the p-t wirith suppkmcntwig redoubling a d duoqh pPnllduni~Unnararhumigfrtkovcbeen.~ W h m t d , Mka Terrdn Vaguc:Interactbe Spaae and the 1 H O U S-4D ~ Space: Mcmtive Architachre."Architectural Design V.75. No.1.Chichsstcr: Wily. 2005. 2 E b b h M ~ n f r a tho m Olrtddc hw on P l t t d a d R d S p a m Imdn~MlTElar.2001. p.78
~rrhichconbeloortdinarpedficrp~~ry;~ty ~bcdaaibedasthe~opmnardthehturetowhat~ it." Imbuing a @ with vimulirg M to let time impact on spur. ElinbcrhG.oscdisauccrtbirulcttingmotiond action d m (and individ&) the s p d . I
CPaa&liWspsockd~withtht~tiond~ty in&-kinprPyutictbims.Ldrevimul'~into : the w-?
'Ihepo~tiplnithinabuiltrhdl,araM4aL,opar~ir the poantirl Ear renovation, ktr h h e r on, kr the rperx to be rnrdrinto sometbin8 dw.'Lhe potentid drPt is Ltart within an inhabited s p , hcomes fmm ambiguitiesd ~tksp~ccM~tobeinbabited,~themodeof inhabitation is not prescribed, and allows k cm i d d i ~ h n ) . 'Obvkdy, spotid Ations happily admit mlations of timullancity: spPcc is that which enabler r i m h u s or m v e rdrtionr. Perhaps it would be mom intriguing to consider sP;PtiPLty in terms of the coexistence of multiple &om of zwEadon, spoa as a layering of spatxs within thandtnr, spaces &lM in others, space that can k t h n as the virtualities of the present, the 'huc'P5
lhirconceptofvimditymognizesthe potential ofaspacewhich is inhabited now, d vYulPta this to the next inhabitation
- the tcmshrmntion takes its cue from what is &dy. 3
-bid.ubhblevoid 4 5
Ckaz 2001. p.116117 Qorz 2001. p.128
The difEdty in d d p i n g a t p ~ c eofvircuality, asp~cewhich islndenwithpotmtidD8mn6fiomthenesdto6xYchi~ as a sratic enrity. 'Ihe designa is given a brief to deign for the now - the khat is'. nI virtuality into the deqn is to design for the 'what might be' or the 'what if..
Plwhasbecomean~wtcnn,~ngbcrwamthe'rrrl' p&nphkal site and the digitaUcyber/vid (ntb) sia. Can rurhitcaurr~~~pPnlltlunivancr?Onth vchiacturr be the point when thh ambiguity is enacted?
PLccis"k~ncdk,~d#nrrrarrrrarvvrA6rt)rr aqniddngar a mdt ofbuman dvitiaY. Place, in thac ttrmr, is inhexdy linlced m time through memoria of events
y in the cyber domain, the ~whichacquirrmcaning~wuraclikdytobembrita astheyuedsif~~IIhepqch~logicalptoarwrof'placeidcntity no longer q u i r e the concrete physicaLity d a pngmphic rite. Coducthg our lives M
W&ms (4 rim, myspace, bcbo....)
becomb the timiliu; known,*-thesitcswhichallow~~ddmddop a rwc of piace identip (even as thcg maybe phyricnlly no*).
h whole planet has du po&tid m become home (both
(of~tandfiunitioric]r)bcbefulfilhdtbecyber mlm? A lrcrltn h o d within a physical archimawe, which ~simpIya~mprapidebrtheph~nardr ofthebodg;andpranin&mcybenproc.I~caOdthat ~,crrndrl!dasa~k,giCal?taehmtnc,rrquirrs
drertimu&tionafall~-the~tionofkmrirsqually rrlrrt#imtbtbodyasitistothmind.lhehretharchitsnun ofthehome,~ditrhnn,wilbemore~arhdter of aarwait~,
"Addtradrrron ofw liw in... a~~
h ~ - a d ~ ~ m i ~ ' n g k j n m i ~ t o b r , ~mt&&&mr&w&d a r l ; r a t M m & d u k .
How does rahitccaw q o n d m this 'genadid condition of h~?'Ihis~ckclrrtionofanarchi~whi& accepts an unstable subjcct, and dhquisher the p a a m a ~ ~
that is thc budation of the v r h i d dircipliar. For ~ t h a c i s a p a r a d a r i n ~ f k n a s ~ t y .
