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WADADA News for Kids audience survey A study to the reach and impact of the WADADA News for Kids network after 11 years of implementation and the importance of having news for kids bulletins in general through a quantitative audience survey March, 2016

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WA DA


‘It enabled me to

express my opinion about matters important to me’

Respondent from Ghana, 2015

Colophon Text Annelies Langelaar Editing DTP and design Babette Hilhorst For further information, please contact: Free Press Unlimited: info@freepressunlimited.org Thanks to WADADA News for Kids network Free Press Unlimited Girl Power Alliance Swiss Peaks InterMedia 2 | WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016


Abstract

After 11 years of setting up news for kids bulletins in 16 countries, Free Press Unlimited aimed to measure to what extent these programmes have had an impact in the partner countries. Through conducting an audience survey in the 12 participating WADADA News for Kids partner countries, the reach and impact is analysed of the WADADA News for Kids network along with the importance of having news for kids bulletins in these countries in general. The acquired data gives new insights about the target group, from which the distribution of the news for kids programmes can be improved and be better tailored to the target group. Based on the results of this study, it can be argued that children in all WADADA News for Kids countries who watch a WADADA News for Kids bulletin become, in some form, more informed and feel engaged with and empowered by the news bulletins. Besides the fact that the programmes reach their target audiences, it appeared that they are also reaching secondary audiences such as parents, siblings and other relatives. Moreover, it was indicated that in some countries, children that have seen a WADADA News for Kids bulletin are more eager to obtain information about hard news topics in comparison to children that had never seen a WADADA News for Kids bulletin. Hence, this study demonstrates that the WADADA News for Kids network has had an impact in making children and youth more informed, engaged and empowered worldwide and indicates that news for kids in general is important.

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Table of Contents

ABSTRACT 3 INTRODUCTION 7 METHODS 8 FACTSHEETS 10 GLOBAL 25 1. General news information 26 2. Getting the news bulletin of the WADADA News for Kids partners 29 3. Ideal way of getting the WADADA News for Kids programmes 33 4. Level of Engagement with WADADA News for Kids programmes 35 5. Level of Empowerment by WADADA News for Kids programmes 36 6. Observations and Discussion 37 BANGLADESH 40 1. General news information 41 2. Getting the programme 43 3. Ideal way of getting the Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh 46 4. Level of Engagement with Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh 48 5. Level of Empowerment by Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh 48 6. Observations and Discussion 49 BOLIVIA 51 1. General news information 52 2. Getting the programme 55 3. Ideal way of getting PICA 58 4. Level of engagement with PICA 60 5. Level of empowerment by PICA 61 6. Observations and Discussion 62 BURMA 64 1. General news information 65 2. Getting the programme 67 3. Ideal way of getting DVB Youth Voice 70 4. Level of Engagement with DVB Youth Voice 72 5. Level of Empowerment by DVB Youth Voice 73 6. Observations and Discussion 74

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GHANA 76 1. General news information 77 2. Getting the programme 79 3. Ideal way of receiving News Generation 80 4. Level of Engagement with News Generation 82 5. Level of Empowerment by News Generation 83 6. Observations and Discussion 84 INDONESIA 85 1. General news information 86 2. Getting the programme 88 3. Ideal way of getting Tempo Youth 92 4. Level of Engagement with Tempo Youth 94 5. Level of Empowerment by Tempo Youth 95 6. Observations and Discussion 95 NEPAL 97 1. General news information 98 2. Getting the programme 100 3. Ideal way of receiving Naya Pusta 104 4. Level of Engagement with Naya Pusta 106 5. Level of Empowerment by Naya Pusta 107 6. Observations and Discussion 108 NICARAGUA 110 1. General news information 111 2. Getting the programme 114 3. Ideal way of getting De Humo TV 116 4. Level of Engagement with De Humo TV 118 5. Level of Empowerment 119 6. Observations and Discussion 120 PERU 122 1. General news information 123 2. Getting the programme 126 3. Ideal way of getting NAPA 128 4. Level of Engagement with NAPA 130 5. Level of Empowerment by NAPA 131 6. Observations and Discussion 132

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SIERRA LEONE 1. General news information 2. Getting the programme 3. Ideal way of getting the Wetin Now 4. Level of Engagement with Wetin Now 5. Level of Empowerment by Wetin Now 6. Observations and Discussion

134 135 137 141 142 143 143

SOUTH AFRICA 1. General news information 2. Getting the programme 3. Ideal way of getting the Bona Retsang 4. Level of Engagement with Bona Retsang 5. Level of Empowerment by Bona Retsang 6. Observations and Discussion

145 146 149 152 154 155 156

SURINAME 158 1. General news information 159 2. Getting the programme 161 3. Ideal way of getting 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal 162 4. Level of Engagement with 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal 165 5. Level of Empowerment by 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal 166 6. Observations and Discussion 167 ZAMBIA 169 1. General news information 170 2. Getting the programme 172 3. Ideal way of getting ZKids News 176 4. Level of Engagement with Zkids News 178 5. Level of Empowerment by Zkids News 178 6. Observations and Discussion 179 Recommendations & lessons learned

181

Attachment 1: Questionnaire WADADA News for Kids audience survey

185

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Introduction

From Nepal to Nicaragua, from South Africa to Suriname – wherever you go, children have one thing in common: they are eager to find out what is going on in the world around them. Yet most countries don’t have youth news bulletins targeted at children or youth. From an early age, children tend to watch what their parents are watching. As a result, they often don’t understand or are frightened by what they see. WADADA News for Kids aims to reach these children – to hear what they have to say and provide them with access to impartial information. Then they can grow up with a broad horizon and a more balanced view of the world. WADADA News for Kids1 is a project of Free Press Unlimited2 and works together with partners around the world on the development of local news for kids bulletins. We offer technical and financial support to local media organizations and help them prepare for their first broadcasts. Tailored training teaches the programme editors how to keep a strong focus on relevant and independent reporting. After the launch period, partners are able to continue broadcasting the bulletin on an independent basis. With 16 partners worldwide, WADADA News for Kids is a truly international project. And we intend to continue expanding our network. After setting up these news for kids bulletins for over more than 11 years in 16 countries, Free Press Unlimited aims to measure “To what extent this programme has had an impact in the partner countries”. To study this matter, a quantitative audience survey with some qualitative components in 12 WADADA News for Kids countries has been conducted. This study will give insights into the targets groups (the reach and the use of programmes) of the partners. In addition, it will show what the preferences and wishes are of the target audience that can be taken into account for future developments and improving their programmes in general. Moreover, it will indicate the level of importance of having a news for kids bulletin in the partner countries and the extent of its impact on the children and youth in these countries. With all this information, partners can consider (1) how to improve their programme, (2) attract new viewers, and (3) will function as reference material in attracting donors. Since it is conducted in the majority of the WADADA News for Kids countries the results can be compared. Besides the relevance of measuring an 11 year programme, creating a track-record and a baseline that can be used in attracting new donors, the results indicate the importance of having news for kids programmes in general. This report starts with an overview of the highlights per country and the global analysis. Thereafter, the methods used to study the objectives of the audience survey is outlined. Next, based on a quantitative content analysis the results of the study are presented. Finally, concluding remarks are outlined and discussed to highlight the impact of the WADADA News for Kids programmes.

1. www.wadadanewsforkids.org 2. www.freepressunlimited.org

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Methods

Questionnaire In cooperation with Intermedia, an international organization specialized in research for global development, and the participating partner countries the variables were identified and operationalized. The participating partners were: ‘Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh’ in Bangladesh, ‘Nicobis’ in Bolivia, ‘Democratic Voice of Burma’ in Burma, ‘Multi TV’ in Ghana, ‘Tempo Media Group’ in Indonesia, ‘Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists’ in Nepal, ‘Promedia’ in Nicaragua, ‘TV Cultura’ in Peru, ‘Concept Multimedia’ in Sierra Leone, ‘Vuselela Media’ in South Africa, ‘The Backlot’ in Suriname, and ‘Muvi TV’ in Zambia. Between mid-October and November 2013, InterMedia conducted 18 in-depth qualitative interviews with partner organisations. These interviews were approximately 30 minutes long and followed a semi-structured discussion guide, developed in collaboration with Free Press Unlimited. Thereafter, a few moments of feedback and focus groups were planned, such as the 2014 WADADA News for Kids summit in Nepal, to discuss with all participating parties the most important variables to analyse. Based on the results of these focus groups and feedback rounds, Intermedia and Free Press Unlimited developed the final questionnaire together. During this process, dependent and independent variables were defined:

Dependent variables - General news information: Questions about general ways and frequency of receiving news were asked. - Information regarding getting a WADADA News for Kids programme: Questions about the frequency of watching/listening the programme, with whom, where and with what medium were asked. - Ideal way of getting a WADADA News for Kids programme: Questions about the ideal way of getting the programme, where, what media, and suggestions for topics to improve the quality were asked. - Level of engagement: 10 statements were given to the respondents on which they could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements on a five-level Likert scale. A high score on all 10 statements indicates a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements included “Programme X is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / Programme X informs me much better about important news topics than adult news”. - Level of empowerment: 5 statements were given to the respondents on which they could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements on a five-level Likert scale. A high score on all 5 statements indicates a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements included “Programme X gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / Programme X makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions”. - Quality of WADADA News for Kids programme: The respondents could rate the quality of the programme on a five-level Likert scale of very bad, bad, no opinion, good, very good. Two open questions were included that requested respondents to give suggestions on how the programme could improve in terms of content and style.

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Independent variables - Country: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burma, Ghana, Indonesia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Suriname and Zambia. - Continents: Africa, Asia and Latin America - WADADA News for Kids programme: Kanastara, PICA, DVB Youth Voice, News Generation, Tempo Youth, Naya Pusta, De Humo TV, NAPA, Wetin Now, Bona Retsang, 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal and ZKids News - Gender3: boy/ girl - Age: <11, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, >16 years - Region: at least 2 or 3 urban regions and 2 rural regions per country

Procedure In cooperation with ‘Swiss Peaks’, a company that is specialized in global market research and data gathering/ management, a ‘Snapp App’ was developed. In this app, that could be used both online and offline, all acquired data was redirected and stored in an SPSS file. As soon as the app connected with the Internet, the offline conducted data was synchronized. Free Press Unlimited provided tablets for the 12 participating WADADA News for Kids partners on which the ‘Snapp App’ was installed. By opening the app, the digital survey, as constructed with Intermedia and the participating partners, appeared. With a budget made available by Free Press Unlimited, each participating partner hired a local researcher that was qualified in doing both qualitative and quantitative research. The local researcher traveled, with the tablet, to the selected urban and rural regions and collected all the data. In order to keep the data and methodology as valid as possible the partners were instructed that the local researcher could be the only person that filled in the survey in the tablet.

Sample In order to have a representative sample of respondents globally, in each country at least 500 children and youth respondents had to be interviewed from different age groups. The researcher was briefed that not only the perceived age group of the news programmes should be interviewed, but also other age groups, as this could indicate whether the targeted age groups are effectively reached or not. In total, a data set of at least 6000 participants in all twelve countries were acquired in the period of March until December 2015. In order to have a representative sample from each country, the local researcher was also briefed to conduct the audience survey in at least the capital (200 respondents), the 2nd biggest city (100 respondents), the 3rd biggest city (100 respondents), and in two rural areas/districts (50 respondents per area/district). The children and youth were reached at both private as well as public (primary, secondary, high) schools, community centers, and sports clubs.

Data-analysis Free Press Unlimited created a list of variables to be analysed and to be correlated. Swiss Peak conducted all the requested analysis in SPSS and provided Free Press Unlimited with the necessary tables and charts for this report. Lastly, Free Press Unlimited further analysed the tables and charts and made the report.

3. In the design of the questionnaire we have chosen to ask respondents about their gender rather than their sex. Therefore we use the word gender throughout the report.

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Global

‘WADADA News for Kids’ is a news bulletin that is produced by various media partners’ and channels in at least 15 countries around the world that are trained by Free Press Unlimited. Is WADADA News for Kids informing their audience? • The WADADA News for Kids programmes are very important for the children´s understanding of what is going on in the world and it informs them about different opinions on important news topics. • The overall quality of the WADADA News for Kids programmes is rated as very good, and the children feel engaged with and empowered by the programmes. • The programmes have high viewership globally.


Results Who watches the programme?

How?

16+: 50% 16-: 61%

Television: 71%

Latin-America: 49% Africa: 88% Asia: 36%

Radio: 6% Social media updates: 5% Live web streaming: 2% Web podcasts/downloads: 2%

Latin-America: 68% Africa: 84% Asia: 45%

Where? Home: 74%

Latin-America: 77% Africa: 84% Asia: 49%

At school: 10% Other home: 6%

With who? Latin America

Africa

Asia

On your own

38%

17%

16%

Parents

22%

24%

23%

Relatives

4%

6%

3%

Siblings

15%

32%

13%

Friends

7%

17%

21%

Classmates

5%

2%

19%

Teachers

1%

*

1%

Colleagues

3%

1%

1%

Others

5%

1%

4%

Overall quality of programme Very good: Good:

51% 42%

Ideal way of getting the programme Television: Social media updates: Radio: Live web streaming:

47% 5% 4% 3%

Suggestions to improve content • religion • crime & accidents • science, technology, & IT • health and health care

(41%) (39%) (35%) (35%)

More conclusions • Globally, the WADADA News for Kids programmes are more appealing, engaging and empowering for girls. • It remains crucial to continue to address boys in the WADADA News for Kids programmes too. • Globally the current audience of the WADADA News for Kids programmes are mainly children between the ages of 11 and 15. They feel the most engaged and empowered by the programmes. • Reaching the audience and making the programmes more known should be a focus of attention for all WADADA News for Kids programmes, especially in Asia.

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Bangladesh

Kanastara produces and broadcasts the kids news bulletin “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh”. Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is a weekly news bulletin that is produced by the Kids News Bangladesh production team. The programme is aired through Channel – I, the most popular satellite television channel in Bangladesh.

Is Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh informing their audience? • The majority of the respondents indicated that they could always understand what the key issues are in any Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh news story and they argue that the programme is very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world. • The different topic preferences between viewers and non-viewers can be used by Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh as indicators on how to further develop the program.

Results Who watches Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh?

How?

Where?

With who?

16+: 0% 16-: 82%

Other media: 39% (girls 40%; boys 25%) Live TV: 29%

School: 47% Home: 33% Social media: 10%

Classmates: 33% Friends: 28% Other public space: 9% Parents: 11% Alone: 11% Siblings:10%

Overall quality Very good: Good:

57% 42%

Ideal way of getting Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh Live TV broadcasts: 78% Social media updates: 10% Topics from questionnaire to be treated more in Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh: • ‘economic news’ (88%) • ‘music, film & entertainment’ (86%) • ‘politics in other countries’ (80%) • ‘politics in your country’ (78%) • ‘religion’ (63%)

Other conclusions • Boys generally watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh more and feel more empowered by and engaged with the programme than girls. • Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh can take the fact that girls do rate the quality as good, however do not feel engaged and empowered, into account in improving their items. • Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is informing, engaging and empowering their audience.


Bolivia

‘PICA’ is a daily news bulletin of approximately 10 minutes that is produced by the News for Kids Bolivia production team. The programme is aired through a private broadcaster, ATB. Besides a television programme, PICA also has a radio programme that is called “Picalandia”. In addition, the PICA team is producing a hard-copy magazine and online game. “Se podría hablar más de Tecnología y el medio ambiente. Ya que estamos sufriendo del cambio climático.” Main recommendation from audience • If PICA wants to keep their focus on teens, they should make the programme and style less ‘childish’, and if PICA wants to make a switch and to focus more on younger children they should simplify their content. Is PICA informing their audience? • Yes! The contribution of PICA as a WADADA News for Kids news bulletin is that it clearly informs its audience, specifically on hard news topics. • Children in Bolivia who watch PICA are more eager to obtain information about hard news topics in comparison with children that do not watch PICA.

Results Who watches PICA?

How?

Where?

With who?

How often?

16+: 60% Boys: 19% 16-: 28% Girls: 26%

Television: 76% Other people: 8% Social media: 6%

Home: 81% Other homes: 4% School: 4%

Alone: boys (57%); girls (44%) With siblings: 29% With relatives: girls (33%); boys (18%)

Once a day: 11% Once a week: 17% Once a month: 11% Once a year: 5%

Overall quality PICA Really good: Good: Suggestions to improve quality • More dynamic themes; • More episodes, more airtime; • Too childish; • Other presenters act less childish Suggestions to improve content • Teen pregnancy • Personal defense/ personal safety • Sexual rights • Violence and crime • Showbizz

39% 41%

More conclusions • Most PICA watchers feel engaged with the program. • The younger target group does not always understand the content in-depth. • The majority of the respondents feels empowered by the program.


Burma

‘DVB Youth Voice’ is a news bulletin of approximately 15 minutes that is produced five times a week by the News for Kids Burma production team. Due to the political situation in Burma, the programme is produced in exile, namely in Chang Mai, Thailand. Is DVB Youth Voice informing their audience? • If DVB Youth Voice is aiming to reach teens that are 16 years and older the programme is informing, engaging and empowering. • If DVB Youth Voice is aiming to reach viewers younger than 16, they do not reach and inform their audience, since it was indicated that they rate the quality low and do not feel engaged and empowered by the programme. • In general children in Burma who watch DVB Youth Voice are more eager to obtain information about hard news topics in comparison to children that do not watch the programme.

Results Who watches DVB Youth Voice?

How?

Where?

With who?

Yangon/Rangoon: 34% Mandaly: 6% Myawaddy: 40% Kachin State: 20% Magway Division: 26%

Live TV: 81% Live web streaming: 10% Social media updates: 4%

Home: 82% School: 6% On the move: 6%

Parents: 47% Siblings: 19% Friends: 16% Alone: 9% Other relatives: 5%

Overall quality Very good: Good:

8% 80%

Ideal way of getting DVB Youth Voice None of these media: Live television broadcasts: Live web-streaming:

69% 20% 6%

Topics to be treated more in DVB Youth Voice: • ‘education’ • ‘health and health care’ • ‘religion’ • ‘crime and accidents’ • ‘science, technology & IT’

Other conclusions • The audience of DVB Youth Voice is mainly teens that are 16 years and older. • The respondents that are 16 years and older felt generally more engaged with and empowered by DVB Youth Voice than the younger respondents. • In all regions DVB Youth Voice is watched mostly with the parents of the respondents.


Ghana

Multi TV produces and broadcasts the programme News Generation. ‘News Generation’ is a news bulletin of approximately 30 minutes, which is produced by the News for Kids Ghana production team. The programme is aired on Sundays, on 2:30 on 4 kids channel, and at 4 pm on Joy News channel. It is repeated at 9:30 am on Viasat 1 Ghana. “It enabled me to express my opinion about matters important to me” Is News Generation informing their audience? • News Generation is informing, engaging and empowering their audience, and many more. • Besides the fact that News Generation reaches their own perceived target group (children from the age 12 to 15), it appeared that the programme also reaches teens of 16 years and older at least once a week.

Results Who watches News Generation?

How?

Where?

With who?

98% of total respondents

Live TV: 96% Social media updates: 2% Live radio: 1%

Home: 98% Other homes: 2%

Siblings: 39% Alone: 25% Parents: 24% Friends: 9% Other relatives: 3%

Overall quality Very good: Good:

66% 29%

Ideal way of getting News Generation Other media than indicated in questionnaire: Live TV broadcasts: Live Radio broadcasts:

55% 19% 2%

Topics to be treated more in News Generation: • ‘science, technology & IT’ (45%) • ‘music, film & entertainment’ (44%) Other topics suggested by children: • Sexual education and rights • Drug abuse • Teenage pregnancy • Child labour/ abuse/ trafficking • Sanitation

Other conclusions • Both boys and girls receive News Generation equally, namely mostly once a week. • News Generation is more appealing, engaging and empowering to girls. • A majority of the respondents feel engaged with and empowered by the programme. • The respondents indicate that News Generation gives young people a platform and voice that can be heard and that it takes them seriously as young citizens.


Indonesia

Tempo Media Group produces and broadcasts the programme Tempo Youth. ‘Tempo Youth’ is a digital news bulletin that is produced by the News for Kids Indonesia production team. The programme is aired through AORA TV, Usee and 22 local television stations in Indonesia. Is Tempo Youth informing their audience? • The non-watchers generally have more interest in a larger number of topics and seem more eager to obtain information about a various range of topics in comparison to watchers of Tempo Youth. These non-viewers are an attractive potential target group to focus on in the future. • Tempo Youth is informing, engaging and empowering their audience. • The majority of the respondents indicated that they could always understand what the key issues are in any Tempo Youth news story and they argue that the programme is very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world.

Results Who watches Tempo Youth?

How?

Where?

With who?

22% of total respondents 16+: 27% 16-: 18%

Social Media updates: 50% Live webstreaming: 24% Webpodcasts/downloads: 19% Live television: 5%

Mobile/on the move: 31% (16+: 42%; 16-:11%) Home: 22% (16+: 8%; 16-: 46%) Anotherpublicspace 21% (boys 40%; girls 11%) Another private space: 10% Work: 8% School: 6%

Alone: 64% (boys 76%; girls 58%) W/friends: 15% W/others: 8% W/siblings: 11%

Overall quality Very good: Good:

27% 65%

Ideal way of getting Tempo Youth None of these: Live TV broadcasts: Social media updates: Web podcasts/downloads:

78% 14% 4% 3%

Topics to be treated more in Tempo Youth: • non-viewers: - education (73%) - arts & culture (63%) - religion (54%) - sports (35%) - crime & accidents (21%) - human rights (15%)

• Viewers: - science - environment and natural disasters - health

(46%) (41%) (40%)

Other conclusions • Kids that are 16 years and older watch Tempo Youth mainly on their own, with their friends or with colleagues, whereas kids under 16 years watch more with their parents, siblings and classmates. • In Depok and Bandung Tempo Youth is watched the most. In Jakarta it is watched the least.


Nepal

Naya Pusta is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 15 minutes that is produced by the News for Kids Nepal production team. The programme is aired through NTV Plus and is regularly broadcast by 11 regional television stations across Nepal. Is Naya Pusta informing their audience? • Yes! The respondents that watch Naya Pusta are more eager to obtain information about a various amount of topics in comparison to non-watchers. • Mainly children younger than 16 that watched the programme, rated the quality as high and felt engaged by Naya Pusta. For them Naya Pusta is informative. Main recommendations • Empowerment of girls is important to focus on in Nepal, since girls are still seen as a minority and have fewer rights. • 23% of the children had never seen Naya Pusta or were not sure (54%) whether they had seen it. • Techniques regarding branding and marketing strategies could improve the awareness of the programme among the target-group.