The a r c h i m of 'home' for the urban cvnpet or the nomad, doer not need to be a traditional how, but cur rimply be a base, a containa hr living, providin~br our basic phys~d nesda'Ihis~issuppkmmtedbydofthepiacesuhacwe a c l d y live our liva.
'Ihis connection m a o c a ~in the
phydcPldvwPlconaeaiontothe~locPlc'Ibe bew must provide a dbgc from the cily and it must have the potartid Qwnt virmrlity) to adapt to di&rrnt drPrPcrar.
TOWARDS A PERFORMANCEOF HUMANISM: A DlAUXUE ON STREETTHEATRE By Nod Meek Two people, a PERFORMER and a NON-PERFORMER sit
NON PERFORMER: We've decided to diwwc, today stmet pc&maaceandpurrrvonrhrtakingitup. Rtthazalously, ifIqmy PERFORMER
NP:Yes,in the rarer.Why? P: Becaue this ia the place br dinloye. NP: Wea= dreadj @ng rhcod of omhres. Let me set our ~ Y O U ~ . M M O S W ~ O ? ~ O I U ~ & ; ~ U P ~ L
to~.Whyhme~unawdecidedm+outonbch?lfof saaet t h d P:mndy,IdonatliErthetamraotArBrrchtpoinaout,ul d a j o b i s t o ~ ~ ~ t o ~ 10Kdumoa*aina~lrrtin.Idonotaimto~Iwish myudfuwxtoconsmndyhthdtfGUwitsabQutdran.Aloo,
Ilihctodmcc,wpuppetsandlllPrband~whenI~ll. Actors don't do chae things, they act I +m.
NP:Youawstrrydd fiom the question.
To answer that, I must go back to the point where I gave up theom.1mcitcanptingtodiscaramydfdmypl.etin thc noridaddreoar, t h e c y p e I ~ ~ ~ i n * ~ M w i t h , a e c m c d u ~ imhrnnt. So,ckspitepwingupintheatrc,Irejdi~Irrpr lott F o r d yeam I Bounderedabout likethat, expkdq o h options, none of which fitted. ?hen I d b c m d palIda.
NP:Politia? P: By politics I mun I came to be vay aware of the p a t amount ofru&ringinthcmrldIbec~meoMwith3reidclhI coulddosomethingaboutit. 'Thatwasmy~ropoiidcr Irdtoth.ar,fkdwithahatredoft)wdehumaniaing &as of oppradon and injustice
NP:W h y
NP: You see links buwam pedapgy and dramatqy then?
i h kndsdge throu& r
i d pafonnuroc, they
W a e r L o ~ .
NP: You mi'ghtnote that thae d e t paformar +t Idloom outdooro.
P: Indeed. Many historical fosmrof dwaw havebeen outdoon: ylcient Greek h m d d monlity plys, m n i d , cornmedia ddl'artc, mat non-Westan thaw r a d k h s . lht pro~ceniumarch b a very recent development
Angm]r,whenIdthislinkbe~mckraad~a Irmchc~tidpmblemwith~poAitaplthunIwu eng@ with. Uk wew didrrccic. Qkwould stand with p a t humanism onastap and d ouraudienccwhat.rrr thqhtof t~.Now,asateuhaifIstoodffi~mycbnmddiceptcd ~tornystudcntsIwoulddtbea~.I'dttea dic(u0~no m u m how well intcntiond my despotism. Yet this waswhatwewaninourpdidalthepm,fwanhourortwo, ~wingdiaatonbracaptivcaudime.Ofoourrc,~wua problanwiththeurdiawud
P: Quite tbe oppode. 'Ihy mrc compledy qmpathaic and ~withuroneverypoint~lldLnm~p~av~r~r#kCt populationdurrLnortaPdurnrtydeduateddwuPlly vqlibal. Wewerepmchingto t h e d
P:Icacoun~by$oodb~thc~~ofducuatPwlo He awghtmethatin &&m, ifyouarcnot to be an oppmsscw, you mwt enter into a diPloguewith your students.