Results Who watches Naya Pusta?

How?

Where?

With who?

How often?

22% of total respondents

Television: 85% Radio: 10% (33% other regions)

Home: 90% Other homes: 4% School: 2%

With Parents: girls (58%); boys (40%) W/siblings: 24% Alone: 17%

1/day: 3% 1/week: 3% 1/month: 10% not sure: 54%

Overall quality Very good: Good:

12% 72%

Ideal way of getting Naya Pusta Other media than indicated in questionnaire: Live TV broadcasts: Live Radio broadcasts:

55% 19% 2%

Topics to be treated more in Naya Pusta: • ‘war & conflict´ • ‘arts & culture’ • ‘economic news’

(47%) (45%) (38%)

Other conclusions • The younger age group felt that Naya Pusta is very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world and that the programme Naya Pusta really informs them about different opinions on important news topics. • Girls feel less empowered and engaged by the Naya Pusta programme than boys. • Dhankuta seems to be the most deprived from media in general, however, these respondents indicated they would like to receive Naya Pusta. Together with Dhankuta there may be many other rural areas that would like to receive Naya Pusta in some form.


Nicaragua

De Humo TV’ is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 30 minutes that is produced by the News for Kids Nicaragua production team. The programme is aired through Canal 12. “Está protagonizado por jóvenes y el lenguaje utilizado es entendido por jóvenes” Is De Humo TV informing their audience? • De Humo TV has a challenge for the future in promoting their programme more. Only 36% of the total amount of interviewed respondents indicated that they had ever seen the programme. • Children in Nicaragua who watch De Humo TV and are 16 years or older seem more eager to obtain information about hard news topics, and feel that this is not sufficiently covered in the De Humo TV programme. • Children in Nicaragua who watch De Humo TV and are younger than 16 consider themselves as informed sufficiently about hard news topics, and are actually eager to obtain more information on soft news topics.

Results How do people watch De Humo TV?

Where ?

With who?

How often?

Television: boys: 45%; girls: 55%

Home: 87% Social Media updates: 10%

Alone: 64% With siblings: 8%

Once a day: 21% Once a week: 10% Not sure if ever: 34% Never: 30%

Overall quality De Humo TV Very good: Good:

29% 51%

Ideal way of getting De Humo TV Other media than mentioned: Television: Social media updates:

35% 26% 6%

Suggestions from children to improve quality • More interesting themes for adolescents; • More information about universities and possible careers for adolescents; • Cover more ‘important’ topics; prevention of pregnancy, climate change or technologies; • Presenters should act more professional. Topics to be treated more in De Humo TV: • More: Arts and culture • More: Economic news • More: Crime and accidents • More: Politics in other countries

Other suggestions from children to be treated more in De Humo TV: • International news • Economics • Drugs • Sports • Wars More Conclusions • De Humo TV is more empowering and engaging for a younger target audience (younger than 16 years). • Girls prefer live TV broadcasts as an ideal medium, whilst boys prefer social networks. • De Humo TV is a programme that appeals to and empowers more girls. • De Humo TV has a challenge for the future in promoting their programme more.


Peru

No Apto Para Adultos (NAPA) is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 30 minutes that is produced by the News for Kids Peru production team. The programme is aired through Red TV, which airs on various local channels. “Lo que más me gusta es el poder dar mi opinión sobre temas relevantes de la actualidad” Is NAPA informing their audience? • The majority of the NAPA watchers feel empowered and engaged by the programme. • NAPA watchers thought that ‘sports’ and ‘entertainment’ are the most important and is currently not covered enough.

Results Who watches NAPA?

How?

Where?

With who?

How often?

16+: 44% 16-: 54%

Television: 28% Via other people: 13%

Home: 42% School: 40%

Alone: boys: 38%; girls: 26% With friends: 31%

Once a week: 7% Once a month: 8% Once a year: 31%

Overall quality NAPA Very good: Good:

29% 64%

Ideal way of getting NAPA Other media than mentioned: Television:

42% 31%

Suggestions from children to improve quality • More informative content • More focused on youth and more about Peru • More entertaining, attractive appearance (via music, ‘fun elements’) • Improve reports Topics to be treated more in NAPA: • music film and entertainment • science, technology and IT • environment & natural disasters

(33%) (32%) (31%)

Other suggestions from children to be treated more in NAPA: • Sexuality and rights • (Teen) pregnancy and prevention • Drugs & alcoholism • Sports • Violence More conclusions • NAPA is more attractive for children younger than 16 years old. • Children younger than 16 felt relatively empowered and engaged by the NAPA programme. • NAPA is a program that appeals, engages and empowers more girls than boys.


Sierra Leone

Concept Multi Media produces and broadcasts the programme Wetin Now. ‘Wetin Now’ is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 30 minutes that is produced by the News for Kids Sierra Leone production team. The programme is aired through SLBC, later STAR TV, and AYV. “The news stories are always good on ‘wetin now’ show” Is Wetin Now informing their audience? • Yes, and besides their target audience they also reach other target audiences such as parents, siblings and other relatives. • The programme has high viewership. • The non-Wetin Now viewers are an attractive potential target group to focus on in the future. It would be interesting to further study the ways to reach this group.

Results Who watches Wetin Now?

How?

Where?

With who?

74% of total respondents

Television: 70% Radio: 30%

Home: 76% Other home: 18% Mobile: 6% School: 1%

Friends: 28% Parents: 25% Siblings: 24% Alone: 12% Relatives: 10%

Overall quality Wetin Now Very good: Good:

70% 29%

Ideal way of getting Wetin Now Live television broadcasts: Live radio broadcasts:

53% 24%

Suggestions from children to improve quality • Increase programme time; • Let the news be entirely in English; • Cover other subjects more, like religious stories. Topics to be treated more in Wetin Now: • ‘war and conflict’ • ‘religion’

(16%) (13%)

Other Conclusions • The respondents that are 16 years and older feel more empowered by Wetin Now as a programme. • The programme is more engaging for viewers that are younger than 16 years. • It can be stated that Wetin Now is mostly appealing and empowering to boys, but more engaging for girls. • It appeared that in Freetown and Kenema, Wetin Now is being received the most. In the Western Rural Area and Bo respondents receive the programme the least. • Education scored very high as a topic the Wetin Now viewers would like to see more of in the content of the programme.


South Africa

Vuselela Media produces and broadcasts the programme Bona Retsang. ‘Bona Retsang’ is a twice-weekly 30-minute youth news and opinion show. Bona Retsang aims to reach 14- to 18-year-olds and is broadcast on five community TV stations. The best work produced by the Bona Retsang community journalists is showcased daily on the Geleza Nathi ‘edutainment’ show broadcast on SABC1. ¨It shows us more about what other young people are facing¨ Is Bona Retsang informing their audience? • Yes! They do not only reach their target audience, but they also reach secondary target audiences such as parents, siblings and other relatives. • Children that watch Bona Retsang get informed and therefore become more eager to obtain information in general. • Bona Retsang viewers generally feel engaged by the programme. • The programme has high viewership.

Results How often?

How?

Where?

With who?

Once a day: 41% Once a week: 38% Once a month: 10% Once a year: 2% Never: 6%

Television: 82% Social media updates: 6% Live radio broadcasts: 5% Live webstreaming: 3% Web podcasts/downloads: 2%

Home: 75% Other home: 11% School: 3% Work: 2%

Parents: 22% Siblings: 21% Alone: 20% Friends: 20% Other relatives: 5% Classmates: 5% Colleagues: 4%

Overall quality Bona Retsang Very good: Good:

47% 37%

Ideal way of getting Bona Retsang Live television broadcasts: Live radio updates: Social media updates:

68% 10% 7%

Suggestions from children to improve quality • Live interviews with young people • More community based news • Introduce local languages • Allocate more time. Topics to be treated more in Bona Retsang • religion (42%) • science, technology IT (42%) • crime & accidents (40%)

Other suggestions from children: • Teenage pregnancy • Drugs and alcohol abuse • Peer pressure • HIV and aids • Gangsterism Other conclusions and recommendations • The majority of the respondents that watch Bona Retsang are younger than 16 years. • Bona Retsang is watched the least in Cape Town and the most in Johannesburg and Orange Farm.


Suriname

‘10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal’ is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 10 minutes that is produced by the News for Kids Suriname production team. The programme is aired through STVS and ABC. What do you like best about 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal? ¨Dat ze kinderen aan het woord laten over volwassen onderwerpen¨ Is 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal informing their audience? • Yes! The programme is not only informing their ‘first target audience’ but it is also informing a ‘secondary target audience’, since most respondents watch with their parents, siblings and other relatives. • Children in Suriname who watch 10 Minuten Jeudgjournaal are more eager to obtain information about hard news topics in comparison to children that do not watch the programme. • 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal is also engaging and empowering their audience.

Results Who watches?

How?

Where?

With who?

How often?

Boys: 66% Girls: 70%

Television: 89% Webstreaming: 4%

Home: 97% Other home: 2%

With parents: 56% Alone: boys (21%); girls (15%)

Once a day: 44% Once a week: 23% With siblings: 18% Not sure: 34%

Overall quality 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal Very good: 65% Good: 27% Ideal way of getting 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal Television: 86% Webstreaming: 12%

Other suggestions from children to be treated more in 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal: • Child abuse • Child labour • International affairs • Animals

Suggestions from children to improve quality • More information and video’s about children in other countries; • Transmission on more channels; • Better presenters; • Longer air time: 20 minutes instead of 10 minutes.

More conclusions • Girls feel more engaged by the programme • Boys feel more empowered by the 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal. • According to the children print media is also a good option to receive the news.

Topics to be treated more in 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal: • Boys: Sports (60%), arts and culture (38%), and education (37%) • Girls: Sports (55%), education ( 53%), health (51%)


Zambia

Muvi TV produces and broadcasts the programme Zkids News. ‘Zkids News’ is a news bulletin that is produced by the News for Kids Zambia production team. The programme is aired through Muvi TV’s channel. The aim of the programme is to give Zambian kids from the age of 10 upwards an opportunity to express themselves and to show off their talents. Is Zkids News informing their audience? • Yes! They do not only reach their target audience, but they also reach other target audiences such as parents, siblings and other relatives. • Children that watch Zkids News get informed, and therefore become more eager to obtain information in general. • The programme has high viewership. Main recommendation • Zkids News should promote their programme more.

Results Who watches Zkids News?

How?

Where?

With who?

Once a day: 25% Once a week: 44% Once a month: 10%

Live television: 91% Live radio: 4%

Home: girls: 66%; boys: 81% Other home: 12% School: 1%

Siblings: 44% Parents: 23% Alone: 11% Friends: 11% Relatives: 6% Classmates: 2%

Overall quality Zkids News Very good: Good:

65% 34%

Ideal way of getting Zkids News Live television broadcasts: Social media updates: Live radio broadcasts: Sms updates:

74% 5% 4% 4%

Suggestions to improve quality • Allocate more time to political issues; • Improve signal quality; • More community news; • Introduce local languages; • Allocate more time.

Topics to be treated more in Zkids News: • economic news (59%) • science, technology, and IT (56%) • war & conflict (54%) • crime & accidents (48%) More conclusions • The majority of respondents that watch Zkids News is 16 years and older. • In the region Kabwe the respondents mostly never receive Zkids News, and in Mumbwa the respondents receive Zkids News the most. • In Kabwe the respondents indicated that for them the ideal way of receiving Zkids news was via social media or via sms updates.


Recommendations & Lessons Learned

In order to conduct a better and more reliable audience survey in the future many lessons can be learned. In the overview below these lessons and the main recommendations can be found.â&#x20AC;¨ Data collection

Questionnaire

Project process

Informing local authorities about audience survey project in time

Define the objective of the questionnaire as clear as possible, ideally together with a person that know statistics and research methods

Hire external researcher or make one person responsible that oversees entire process of data conducting in all participating countries

Encounter length of the survey versus available time of the respondents

Take into account terminology and language in respect to the target group

Assess needed time and available manpower

Ascertain minimum sample size and minimum number of respondents that have seen the programme

Take into account the fact that the researchers presence can influence the respondents answers/ make use of online survey systems

Assess possibilities in terms of available budget

Pay attention to potential issues in fragile contexts

Avoid open questions or make sure you have a coding system available for open questions

Assess benefits of hiring an external party in the process of the data-analysis. Either outsource this completely or do it yourself. Not a combination of both

Independence of researchers to avoid biased answers

Assign one person that is responsible for the entire process from creating the questionnaire until writing the report

24 | WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Global

This section covers all the data gathered in this audience survey from the various partner organisations that produce and broadcast the WADADA News for Kids programme. ‘WADADA News for Kids’ is a news bulletin that is produced by various media partners and channels in 16 countries around the world that are trained by Free Press Unlimited. This audience survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards WADADA News for Kids programmes. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programmes in general. Besides this, the data can serve as background information for applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas in 12 of the 16 WADADA News for Kids countries. The survey was conducted from March until December, 2015. The target-group of the survey was children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news / the WADADA News for Kids programmes, 3) coverage of important topics by the WADADA News for Kids programmes, 4) level of engagement with the WADADA News for Kids programmes, 5) empowerment as a news consumer globally, and 6) overall quality of the programmes. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender4, age, and continent. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Data Respondents Sample

6468 respondents

Gender

Girls Boys

Countries

 angladesh, Bolivia, Burma, Ghana, Indonesia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru, Sierra B Leone, South Africa, Suriname and Zambia

Age ranges

11 - 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

66% 34%

(N= 4268) (N= 2199)

Africa Asia South-America

32.4% 33.6% 33.8%

(N = 2101) (N = 2176) (N = 2191)

Continents

51% 49%

(N = 3298) (N = 3170)

4. In the design of the questionnaire we have chosen to ask respondents about their gender rather than their sex. Therefore we use the word gender throughout the report.

WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016 |

25


1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents in the WADADA News for Kids partner countries the main way of receiving the news is via television (67%). The Internet (8%), social media updates (8%), radio (6%), and newspapers/magazines (5%) are also used. Furthermore, friends and family (4%) and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;other media than mentioned in the questionnaireâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (1%) are used to receive the news but less often. Gender From the table below, it appears that both genders receive the news using the same media rather equally. Television remains the main medium for both genders to receive the news. Girls (68%) tend to receive the news slightly more via television than boys (65%). However, boys tend to receive the news relatively more via Internet (10%) and social networks (9%) in comparison to girls (Internet = 7%; Social Networks 8%). Nonetheless, girls receive the news more via radio (5%) compared to boys (3%). Main way of getting the news globally versus gender

Age From the table below it appears that the respondents that are younger than 16 years receive the news relatively more via television (71%) than the respondents that are 16 years or older (58%). The older respondents (12%) receive the news more via Internet (13%), social networks (13%) and radio (7%) than the respondents that are younger than 16 years. Main way of getting the news globally versus age

26 | WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016


Continents From the data it appears that there are slight differences between the continents regarding the medium to receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes. All the continents indicate that television is the most used medium (live television: Latin America = 68%; Africa = 71%; Asia = 62%). However, in Africa, live radio broadcasts appear to be relatively popular as well (14%), in Latin America social networks (12%) and in Asia a combination of social media networks (10%) and radio (10%).

What is the frequency of getting the news? The majority of the respondents indicate that they watch the news at least once a day (66%), at least once a week (22%), at least once a month (3%), or at least once a year (1%). 1% of the respondents indicates that they never receive the news. Gender Boys (68% at least once a day) tend to receive the news more frequently than girls (64% at least once a day). Girls receive the news more at least once a week (24%) than boys (21%). Age The respondents that are 16 years and older receive the news more frequently (77% at least once a day) than the respondents that are younger than 16 years (60% at least once a day). Frequency of getting the news globally versus age

Continents From the data it appears that in all continents the news is mostly received once a day (Latin America = 69%; Africa = 65%; Asia = 64%).

What topics are most important to the audience? Of all respondents the topics that mentioned most as considered important are: 1. Education (70%) 2. Sports (57%) 3. Entertainment (54%)

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27


Gender Regarding topics considered most important by the audience there is a clear difference between boys and girls. Both genders indicate that the topic ‘education’ is most important to them. However, as shown in the table below, girls think that topics such as ‘health’ and ‘entertainment’ are important more than boys, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’ and ‘science’ are important. Most important topics to the audience globally versus boys/ girls

Age There are also differences between the two age groups. Both age groups indicate that the topic ‘education’ is most important to them. However, when comparing the two age groups, as shown in the table below, the respondents that are younger than 16 years think that topics such as ‘sports’ and ‘health’ are more important, whereas the older respondents think topics such as ‘entertainment’ and ‘arts & culture’ are more important. Most important topics to the audience globally versus age

Continents Regarding continents, there are differences visible between the topics that are most important to the respondents: Latin America: Entertainment (62%) & Arts and Culture (60%) Africa: Education (69%) & Sport (50%) Asia: Education (84%) & Sport (63%)

28 | WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016


2. Getting the news bulletin of the WADADA News for Kids partners How often do you get the news from WADADA News for Kids programmes? The respondents indicate that they receive a WADADA News for Kids bulletin at least once a day (13%), or at least once a week (27%), at least once a month (7%) or at least once a year (10%). However, the majority (30%) of the respondents indicate they have never seen a news bulletin from the WADADA News for Kids network. Gender Between genders there appears to be no difference between boys and girls in the frequency of receiving a WADADA News for Kids bulletin. Age As shown in the table below, the majority of the respondents that watch WADADA News for Kids programmes are younger than 16 years. The respondents that are 16 years and older evidently receive the news bulletins less (never = 36%), than the younger respondents (never = 27%). Frequency of receiving WADADA News for Kids programmes globally versus age

Continents From the data it appears that the WADADA News for Kids programmes are mainly received in Africa where 17% of the respondents watch a news bulletin at least once a day or at least once a week (63%). In Latin America, respondents mainly watch at least once a day (20%) and at least once week (14%). In Asia the WADADA News for Kids programmes are the least received (never received = 48%). The respondents that watch the programmes received it at least once a day (3%) or at least once a week (6%). Latin America

Africa

Asia

At least once a day

20%

17%

3%

At least once a week

14%

62%

6%

At least once a month

6%

7%

7%

At least once a year

9%

1%

21%

Other

20%

2%

15%

Never

31%

11%

48%

WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016 |

29


In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the WADADA News for Kids programmes, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ‘not sure’ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 6468 to 3713.

What medium is used most to watch WADADA News for Kids programmes? The medium that is used most to receive WADADA News for Kids programmes is television (71%), followed by live radio broadcasts (6%) and social media updates (5%). Live web streaming (2%) and web podcasts/downloads (2%) are also mentioned as media that are used to obtain the programmes but less often. Gender Between genders there are almost no differences in media use visible, although boys tend to use radio (7%) and web podcasts (3%) slightly more than girls (radio 6%; web podcasts 2%). Girls (3%) indicate to use live web streaming slightly more than boys (2%). Again, these differences are minor, therefore not convincing. Age As shown in the table below, from the respondents that follow the WADADA News for Kids programmes via radio, live web streaming, web podcasts and social media updates, the majority appears to be 16 years and older. The respondents younger than 16 years tend to use more television, and ‘other media than mentioned in the questionnaire’. Most used medium to receive WADADA News for Kids programmes globally versus age

Continents From the data it appears that there are no evident differences between the continents regarding the most used medium to receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes. All the continents indicate that television is the most used medium. (Live television: Latin America = 68%; Africa = 84%; Asia = 45%). In Asia many respondents indicated that they receive the news via ‘other media than indicated in the questionnaire’. Unfortunately it was not asked which media the respondents mean by this, since there was not an option in which the respondents could indicate what this preference would be included in the questionnaire. In Africa, live radio broadcasts also appear to be relatively popular to receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes (11%), and in Asia, social media networks (11%) and radio (10%) are popular.

30 | WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016


Where is the main place you watch/listen the WADADA News for Kids programme? Most of the respondents that watch WADADA News for Kids programmes receive it ‘at home’ (74%), ‘at school’ (10%) or at ‘another home’ (6%). ‘At work’ (1%) and ‘mobile / on the move’ (3%) are also mentioned as places where the programmes are received. Gender Girls tend to receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes slightly more ‘at home’ (75%), ‘at school’ (11%) or ‘at work’ (1%) than boys (‘at home’ =73%; ‘at school’ = 10%; ‘at work’ = 0%). Boys receive WADADA News for Kids programmes more at ‘other homes’ (8%) than girls (5%). Both genders equally indicate that they receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes via ‘mobile/on the move’ (3%). Age From the table below it appears that the respondents that are 16 years and older (75%) receive the programme slightly more ‘at home’ than respondents that are younger than 16 years (74%). The younger respondents receive the programme more ‘at school’ (12%) than the older respondents (5%). Main place to receive WADADA News for Kids programmes globally versus age

Continents It appears that there are slight differences between the continents regarding the main place where the WADADA News for Kids programmes are received. Though in all the continents ‘at home’ is selected the most (Latin America = 77%; Africa = 84%; Asia = 49%), in Africa ‘other homes’ (10%) are also popular places to watch the WADADA News for Kids programmes and Latin America (12%) it is also watched ‘at school’ frequently. In Asia ‘at school’ is evidently more popular than in the other regions since 29% indicate to watch the programmes there. In addition, ‘another public place’ (7%) and ‘mobile / on the move’ (4%) are in Asia more mentioned than in the other regions.

Who are the main people you watch with/listen to WADADA News for Kids programmes? Most of the respondents indicate that they watch WADADA News for Kids programmes with their siblings (23%), with their parents (23%), or on their own (23%). Other respondents also indicated that they watch with their friends (15%), with classmates (6%), with other relatives (5%), with colleagues (2%), and with teachers (1%). Gender As shown in the table below, there is a slight difference between girls and boys. Boys (16%) tend to watch WADADA News for Kids programmes more with their friends in comparison to girls (13%). Girls seem to watch the programme more with their parents and classmates.

WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016 |

31


Main people to receive WADADA News for Kids programmes with versus gender

Age From the table below it appears that the respondents that receive WADADA News for Kids programmes watch the programmes on their own and with their friends, the majority is 16 years and older. The respondents that are younger than 16 years receive the programme more with their parents, classmates and siblings than the respondents that are 16 years and older. Main people to receive WADADA News for Kids programmes with versus age

Latin America

Africa

Asia

On your own

38%

17%

16%

Parents

22%

24%

23%

Relatives

4%

6%

3%

Siblings

15%

32%

13%

Friends

7%

17%

21%

Classmates

5%

2%

19%

Teachers

1%

*

1%

Colleagues

3%

1%

1%

Others

5%

1%

3%

32 | WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016


Continents From the data appears that there are differences between the continents regarding the main people respondents watch the WADADA News for Kids programmes with. In all the continents the programmes are equally watched together with parents (Latin America = 22%; Africa = 24%; Asia = 23%), however, in Latin America respondents indicate they watch most on their own (38%), and in Africa with siblings (32%). In Asia the respondents indicate they also watch the WADADA News for Kids programmes often together with friends (21%) however, the majority still watches with their parents.

3. Ideal way of getting the WADADA News for Kids programmes What is the ideal way of getting WADADA News for Kids programmes? Most of the respondents (47%) think the ideal way of getting a WADADA News for Kids programme is through live TV broadcasts. Others also selected social media updates (5%), live radio updates (4%) and live web streaming (3%) as ideal ways. In addition, sms updates (1%) and web podcasts (1%) are also mentioned but it is a very small amount. Moreover, a large group of respondents indicates that the current medium used to receive WADADA News for Kids programmes is good as it is (30%). Gender The differences between gender are small yet visible. Girls (49%) prefer to receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes ideally via television more than boys (45%). Boys appear to be the ones that have a higher interest in receiving the programmes via live radio broadcasts (5%), live web streaming (3%) and web podcasts (2%; girls: radio broadcasts = 4%, live web streaming = 2% and web podcasts = 1%). Nonetheless, these differences are very small, therefore not convincing. Age From the table below it appears that from the respondents that prefer to receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes via television, the majority (52%) is younger than 16 years (16 years and older = 36%). The respondents that are 16 years and older appear to be the ones that would prefer to receive the programmes more via social media updates (6%) and radio updates (5%). Ideal medium to receive WADADA News for Kids programmes with versus age

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Continent From the data it appears that there are no convincing differences between the continents regarding ideal media to receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes. All the continents indicate that live television broadcasts is the ideal medium or that it is as good as it currently is (Live television: Latin America = 44%; Africa = 67%; Asia = 31%; ‘good as it is’: Latin America = 31%; Africa = 11%; Asia = 48%;). However, a notable difference is that in Africa, live radio broadcasts appear to be relatively popular (11%) in comparison to the other continents.

What could be improved in terms of content of WADADA News for Kids programmes? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘religion’ (41%), ‘crime & accidents’ (39%), ‘science, technology, & IT’ (35%), and ‘health and health care’ (35%) could be treated more in the content of the WADADA News for Kids programmes. On the other hand, the topics ‘war & conflict’ (10%) and ‘music, film & entertainment’ (10%) were selected as treated too much in the content of WADADA News for Kids programmes. Differences between gender From the data it appears that girls are the main respondents that would like see more about ‘human rights’ and ‘politics in your own country’. On the other hand, boys were the respondents that wanted to see more items covering ‘science, technology & IT’, ‘education’, and ‘arts & culture’. Differences between age When filtering the data on age, there are slight differences between the age groups regarding preferred topics. The respondents that are 16 years and older think the WADADA News for Kids programmes should cover the topics ‘economic news’ and ‘education’ more. On the contrary, respondents that are younger than 16 years would like to see more topics on ‘religion’, ‘science, technology & IT’ and ‘politics in other countries’ covered in the WADADA News for Kids programmes content. Differences between seen and not seen When separating the data between the respondents that have seen WADADA News for Kids programmes and the respondents that have not, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme selected the categories ‘entertainment’, ‘arts & culture’, ‘environment and natural disasters’ and ‘religion’ more. However, the respondents that have seen WADADA News for Kids programmes mainly think that topics such as ‘education’, ‘sports’, ‘health’ and ‘human rights’ are the important topics. The topics ‘war & conflict’, ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘economy’ are globally seen as the least important topics. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen WADADA News for Kids programmes

34 | WADADA News for Kids audience survey 2016


What is the overall quality of the WADADA News for Kids programmes? The overall quality of all WADADA News for Kids programmes was rated as very good (51%) or good (42%). Only 1% of all respondents rated the quality as bad or very bad, whereas 4% did not have an opinion. Gender Girls rate the quality of the programmes relatively higher than boys, however, this is only the result of girls selecting the ‘very good’ category more often than boys, while boys selected the ‘good’ category more. Whether this really reflects their perceptions or that girls just generally select more extremes is unknown as this was not measured in the study. Age The respondents that are 16 years or older rate the quality of the WADADA News for Kids programmes lower than the younger respondents. From the data it appeared that the respondents that are 16 years and older rated the quality more often as bad, though this was only 1%. The most visible difference between the two different age groups is that the older respondents tend to choose the ‘good’ category more often, whereas respondents younger than 16 years prefer to choose the ‘very good’ category. Continents Regarding the quality of the WADADA News for Kids programmes, there are no evident differences between the three continents. In Africa, Latin America and Asia, respondents rate the quality mostly as ‘good’ or ‘very good’. Nonetheless, what is notable from the data is that none of the respondents in Asia thought the quality of the programmes were ‘bad’ or ‘very bad’, whereas in Latin America and Africa, some respondents did indicate that they thought the quality was ‘bad’, or ‘very bad’. Although these percentages are only 1% of the respondents for both continents, it is at least an indication that the programmes can be improved, which will be elaborated on in the Discussion.

4. Level of Engagement with WADADA News for Kids programmes In order to determine the level of engagement with the WADADA News for Kids programmes, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicated a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “The WADADA News for Kids programmes are very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / The WADADA News for Kids programmes inform me much better about important news topics than adult news / The WADADA News for Kids programme helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching a WADADA News for Kids programme / The WADADA News for Kids programme regularly address the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult attachments. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “The WADADA News for Kids programmes are very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” (69% agrees, 16% strongly agrees) and on the statement “The WADADA News for Kids programmes inform me about different opinions on important news topics” (67% agrees, 14% strongly agrees). The statement, “The WADADA News for Kids programme helps me feel for children in other parts of the world” (59% agrees, 22% strongly agrees) was also positively responded to. However, the respondents globally disagreed most with two statements, namely the statements: “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching WADADA News for Kids programmes” (11% disagrees, 3% strongly disagrees) and on the statement “I can very easily relate to the presenter of the WADADA News for Kids programme” (12% disagrees, 3% strongly disagrees).

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35


Gender When filtering this data on gender, it appears that, globally, boys disagree more with the 10 statements than girls. Boys indicate relatively more often that they strongly disagree, disagree or have no opinion, whereas girls appear to agree or strongly agree more. Thus, it appears that the WADADA News for Kids programme are globally more engaging to girls. Age In terms of age groups, most of the respondents agrees or strongly agrees with the engagement statements. Nevertheless, it appears that the respondents that are 16 years or older disagree slightly more often with the 10 engagement statements than the respondents that are younger than 16 years. The statement that the younger respondents disagreed with most is: “The WADADA News for Kids programmes are very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world”. Hence, it appears that the WADADA News for Kids programme are globally more engaging for children that are younger than 16 years. Level of engagement with the WADADA News for Kids programmes with versus age

5. Level of Empowerment by WADADA News for Kids programmes In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all of 5 statements indicated a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “WADADA News for Kids programmes give local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / WADADA News for Kids programmes make me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / WADADA News for Kids programmes take me seriously as a young citizen / WADADA News for Kids programmes have encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / WADADA News for Kids programmes have helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agree or strongly agree with the 5 empowerment questions. On the statement “WADADA News for Kids programmes give local young people a platform and voice that can be heard”, respondents globally replied the most positively (66% agrees, 16% strongly agrees). In addition, positive answers were given for the statement “WADADA News for Kids programmes take me seriously as a young citizen” (61% agrees, 21% strongly agrees). On the statement: “WADADA News for Kids programmes have encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics” the respondents globally disagreed the most (19% disagrees, 4% strongly disagrees).

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Gender Boys tend to disagree more or have no opinion with the empowerment statements, whereas girls agree slightly more often. Though the differences are small, it is visible and cannot be disregarded. Therefore, girls are globally more empowered by the WADADA News for Kids programmes than boys. Age Between the different age groups it appears that the respondents that are 16 years and older are more negative than the younger age group. Respondents that are 16 years and older tend to disagree more with the empowerment statements. The table below depicts a statement on which respondents that are 16 years and older disagree more than the younger respondents. Based on these results it can be stated that, globally, children that are younger than 16 years generally feel more empowered by the WADADA News for Kids programmes. Level of empowerment by the WADADA News for Kids programmes with versus age

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions difference between gender From the data it appeared that globally, boys tend to receive the news more frequently than girls. Regarding the frequency of receiving WADADA News for Kids programmes, no difference between the genders was evident. Girls receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes slightly more ‘at home’ or ‘at school’ together with their parents and classmates. On the other hand, boys receive WADADA News for Kids programmes also mainly ‘at home’ but also in ‘other homes’ together with their friends. Regarding which media is used most to receive the programmes, there were no convincing differences as both genders use television the most. Girls rated the quality of the WADADA News for Kids programmes higher than boys, however, this difference was small. Girls also appeared to be more engaged with and empowered by the programmes. It must be noted that girls tended to select the extremes ‘very good’ or ‘strongly agree’ more often than boys, whereas boys selected ‘good’ or ‘disagree’ more. What the exact differences between ‘very good’ and ‘good’ or ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’ are was not measured in the scope of this study. A follow-up qualitative study would be recommended to truly understand the different perceptions. Nevertheless, the results show that girls globally have a more positive view towards the WADADA News for Kids programmes than boys. Globally, the WADADA News for Kids programmes are more appealing, engaging and empowering for girls. This result is quite distinct, especially for countries in Asia for example, where girls remain

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marginalized. However, it must be stated that the results also show that it remains crucial to continue to address boys in the WADADA News for Kids programmes too, and keep the programmes appealing to them. Conclusions different age groups The respondents that are younger than 16 years tend to use television most to receive a WADADA News for Kids programme, and watch the programmes mainly at home or at school together with their parents, classmates or siblings. The respondents that are 16 years and older also use television the most to receive the WADADA News for Kids programmes, however, radio, live web streaming, web podcasts and social media networks are also mediums used. Older respondents mainly watch these programmes at home on their own and together with their friends. From the data it appeared that the majority of the respondents that watch WADADA News for Kids programmes are younger than 16 years. The respondents that are 16 years and older evidently received the news bulletins less than the younger respondents. Though the difference between the two age groups regarding the rated quality of the WADADA News for Kids programmes was small, it was visible that the respondents that are younger than 16 years rated the quality of the programmes slightly higher than the respondents that are 16 years and older. Moreover, it appeared that the respondents that are younger than 16 years generally feel more engaged with and empowered by the WADADA News for Kids programmes. Based on these findings in can be concluded that globally the current audience of the WADADA News for Kids programmes are mainly children in the between the ages of 11 and 15. They feel the most engaged and empowered by the programmes. However, the programmes also have older viewers which appeared to be mainly the case in Latin America. Nevertheless, in Nicaragua and Bolivia for example (see country reports), the older respondents appeared to be rather critical towards the WADADA News for Kids programmes, meaning that if these WADADA News for Kids programmes want to keep their focus on an audience that is 16 years and older they should adapt the style and content of their items. Conclusions difference between continents From the data it appeared that the WADADA News for Kids programmes are clearly most received in Africa where the majority of the respondents watch at least once a day or at least once a week. In Latin America, the audience reach is lower, even though the respondents indicated that they sometimes do watch once a day or at least once week. However, in Asia the WADADA News for Kids programmes are the least received. In Asia, the majority of the respondents indicated that they have never seen the WADADA News for Kids programmes. Asia is known to have more complex media landscapes. To support this, when specifically looking at the country report in Nepal, it appeared that in some rural areas the news is even never received at all. In addition, in Asia, radio remains a medium that is used relatively more due to the lack of developed media infrastructure. Nevertheless, the respondents appeared to prefer receiving the news in general, but also the WADADA News for Kids programmes, mainly via television and social media networks. Radio was also selected in Asia, but actually appeared to be a lot more popular in Africa. From these findings it can be stated that reaching the audience and making the programmes more known in Asia, though should be a focus of attention for all WADADA News for Kids programmes, especially in Asia but also in Latin America. Based on the respondents that do watch the WADADA News for Kids programmes, it appears that in all the continents the programmes are mainly watched together with parents, though in Latin America most respondents watch the programmes on their own, and, in Africa, with siblings. In Asia, the respondents indicate they also watch the WADADA News for Kids programmes often together with friends. In all the continents the programmes are mostly watched at ‘home’, however in Africa ‘other homes’ are also popular and in Asia and Latin America the programmes are frequently watched ‘at school’.

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It appears that the quality of the WADADA News for Kids programmes is not rated differently between the three continents. Respondents in Africa, Latin America and Asia generally rate the quality as good or very good. However, what is notable from the data is that in Asia none of the respondents thought that the quality of the programmes was bad or very bad, whereas in Latin America and Africa they respondents did indicate if they thought the quality was bad, or very bad. Although the percentages are only 1% for both continents, there is at least an indication that the programmes can be improved. A possible explanation for this could be that it is not in the culture of Asian countries to show disagreement or criticism, or even to speak up. However, this is not explicitly measured in this study and stays an assumption on why children in Asian countries generally did not disagree with the statements. For future studies, more consideration needs to be taken into making the data collection more anonymous, so that respondents feel more secure and can honestly give their opinion. Is WADADA News for Kids programmes informing their audience? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘religion’, ‘crime & accidents’, ‘science, technology, & IT’, and ‘health and health care’ were selected most as the topics that WADADA News for Kids programmes are not covering enough of in their current programmes. Apparently, this is important to the WADADA News for Kids programmes viewers and is currently not covered enough. The topics ‘war & conflict’ and ‘music, film & entertainment’ were selected as treated too much in the content of WADADA News for Kids programmes. These preferences should be taken into account when improving the programmes. Overall, the respondents indicated that the WADADA News for Kids programmes are very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world and it informs them about different opinions on important news topics. In addition, the WADADA News for Kids programmes help the respondents feel for children in other parts of the world. However, it was also indicated that the respondents did not discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching WADADA News for Kids programmes and that they could not easily relate to the presenters of the WADADA News for Kids programmes. Nevertheless, the respondents rated the overall quality of the WADADA News for Kids programmes as very good, and felt engaged with and empowered by the programmes. Besides this, the programmes appear to have high viewership globally. From the 6468 respondents, 3713 indicated to have ever seen a WADADA News for Kids programme, which is a good representation, however the reach could be improved. It must be stated that in this research the variables regarding media use in general were not included sufficiently. For example, currently data about the broadcasting channels were not included in the questionnaire, however it would have been interesting to measure potential correlations between the type of channels, media use and age. Although, currently the background information of the news programmes has been mentioned (frequency of broadcasting, what time it is transmitted and the duration), it was not consequently analysed or correlated with the dependent variables. In addition, a correlation between whether the WADADA News for Kids programmes are aired weekly, daily or monthly with the variables ‘engagement’ and ‘empowerment’ could have had an interesting result. For future studies it is recommended to include these variables in the analysis since these independent variables could have had interesting influences. Thus, is WADADA News for Kids network informing their target audience? Although the reach and quality of the programmes can be improved, and other type of variables that could have influenced the results (type of school, type of family etc.) were not taken into account is this study, it can be concluded that children in all WADADA News for Kids countries who watch a WADADA News for Kids bulletin become, in some form, informed and feel engaged and empowered. Besides the fact that the programmes reach their target audiences, they are also reaching secondary audiences such as parents, siblings and other relatives. Hence, the WADADA News for Kids programmes are informing their audiences.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Bangladesh

This section covers the data gathered in Bangladesh, where Kanastara produces and broadcasts the news for kids bulletin “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh”. Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is a weekly news bulletin that is produced by the news for kids Bangladesh production team. The programme is broadcast on Channel–I, the most popular satellite television channel in Bangladesh, and ATN, the news channel of Bangladesh. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Dhaka, Chittagong, Rangpur, Munshiganji, Bagerhat. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/ Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh, 3) coverage of important topics by Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh, 4) level of engagement with Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh, 5) empowerment as a news consumer, and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age5, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

20 respondents

Gender

261 boys, 291 girls

Areas

Dhaka, Chittagong, Rangpur, Munshiganji, Bagerhat

Age ranges

11- 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

100% *%

(N= 551) (N= 1)

The local partner in Bangladesh only collected data from the 11-15 age group as it is their perceived target group. In this report, the variable of age was operationalised in two categories where 0=11 and younger than 15 and 1 = 16 years and older. Therefore, as no data was received in the 16 and older category, the variable is not included in the country report for Bangladesh.

5. Only respondents that are younger than 16 years were included in the country analysis of Bangladesh.

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? Gender For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (84%), social networks (8%), friends and family (4%) and newspapers/magazines (3%). There is no convincing difference between boys and girls. Region As shown in the table below, television is the most popular medium in all regions. In Chittagong the respondents tend to receive the news relatively more via social networks and newspapers and magazines in comparison to the other regions. The respondents in Bagerhat also obtain the news relatively more via friends and family than in the other regions. Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? Gender The majority of the respondents indicate they watch the news at least once a day (64%) or at least once a week (25%). Only 1% indicates that they never receive the news. Girls (66% at least once a day) tend to receive the news more frequently than boys (63% at least once a day), however this difference is not convincing.

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Frequency of getting the news versus region

Region The respondents from most regions receive the news at least once a day or at least once a week. In Bagerhat the respondents receive the news the most in comparison to the other regions. Furthermore, there are a few respondents that never receive the news, who are from Dhaka and Bagerhat.

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the most mentioned topics that are considered important are: 1. Education (93%) 2. Sports (90%) 3. Science and Health (87%) Gender Regarding most important topics by the audience there is a visible difference between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘health’, ‘human rights’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘religion’ and ‘entertainment’ are most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘education’, ‘sports’, ‘science’, ‘crime and accidents’, ‘economy’ and ‘war & conflict’ are most important. Most important topics for boys/ girls

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Region Between regions there are a few differences. The topics ‘education’, ‘sports’, ‘science’ and ‘health’ are clearly seen as important topics in every region. In Dhaka the respondents score lowest on whether they think these topics are important. There, the respondents think topics about ‘religion’ and ‘environment and natural disasters’ are more important than the other regions. In Munshiganj the topics on ‘environment and natural disasters’ also scores high. In Bagerhat the respondents think ‘ human rights’ and ‘entertainment’ are relatively more important in comparison to the other regions, and in Rangpur ‘arts & culture’ is an important topic. The topics ‘economy’, ‘politics in your own country’, ‘politics in other countries’, ‘economy’ and ‘war and conflict’ seem to be the least important topics for respondents in all regions. Most important topics / region

2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh? From all the respondents the majority watches Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh (64%) at least once a year. 4% of the respondent watch at least once a day, and at least once a week. 10% watches once a month. Boys (12% = at least once a month) tend to watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh slightly more in comparison to girls (8% = at least once a month). Region As shown in the table below, in Dhaka respondents receive the news the most, followed by Bagerhat and Rangur. The respondents that receive Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh the least are from Chittagong.

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Getting the programme versus region

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 552 to 453.

What medium is used most to watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh? The medium that is used most to receive Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh are ‘other media than mentioned in the questionnaire’ (39%), followed by live TV Broadcasts (29%) and social media updates (10%). Gender Boys use Live TV broadcasts to follow Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh (33%) more than girls (26%). Girls tend to follow the programme more via social media updates (10%) in comparison to boys (9%). ‘Other media than mentioned in the questionnaire’ is indicated most frequently (girls= 40%; boys (25%). Region As shown in the table below, most regions receive Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh via Live TV broadcast, with the exception of Bagerhat and Rangur. In Munshiganj and Chittagong the respondents indicate to get Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh also via ‘other secondary sources’. Unfortunately it not know what these other sources are. In Dhaka, the respondents indicate to also receive the programme ‘via other people’. Only in Bagerhat the respondents indicate to receive the programme via radio.

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Medium to watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh versus region

Where is the main place you watch/listen to Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh? Most of the respondents that watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh receive the programme at ‘school’ (47%), at ‘home’ (33%) or ‘at another public space’ (9%). Gender There are no convincing differences between boys and girls regarding the main place where they watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh. Region As shown in the table below there are differences between regions visible. In Bagerhat, Rangur and Munshiganj respondents watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh the most in ‘school’. In Dhaka and Chittagong the respondents watch relatively more at ‘home’. ‘Another public space’ is indicated by all respondents, except for those from Munshiganj, as a place to watch the programme. Only in Dhaka the respondents indicate that they watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh in ‘other homes’. In addition, only in Dhaka the respondents tend to indicate that they receive the programme via other ways, however it us unfortunately not know what these are. Main people to watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh with versus region

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Who are the main people you watch/listen to Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh with? Most of the respondents that receive Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh watch the programme with their classmates (33%), with their friends (28%), parents (11%), on their own (11%) and siblings (10%). Gender The data shows that there is no evident difference between girls and boys. Region As the table below indicates, between regions there are evident differences. For example, in Dhaka the respondents watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh more with their friends when compared with the other regions. In Bagerhat the programme is relatively watched more with classmates. The respondents in Munshiganj indicate to watch the programme more with their parents in comparison to the other regions. In Chittagong the respondents watch mostly on their own. Rangpur is the only region where Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is watched with teachers. Main people to watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh with versus region

3. Ideal way of getting the Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh What is the ideal way of getting Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh? Most of the respondents (78%) think the ideal way of getting Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is through Live TV broadcasts (69%), and social media updates (10%). Gender There is a slight difference between boys and girls as girls indicate slightly more (70%) than boys (68%) that the ideal way of receiving Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is via Live TV broadcasts. Boys (1%) indicate that they would also ideally receive the programme via live radio broadcasts. Region Between regions there are no convincing differences. In all regions the respondents indicate to ideally receive Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh via live TV broadcasts and social media updates.