If that dialogue is truly open and honest then you can no Longer be an opprrssor, h r to o p p m you must conaol knowledge and opendialogueallowsknawbdgem&owfredybothwlys.Iam awsimplrfying, but this is the as-
NP: I think1 see where youarc hading,andIamgldbecwe we came here to discuss street theam, not pol~tia. . P: ?he two are inauicable. NP: So you say. Anyway, you arc about to say that you dicccwacd that dialogue was impossible in the theatre, apped, as you WQT, behind the proscenium a .
P: k d y . Behind lights and atop a stage we were too fir from the audience to engage in even the most basic dialogue.We wme smving to makc them think, but in 6ct, to quote Andy Wluhol, you can't Cell anybody anythmg.
NP: So you rejected the theatre again .. . P:Inasense.Tole~vethtvdritccrureofth~trrbdsindisto lose many things t$t a perfocmc~You relinquish conad of your environment, guamntea of audknca and box o&x *, the Support of tltl CSt?bkhd ~~. YOUQpocC p 0 d in a v e f y d w ? y o u t s i & a t h ~ b d ~ Y o u ~ g i v c u p t h e ability to tell longor overly complex storks. 'IheSUM is simply not conducive to it. A drunk or a dog may interrupt pmceab@ or your audience may suddenly decide their shopping is in ha more important that watching passively as a story unfibldr. You ye f o r d to engage directly with your audience, the dog or thc sbpper.
P: h d d , however, that ace any number dstxeet pcrforrnas, bwban especiPlly, who may diwith me.
NP: Wbrx brm can this dinloguc take thml Jutstepping fmm undbt. the pmcenium arch into the sacct doa not entail dhlagw does it? P:NqrurdIrcme~thrrt~eIEPltofstrrc(~mr~ drpretpecf$rmar,whuI~&tokpubkrprct,not just the stPukr, churches, govwnmmt buildiryC, mPllr, bachcr,anynumberdplPradaepeopkbpchaoraabe
NP:All the world's a st+ P: And we art d but playas in't. ?ht t where I'm
taking~~ctout0ftheth~dintotheplbkspr;cq the saws, we are-b down any numba ddidrotomia or bmiea*not k t that bepatbrma and l l o q d b m c 'Ihe~mcerpaaofthearc;apafbmabporouk~ thamgebhameticaUysc9led.'Ihtsrnetpaformaenrcrointo thespeceofthenon-petf-with~~f~hp-vehrrien, aommuaicodon can happen with more ~ P KThere . pa 0th banias, tho* pcmPpo insurmountable o m d dle ways a n o n - p d o z m e r ~ r r p ~ t t operf a or main^.
NP:Agd tborr ulr the m a t important barriers, .rr hey not? I man,pcaaidypurtillhirrtmiaaddrrhd~crs
onoac&aadprobeblynupdPsdmembcrsdtheplblicon theodr&'Ihtbabig~. P:Pahpt,butIbdimrcthrhr)tkinpouraiminpafibrmurct.
hrrieabensccnperformaandnon-paformaaredvoimhdE up.Howleva,asEugcnio~poin~rout,~~~not jwturYtcha,itha&omhip.Tfy~hktoar~tra &onship you are r e d i n gout to the audienoa, attempting to indudc than.Either way you end up with some kind of Utctira, butintheLMerc;rseitmybeacollcctkproduawiththe a*
NP: Similarly tbe 6mt kind of pcrhrmmcc abo
relatiomhip n d y ?
P: Yes,but an unhealthy onc that d u d e s t k audiancb, the psopkfiam the awk pmperpacuPting the myth of therrrdsrasscpiuateandsomehowdi&rent~omtbemtof society.
NP: Unhealthy? P: Of awnc w hat make8 people halthy d hrpm L oommunity.WeareintwdyrocirlMkn;rLmdneedhwxun contacttoswvive.To~artfrom~Lifcpnrma mists tiom forming &onships with rhc public. Yet this h ~~whrt~iePliundocswith~tt)JinaLtingJluitLa unique d d pmdua to be bought and sold.
~youLePnnbdrindthPrcrrhpnclcproar.'IhacItnobolr 06txonrhestre NP: S i , dhar i s no inoomc.