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What could be improved in terms of content of Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘religion’ (63%), ‘music, film & entertainment’ (86%), ‘politics in your country’ (78%), ‘politics in other countries’ (80%) and ‘economic news’ (88%) were indicated as topics that could be covered more in the Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh content. Differences between gender From the data it appears that boys would like see more about ‘economics’, ‘politics in other countries’ and ‘religion’. Girls want to see more items covering ‘war & conflict’, ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘arts & culture’. Differences between seen and not seen When making a distinction between the respondents that have seen Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh and the respondents that have not, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme score highest on (select most often) topics such as ‘sports’, ‘education’, ‘science’, ‘health’ and ‘politics in other countries’. The respondents that do watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh scored evidently higher on the topics ‘human rights’, ‘crime & accidents’, ‘religion’, ‘arts & culture’, ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘ economy’. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh

What is the overall quality of Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh? Gender/ age/ region The overall quality of Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh was rated as good (42%) or very good (57%). Girls tend to rate the quality more often as ‘very good’ than boys. In Rangpur the respondents rate the quality the highest (76%, very good), followed by Bagerhat (63%, very good). In the other regions, respondents chose ‘good’ more often. The fact that in some regions ‘very good’ was selected does not necessarily relate to the quality of the programme since it is difficult to estimate whether it is just a preference in rating or that the specific regions really have this stronger opinion.

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4. Level of Engagement with Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh In order to determine the level of engagement with Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicated a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh / Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” (89% agrees, 8% strongly agrees), and “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh really informs me about different opinions on important news topics” (82% agrees, 6% strongly agrees). On the statement “I can very easily relate to all of the Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh news presenters” respondents were the most negative (19% disagrees). Gender When filtering this data on gender, it appears that there are slight differences visible between genders. From the respondents that disagree with the engagement statements it appears that relatively more girls tend to disagree in comparison to boys. The statement “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/ watching Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh” gives a good representation of a statement where girls react more negatively than boys. Level of engagement with Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh versus gender

5. Level of Empowerment by Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all of 5 statements indicated a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh makes me feel more confident that

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people will listen to my opinions / Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh takes me seriously as a young citizen / Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agree or strongly agree with the 5 empowerment questions. On the statement “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” the respondents answered the most positively (90% agrees, 8% strongly agrees). On the statements: “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics” and “Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh has helped me to make better decisions about my future” respondents reacted most negatively. Gender There are differences between boys and girls regarding the level of empowerment of the programme Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh. Girls tend to be slightly more negative, however this difference is not convincing. On the same statements as mentioned above, the negative response becomes visible in the table below. Level of empowerment with Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh versus gender

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions difference between gender From the data it can be concluded that boys generally watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh more and feel more empowered by and engaged with the programme than girls. Girls felt that they regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh less and that the programme does not inform them better than the adult news. In addition, girls argue more than boys that the programme does not empower them to make better decisions about their future. On the contrary, girls rated the quality of Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh slightly higher than boys. They even rated the quality as ‘very good’ more often, whereas boys rated the quality as ‘good’. It is difficult to estimate if this is just a preference or that the girls really have this stronger opinion. Although girls do rate the quality as very good, the fact that they do not feel engaged and empowered are interesting results. An assumption made by Free Press Unlimited is that this could be an effect of the Bangladeshi culture, in which it is not generally accepted that girls speak up and feel empowered. However, this cannot be supported with the data of this research. A qualitative research should be conducted to study this. Nevertheless, Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh can consider the fact that girls do rate the quality as good but do not feel engaged and empowered and take this into account in producing and improving their items.

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Conclusions difference between regions From the data it appears that out of all regions, the respondents in Dhaka receive Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh the most, followed by Bagerhat and Rangur. The respondents that receive Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh the least are from Chittagong. Regarding preferred topics, there were evident differences between regions. In Dhaka for example the topic ‘religion’ was rated as very important, however in Chittagong it was not considered an important topic. These preferences in topics could be taken into account when producing items in the future. Is Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh informing their audience? It was hypothesized by Free Press Unlimited that respondents that do not watch Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh would think that ‘soft news topics’ such as ‘sports’ and ‘entertainment’ are more important to them when compared to the Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh viewers. However, the data did not support this assumption. Non-viewers tend to have more interest in more soft news topics such as ‘sports’ and ‘health’, however they also indicated they that ‘education’ and ‘politics in other countries’ are important topics to them. Besides this, the Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh viewers also indicated great interest in soft news topics such as ‘religion’ and ‘crime and accidents’. Based on this data the only recommendation would be that these topic preferences can be used by Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh as indicators on how to further develop the program. Overall, the Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh viewers are very positive about the quality of the programme, they do feel engaged with and empowered by the programme, and many respondents know the programme. Besides this, the programme appeared to be viewed well. From the 552 respondents, 453 indicated to have ever seen the programme, which a good representation. The majority of the respondents indicated that they could always understand what the key issues are in any Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh news story and they argue that the programme is very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world. In addition, the respondents indicate that Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh gives young people a platform and voice than can be heard and that the programme makes them feel more confident that people will listen to their opinions. Though the sample is small, based on the data that is available, and not taking into account other variables that could influence the Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh audience (such as culture, type of family, type of school), it can be stated that Kanastara News for Kids Bangladesh is informing, engaging and empowering their audience.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Bolivia

This section covers the data gathered in in Bolivia, where Nicobis produces and broadcasts the programme PICA. ‘PICA’ is a daily news bulletin of approximately 10 minutes that is produced by the news for kids Bolivia production team. The programme is aired through a private broadcaster, ATB. Besides a television programme, PICA also has a radio programme that is called “Picalandia”. In addition, the PICA team is also producing a hard-copy magazine and an online game. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards the PICA television programme. The findings of his survey can be taken into account for further developments and improving the programme in general. Besides this, the data serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Trinidad, Oruro, Potosi and Sucre. The survey was conducted from June until August, 2015. The target-group of the survey was children and youth between 12 – 16 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information 2) getting the news/PICA 3) coverage of important topic by PICA 4) level of engagement with PICA 5) empowerment as a news consumer 6) overall quality. The answers on all questions are analyzed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

563 respondents

Gender

250 boys, 312 girls

Areas

La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Trinidad, Oruro, Potosi and Sucre.

Age ranges

11 - 15 years 16 years and older

23% 77%

(N= 130) (N = 433)

Originally “age” was operationalized as 11- younger, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years and older. From all data (global) it appeared that the 16-year and older age group was significantly bigger. To make the variable less skewed for the analysis it was decided to create a new variable “age” that has two categories where 0 = 11 and younger-15 and 1= 16 years and older.

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (73%) and internet (11%) or social networks (8%). Gender It appears that girls (79%, N= 312) get the news slightly more from television than boys (65%, N= 251). Boys obtain their news more from Internet (16%) and social media networks (10%). Age From the data it appears that the main way of getting the news is via television at both age groups. Respondents that are 16 years and older tend to receive the news slightly more via television (73%) and via the internet (12%) than the respondents that are younger than 16 years (television = 72%; internet = 10%). The younger respondents use more social networks (9%) to receive the news in comparison to the respondents that are 16 years and older (7%). Main way of getting the news versus gender

Region Between regions television remains the most popular medium to get the news. In Mizque however the respondents indicate that they also get the news via friends and family (50%).

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Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? Gender/ Age/ Region The majority of the respondents indicate they watch the news at least once a day (80%). Other respondents indicated they watch it at least once a week (15%) or at least once a month (2%). There is no difference between gender, age and region in terms of frequency of getting the news.

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the most mentioned topics that are considered important are: 1. Entertainment (65%) 2. Sports (47%) 3. Education (46%) Gender Regarding topics there is a clear difference between boys and girls. Girls think topics such as ‘education’, ‘health’, ‘arts & culture’ and ‘environment and natural disasters’ are more important than boys. Boys score higher on topics such as ‘sports’, ‘science’, ‘crime & accidents’ and ‘war and conflict’. Most important topics versus gender

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Age Respondents older than 16 years have relatively more interest in the ‘hard news’ topics, such as ‘education’, ‘health’, ‘art & culture’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘human rights’, ‘economy’ etc. The respondents younger than 16 years prefer topics such as ‘sports’, ‘war and conflict’ and ‘religion’ relatively more than the older respondents. Most important topics versus age

Region There are small differences visible between regions. For example, the respondents from Mizque score highest on the topics ‘sports’, ‘politics in other countries’ and ‘environmental natural disasters’, in comparison to the other regions. The respondents from Santa Cruz score lowest on ‘education’. So according to the data, in Santa Cruz the children think ‘education’ is not as important in comparison to the children in the other regions. Generally most respondents, except the ones from Montero, do not see ‘religion’ as important. In addition, ‘politics in your own country’ is neither seen as an important topic except by the respondents from most regions, except by those from the region ‘others’. This category entails the regions that were not included in the questionnaire. Most important topics versus age

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2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from PICA? Age From all respondents 44% had never seen the PICA programme, 17% watches the show at least once a day and 11% once a week and once a month. Gender Girls (26%) tend to watch PICA more often than boys (19%). In La Paz the respondents watch PICA the most (16%), followed by the respondents from Cochabamba (9%) and Montero (6%). Age From the respondents that have never seen PICA, the majority is younger than 16 years (63%). The respondents that are 16 years and older generally score higher on how often they watch PICA, especially in the “at least once a day/week/month” category. Based on this it can be stated that PICA’s main audience is 16 years or older. Frequency of receiving PICA versus age

Region As shown in the table below in La Paz the respondents watch PICA the most, followed by the respondents from Cochabamba and Montero. In Santa Cruz PICA is watched the least. Frequency of receiving PICA versus region

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In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 563 to 252.

What medium is used most to watch PICA? Gender/ Age The data shows that most viewers watch PICA via television (76%). Some of the respondents also get the news via other people (8%) or social media networks (6%). There is not a convincing difference between age and gender. Region Between regions no big differences are visible except that in the regions Mizque (50%) and Montero (13%), the respondents indicate that live web streaming is also a mean to receive PICA. In Santa Cruz (20%), Cochabamba (13%) and Montero (10%) the respondents get PICA via other people.

Where is the main place you watch/listen to PICA? Gender/ Age Most of the respondents that watch PICA watch it ‘at home’ (81%) and sometimes watch it in ‘other homes’ (4%) or ‘at school’ (4%). There is not an indicative difference between gender and age. Region In comparison to other regions, it appeared that in Santa Cruz respondents watch the programme at other locations more often than at home. 60% of the Santa Cruz respondents watch PICA at home, whereas in both Cochabamba and El Alto 100% of the respondents watch the programme at home. In Santa Cruz the audience watch PICA ‘at an other home’ (3%), ‘at school’ (10%), ‘at work’ (3%), ‘other public places’ (13%) and ‘other’ (10%). Main place to watch PICA versus region

Who are the main people you watch/listen to PICA with? Gender/ Age The majority of the respondents watch PICA on their own (49%), or with their siblings (27%). There is a difference between boys and girls, more boys watch PICA on their own (57%) than girls (44%). Girls tend to watch PICA more often with their relatives (33%) than boys (18%).

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Main people to watch PICA with versus gender

Age Respondents that are 16 years or older tend to watch more on their own (50%) and friends (4%) than the respondents younger than 16 years (on their own = 42%, friends = 0%). The younger respondents tend to watch more with their parents, siblings, and colleagues. Main people to watch PICA with versus age

Region The majority watches PICA on their own, for example in El Alto 65% of the respondents watch on their own, but in Cochabamba, for example, the respondents watch PICA more with ‘others’ (50%) or with their siblings (26%). In the region category ‘other’, which represents multiple cities that were not given as options in the questionnaire, the respondents watch mainly with their siblings (53%).

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Main people to watch with PICA versus region

3. Ideal way of getting PICA What is the ideal way of getting PICA? Most of the respondents (66%) think the ideal way of getting PICA is via live TV broadcast, 15% prefers getting the programme via social media. There are no convincing differences between age, gender and region.

What could be improved in terms of content of PICA? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘sports’ (34%), ‘health and health care’ (36%), ‘crime and accidents’ (34%) and ‘religion’ (40%) could be covered more in the PICA content. The topic religion was only seen as important by the respondents in Montero. When filtering the data based on topics and region it becomes clear that mainly the respondents from Montero (38%) indicated they wanted ‘religion’ to be covered more by PICA. In addition, the respondents from La Paz also appeared to think that ‘religion’ could be covered more in PICA (29%). The respondents indicate that the topic ‘education’ (51%) is covered sufficiently in PICA (51%). Differences between age When filtering the data on age it becomes evident that the respondents aged 16 years and older are more critical in comparison to the younger respondents. The respondents younger than 16 years mainly think the coverage of the topics are ‘just right’. There is only one topic that the respondents younger than 16 years think PICA should cover more frequently, which are ‘sports’. The respondents of 16 years and older would like to see more topics on ‘health care’ (39%), ‘education’ (28%) and ‘music, film and entertainment’ (28%). Differences between seen and not seen When dividing the data between the respondents that have seen PICA and the respondents that have not seen PICA it appears that the respondents that have never seen the programme score highest on the soft news topics such as ‘entertainment’ (68%) and ‘sports’ (48%). Topics such as ‘education’ (36%), ‘arts and culture’ (33%), ‘health’ (39%) and ‘science’ (33%) score relatively very low in comparison with the respondents that do watch PICA. For the respondents that do watch PICA, hard news topics such as ‘education’ (59%), ‘health’ (48%), ‘arts and culture’ (58%) and ‘science’ (47%) are seen as important. In the Discussion there will be further elaborated on this matter.

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Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen PICA

Suggested topics by children Through an open question it was asked whether there were any other topics than listed in the questionnaire that are important for the respondents. The following topics were mentioned the most: - Teen pregnancy - Personal defence/ personal safety - Sexual rights - Violence and crime - Showbizz

What is the overall quality of PICA? The overall quality of PICA was rated as good (41%) or really good (39%). Girls tend to be more positive about PICA than boys. Boys have ‘no opinion’ more often than girls. Respondents younger than 16 years old rate the quality of PICA relatively higher than the respondents older than 16 years. Although the younger ones are relatively more positive, there are a fewer respondents in this category and they are the only ones that rated the quality of PICA as ‘very bad’. In addition, it becomes visible that the few that indicate PICA as ‘very bad’ or ‘bad’ are from La Paz, Cochabamba and El Alto. By using an open question respondents were asked how PICA could improve the overall quality of the show. The following four ideas were mentioned most frequently: - More dynamic themes; - More episodes, more airtime; - Less childish; - Other presenters that act less childish

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4. Level of engagement with PICA In order to determine the level of engagement with PICA, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicated a high level of engagement. Statements that were asked to rate included “PICA is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / PICA informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / PICA helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching PICA/ PICA regularly addresses the news topics/ issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “PICA really informs me about different opinions on important news topics” (51% agrees, 21% strongly agrees), and “PICA news stories cover a very wide range and mix of topics/issues” (48% agrees, 23% strongly agrees). Though, there were also some negatives responses on amongst others the statements “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching PICA” (12% disagrees, 6% strongly disagrees). Gender When looking more critically at the numbers it appears that relatively more boys disagree or have no opinion with the 10 engagement statements. For example on the statement “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching PICA” boys react relatively more negative than girls. Engagement with PICA versus gender

Age Between the different age groups a difference is also evident. Respondents younger than 16 years old tend to disagree more with the 10 statements than the respondents 16 years and older. The statement ‘I Can always understand what the key issues are in the news stories’, shows that respondents younger than 16 years respond negatively in comparison to the 16 years and older respondents who seem to be rather positive. Based on this it seems that the younger target group does not always understand the content in-depth.

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The level engagement with PICA versus age

The “no opinion” option seems very popular for respondents younger than 16 years as well. In the statement “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching PICA” it is clearly visible that mainly respondents younger than 16 years strongly disagree, disagree, or have no opinion.

5. Level of empowerment by PICA In order to determine the level of empowerment 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all of 5 statements indicated a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that were asked to rate included “PICA gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / PICA makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / PICA takes me seriously as a young citizen / PICA has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / PICA has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agrees or strongly agrees with the 5 empowerment questions. For the statement “PICA takes me seriously as a young citizen” respondents answered the most positively (45% agrees, 33% strongly agrees). On the statement “PICA has helped me to make better decisions about my future” respondents reacted most negative in comparison to the other statements (8% disagrees, 2% strongly disagrees). Age When looking more critically at the numbers it appears that on the statement “PICA has helped me to make better decisions about my future” most negative responses were given. The respondents younger than 16 years tend to disagree relatively more often when compared with the respondents that are 16 years and older. Especially on the statement “PICA has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics”, the younger respondents answer negatively (19%) or has no opinion (14%). Gender Boys generally disagree more on the five statements than girls. The statement “PICA gives local young people a platform and voice than can be heard” illustrates this. Boys responded more with no opinion, disagree or strongly disagree to this statement than girls.

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Level of empowerment by PICA versus gender

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups Respondents 16 years and older tend to have more critical opinions on PICA as a show, whereas the respondents younger than 16 years tend to be less critical and think that the show is good as it is. When analysing the question that measured the overall perceived quality and subsequently filtering this on age it appeared that the respondents younger than 16 years old generally rate the quality of PICA relatively higher than the older respondents. In an open question, respondents answered that they thought the programme is 1) a bit too childish, that 2) the presenters act too childish, and that 3) it should change their presenters. Since it was an open question it cannot be correlated with the variable of age, however, we can assume that specifically the 16 years and older respondents gave these answers. Nevertheless, from the respondents that have never seen PICA, the majority was younger than 16 years. The 16 years and older respondents generally scored higher on “how often they watch PICA“. So based on this it can be stated that from the respondents that watch PICA, the majority is 16 years and older. In addition, the respondents younger than 16 years also tend to respond more negatively on the level of engagement with PICA and the level of empowerment. For example, the younger respondents did not always understand the key issues in PICA. Besides this, it must also be taken into account that, according to a feedback report to FPU from Nicobis, the younger respondents did not fully understand the questions in the questionnaire. This could also be the reason ‘no opinion’ for this age group was so popular. A reason for this more negative response or ‘no opinions’ by the younger target group could be that these children are too young to become more ‘empowered’ or ‘engaged’ in general. When compared to the older respondents it could be stated that the 16 plus respondents are more confident and more politically active in general, just because they are about to become young adults and are busier with their futures. The observations above seem to be rather contrary. There are a two things that could have an influence on this matter: 1) PICA is reaching its target group adequately but children of 16 years and older are generally more critical because they are older and are developing themselves as critical individuals. Or 2) although PICA is targeting its target group adequately, it might be that the programme is more attractive for the younger age group of 12 -14 years, since the older respondents indicated that the style is somewhat ‘childish’. Nevertheless, the younger target group does not seem to fully understand the key issues within the programme. Based on this it could be stated that if PICA wants to keep their focus on teens, they should make the programme and style less ‘childish’, and if PICA wants to make a switch and to focus more on younger children they should simplify their content.

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It must been noted that in the overall sample more respondents of 16 plus were interviewed, so if we could control for this, then the differences between the two ages groups may be different. Conclusions difference between gender PICA seems to be more appealing for girls than for boys. The differences between sex were very small, however visible. It appeared that girls tend to watch PICA more often than boys and that girls rate the quality of PICA relatively better than boys. In addition, girls feel generally more empowered by and engaged with PICA than boys. On the statement “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching PICA”, boys react more negatively than girls. A reason for this could be that since boys watch PICA more often ‘on their own’ in comparison to girls (they watch more frequently with their ‘relatives’ and ‘siblings’) they discuss the programme less. Based on the data it can be stated that girls are more positively influenced by the PICA programme than boys. It must be noted that in the overall sample more girls were interviewed, so if we could control for this, then the differences between boys and girls may be different. Conclusions difference between region Most PICA viewers are located in La Paz, followed by Cochabamba and Montero. It would be interesting to investigate the reason behind why majority of the PICA watchers are located in La Paz. Could this be because Nicobis organizes forums more frequently in the schools of La Paz? It would be interesting this further elaborate on this potential correlation. Is PICA informing their audience? The respondents that had never seen PICA had more interest in soft news topics such as ‘entertainment’ and ‘sports’. Hard news topics such as ‘education’, ‘arts and culture’, ‘health’ and ‘science’ were less preferred by non-viewers in comparison with the respondents that do watch PICA. On the contrary, respondents that had ever watched PICA had more interest in the hard news topics. Of course it can be argued that there could be other variables that influence this effect (type of school, type of family etc.). Nevertheless based on this data, it can be stated that children in Bolivia who watch PICA are more eager to obtain information about hard news topics in comparison to children that do not watch PICA. Overall, the PICA viewers are very positive about the quality of the programme, they do feel engaged with and empowered by the programme, and many respondents know the programme. The majority of the respondents indicated that they could always understand what the key issues are in any PICA news story and they argue that the programme is very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world. In addition, the respondents indicate that PICA gives young people a platform and voice than can be heard and that the programme makes them feel more confident that people will listen to their opinions. Thus, is PICA informing their audience? Yes! The contribution of PICA as a WADADA News for Kids news bulletin is that it clearly informs its audience, specifically on hard news topics.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Burma

This section covers the data gathered in Burma, where DVB Media Group (Democratic Voice of Burma) produces and broadcasts the programme DVB Youth Voice. ‘DVB Youth Voice’ is a news bulletin of approximately 15 minutes that is produced five times a week by the Burma News for Kids production team. Due to the political situation in Burma, the programme is produced in exile, namely in Chang Mai, Thailand. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards the Burmese television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improving the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as background information for future applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Yangoon/ Rangoon, Mandalay, Myawaddy, Kachin State, and Magway. Though the programme is mainly produced in Chang Mai, Thailand, only interviewees from Burma were conducted. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The targetgroup of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/ DVB Youth Voice, 3) coverage of important topics by DVB Youth Voice, 4) level of engagement with DVB Youth Voice, 5) empowerment as a news consumer and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

599 respondents

Gender

333 boys, 266 girls

Areas

Yangoon/ Rangoon, Mandalay, Myawaddy, Kachin State, Magway

Age ranges

11 – 15 years 16 years and older

53% 47%

(N = 284) (N = 315)

Originally “age” was operationalised as 11 and younger, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years and older. From all data (global) it appeared that the 16-year and older age group was significantly bigger. To make the variable less skewed for the analysis it was decided to create a new variable “age” that has two categories where 0 = 11 and younger to 15 and 1= 16 years and older.

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (40%), social media networks (15%) and newspapers and magazines (18%. Internet (17%) and radio (5%) are also used to receive the news (17%). Gender From the data it appeared that there are slight differences between boys and girls regarding the media they use to receive the news. Girls (43%) get the news slightly more via television than boys (38%). Boys (19%) tend to receive the news more via Internet. Age Respondents that are younger than 16 years receive the news more via television (54%) and newspapers/ magazines (22%) than the respondents that are 16 years and older (Television= 28%, newspapers/magazines = 14%). The older respondents receive the news more via Internet (24%) and social networks (23%) than the younger respondents (Internet = 8%, Social Networks = 5%). Region As shown in the table below, between regions differences are visible in how the respondents receive the news. In Myawaddy (67%), Kachin State (41%) and Magway (48%) the respondents mainly get the news via television. In Mandalay newspapers and magazines and social networks are preferred over television. In Yangoon/Rangoon the respondents indicate that besides television the news is also received relatively often via Internet. In Kachin State the news is also received via radio. Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? The majority of the respondents indicate they receive the news at least once a day (70%) or at least once a week (27%). Gender Boys tend to receive the news more frequently than girls. However this difference is very small. Age The respondents older than 16 years (78% = at least once a day) evidently receive the news more frequently than respondents younger than 16 years (62% = at least once a day).

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Region Regarding regions, it appears that the majority of the respondents get their news at least once a day, or at least once a week. Yangoon/Rangoon is the only region where it is indicated that some respondents never receive the news, though this is only 1%. Frequency of getting the news versus region

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents, the most mentioned topics that are considered as important are: 1. Education (87%) 2. Health (49%) 3. Sports & Religion (46%) Gender There are differences visible between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘education’, ‘health’, and ‘religion’ are most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘human rights’, and ‘science’ are most important. Most important topics for gender

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Age There are visible differences between respondents younger than 16 years and respondents that are 16 years and older. The older respondents think topics such as ‘human rights’, ‘environment and natural disasters’ and ‘science’ are more important in comparison to the younger respondents. The younger age group think the topics ‘sports’, and ‘religion’ are more important. Most important topics for age

Region In all regions ‘education’ is preferred as the most important topic. In Magway and Mandalay the topic ‘health’ also appears to be seen as an important topic. The topic ‘sports’ is relatively more important for the respondents in Yangoon/Rangoon and Kachin State than in other regions.

2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from DVB Youth Voice? From all the respondents, 6% receives DVB Youth Voice once a day, or at least once a week (16%) or at least once a month (4%). The majority of the respondents had never seen the programme (69%) or were not sure whether they have seen the programme (4%). Boys (20% at least once a week) receive DVB Youth Voice relatively more than girls (11% at least once a week). Age The differences between age groups are visible, but not convincing. The respondents that are 16 years and older (once a day = 8%; once a week = 18%) receive DVB Youth Voice more than the respondents that are younger than 16 years (once a day = 4%; at least once a week = 14%). Region As shown in the table below, respondents from Yangoon/ Rangoon and Mayawaddy receive DVB Youth Voice the most frequently, followed by the Magway. In Mandalay, respondents watch DVB Youth Voice the least. However, in this graph is also become visible that the majority of the questioned respondents never receive the DVB Youth Voice.

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Receiving DVB Youth Voice versus region

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that have seen the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they have seen the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 599 to 159.

What medium is used most to watch DVB Youth Voice? The medium that is used most to watch DVB Youth Voice is live television broadcast (81%). Some of the respondents also get DVB Youth Voice via live web streaming (10%) and social media updates (4%). Gender Both boys (81%) and girls (79%) receive DVB Youth Voice most via television. Girls tend to follow the programme more on social media updates (7%) in comparison to boys (2%). Boys (12%) use live web streaming to watch DVB Youth Voice more often than girls (7%). Age The respondents that are younger than 16 years (95%) receive DVB Youth Voice more via television than the respondents that are 16 years and older (73%). The older respondents receive DVB Youth Voice relatively more via live web streaming and social media updates. Region In all regions television is the most popular medium to receive DVB Youth Voice. Yangoon/ Rangoon and Magway are the only regions where respondents do get the programme slightly more via live web streaming. Additionally, in Yangoon/ Rangoon and Mandalay the respondents watch DVB Youth Voice via social media updates.

Where is the main place you watch/listen to DVB Youth Voice? Most of the respondents that watch DVB Youth Voice watch the programme at home (82%), in schools (6%) or ‘mobile/on the move’ (6%).

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Gender Both boys (81%) and girls (83%) watch DVB Youth Voice at home. Boys tend to watch relatively more at school (8%) and ‘mobile/on the move’ (8%) than girls (school = 2%; on the move = 3%). Girls watch the programme ‘at work’ (7%) whereas boys do not. Age Respondents younger than 16 years old (93%) watch DVB Youth Voice more ‘at home’ than the respondents older than 16 years (75%). The respondents older than 16 years watch relatively more ‘at school’ or ‘mobile/on the move’. Region In all regions DVB Youth Voice is primarily watched ‘at home’. In Mandalay respondents indicate they watch the programme at school relatively more compared to the other regions. Only in Yangoon/ Rangoon and Magway do respondents indicate to watch DVB Youth Voice at another home, at work, another private place or ‘mobile/on the move’.

Who are the main people you watch/listen to DVB Youth Voice with? Most of the respondents that watch DVB Youth Voice watch the programme with their parents (47%), with their siblings (19%), friends (16%), on their own (9%), or with other relatives (5%). Gender Girls (52%) watch more often with their parents than boys (45%), whereas boys (22%) watch more often with their siblings than girls (14%). In addition, boys (11%) watch more on their own than girls (5%). Age As shown in the table below, the respondents that are younger than 16 years watch DVB Youth Voice more with their parents and siblings than the respondents 16 years and older. The respondents that are 16 years and older also watch the programme more on their own or with their friends than the younger age group. Main people to watch DVB Tempo Youth with versus age

Region As the table below indicates, DVB Youth Voice is mostly watched, in all regions, with the parents of the respondents. In Magway the respondents also watch the programme more often with their siblings and friends when compared to the other regions. Mandalay is the only region where DVB Youth Voice is watched with teachers, and Rangoon/ Yangoon is the only region where it is watched with classmates and colleagues.

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Main people to watch DVB Youth Voice with versus region

3. Ideal way of getting DVB Youth Voice What is the ideal way of getting DVB Youth Voice? Most of the respondents that watch DVB Youth Voice indicate that their ideal medium to receive the programme would be ‘none of these media’ (69%) that were suggested in the questionnaire. Thereafter, live television broadcasts (20%) and live web streaming (6%) were indicated as an ideal media. Gender Both boys and girls prefer live web streaming and social media updates to receive DVB Youth Voice. Boys indicate that they would ideally receive DVB Youth Voice via live web streaming, live radio broadcast and web podcasts / downloads. Age The respondents that are 16 years and older indicate that they would ideally receive DVB Youth Voice via live television broadcasts, live web streaming, social media updates, and web podcasts / downloads. The respondents younger than 16 years only indicate that they would ideally receive the programme via live television broadcasts or ‘none of these media’. Region Most regions think ‘none of these media’ (that were suggested in the questionnaire) are the most ideal way to receive DVB Youth Voice. Thereafter, all regions prefer live television broadcasts and live web streaming to receive the programme. In Yangoon/Rangoon, Mandalay and Magway social media are also preferred.

What could be improved in terms of the content of DVB Youth Voice? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘education’, ‘health and health care’, ‘religion’, ‘crime and accidents’, and ‘science, technology & IT’ could be covered more in the DVB Youth Voice content. Differences between age From the data it appears that respondents 16 years and older are relatively more critical regarding the topics they want to see covered more in the DVB Youth Voice content. The respondents younger than 16 years tend to think that the content is ‘just right’. The topics that the older respondents would like to see more of

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are ‘education’, ‘health and health care’, ‘human rights’, and ‘religion’. The respondents of the younger age group indicated that they would like to see more on topics such as ‘crime & accidents’, ‘religion’ and ‘science, technology and IT’. Differences between seen and not seen When differentiating between the respondents that have seen DVB Youth Voice and the respondents that have never seen it, it appears that the respondents that have never seen the programme select the topics ‘health’, ‘sports’, ‘entertainment’ and ‘religion’ most for improvement of DVB Youth Voice. Respondents that have seen the programme score higher on the topics of ‘science’, ‘politics in other countries’, ‘economy’, ‘crime and accidents’, and ‘war & conflict’. The non-viewers seem to prefer more soft news topics, however this difference is not convincing, especially since the respondents that do watch DVB Youth Voice prefer ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘war & conflict’ more, topics that are also seen as soft news topics. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen DVB Youth Voice

What is the overall quality of DVB Youth Voice? Gender/ age/ region The overall quality of DVB Youth Voice was rated as good (80%) or very good (8%). Only 2% rated the quality as bad. Girls rate the quality slightly higher than boys, however this difference is not convincing. The respondents that are 16 years and older that watch DVB Youth Voice seem to rate the quality of the programme slightly higher than the respondents that are younger than 16 years. In addition, it appeared that the respondents that rated the quality as bad most were younger than 16 years. As shown in the table below, between regions the quality is mainly rated as “good”. The respondents that rated the quality as bad appeared to be from Yangoon/Rangoon, Kachin Stata and Magway. However, the percentages are very low.

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Quality of DVB Youth Voice versus region

4. Level of Engagement with DVB Youth Voice In order to determine the level of engagement with DVB Youth Voice, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicates a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “DVB Youth Voice is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / DVB Youth Voice informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / DVB Youth Voice helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching DVB Youth Voice / DVB Youth Voice regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions, please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “DVB Youth Voice is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” and “DVB Youth Voice regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. There is also a group that disagrees on whether they feel engaged with DVB Youth Voice as a youth programme. When looking more critically at the numbers it appears that for the statement “I can very easily relate to all of the DVB Youth Voice news presenters”, “I can always understand what the key issues are in any DVB Youth Voice news story” and “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching DVB Youth Voice” respondents reacted the most negatively. Gender When filtering this data on the basis of gender, it appears that there are differences between boys and girls on how they perceive the 10 statements of engagement. The two genders reacted equally negative on the total amount of statements, however it appeared that each gender has specific statements on which they disagree. For example, girls feel, more often than boys, that DVB Youth Voice does not really inform them about different opinions on important news topics, that they cannot easily relate to all of the DVB Youth Voice news presenters and that DVB Youth Voice does not help them feel for children in other parts of the world. On the other hand, boys feel that DVB Youth Voice is not very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world, that the news stories of the programme do not cover a wide range or mix of topics/issues, and that the programme does not address the news topics/issues that they think are most important for young people where they live.

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Age The respondents that are younger than 16 years, evidently disagreed more with the 10 statements than the 16 years and older respondents. On the statements ‘I can always understand what the key issues are in any DVB Youth Voice news story’ and ‘I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching DVB Youth Voice’ most negative responses were given by respondents younger than 16 years. Based on this it seems that DVB Youth Voice is more engaging for respondents that are 16 years and older. The level empowerment with DVB Youth Voice versus age

5. Level of Empowerment by DVB Youth Voice In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all 5 statements indicates a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “DVB Youth Voice gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / DVB Youth Voice makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / DVB Youth Voice takes me seriously as a young citizen / DVB Youth Voice has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / DVB Youth Voice has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agrees with the 5 empowerment questions. On the statement “DVB Youth Voice gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” respondents answered most positively (81% agrees, 3% strongly agrees). This also applies for the statement “DVB Youth Voice takes me seriously as a young citizen” (79% agrees, 1% strongly agrees). Gender There are slight differences between boys and girls. Overall girls respond slightly more negatively than boys. The results on the statement “DVB Youth Voice gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” is an example of a statement where girls respond more negatively than boys. Based on this it seems that DVB Youth Voice empowers boys relatively more than girls.

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The level empowerment with DVB Youth Voice versus gender

Age Between the different age groups, the respondents younger than 16 years old disagree more with the empowerment statements when compared to the older respondents. In the table below, an example is given of one of the statements on which the younger respondents clearly disagree more than the older age group. Based on this it seems that DVB Youth Voice empowers youth that are 16 years and older more. The level empowerment with DVB Youth Voice versus age

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups From the results it appears that the audience of DVB Youth Voice are mainly teens that are 16 years and older. These respondents watch DVB Youth Voice more than the respondents that are younger than 16 years and rate the quality of the programme higher in comparison to the respondents younger than 16 who rated the quality as bad. The younger respondents prefer relatively more soft news topics (‘sports’, ‘religion’, and ‘art & culture’) than the respondents that are 16 years and older. The older respondents prefer hard news topics (‘human rights’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘science’, ‘economy’).

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The respondents that are 16 years and older felt generally more engaged with and empowered by DVB Youth Voice than the younger respondents. They feel that they understand what the key issues are in any DVB Youth Voice news story and that they regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching DVB Youth Voice. Based on these findings, it seems that DVB Youth Voice is more appealing, engaging and empowering for teens that are 16 years or older. Conclusions difference between gender From the data it appears that girls rate the quality of DVB Youth Voice slightly higher than boys, however they feel less empowered by the programme. Boys watch the programme more than girls and feel more empowered with the programme. Conclusions difference between regions In all regions, DVB Youth Voice is watched mostly together with the parents of the respondents. In Magway the respondents also watch the programme more often with their siblings and friends when compared to the other regions. Mandalay is the only region where DVB Youth Voice is watched with teachers. In addition, DVB Youth Voice is primarily watched at home in most regions, however, in Mandalay, respondents indicate to watch the programme at school more in comparison to the other regions. From this data it seems that there is a special school programme in which DVB Youth Voice is included in the curricula, however this is just an assumption made by FPU that requires further follow-up by DVB. Besides this, in Mandalay the respondents also rate the quality of the programme high even though the respondents in Mandalay receive the programme the least. In Yangoon/ Rangoon and Maywaddy, the respondents receive DVB Youth Voice the most. However, interestingly enough, in these regions the quality of the programme is rated as relatively low. This contradiction should be seen as another point for further investigation by DVB Youth Voice. Is DVB Youth Voice informing their audience? When differentiating between the respondents that have seen DVB Youth Voice and the respondents that have not seen DVB Youth Voice it appears that the respondents that have never seen the programme tend to prefer relatively more soft news topics (‘health’, ‘sports’, ‘entertainment’ and ‘religion’) in comparison to the respondents that do watch DVB Youth Voice. The respondents that do watch DVB Youth Voice have more interest in ‘science’, ‘politics in other countries’, ‘economy’, ‘war & conflict’. Naturally, this result cannot only be attributed to DVB Youth Voice as there could be other variables that influence this result (type of school, type of family etc.). Nonetheless, based on this data it can be stated that children in Burma who watch DVB Youth Voice are more eager to obtain information about hard news topics in comparison to children that do not watch the programme. Thus, is DVB Youth Voice informing their audience? It depends on which target-group DVB Youth Voice aims to reach. If they only focus on viewers younger than 16 years, they do not reach and inform their audience, since it was indicated that this age group rates the quality low and do not feel engaged and empowered by the programme. Though, when DVB Youth Voice is aiming to reach teens that are 16 years and older, it can be stated that, based on this data, the programme is informing, engaging, and empowering teens. Besides the fact that they reach the audience that is 16 years and older, DVB Youth Voice is also reaching secondary audiences since most respondents watch the programme with their parents.

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Ghana

This section covers the data gathered in Ghana, where Multi TV produces and broadcasts the programme News Generation. ‘News Generation’ is a news bulletin of approximately 30 minutes, which is produced by the Ghana News for Kids production team. The target audience of News Generation is children and youth between 12 and 15 years. The programme is aired by Multi TV on its channels 4Kids (2.30pm on Sunday, 4:30pm on Wednesday) and JoyNews (4.00pm on Sunday, 4:30pm on Thursday) and re-broadcast by Viasat (9: 30am on Saturday). This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards News Generation television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Accra, Kumasi, Cape Coast, Takoradi, Ho, Dhankuta, Koforidua and Tamale. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/ News Generation, 3) coverage of important topics by News Generation, 4) level of engagement with News Generation, 5) empowerment as a news consumer, and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

544 respondents

Gender

228 boys, 316 girls

Areas

Accra, Kumasi, Cape Coast, Takoradi, Ho, Dhankuta, Koforidua and Tamale

Age ranges

11- 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

96% 4%

(N= 522) (N= 22)

The local partner in Ghana conducted the survey with an age group which they perceived as their target audience. Therefore mainly respondents between the ages of 11- 15 were interviewed by the local partner. In the analysis of this data, the variable age was operationalised in two categories where 0 = 11 and younger than 15 and 1= 16 years and older. But minimal data was collected in the 16 years and older category in Ghana. Based on this result it is decided to not include the variable age in this country report. However, outliers will be acknowledged, as it is not invalid data.

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (87%), social networks (4%), Internet (3%), and radio (2%). Gender As shown in the table below television is the main medium for both genders to receive the news. Girls (90%) tend to receive the news relatively more via television than boys (82%). Boys obtain the news more from social networks (7%, girls 1%), Internet (6%, girls 2%) or radio (3%, girls 2%). Only girls indicate that they receive the news via friends and family. Main way of getting the news versus gender

Region In all regions television is the most popular medium. In Cape Coast, Ho and Dhankuta the respondents indicate to only receive the news via television. In Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi and Ho the respondents indicate to also receive the news via social networks and internet, however the percentages are very low.

What is the frequency of getting the news? The majority of the respondents indicate they watch the news at least once a day (52%), at least once a week (41%) or once at least once a month (2%). Gender Boys (54% at least once a day) tend to receive the news more frequently than girls (50% at least once a day). Region The respondents from most regions receive the news at least once a day or at least once a week. In Kumasi, Takoradi, Ho and Tamale there are a few respondents that receive the news once a month.

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What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the most mentioned topics that are considered important are: 1. Education (89%) 2. Health (76%) 3. Science, technology & IT and Human Rights (74%) Gender Regarding most important topics selected by the audience there are differences visible between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘human rights’, ‘arts & culture’, ‘health’, and ‘entertainment’ are most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘science’, ‘technology & IT’, ‘economy’, and ‘politics in your own country’ are most important. Both boys and girls score equally on the topic ‘education’. Most important topics for boys/ girls

Region In all regions ‘education’ is selected the most. In Kumasi the respondents think ‘health’ is relatively more important in comparison to the other regions. ‘Politics in your own country’ and ‘politics in other countries’ are seen as least important topics in all regions. Age When checking the topics for age it appears that the respondents older than 16 years rate ‘education’, ‘health’, ‘human rights’, ‘arts & culture’ and ‘war & conflict’ higher than the respondents younger than 16 years. The respondents younger than 16 years only score higher on the topic ‘politics in other countries’.

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2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from News Generation? From all the respondents the majority sees News Generation at least once a week (82%), once a day (8%) or once a month (8%). There is no convincing difference between boys and girls. Age Notable is that from the few interviewed respondents in the older age group, they indicate to watch News Generation at least once a week. Region In Accra, the respondents watch News Generation most frequently, followed by Takoradi and Tamale. In Koforidua the respondents receive News Generation the least.

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 544 to 532.

What medium is used most to watch News Generation? The medium that is used most to receive News Generation is live TV broadcasts (96%), followed by social media updates (2%) and Live radio broadcasts (1%). Gender Boys (3%) tend to receive News Generation slightly more via social media than girls (2%), however this difference is very small and not convincing. Only boys have indicated that they use web podcasts/ downloads to receive the programme, and only girls use live web streaming and live radio broadcasts to receive News Generation. Region In all regions television is the most used medium. Only in Accra and Takoradi has it been indicated that News Generation is watched via Live radio broadcasts. News Generation is followed via social media updates in the regions Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi and Tamale.

Where is the main place you watch/listen to News Generation? Most of the respondents receive News Generation ‘at home’ (98%) or ‘at other homes’ (2%). There are no indicative differences between genders and region.

Who are the main people you watch/listen to News Generation with? Most of the respondents that receive News Generation watch the programme with their siblings (39%), on their own (25%), with their parents (24%), with their friends (9%), or with their relatives (3%). Gender The data shows that there are slight differences between girls and boys. Boys tend to watch News Generation slightly more with their siblings (41%) and parents (25%) than girls (parents = 23%; siblings = 38%). Girls (27%) watch News Generation relatively more on their own than boys (23%).

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Region In all regions the respondents mainly watch News Generation with their siblings, on their own or with their parents. The respondents that are from Cape Coast indicate that they always watch with their friends (100%). In Accra (44%) and in Tamale (46%) the respondents mainly prefer to watch together with their siblings. Only in Accra the respondents watch News Generation with their classmates, however this is only 1%.

3. Ideal way of receiving News Generation What is the ideal way of getting News Generation? Most of the respondents (76%) think the ideal way of getting News Generation is through Live TV Broadcasts, followed by social media updates (11%) and Live radio broadcasts (3%). Gender There is a slight difference visible between boys and girls. Girls indicate more often (79%) than boys (71%) that the ideal way of receiving News Generation is via Live Television broadcasts. Boys (15%) tend to think that social media updates are more ideal in comparison to girls (9%). In addition, boys would prefer to receive the programme via radio (5%) and live web streaming (3%) than girls (radio = 2%; live web streaming = 1%). Ideal medium to receive News Generation versus gender

Region In all regions television is indicated as the most ideal medium of receiving News Generation. However in Accra, relatively more respondents than in the other regions argue that receiving News Generation via social media updates and radio would be most ideal. Also in the region Ho the respondents indicate that social media would be an ideal medium to receive the programme.

What could be improved in terms of content of News Generation? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘science, technology & IT’ (45%) and ‘music, film & entertainment’ (44%) were indicated as topics that could be treated more in the News Generation content. A few respondents selected ‘economics’ as treated too much (14%) in the content of News Generation.