NP:I h b ~ v a y d a u t d c P: In i~ u ebut , you must be awae that street thatre PLO imporap&mmnceonpublicrpooc,whcthaornacpuaie ndlintentioned.IhbdPrinmiDddl8taommad.l~ birr~yimporadthcirvicwddudanpubllcspace hu$h~andPPchicsetlurud~l~~~~~tbrmto &itdk.hhyp&k~ucmturrble~thplblic. 'Ihc).ue&mtrrPtcdby~andbyrdridar,~r&point ~prMicrp.ohimIlomolr~ah~Mdthont). aapck~raommcdestpMirhmbntnharpmurtcnta into money e d q e .
NP:So,pumndtoenrcrintodiPloyewithyaurYdicnac, witbout the hsrien of the pmomium a d or a m m e e d
mnrrh.tPw-e? P:hhlly!Buttohcep~brisf,ttraeirr~~Iwishto &:toprarriddinb&~ndtocmatemm~bautihrLI baLId that most p q l e am deprivedofenough of both of these. Inboth~Iamcealtyuyingto&?I~vc&AloanrrdvQI to ch d emptiness ofmast publicspuc To the o o m m e r r r i a l ~ c e i n a u r s o d e t yTo ignommrdrrodd
~drh~thlrtbPpparbothfarrargandundu outnacrT~thelrakofrknplybeauqinaurLi*arandthe cimamobrarraitTahdichobosl]rbenrrcnPreLtPnd~. ~ t h e ~ o f d ~ c p d c ~ m m u n i ~ w i r i c h i n d between oolanaunitiar.
Lost in pjorning ciricr. .anlong fashiooablc hurzwonlr fluxing and i m p c r n ~ a ~ c r~i go b w k r c rhoughr, buzzing rhn>ugll brains trying to mrkc x n x o i s o m c t h i ~ ~which ~ , vcrhns clnnot bc ma& r x n x of
l h c x u c SlMllJXl H ( I R ~ \ .niutdl dclirii~rn o f c o n ~ c r ~~ rI I I ~ I OtoWO ~U ~ I V C S ; Wart .I( x a h c c a u ~forccs havc hro~rghrour sandy dcmiu. rhc military might and plrarc, probably w~ll
Thcrc arc 21sr G n t u r v. bovz , d l ovcr rhc rnluc. c u h looking for r piccc of rhc xrion. Is this to k o m c a K m l h u world? Gmtcxr hlckcd and contcnr rc, hc w~stcd.HY arc "dcnac. chcap, disposabk" . Mr. I<r>olh~.~s. ) r ~ uIIIUSI tw clcvcr and our rcuhcrs Iikc you roo; bur should wc follow so blindly into thc producrion of your Kuorhusim world? Making prrrry h~x)k>. mrl rhings wc ~xrh.rpsdo not quitc undcrsrand.
. . . . . Cirics: churn thcm our; producc rhcm chcdply m.&c rhcrn colourful; yilc hic.. xll chrap, consume.. .
A story rUaIha to Kodheas Ma Krn lev
Cheap and Choice Award #I
This is game illwaam an op&i bra to the rodPlly corrooiverkLrnit@aondnt~rnuchplMicdeddoa~ today, d it h congmtuhiom. Vdtom to, and citiunt, ofWeUiqpn: h m ha n d k b ' ~ , ~
Big thurks to:
Assistant Editor: Giw Mos Contributors: EsJau Ripeka W A DRa@hi S&iDlkk A & &%city M o d DSa& Ogk, Nod Mek andMark Kiq& #& I
D e s ' i Adv'lce: .%key Mo Unknowing Contributor: Rmr Kwlhaar
Kmllage 1 by W n Kinmid
Photos+ M*r~anMkag,CiadjC&A#*WaoRJ~ G q O k a Moon, Glen Ciwm6rk#eDE@hu Slili. KooUlge2byChrisWind
Photos by: Olivia Momc, Gzndy Cbang, Atvr WD MM, G h Cbodrk&, G m Srouijcsa'ijk, Mad$ SmhL ,%nm Hick.
Photos far Indiginow Urban Realities: Ripk W& Photos b r Urbino:R a j Sabai ~ Photos b r Vvlity and Urbanity: ManC H+ (Auothnd) d Ba+Bcnnett(vii~~nr).
Photos b r Cheap and Choice A d : Giw Mars
# was l brought to you by:
S d b m d about:
34+4J4w % E Q Q ~ . freerange~rama@~mail.com