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Differences between gender From the data it appears that boys would like to see more topics about ‘politics in other countries’, ‘politics in their own country’ and ‘sports’. Girls want to see more items covering ‘arts & culture’, ‘health and health care’, and ‘religion’. Differences between seen and not seen When separating the data between the respondents that have seen News Generation and the respondents that have not, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme select most often topics such as ‘education’, ‘health’, ‘religion’, ‘ human rights’, ‘entertainment’, and ‘environment and natural disasters’. The respondents that do watch News Generation scored high on ‘education’, ‘science’, ‘sports’, ‘crime and accidents’. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen News Generation

Suggested topics by children Through an open question it was asked whether there were any other topics then listed in the questionnaire that are important for the respondents. The following topics were mentioned the most: - Sexual education and rights - Drug abuse - Teenage pregnancy - Child labour/ abuse/ trafficking - Sanitation

What is the overall quality of News Generation? Gender/ age/ region The overall quality of News Generation was rated as very good (66%) or good (29%). Only 1% rated the quality as bad (1%) or very bad (1%). Girls rate the quality relatively higher than boys. From the respondents that appeared to rate the quality as bad, the majority appears to be boys. Overall, the quality of News Generation is rated as good or very good. However, in Accra, Takoradi, and Ho a few respondents indicated the quality as bad or very bad.

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By using an open question respondents were asked how News Generation could improve the overall quality of the show. The following five ideas were mentioned most frequently: - Produce more items about international news; - Give opportunity for young people to participate (also in other regions than just Accra); - Not only cover items based in Accra but also in other regions; - Discuss relevant topics which can bring change in young peoples lives; - Broadcast more on social media, social media updates.

4. Level of Engagement with News Generation In order to determine the level of engagement with News Generation, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicates a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “News Generation is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / News Generation informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / News Generation helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/ watching News Generation/ News Generation regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “News Generation helps me feel for children in other parts of the world” (52% agrees, 37% strongly agrees), and “News Generation is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” (53% agrees, 40% strongly agrees). Though, there were also some negatives responses on amongst others the statements “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching News Generation” (15% disagrees, 3% strongly disagrees) and on “News Generation informs me better about important news topics than adult news” (17% disagrees, 4% strongly disagrees). Gender When filtering this data on gender, it appears that there are differences visible between genders. Boys tend to disagree more with the 10 engagement statements than girls. As shown in the table below the statement “News Generation news stories cover a very wide range and mix of topics/issues” gives a good representation of a statement where boys react relatively more negatively than girls. One statement of which girls reacted negatively was “I cannot easily relate to all of the News Generation news presenters”. Level of engagement News Generation versus gender

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5. Level of Empowerment by News Generation In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all of 5 statements indicates a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “News Generation gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / News Generation makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / News Generation takes me seriously as a young citizen / News Generation has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / News Generation has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agrees or strongly agrees with the 5 empowerment questions. For the statement “News Generation gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” respondents answered the most positively (57% agrees, 32% strongly agrees). In addition, positive answers were selected for the statement “News Generation takes me seriously as a young citizen” (51% agrees, 37% strongly agrees). On the statement “News Generation has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics” respondents reacted most negative in comparison to the other statements (16% disagrees). Gender There are differences between boys and girls regarding the level of empowerment of News Generation. Girls generally agree more with the empowerment statements, whereas boys disagree or have ‘no opinion’ more often. There are two statements where some of the respondents responded negatively. On the statement “News Generation makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions” (11% of the boys disagreed, 3% strongly disagreed). Nevertheless, there was also one statement on which girls disagreed more: ‘News Generation has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics’. The table below clearly depicts this disagreement. Level of empowerment versus gender

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6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups Since minimal data was collected in the 16 years and older category in Ghana, it was decided to not include the variable age in this country report. As mentioned, the outliers would be acknowledged, as it is not invalid data. Notable was that from the few interviewed respondents that were 16 years and older, all the respondents indicated to watch News Generation at least once a week. This indicates that respondents besides those younger than 16 years watch News Generation, as the programme is also viewed by teens that are 16 years and older. Although the target-group of News Generation are children from 12 – 15, it clearly also reaches older teens. Conclusions difference between gender From the data it appeared that both boys and girls receive News Generation equally, namely once a week. Furthermore, from the data it appeared that girls rate the quality of News Generation higher than boys, and feel more engaged with and empowered by the programme. Boys generally disagreed more on the statements of engagement and empowerment. Regardless of the result that News Generation has not encouraged girls to become more active in local/school politics and that they cannot easily relate to the news presenters, it appeared from the data that News Generation is more appealing, engaging and empowering to girls. Conclusions difference between regions In Accra the respondents watch News Generation most frequently, followed by Takoradi and Tamale. In Koforidua the respondents receive News Generation the least. The quality of News Generation was mostly rated as good. However, in Accra, Takoradi, and Ho there were a few respondents that indicated the quality as bad or very bad. Is News Generation informing their audience? It was expected that respondents that do not watch News Generation would think that ‘soft news topics’ such as ‘sports’ and ‘entertainment’ are more important to them in comparison to the News Generation viewers. However, the data did not support this assumption. Non-viewers tend to have more interest in more soft news topics such as ‘health’, ‘religion’, ‘entertainment’, and ‘environment and natural disasters’, however they also indicated that ‘ education’ and ‘ human rights’ are important topics to them. Besides this, the News Generation viewers also indicated great interest in soft news topics such as ‘sports’ and ‘crime and accidents’. Based on this data the only recommendation would be that these topic preferences can be used by News Generation as indicators on how to further develop the program. The overall quality of News Generation was mainly rated as good or very good. Only a few respondents rated the quality as bad or very bad. In addition, the programme appeared to have high viewership. From the 544 respondents, 532 indicated to have ever seen the programme, which is a good representation. Besides the fact that News Generation reaches their own perceived target group (children from the age 12 to 15), it appeared that the programme also reaches teens of 16 years and older at least once a week. Additionally, since many respondents watch News Generation with their parents, it is also reaching adults. Based on these results it can be assumed that News Generation is informing teens but also adults. However, this can only be an assumption, since in this research not enough data was available to make these conclusions. Based on all the observations above, it can be stated that many respondents know News Generation as a news for kids bulletin, that the viewers are very positive about the quality of the programme, and that they do feel engaged with and empowered by the programme. The majority of the respondents indicated that News Generation helps them feel for children in other parts of the world and that the programme is very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world. In addition, the respondents indicate that News Generation gives young people a platform and voice that can be heard and that it takes them seriously as young citizens. Though the sample is very small, based on the data that is available, and not taking into account other variables that could influence the News Generation audience (such as culture, type of family, type of school, etc.), it can be stated that News Generation is informing, engaging and empowering their primary audience, as well as secondary sources such as parent, and other relatives.

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Indonesia

This section covers the data gathered in Indonesia, where Tempo Media Group produces and broadcasts the programme Tempo Youth. ‘Tempo Youth’ is a digital news bulletin that is produced by the News for Kids Indonesia production team. The programme is aired through AORA TV, Usee and 22 local television stations in Indonesia. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards Tempo Youth television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Jakarta, Bandung, Depok, Bekasi, West Java, Cisarua, Cileungsi. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/ Tempo Youth, 3) coverage of important topics by Tempo Youth, 4) level of engagement with Tempo Youth, 5) empowerment as a news consumer, and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

520 respondents

Gender

210 boys, 310 girls

Areas

Jakarta, Bandung, Depok, Bekasi, West Java, Cisarua, Cileungsi

Age ranges

11 - 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

56% 44%

(N= 290) (N= 230)

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (46%), Internet (17%), friends and family (16%) and social networks (14%. Also newspapers and magazines (3%) and radio (2%) are used to receive the news but less often. Gender Television is the main medium for both genders to receive the news. Girls (21%) tend to receive the news relatively more via friends in comparison to boys (10%). Boys receive the news more via social media networks (17%) and radio (5%) compared to girls (social networks =12%; radio=0%). Age Respondents that are 16 years and older receive the news mainly via television (54%) than the respondents younger than 16 years (39%). The younger respondents (28%) get the news more via friends and family than the respondents 16 years and older (1%). Region As shown in the table below, in all regions television is the most popular medium. In Depok the respondents tend to receive the news relatively more via Internet and social networks in comparison to the other regions. In Cileungsi the respondents also obtain the news via friends and family. Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? The majority of the respondents indicate they watch the news at least once a day (45%) or at least once a week (22%). Gender Boys (60% at least once a day) tend to receive the news more frequently than girls (35% at least once a day). Age As shown in the table below, the respondents that are 16 years and older get the news evidently more frequently than the respondents that are 16 years or younger.

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Frequency of getting the news versus age

Region The respondents from most regions receive the news at least once a day or at least once a week. In Bandung there are a few respondents that receive the news once a month and in Cileungsi, Jakarta and ‘other regions than mentioned in the questionnaire’ there are a few respondents who indicate that they never obtain the news.

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the most mentioned topics that are considered important are: 1. Entertainment (78%) 2. Education (71%) 3. Arts & Culture (61%) Gender Regarding most important topics by the audience there is an evident difference visible between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘education’, ‘arts & culture’ and ‘health’ are most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘science’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘politics in other countries’ are most important. Most important topics for boys/ girls

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Age There is a visible difference between respondents younger than 16 years and the respondents that are 16 years and older. As shown in the table below, the respondents that are 16 years and older clearly have an interest for more topics than the younger respondents. The older respondents prefer topics such as ‘entertainment’, ‘arts & culture’, ‘science’, ‘crime & accidents’, ‘sports’ and ‘religion, whereas the younger respondents only score higher on the topics of ‘education’. The respondents younger than 16 score also high on the topic ‘entertainment’, however not as high as the respondents that are 16 years and older. Most important topics versus age

Region Between regions there are convincing differences. The topics ‘education’, ‘entertainment’ and ‘sports’ are clearly seen as important topics in every region. An exception is West Java, where the respondents prefer the topic of ‘sports’ clearly above ‘education’. In Depok the respondents seem relatively more interested in the topic ‘science’ in comparison to the other regions. In Cileugnsi the respondents seem relatively more interested in the topic ‘health’ in comparison to the other regions. The topics ‘economy’, ‘politics in your own country’, ‘politics in other countries’ and ‘war and conflict’ seem to be the least important topics for respondents in all regions.

2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from Tempo Youth? From all the respondents the majority has never seen Tempo Youth (78%). The few that watch Tempo Youth watch the programme at least once a month (8%) or at least once a year (9%). Girls tend to receive Tempo Youth more in comparison to boys. Age From the respondents that have never seen Tempo Youth the majority is younger than 16 (82%). The respondents that are 16 years and older score evidently higher on whether they watch the programme than the younger respondents. For the respondents that watch Tempo Youth, the “at least once a year” category is most selected for both categories.

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Receiving Tempo Youth versus age

Region Regarding region, it can be observed that in Depok the respondents receive Tempo Youth the most, followed respondents from Bandung. In Jakarta the respondents receive Temp Youth the least.

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 520 to 78.

What medium is used most to watch Tempo Youth? The medium that is used most to receive Tempo Youth is social media updates (50%), followed by live web streaming (24%), web podcasts / downloads (19%) and live television broadcasts (5%). Gender Girls use social networks to follow Tempo Youth (51%) more than boys (48%). Boys tend to follow the programme more on television (8%) in comparison to girls (4%). Both genders get Tempo Youth rather equally via web podcasts/ downloads (25%). Age As shown in the table below, the respondents younger than 16 years old receive Tempo Youth more via social media updates when compared to respondents that are 16 years and older. The respondents that are 16 years and older get Tempo Youth more via live web streaming, web podcasts and downloads and via other people.

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Medium to watch Tempo Youth versus age

Region As shown in the table below, in Cisarua and in Depok, respondents only receive Tempo Youth via social media updates. In Cileungsi most respondents receive the programme via web podcasts / downloads. Jakarta and Bandung are the only places where respondents receive Tempo Youth via live TV broadcasts. Medium to watch Tempo Youth versus region

Where is the main place you watch/listen to Tempo Youth? Most of the respondents that watch Tempo Youth receive it ‘mobile/ on the move’ (31%), ‘at home’ (22%), ‘at another public space’ (21%), ‘another private place’ (10%), ‘work’ (8%), or at ‘school’ (6%). Gender Girls get Tempo Youth evidently more when they are at ‘home’ (26%) or ‘mobile/ on the move’ (34%) than boys (home = 12%, Mobile= 24%). Boys (40%) receive Tempo Youth relatively more in ‘another public place’, compared to girls (11%).

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Age As shown in the table below, there are differences regarding the places in which the respondents watch Tempo Youth. The respondents younger than 16 years mainly receive the programme at ‘home’ or at ‘school’, whereas the older respondents receive Tempo Youth more when they are at ‘work’, ‘another public space’ or ‘mobile/on the move’. Place to watch Tempo Youth versus age

Region Between regions there are a few differences. Both ‘home’ and ‘mobile/on the move’ appear to be the main places where the respondents in all regions receive Tempo Youth. In Jakarta, Bandung and West Java, the respondents also receive the programme at ‘school’, but also at ‘work’. ‘Another private place’ is also indicated relatively often by the respondents from Bandung, Bekasi and Cisarua.

Who are the main people you watch/listen to Tempo Youth with? Most of the respondents that receive Tempo Youth watch the programme on their own (64%), with their friends (15%), with others (8%), with siblings (5%) and parents and relatives (3%). Gender The data shows that there is a difference between girls and boys. Boys (76%) tend to watch Tempo Youth more on their own than girls (58%). Girls seem to watch the programme more with their parents (4%) or friends (19%) than boys (parents = 0%; friends = 8%). Age The respondents from the 16 years and older age group watch Tempo Youth mainly on their own (70%), with their friends (14%), or colleagues (2%), whereas the respondents younger than 16 watch it on their own (54%), with their parents (7%), siblings (11%), with friends (18%) or with classmates (4%). Region As the table below indicates, between regions there are differences. For example, in all regions the respondents mainly watch Tempo Youth on their own or with their friends. Jakarta appears to be the only region where the respondents watch together with their parents. Bandung and Depok are the only regions where the respondents watch with their relatives, and in Jakarta, Bandung, Depok and Cileugnsi the respondents watch with their siblings. Bandung appears to be the only place where the respondents watch with their classmates.

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Main people to watch Tempo Youth with versus region

3. Ideal way of getting Tempo Youth What is the ideal way of getting Tempo Youth? Most of the respondents (78%) think the ideal way of getting Tempo Youth is through “None of these”. From the respondents that do have an idea of how they would ideally receive the programme is via Live TV broadcasts (14%), social media updates (4%) and via web podcasts / downloads (3%). Gender There is a slight difference visible between boys and girls. Girls indicate slightly more (5%) than boys (3%) that the ideal way of receiving Tempo Youth is via social media networks. Girls (16%) tend to think that live television broadcast is more of an ideal way to receive the programme in comparison to boys (10%). Age There are no indicative differences between the two groups. The respondents that are 16 years and older slightly prefer to ideally receive Tempo Youth via social media updates (8%) than the respondents younger than 16 years (2%). Region There are no indicative differences between regions. ‘None of these’ remains the category that is selected the most in every region. In Bandung respondents indicate the most ideal way to receive the news is via Live TV broadcasts. In Depok respondents prefer social media updates relatively more than in the other regions and in Bekasi respondents indicate to receive Tempo Youth preferably via web podcasts / downloads.

What could be improved in terms of content of Tempo Youth? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘sports’ (63%), ‘crime and accidents’ (86%) and ‘economic news’ (50%) were indicated as topics that could be treated more in the Tempo Youth content. A few respondents selected topics regarding ‘human rights’ as treated too much (22%) in the content of Tempo Youth.

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Differences between gender From the data it appears that boys would like to see more topics about ‘science, technology and IT’, ‘education’ and ‘arts & culture’. Girls want to see more items covered about ‘human rights’ and ‘environment and natural disasters’. Note that ‘human rights’ was also selected as treated too much. When checking for gender it appears that mainly boys think that ‘human rights’ is treated too much in the items. Differences between age When filtering the data on age, it becomes evident that there are differences between the age groups regarding preferred topics. The respondents that are 16 years and older think Tempo Youth should cover the topics ‘science and technology & IT’, ‘religion’, ‘music, film and entertainment’ and ‘ arts & culture’ more. The respondents that are younger than 16 years would mainly like to see more topics on ‘sports’. Differences between seen and not seen When separating the data between the respondents that have seen Tempo Youth and the respondents that have not, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme score highest on (select most often) topics such as ‘education’ (73%), ‘arts & culture’ (63%), ‘religion’ (54%), ‘sports’, ‘crime & accidents’ (21%), and ‘human rights’ (15%). The respondents that do watch Tempo Youth scored relatively lower on all topics, but they did score higher on ‘science’ (46%), ‘environment and natural disasters’ (41%) and ‘health’ (40%). Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen Tempo Youth

What is the overall quality of Tempo Youth? Gender / age / region The overall quality of Tempo Youth was rated as good (65%) or very good (27%). Boys rate the quality relatively higher than girls. There is no convincing difference between the two age groups. Between regions the quality is rated similar, namely as ‘good’ or ‘very good’.

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4. Level of Engagement with Tempo Youth In order to determine the level of engagement with Tempo Youth, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicated a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Tempo Youth is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / Tempo Youth informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / Tempo Youth helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Tempo Youth / Tempo Youth regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “I can always understand what the key issues are in any Tempo Youth news story” (86% agrees, 1% strongly agrees), and “Tempo Youth is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” (79% agrees, 13% strongly agrees). Gender When filtering this data on gender, it appears that there are slight differences visible between genders. From the few respondents that disagree with the statements it appears that relatively more boys tend to disagree more with the 10 engagement statements. The statement “I can very easily relate to all of the Tempo Youths news presenters” gives a good representation of a statement where boys react relatively more negatively than girls. Level of engagement with Tempo Youth versus gender

Age Between the different age groups there is no consistent difference evident. Most of the respondents mainly agree or strongly agree with the engagement statement. Nevertheless, it appears that the respondents that are 16 years and older tend to disagree more often with the 10 statements than the respondents younger than 16 years. The only statement the younger respondents disagreed more on is ‘Tempo Youth regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live’.

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5. Level of Empowerment by Tempo Youth In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all of 5 statements indicated a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Tempo Youth gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / Tempo Youth makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / Tempo Youth takes me seriously as a young citizen / Tempo Youth has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / Tempo Youth has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agrees or strongly agrees with the 5 empowerment questions. For the statement “Tempo Youth makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions” respondents answered the most positively (79% agrees, 6% strongly agrees). In addition, positive answers were selected for the statement “Tempo Youth has helped me to make better decisions about my future” (76% agrees, 6% strongly agrees). There were few respondents that reacted negatively on a couple of the statements, however this is small percentage. Gender There are differences between boys and girls regarding the level of empowerment of Tempo Youth. Girls generally disagree more with the empowerment statements, whereas boys have ‘no opinion’ more often. However these are small percentages. There are two statements where some of the respondents responded negatively. On the statement ‘Tempo Youth has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics’, 2% of the girls disagreed. On the statement ‘Tempo Youth has helped to make better decisions about my future”, 5% of the boys disagreed. Age Between the different age groups it appears that the respondents younger than 16 mainly agree, or have no opinion on the statements. Respondents that are 16 years and older tend to disagree slightly more, however this difference is not convincing.

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups From the findings it appeared there were differences between the two age groups. These differences became mainly visible in the viewing behaviour of the respondents. For instance, the respondents from the 16 years and older age group watch Tempo Youth mainly on their own, with their friends or with colleagues, whereas the younger respondents watch more with their parents, siblings and classmates. In fact, the 16 years and older respondents watch Tempo Youth more than the younger respondents. However, these older respondents disagreed more with the engagement and empowerment statements than the respondents younger than 16 years. This difference was small, therefore not convincing. It was evident that both age groups strongly agreed with both the empowerment and engagement statements. Based on the findings above it can be stated that both age groups felt engaged and empowered by Tempo Youth. Conclusions difference between gender From the findings it appeared that the differences between boy and girls were mainly related to media use matters. Girls get Tempo Youth more when they are at home than boys and also watch it with their parents and siblings. Boys get Tempo Youth more in ‘another public place’ and watch it on their own or with friends. Furthermore, it appeared that girls receive Tempo Youth more in comparison to boys. Girls tended to disagree slightly more with statements about the level of empowerment, however, boys disagreed more with the statements about the level engagement of Tempo Youth. Nevertheless, boys rated the quality of the programme higher than girls.

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Thus, based on these findings it could be observed that Tempo Youth appears to be more appealing and engaging to girls, even though they think the quality of the programme can be improved, and more engaging to boys. However, it must be taken into account that the sample size was small, so the sample is not very representative of Tempo Youthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s audience. The sample must be increased to find out whether these conclusions can be generalized. Conclusions difference between regions It was assumed by Free Press Unlimited that Jakarta would be the region were Tempo Youth is received the most, since Tempo Media Group is based there. However, the data suggests that in Depok the respondents receive Tempo Youth the most, followed by respondents from Bandung. In Jakarta the respondents actually receive Tempo Youth the least. So based on this, the assumption above cannot be accepted. This contradiction should be a further point of investigation. In addition, Jakarta and Bandung are the only places where respondents receive Tempo Youth via live TV broadcasts. In the other regions respondents watch the programme more via social media updates and via web podcasts / downloads. Again, it was assumed by Free Press Unlimited that digital media is used more in the bigger cities, because of the tendency for urban areas to have an advanced media infrastructure, however in this sample, the rural areas of Indonesia, Cileungsi and Cisarua, appeared to use digital media more. Is Tempo Youth informing their audience? When separating the data between the respondents that have seen Tempo Youth and the respondents that have not, it appears that those who have never seen the programme score generally higher on almost all topics that were listed in the questionnaire. The respondents that do watch Tempo Youth scored lower, with an exception of a few, on all topics. From these findings it can be concluded that the non-watchers generally have more interest in a larger number of topics and seem more eager to obtain information about a various range of topics in comparison to watchers of Tempo Youth. It can be assumed that if these non-viewers would start watching Tempo Youth, this urge for information could be fulfilled. These non- Tempo Youth viewers are an attractive potential target group to focus on in the future. It would be interesting to further study the ways to reach this group. However, it must be noted that the data of the Tempo Youth watchers versus the non Tempo Youth watchers is skewed. The size of the sample that was used to measure the effects and media behaviour of the audience was very small. From the 520 respondents, only 78 respondents were left that had ever seen Tempo Youth. Nevertheless, the fact that such a small group had ever seen the programme is a result on itself. Though the data cannot be generalized, the 78 respondents can give an insight into the watching behaviour of Tempo Youth audiences and can be used in promoting the programme to reach a bigger audience. Disregarding the above-mentioned limitation, the Tempo Youth watchers do feel engaged with and empowered by the programme. The majority of the respondents indicated that they could always understand what the key issues are in any Tempo Youth news story and they argue that the programme is very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world. Besides this, the respondents indicate that Tempo Youth makes them feel more confident that people will listen to their opinions and that Tempo Youth has helped them to make better decisions about their future. Though the sample is very small, based on the data that is available, and not taking into account other variables that could influence this effect the Tempo Youth audience (culture, type of family, type of school), it can be stated that Tempo Youth is informing, engaging and empowering their audience.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Nepal

This section covers the data gathered in Nepal, where Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists produces and broadcasts the programme Naya Pusta. ‘Naya Pusta’ is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 15 minutes that is produced by the news for kids Nepal production team. The programme is aired through NTV Plus and is also regularly broadcast by 11 regional television stations across Nepal. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards the Naya Pusta television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improving the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as background information for future applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Kathmandu, Pokhara, Butwal, Kavrepalanchok and Dhankuta. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/Naya Pusta, 3) coverage of important topics by Naya Pusta, 4) level of engagement with Naya Pusta, 5) empowerment as a news consumer and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

505 respondents

Gender

259 boys, 246 girls

Areas

Kathmandu, Pokhara, Butwal, Kavrepalanchok and Dhankuta

Age ranges

11 – 15 years 16 years and older

90% 10%

(N= 457) (N = 48)

Originally “age” was operationalized as 11 and younger, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years and older. From all data (global) it appeared that the 16-year and older age group was significantly bigger. To make the variable less skewed for the analysis it was decided to create a new variable “age” that has two categories where 0 = 11 and younger to 15 and 1= 16 years and older.

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (79%), radio (7%) and newspapers and magazines (7%. Internet is also used to receive the news (3%). Gender From the data it appeared that there is no indicative difference between genders regarding receiving the news via television, however girls (9%) tend to receive the news relatively more through newspaper and magazines in comparison to boys (5%). On the other hand, boys (10%) listen to the news more via radio than girls (5%). Though these differences are rather small. Age Respondents that are younger than 16 years (80%) old watch relatively more television than the respondents that are16 years and older (73%). The respondents that are 16 years and older (10%) use newspapers and magazines slightly more in comparison to the respondents younger than 16 years (7%). The younger respondents tend to listen to the radio relatively more, however this difference is very small. Region As shown in the table below, in all regions television is the most popular medium. In the ‘other regions than listed in the questionnaire’, the respondents tend to use radio more in comparison to the other regions. The respondents in Dhankuta only receive the news via ‘other media than mentioned in the questionnaire’, thus they do not receive the news via television, radio, newspapers/magazines or Internet. It would be interesting to further study in which way these respondents receive their news then. The respondents from Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchok get the news most via newspapers/magazines. In Pokhara the respondents get the news most via Internet out of all the regions. Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? Gender/ Age/ Region The majority of the respondents indicate they receive the news at least once a day (75%) or at least once a week (19%). Boys tend to receive the news more frequently than girls. However this difference is very small. There is no convincing difference visible between ages.

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Regarding regions, it appears that the majority of the respondents get their news at least once a day, whereas the ‘other regions than mentioned in the questionnaire’ get the news most frequently in comparison to the other regions. As shown in the table below, in Dhankuta all respondents were not sure how frequently they receive the news. Frequency of getting the news versus region

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents, the most mentioned topics that are considered as important are: 1. Education (83%) 2. Arts & Culture (78%) 3. Science (76%) Gender There is a small difference visible between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘religion’, ‘human rights’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘science’, ‘entertainment’, and ‘economy’, are most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘crime and accidents’, ‘politics in their own country’, ‘war and conflict’ and ‘health’ are most important. Most important topics for gender

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Age There are no indicative differences visible between respondents younger than 16 years and respondents 16 years and older. The two age groups seem to agree on which topics are most important to them. Both age groups view the topics of ‘education, ‘health’ and ‘science’ as most important. ‘War & conflict’ is seen as least important to both age groups. Region Between regions there are evident differences visible. In the table below, it appears that in Pokhara and Kavrepalanchok the respondents think that almost all listed topics important. On the contrary, in Dhankuta the respondents only think that ‘human rights’ is an important topic. The topics ‘war & conflict’ and ‘politics in your own country’ are seen as least important in every region. Most important topics versus regions

2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from Naya Pusta? From all the respondents 10% receives Naya Pusta once a month, once a week (3%) or once a day (3%). Majority of the respondents had never seen the programme (23%) or were not sure whether they have seen the programme (54%). There are no indicative differences between genders. Age Between the different age groups the differences are visible, yet not convincing. The respondents younger than 16 years tend to receive Naya Pusta slightly more than the respondents that are 16 years and older. Region As shown in the table below, respondents from Kathmandu receive Naya Pusta most frequently, followed by Pokhara, Butwal and lastly Kavrepalanchok. Note that the respondents from Dhankuta claim to have never seen Naya Pusta. Regardless the differences between the regions, the overall majority of the respondents indicate that they have never seen or are not sure whether they have seen the programme.

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Receiving Naya Pusta versus region

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 505 to 115.

What medium is used most to watch Naya Pusta? Gender The medium that is used most to watch Naya Pusta is live television broadcast (85%). Some of the respondents also receive Naya Pusta via live radio broadcasts (10%) and or live web streaming (1%). Girls tend to follow the programme more on television (93%) in comparison to boys (78%). Boys (13%) use radio to listen to Naya Pusta more than girls (7%). Age The respondents that are 16 years or older (92%) receive Naya Pusta slightly more via television and web podcasts when compared to respondents that are younger than 16 years (84%). The respondents that are younger than 16 years (11%) tend to use radio more to receive Naya Pusta than the respondents that are 16 years and older (8%). Region In all regions television is the most popular medium to receive Naya Pusta. From the table below it becomes visible that in ‘the other regions than listed in the questionnaire’ the respondents receive Naya Pusta evidently more via radio than other regions. In addition, live web streaming appears to be a medium to receive Naya Pusta by these respondents. In Pokhara the respondents indicate they only use television to receive the programme.

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Medium to watch Naya Pusta versus region

Where is the main place you watch/listen to Naya Pusta? Most of the respondents that receive Naya Pusta watch/listen the programme at ‘home’ (90%), ‘at other homes’ (4%) or ‘at school’ (2%). Gender Girls (95%) watch relatively more ‘at home’ than boys (85%). Boys tend to watch in ‘other homes’ or ‘other places’ than mentioned in the questionnaire more than girls. Age The respondents that are 16 years and older watch Naya Pusta only ‘at home’ (100%). The respondents that are younger than 16 years watch the programme not only ‘at home’ (88%), but also in ‘other homes’ (5%) and ‘schools’ (2%). Region When considering regions there are not many differences. In all regions Naya Pusta is primarily watched at home. Only in the ‘other regions than listed in the questionnaire’, other homes and school are preferred as places to watch Naya Pusta in comparison to the other regions.

Who are the main people you watch/listen to Naya Pusta with? Most of the respondents that watch Naya Pusta watch the programme with their parents (49%), with their siblings (24%), on their own (17%), or with other relatives (5%). Gender From the table below it is visible that there are differences between girls and boys regarding the people they watch Naya Pusta with. Girls (58%) tend to watch Naya Pusta more with their parents than boys (40%). Boys tend to watch the programme slightly more on their own, with their siblings or with friends.

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Main people to watch Naya Pusta with versus gender

Age There are no indicative differences between the different age groups regarding where Naya Pusta is watched. Region As the table below indicates, between regions there are differences regarding the people with whom Naya Pusta in watched. In all regions the respondents mainly watch Naya Pusta with their parents, however, in Kavrepalanchok for example, the respondents watch just as much on their own as with their parents. In Butwal and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;other regions than listed in the questionnaireâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; the respondents watch relatively more with their siblings compared to other regions. In Pokhara the respondents mainly watch with their parents or on their own. In Kathmandu the respondents watch with a variety of people; they watch Naya Pusta on their own, with their parents, with their siblings, other relatives and also with friends. Main people to watch Naya Pusta with versus region

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3. Ideal way of receiving Naya Pusta What is the ideal way of getting Naya Pusta? Most of the respondents that watch Naya Pusta watch it using ‘other media than indicated in the questionnaire’ (55%). 19% prefers getting the programme via ‘live TV broadcasts’ or ‘live radio broadcasts’ (2%). Checking the open question whether the respondents written what these ‘other media’ are were no specific suggestions. Gender There are slight differences between boys and girls. The majority of the respondents indicate to ideally see Naya Pusta via ‘other media than listed in the questionnaire’, boys (59%) relatively more than girls (50%). Boys indicate that the ideal way of receiving Naya Pusta is via live broadcasts slightly more than girls (7%). Girls (18%) prefer receiving Naya Pusta via television a bit less than boys (21%). Age Between the different age groups there are no indicative differences. Region Most regions think ‘other media than listed in the questionnaire’ is the most ideal way to receive Naya Pusta. In Pokhara, Kavrepalanchok and Dhankuta the respondents indicate that they would ideally receive Naya Pusta using “ none of these”. This could mean that these respondents believe that the medium by which Naya Pusta currently is being broadcast by is good as it is. However, this category was not included in the question, so remains an assumption. It should be noted that in Dhankuta, where none of the respondents had ever seen Naya Pusta, the respondents did give a preference how to receive the programme, which is via ‘other media than listed in the questionnaire’. This could be an interesting starting point for further research.’

What could be improved in terms of content of Naya Pusta? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘war & conflict (47%), ‘arts & culture’ (45%) and ‘economic news’ (38%) could be covered more in the Naya Pusta content. A few respondents indicated that the topic ‘education’ is treated too much (32%) in the content of Naya Pusta. Differences between gender From the data it appears that girls want to see more items covered in Naya Pusta regarding the topics: ‘environmental & natural disasters’, ‘health and health care’, ‘human rights’, and ‘science, technology & IT’. Boys want to seem more about ‘war & conflict’, ‘economic news’, ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘arts & culture’. Differences between age When filtering the data based on age it becomes evident that there are differences between the different age groups regarding preferred topics. The respondents younger than 16 years think Naya Pusta should cover ‘arts & culture’, ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘sports’ more frequently. The respondents that are 16 years and older would like to see more on ‘arts & culture’ and ‘crime & accidents’. Differences between seen and not seen When differentiating between the respondents that have seen Naya Pusta and the respondents that have not seen Naya Pusta it appears that the respondents that have never seen the programme score lower on every preferred topic, except on the option ‘none of these’. Nevertheless, from the topics that they think are important, ‘education’ (79%), ‘arts & culture’ (74%), ‘science’ (72%), ‘health’ (73%) and ‘environment and natural disasters’ (72%), were the most preferred. The respondents that do watch Naya Pusta consider the same topics as important, only with a higher percentage: ‘education’ (96%), ‘arts & culture’ (91%), ‘science’ (88%), and ‘health’ (83%). Instead of preferring ‘environment and natural disasters’, the Naya Pusta viewers selected the topic of ‘politics in your own country’ (83%) as more important than the respondents that do not watch Naya Pusta.

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Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen Naya Pusta

What is the overall quality of Naya Pusta? Gender/ age/ region The overall quality of Naya Pusta was rated as good (72%) or very good (12%). Girls rate the quality slightly higher than boys, however this difference is not convincing. It appears that the respondents are 16 years and older seem to rate the quality Naya Pusta more often as ‘bad’. Based on this it can be stated that the respondents younger than 16 years are clearly more positive than the respondents that are 16 years and older. As shown in the table below, between regions the quality is mainly rated as “good”. In Kathmandu, Pokhara and ‘other regions than mentioned’, a small group of respondents rated Naya Pusta’s quality as very good. There is an exception of a few respondents from Kathmandu who rated the quality as ‘very bad’. Quality of Naya Pusta versus region

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4. Level of Engagement with Naya Pusta In order to determine the level of engagement with Naya Pusta, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicated a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Naya Pusta is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / Naya Pusta informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / Naya Pusta helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Naya Pusta / Naya Pusta regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions, please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “I can always understand what they keys issues are in any Naya Pusta news story” and on “I can easily relate to all of Naya Pusta’s presenters”. There is also a group that disagrees on whether they feel engaged with Naya Pusta as a programme. When looking more critically at the numbers it appears that for the statement “Naya Pusta is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world”, respondents reacted the most negative. Gender When filtering this data on the basis of gender, it appears that relatively more girls disagree with the 10 engagement statements. The results on the statement “Naya Pusta news stories cover a very wide range and mix of topics/issues” highlights how girls react more negatively than boys. The level engagement with Naya Pusta versus gender

Age The respondents that are 16 years and older tend to disagree relatively more with the 10 statements than the respondents younger than 16 years. On the statements “Naya Pusta is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” and “Naya Pusta really informs me about different opinions on important news topics” was responded most negatively by respondents that are 16 years and older. Based on this it seems that Naya Pusta is more engaging to children that are younger than 16 years.

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5. Level of Empowerment by Naya Pusta In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all 5 statements indicates a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Naya Pusta gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / Naya Pusta makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / Naya Pusta takes me seriously as a young citizen / Naya Pusta has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / Naya Pusta has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agrees with the 5 empowerment questions. On the statement “Naya Pusta takes me seriously as a young citizen” the respondents answered most positively (65% agrees, 12% strongly agrees). This also occurs for the statement “Naya Pusta gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” (70% agrees, 7% strongly agrees). At the same time, these two statements were also the statements that the respondents responded most negatively on in comparison to the other statements. Gender There are slight differences between boys and girls. The results on the statement “Naya Pusta gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” is an example of a statement where girls respond more negatively than boys. Thus, the few negative responses, as mentioned above, appear to be mainly from girls. This is also the case when looking into the statement “Naya Pusta takes me seriously as a young citizen”. Here, girls also disagree with the statement more often. The level empowerment with Naya Pusta versus gender

Age Between the different age groups, the respondents younger than 16 years old tend to disagree more with the empowerment statements when compared to the respondents of 16 plus. In the table below, an example of one of the statements on which the younger respondents clearly disagree more than the older age group is given. Based on this it seems that Naya Pusta empowers teens that are 16 years and older more.

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The level empowerment with Naya Pusta versus age

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups Although differences between the different age groups were visible, these were not very convincing. The respondents younger than 16 years old tend to watch Naya Pusta slightly more than the respondents that are 16 years and older. In addition, the respondents that are younger than 16 years felt more engaged with the Naya Pusta programme compared to the older respondents. The younger age group felt that Naya Pusta is very important for their understanding of what is going on in the world and that the programme Naya Pusta really informs them about different opinions on important news topics. Although the engagement of the younger age group is higher, the level of empowerment for this younger age group is lower than the 16 years and older respondents. The respondents that are 16 years and older felt more empowered by the programme. A possible explanation for this is that the older respondents feel more secure to state their opinion due to their age. However, this is only an assumption and cannot be supported with this data. Nonetheless, based on the findings above it can be stated that Naya Pusta is more appealing and engaging for respondents younger than 16 years, however, it empowers respondents that are 16 years and older more. Conclusions difference between gender Based on the results, it can be stated that girls feel less empowered and just slightly engaged by the Naya Pusta programme than boys. Nonetheless, girls do rate the quality of the programme higher than boys. Although girls think the quality of Naya Pusta is good, they do not think that Naya Pusta gives them a platform and voice that can be heard or that the programme sufficiently takes them seriously as a young citizen. Boys do feel empowered and engaged with the programme but rate the quality of the programme lower than girls. This result is especially interesting when taking into account the current situation regarding rights of girls in Nepal. As girls rate the quality of the programme as high, it is clear that girls appreciate the programme. It was also indicated that they feel engaged with the programme, only not as empowered. Nonetheless, this empowerment of girls is important to focus on in Nepal, since girls are still seen as a minority and have fewer rights. For example, Naya Pusta could fill an informative gap and empower girls to speak up regarding issues like child marriages, which still are a common occurrence in Nepal.

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Conclusions difference between regions Between regions, differences were visible. In all regions television is considered the most popular medium to receive the news and also specifically the Naya Pusta programme. However, the respondents in Dhankuta only receive the news via ‘other media than mentioned in the questionnaire’, thus they do not receive the news via television, radio, newspapers/magazines or Internet. It would be interesting to study how people in Dhankuta then do receive the news. Subsequently, these same respondents claim they do not receive Naya Pusta at all. Nevertheless, the respondents did give a preference on how they would ideally receive the programme, namely ‘other media than listed in the questionnaire’. For further research, it would be interesting to observe via what medium the respondents in Dkankuta would like to receive the news and Naya Pusta so that Naya Pusta could take it into consideration. From all the region-related findings, there is clearly a difference between the more urban areas and rural areas. Dhankuta seems to be the most deprived from media in general, however, these respondents indicated they would like to receive Naya Pusta. Together with Dhankuta there may be many other rural areas that would like to receive Naya Pusta in some form. Studies regarding media access to reach these more deprived regions could provide follow-up insights. Is Naya Pusta informing their audience? The main observation of this audience survey is that from all interviewed respondents, 23% had never seen Naya Pusta or were not sure whether they had seen the programme (54%). It would be interesting to further investigate why these watching rates are low. Aspects to consider could be the time-slot, channel where it is being broadcast, or access to media in general. Furthermore, techniques regarding branding and marketing strategies could also improve the awareness of the programme among the target-group. It must be noted that from all the respondents the majority were younger than 16 years. Only 10% of the respondents were 16 years or older. Therefore, the data is skewed. It would have been more informative if more respondents from the older age group were also interviewed. Then a difference between the two age-groups could be further analysed. Regardless of the skewed data, based on the findings it can still be stated that mainly children younger than 16 years that watched the programme, rated the quality as high and felt engaged with and empowered by Naya Pusta. Therefore, for the respondents younger than 16 years, Naya Pusta is informative. Furthermore, the programme is slightly engaging to girls. In addition, when separating the data between the respondents that have seen Naya Pusta and the respondents that have not seen Naya Pusta it appears that the respondents that have never seen the programme score lower on every news topic, except for the option “none of these”. This result seems to indicate that the non-watchers are less interested in the various topics. The number of non-watchers was convincingly higher, so the first assumption was that this group would score higher on the various topic categories, however the results proved that this was assumption was not supported. Thus, is Naya Pusta informative? When not taking into account the possible other variables that could influence the effect above, the response is: Yes! Based on these results, it can be stated that respondents that watch Naya Pusta are more eager to obtain information about a various amount of topics in comparison to non-watchers.

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Nicaragua

This section covers the data gathered in Nicaragua, where PROMEDIA produces and broadcasts the programme De Humo TV. ‘De Humo TV’ is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 30 minutes that is produced by the news for kids Nicaragua production team. The programme is aired through Canal 12. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards the De Humo TV television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Managua, Chinandega, Matagalpa, Carazo, and Masaya. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 12 – 16 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information 2) getting the news/De Humo TV 3) coverage of important topics by De Humo TV 4) level of engagement with De Humo TV) empowerment as a news consumer and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

553 respondents

Gender

260 boys, 293 girls

Areas

Managua, Chinandega, Matagalpa, Carazo, and Masaya

Age ranges

11- 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

25% 75%

(N= 141) (N= 412)

Originally “age” was operationalized as 11- younger, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years and older. From all data (global) it appeared that the 16 years-year and older age group was significantly bigger. To make the variable less skewed for the analysis it was decided to create a new variable “age” that has two categories where 0 = 11 and younger-15 and 1= 16 years and older.

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? Gender For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (67%) and social networks (16%). In these numbers there is no visible difference between genders. Age Respondents younger than 16 years tend to use social media networks and Internet relatively more in comparison to the respondents that are 16 years and older. Region As shown in the table below, it is visible that in all regions television is also the most popular medium. Only the respondents in Matagalpa and Masaya tend to watch less news via television and use relatively more social media networks to obtain the news. Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? The majority of the respondents indicate they watch the news at least once a day (80%) or at least once a week (14%). Gender Boys tend to watch more frequently than girls. However this difference is very small and therefore not convincing. Age There is a clear difference between age groups. It appears that respondents older than 16 years (84%) watch the news more than the respondents younger than 16 years (68%). Region Regarding regions it appears that the majority of the respondents get their news at least once a day. As shown in the table below, in Masaya, Matagalpa and the region â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, respondents never get the news.

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Frequency of getting the news versus region

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the most mentioned topics that are considered important are: 1. Education (73%) 2. Arts & Culture (73%) 3. Environment and natural disasters (70%) Gender Regarding most important topics by the audience there is a difference visible between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘arts & culture’, ‘health’, ‘entertainment’ and ‘religion’ are most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘economy’, ‘human rights’, ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘politics in their own country’ are most important. Most important topics for boys/ girls

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Age There is a visible difference between respondents younger than 16 years and respondents 16 years and older. As shown in the table below, respondents older than 16 years clearly have an interest for more hard news topics in comparison to the respondents younger than 16 years. The older respondents prefer more topics like ‘arts & culture’, ‘education’, ‘health’, ‘economy’, ‘human rights’, and ‘politics in their own’ and other countries, whereas the younger respondents prefer topics about ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘entertainment’, ‘sports’ and ‘science’. Most important topics versus age

Region Between regions there are no evident differences. From the table below it appears that ‘arts and culture’, ‘education’, ‘environment and natural disasters’ are clearly seen as important topics in every region. In Masaya the respondents seem the least interested in topics such as ‘religion’, ‘human rights’, ‘politics in other and own country’. The topics ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘war and conflict’ seem to be the least important topics for respondents in all regions. Most important topics versus regions

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2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from De Humo TV? From all the respondents, 21% watches De Humo TV at least once day, or at least once a week (10%). 30% had never seen the programme or was not sure whether they had seen the programme (34%). There is no convincing difference between genders. Age From the respondents that have never seen De Humo TV, the majority is younger than 16 years (65%). Respondents older than 16 years generally indicate that they are ‘not sure’ whether they have seen the programme. Nevertheless, the 16 years and older respondents score generally higher on how often they watch De Humo TV, especially in the ‘at least once a day’ category. The group under 16 years old indicate that more often that they watch De Humo TV ‘at least once a week’ category whereas respondents younger than 16 years score higher. Though, it has to be taken into account that the sample contained more interviewees that are 16 years and older. Therefore it is difficult to draw a conclusion from this data. Region As shown in the table below, in Chinandega the respondents watch De Humo TV the most, followed by the respondents from Managua and Masaya. In Matagalpa and ‘other regions’ the respondents receive the programme the least. Frequency of receiving De Humo TV versus region

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of the paragraphs in this report are based on the amount of the respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 553 to 198.

What medium is used most to watch De Humo TV? The medium that is used most to watch De Humo TV (80%) is television. Some of the respondents also get the De Humo TV via social media updates (12%).

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Gender Girls tend to follow the programme more on television (55%) in comparison to boys (45%). Boys watch De Humo TV using social networks more than girls. Age There is no indicative difference between the age groups. Region In all regions television is the most popular medium to receive De Humo TV, followed by social media updates. In the table below it becomes visible that in Managua and Masaya respondents tend to get De Humo TV slightly more often via social media updates than via television. Only in Masaya the respondents indicate to receive De Humo TV via web podcasts / downloads, and other people. Only in Managua a few respondents indicated to use the people live radio broadcasts and live web streaming. Medium to watch De Humo TV versus region

Where is the main place you watch/listen to De Humo TV? Most of the respondents that watch De Humo TV watch it â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;at homeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (87%). There is not an indicative difference between gender, age and region.

Who are the main people you watch/listen to De Humo TV with? Most of the respondents that watch De Humo TV watch on their own (64%) or with their siblings (8%). Gender There is not a convincing difference between boys and girls, however the data shows that there is a slight difference between girls and boys. Boys (65%) tend to watch De Humo TV more on their own in comparison to girls (63%), and girls tend to watch the programme slightly more with their parents or siblings. Age The respondents older than 16 years year old watch the programme mainly on their own (72%), whereas the respondents younger than 16 years watch it on their own (38%), with their parents (16 years%), with their relatives (11%) and with their siblings (18%).

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Main people to watch De Humo TV with versus age

Region Between regions there is not a visible difference except that the respondents from Managua and Chinandega mainly watch De Humo TV on their own, whereas in the other regions they also watch with their parents, other relatives and siblings.

3. Ideal way of getting De Humo TV What is the ideal way of getting De Humo TV? Most of the respondents (35%) think the ideal way of getting De Humo TV is via “Other media than mentioned in the questionnaire”, 26% prefers getting the programme via live TV broadcasts or via social media updates (6%). Gender There is a small difference between boys and girls. Boys indicate slightly more (8%) than girls (5%) that the ideal way of receiving De Humo TV is via social media networks. Girls (27%) tend to think that live television broadcast is relatively more the ideal way to receive the programme in comparison to boys (25%). Age Respondents with an age of 16 years or older indicate that their ideal way of getting De Humo TV is via ‘other media than mentioned’ (46%). It would be interesting to know what kind of media they would prefer. The respondents could have been mentioning this when, through an open question, it was asked how the quality of De Humo TV could be improved, however there is nothing mentioned about transmitting the programme via ‘other media’ than mentioned in the questionnaire. Besides ‘other media than mentioned’, live TV broadcast and social media are seen as ideal ways to receive De Humo TV by both age groups. Respondents younger than 16 years old (18%) prefer TV broadcasts less than the respondents older than 16 years (29%). Region There are no indicative differences between regions. Television remains the medium that is preferred the most in every region. Only in Masaya the respondents prefer to receive De Humo TV via social media networks more in comparison to other regions.

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What could be improved in terms of content of De Humo TV? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘arts and culture’ (43%), ‘economic news’ (35%), ‘crime and accidents’ (35%) and ‘politics in other countries’ (30%) could be addressed more in the De Humo TV content. Topics regarding ‘human rights’ were considered as treated too much (11%) in the content of De Humo TV. Differences between gender It appeared that boys see more topics about ‘economics’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘science, technology and IT’ covered in the De Humo TV content. Girls want to see more topics about ‘education’, ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘religion’. Differences between age When filtering the data on age it becomes evident that in general the respondents from 16 years and older are more critical in comparison to the respondents younger than 16 years. The respondents younger than 16 years mainly think the coverage of the topics are ‘just right’. However, there are a few topics of which the respondents younger than 16 years think De Humo TV should cover more frequently on, which are ‘music, film & entertainment’, ‘politics in your own country’, ‘religion’ and ‘sports’. Regarding the hard news topics they also think these are covered “ just right”. The respondents of 16 years and older would like to see more topics on ‘arts & culture’, ‘crime & accidents’ and ‘music’, ‘economic news’ and ‘environment & natural disasters’. Differences between seen and not seen When separating the data between the respondents that have seen the De Humo TV and the respondents that have not seen the De Humo TV it appears that for the respondents that have never seen the programme that they score highest on topics such as ‘education’ (74%), ‘environment and natural disasters’ (73), ‘health’ (68%) and ‘science’ (68%). The respondents that do watch De Humo TV see topics such as ‘arts & culture’ (87%), ‘economics’ (64%), ‘human rights’ (56%) and ‘politics in your own country’ (39%) as most important. This will be elaborated on further in the Discussion. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen De Humo TV

Suggested topics by children Through an open question it was asked whether there were any other topics then listed in the questionnaire that are important for the respondents. The following topics were mentioned the most: - International news - Economics - Drugs - Sports - Wars

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What is the overall quality of De Humo TV? Gender/ age/ region The overall quality of De Humo TV was rated as good (51%) or really good (29%). There is no convincing difference between genders. Girls seem to rate the quality higher, however it must be noted that girls seem to choose more often for the “very good” option in comparison to the boys, who rate it more as “good”. This also applies to the different age groups. Respondents younger than 16 years tend to rate the quality more as “very good” in comparison to the respondents from 16 years and older, who rate it as just “good”. Between regions the quality is rated similar, namely as “good” or “very good”, with exception of a few respondents in Managua (2%) that rates De Humo TV’s quality as “bad” (2%) or as “ very bad” (1%). By using an open question respondents were asked how De Humo TV could improve the overall quality of the show. The following five ideas were mentioned most frequently: - More interesting themes for adolescents; - More information about universities and possible careers for adolescents; - Cover more ‘important’ topics; preventing pregnancy, climate change or technologies; - Presenters should act more professional.

4. Level of Engagement with De Humo TV In order to determine the level of engagement with De Humo TV, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicated a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “De Humo TV is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / De Humo TV informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / De Humo TV helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching De Humo TV / De Humo TV regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “De Humo TV news stories are always presented in an inspiring and engaging way that makes me want to find out more” (43% agrees, 8% strongly agrees). However, there is also a large group that disagrees on whether they feel engaged with De Humo TV as a programme. When looking more critically at the numbers it appears that for the statement “De Humo TV is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” the majority responded negatively (14% disagrees, 32% strongly disagrees). In addition, on the statement De Humo TV helps me feel for children in other parts of the world was also responded relatively negative (22% disagrees, 8% strongly agrees). Gender When filtering this data on gender it appears that relatively more boys disagree or have no opinion with the 10 engagement statements. For example on the statement “De Humo TV helps me feel for children in other parts of the world” boys react relatively more negative than girls.

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The level engagement with De Humo TV versus gender

Age Between the different age groups a difference is also evident. Respondents of 16 years and older tend to disagree more with the 10 statements than the respondents 16 years and older. The statement ‘De Humo TV news stories are always presented in an inspiring and engaging way that makes me want to find out more”, shows that respondents of 16 years and older respond negatively in comparison to the respondent younger than 16 years who seem to be rather positive. Based on the data of this survey, De Humo TV does not inspire or engage the respondents that are 16 years and older enough so that they want to find out more. The level engagement with De Humo TV versus age

5. Level of Empowerment In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all 5 statements indicated a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that were asked to rate included “De Humo TV gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / De Humo TV makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / De Humo TV A takes me seriously as a young citizen / De Humo TV has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / De Humo TV has helped me to make better decisions about my future”.

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The majority of the respondents agree or strongly agree with the 5 empowerment questions. For the statement “De Humo TV takes me seriously as a young citizen” there were the most positive answers (43% agrees, 9% strongly agrees). There was a small group that did not fully agree on the 5 statements. For the statement “De Humo TV gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard ” the respondents answered most negatively (24% strongly disagreed, 14 % disagreed). Gender There are no convincing differences between boys and girls. Girls slightly agree more with the statements except on the statement “De Humo TV takes me seriously as a young citizen”. Here, boys appear to be slightly more positive. Age The respondents of 16 years and older tend to disagree relatively more when in comparison to the respondents younger than 16 years. Especially on the statement “De Humo TV gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard”, the younger respondents answer positively (71%). The level empowerment with De Humo TV versus age

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups In the data there are clear differences between the different age groups. It must been noted that 75% of the sample was 16 years and older, which means that the results are skewed. If we could control for this, then the results between the two age groups may differ. However, there were some questions where the younger respondents scored higher than the older respondents, even though they were fewer in the sample. For example, the 16 years and older respondents watched more news in general and preferred more hard news topics in comparison to the respondents younger than 16 years. But the respondents younger than 16 years indicated that they thought the hard news topics were ‘just right’, and actually preferred more soft news topics. In addition, the 16 years and older respondents tend to disagree more with the engagement and empowerment statements when compared to the respondents younger than 16 years. It was clearly visible that the younger respondents were a lot more positive on the statements. Thus, if we could control for age, and it appears that the differences remain, it might be that the De Humo TV programme is more empowering and engaging for a younger target audience (younger than 16 years). The age group of 16 years and older might be too mature and prefer adult news. This assumption was confirmed by the

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results from the statement “De Humo TV informs me much better about important news topics than the adult news”. Here, the older respondents mainly responded negatively. Based on this it can be stated that De Humo TV seems to be more of an informative “news-programme” for younger age groups, and more a human-interest programme for the older target group. Conclusions difference between gender There were some differences visible between the boys and girls. First, it appears that girls are more extreme in rating. For example, they rate more often with the extremes, “very good” or “ strongly disagree”, whereas boys rate more using “good” or “disagree”. It is difficult to estimate if this is just a preference or that the girls really perceive this stronger opinion. In addition, girls prefer live TV broadcasts as an ideal medium, whilst boys prefer social networks. Girls seemed to watch De Humo TV more socially, in the company of other people such as siblings or their parents. However, boys prefer to watch the programme on their own. The most evident result was that boys disagree more, or have no opinion on the statements regarding empowerment and engagement than girls. Girls also rated the quality of De Humo TV higher than boys. Based on the presented data, and not taking into account other possible moderating variables that can influence this relation (type of schools, type of family, personal interests, level of intelligence) it can be stated that De Humo TV is a programme that appeals to and empowers girls more than boys. Conclusions difference between region There were no convincing and consistent differences between the different regions, so no clear conclusions can be made. Is De Humo TV informing their audience? It must be said, that many respondents did not know the programme. Only 36% (N=198) of the total amount of interviewed respondents (N= 553) indicated that they had (ever) seen the programme. Based on this it is evident that De Humo TV has a challenge for the future in promoting their programme more. It was hypothesised that respondents that do not watch De Humo TV would score higher on topics such as ‘sports’ and ‘entertainment’ when compared to the De Humo TV watchers. However, despite their higher score on these ‘soft news topics’ than the De Humo TV watchers, it appears that non-watchers actually score higher on almost every topic. Based on this it seems that the non-watchers are eager to obtain just any kind of information, whereas the De Humo TV watchers seem to make more informed decisions in what news they are missing and about what topics they want to know more of. In addition, it seems that the De Humo TV programme is informing the younger target audience sufficiently. This group actually requests more soft news topics than hard news topics. On the contrary, the older respondents are eager for more hard news in the De Humo TV programme. Based on this, it can be stated that children in Nicaragua who watch De Humo TV and are 16 years or older seem more eager to obtain information about hard news topics, and feel that this is currently not sufficiently covered in the De Humo TV programme. However, children in Nicaragua who watch De Humo TV and are younger than 16 years consider themselves as informed sufficiently about hard news topics, and actually are eager to obtain more soft news topics. Is De Humo TV informing their audience then? The answer to this depends of the objective of the programme. If De Humo TV wants to be a news programme and to be informative only, it does not reach the 16 years and older target group. They see the programme more as a human-interest programme. If De Humo TV wants to be more a human-interest programme for teens of 16 years and older than it reaches its goal. However, if De Humo TV wants to be a news programme and to be informative only, it does reach the target group who are younger than 16 years. If De Humo TV wants to be more a human-interest programme for teens younger than 16 years than it does not reach its goal. In addition, when comparing the non-watchers with the watchers of De Humo TV, the non-watchers are clearly eager for information in general as well as informative news items. If these non-watchers would start watching De Humo TV, this urge for information could be fulfilled. These non-De Humo TV watchers are an attractive and potential target group to focus in the future. It would be interesting to further study the ways to reach this group.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Peru

This section covers the data gathered in Peru, where TV Cultura produces and broadcasts the programme No Apta Para Adultos (NAPA). ‘NAPA’ is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 30 minutes that is produced by the news for kids Peru production team. The programme is aired through Red TV, which airs on various local channels. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards the NAPA television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improving the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as background information for future applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Lima, Huancaya, Ica, Chincha and Chupaca. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 12 – 16 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/NAPA, 3) coverage of important topics by NAPA, 4) level of engagement with NAPA, 5) empowerment as a news consumer and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

569 respondents

Gender

309 boys, 260 girls

Areas

Lima, Huancaya, Ica, Chincha and Chupaca*

Age ranges

11 - 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

28% 72%

(N= 408) (N= 161)

Originally “age” was operationalized as 11- younger, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years and older. From all data (global) it appeared that the 16 year and older age group was significantly bigger. To make the variable less skewed for the analysis it was decided to create a new variable “age” that has two categories where 0 = 11 and younger-15 and 1= 16 years and older. * Huancaya, Ica, and Chupaca are combined as one category “other” in the variable region. Originally NAPA planned to conduct the surveys in other cities, however due to circumstances they had to switch the conduction to Huancaya, Ica, and Chupaca. Because this was not listed they ticked “other” in the survey.

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (53%), Internet (18%) and social networks (14%. Also newspapers and magazines are used to receive the news (7%). Gender As shown in the table below, girls (60%) tend to watch the news relatively more via television in comparison to boys (48%). Boys watch the news more via Internet and social media networks. Main way of getting the news versus gender

Age Respondents that are 16 years and older use social media networks and Internet slightly more in comparison to the respondents younger than 16 years. Region In all regions television is the most popular medium. In Lima the respondents tend to watch the news less via television and use more social media networks to obtain the news.

What is the frequency of getting the news? The majority of the respondents indicate they watch the news at least once a day (63%) or at least once a week (21%). Gender Girls tend to receive the news more frequently than boys. However this difference is very small. Age There is no convincing difference visible between ages. Region Regarding regions it appears that the majority of the respondents get their news at least once a day. As shown in the table below, the regions â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Huancaya, Ica, and Chupaca get the news the least.

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Frequency of getting the news versus region

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the most mentioned topics that are considered important are: 1. Entertainment (82%) 2. Arts & Culture (79%) 3. Sports (69%) Gender Regarding most important topics by the audience there is a difference visible between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘entertainment’, ‘arts & culture’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘health’, and ‘ human rights’ as most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘economy’, ‘human rights’, ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘politics in their own country’ are most important. Most important topics for boys/ girls

Age There is a difference visible between respondents younger than 16 years and respondents that are 16 years and older. As shown in the table below, respondents that are 16 years and older clearly have an interest for all topics. The older respondents prefer topics like ‘entertainment’, ‘arts & culture’, ‘education’, ‘science’, ‘crime & accidents’ and ‘politics in other and own countries’, whereas the younger respondents only score higher on the topics ‘sports’, and ‘health’.

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Most important topics versus age

Region Between regions there are no convincing differences visible, however there are a few things that are worth mentioning. In the table below it appears that ‘entertainment’ and ‘sports’ are clearly seen as important topics in every region. In Chinca the respondents seem relatively more interested in the topic ‘religion’ and ‘education’ in comparison to the other regions. In Lima the respondents seem relatively more interested in the topic ‘politics in other countries’ in comparison to the other regions. The topics ‘economy’ and ‘politics in your own country’ seem to be the least important topics for respondents in all regions. Most important topics versus regions

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2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from NAPA? From all the respondents, 7% watches NAPA at least once a week, once a month (8%) or at least once a year (31%). 45% had never seen the programme. Boys tend to watch NAPA less in comparison to girls, however this difference is not convincing. Age From the respondents that have never seen NAPA the majority is 16 years and older (52%). The respondents younger than 16 years score generally higher on if they watch the programme. For the respondents that watch NAPA, the “at least once a year” category is most chosen for both categories. Receiving NAPA versus age

Region Regarding region it is difficult to draw a conclusion from the data. Though, what can be observed is that in Lima the respondents watch NAPA the most, followed by Chinca. However, Chincha also has the highest number of respondents that have never seen the programme.

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the program, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 569 to 290.

What medium is used most to watch NAPA? Gender The medium that is used most to watch NAPA (28%) is live television broadcast (28%). Some of the respondents also get the NAPA web podcasts / downloads (8%) and via other people (13%). Boys tend to follow the programme more on television (30%) in comparison to girls (26%). Girls use social networks to watch NAPA more than boys. Both sexes get NAPA equally via web podcasts / downloads (20%).

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Age The respondents younger than 16 years old receive NAPA slightly more via television and web podcasts when compared to respondents that are 16 years and older. The respondents that are 16 years and older get NAPA evidently more via “other people”, than the respondents younger than 16 years old. Region In all regions television is the most popular medium to receive NAPA. In the table below it becomes visible that in Chinca, live web streaming is used equally as much as television to watch NAPA. Web podcasts / downloads are used relatively more in Lima and Huancaya, Ica and Chupaca respondents tend to get NAPA. Medium to watch NAPA versus region

Where is the main place you watch/listen to NAPA? Most of the respondents that watch NAPA watch it ‘at home’ (42%) or ‘at school’ (40%). There is not a convincing difference between gender and age. When considering regions there are not many differences. In all regions NAPA watched most often ‘at home’ and ‘schools’. In Chincha however, respondents also watch in ‘other homes’ (10%).

Who are the main people you watch/listen to NAPA with? Most of the respondents that watch NAPA watch on their own (32%), with their friends (17%), or classmates (14%). Gender The data shows that there is a slight difference between girls and boys. Boys (38%) tend to watch NAPA more on their own than girls (26%). Girls tend to watch the programme slightly more with their parents or classmates. Age The respondents from the 16 years and older group watch NAPA mainly on their own (36%), or with their friends (21%), whereas the respondents younger than 16 years watch it on their own (31%), with their parents (7%), other relatives (7%) or with classmates (15%). Region As the table below indicates, between regions there is an indicative difference. For example, in all regions the respondents mainly watch NAPA on their own, however, in Lima, Huancaya, Ica and Chupaca the respondents watch NAPA with their parents, relatives, classmates, siblings and teachers, whereas in Chincha they do not watch NAPA with these categories. Respondents in Chincha tend to watch more with their friends and colleagues.

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Main people to watch NAPA with versus region

3. Ideal way of getting NAPA What is the ideal way of getting NAPA? Most of the respondents (42%) think the ideal way of getting NAPA is through “Other media than mentioned in the questionnaire”. 31% prefers getting the programme via live TV broadcasts or via web podcasts / downloads (9%) and social media updates (6%). Gender There is a visible difference between boys and girls. Boys indicate slightly more (10%) than girls (7%) that the ideal way of receiving NAPA is via social media networks. Girls (35%) tend to think that live television broadcast is more of an ideal way to receive the programme in comparison to boys (28%). Age Both age groups indicate that their ideal way of getting NAPA is via ‘other media than mentioned’. The respondents of 16 years and older prefer this ‘other media’ more (52%) than the respondents younger than 16 years (42%). The type of media the respondents would prefer to use would be interesting for further research. The respondents could have been mentioning this one the option questions, where was asked how the quality of NAPA could be improved, however there is nothing mentioned about transmitting the programme via ‘other media’ than mentioned in the questionnaire. Besides ‘other media than mentioned’, live TV broadcast and social media are seen as ideal ways to receive NAPA by both age groups. Respondents younger than 16 years old (33%) prefer TV broadcasts more than the respondents older than 16 years (27%). Region There are no indicative differences between regions. Television remains the medium that is preferred the most in every region. Only in Chinca the respondents prefer to receive NAPA via ‘other media than mentioned’ in comparison to other regions.

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What could be improved in terms of content of NAPA? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘environment & natural disasters’ (31%), ‘music film and entertainment’ (33%) and ‘science, technology and IT’ (32%) were mentioned that these could be treated more in the NAPA content. A few respondents indicated that topics regarding sports were selected most often as treated too much (14%) in the content of NAPA. Differences between gender From the data it appears that boys and girls agree about the topics they want to see covered more in the NAPA content. The few differences that were visible were amongst others that girls want to see more topics about ‘health and health care’ and ‘human rights’, whereas boys would like to see more about ‘religion’. Differences between age When filtering the data on age it becomes evident that there are differences between the different age groups regarding preferred topics. The respondents younger than 16 years think NAPA should cover the topics ‘health and health care’, ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘sports’ more frequently. The respondents of 16 years and older would like to see more topics on ‘arts & culture’ and ‘environment and natural disasters’. Both age groups want to see more items covered in NAPA about ‘science and technology & IT’ and more ‘music, film, and entertainment’. Differences between seen and not seen When separating the data between the respondents that have seen NAPA and the respondents that have not seen NAPA it appears that for the respondents that have never seen the programme that they score highest on topics such as ‘war & conflict’ (59%), ‘environment and natural disasters’ (63%), ‘health’ (58%) and ‘science’ (64%). The respondents that do watch NAPA see topics such as ‘entertainment’ (83%), ‘sports’ (75%), ‘education’ (60%) and ‘human rights’ (48%) as most important. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen NAPA

Suggested topics by children Through an open question it was asked whether there were any other topics then listed in the questionnaire that are important for the respondents. The following topics were mentioned the most: - - - - -

Sexuality and rights (Teen) pregnancy and prevention Drugs & alcoholism Sports Violence

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What is the overall quality of NAPA? Gender/ age/ region The overall quality of NAPA was rated as good (64%) or very good (29%). There is no convincing difference between genders. Girls seem to rate the quality higher, however it must be noted that girls seem to choose for the “very good” option more often in comparison to the boys, who rate it more as “good”. Respondents of 16 years and older seem to rate the quality of NAPA slightly higher than the respondents younger than 16 years. The younger respondents have ‘no opinion’ more often. Between regions the quality is rated similar, namely as “good” or “very good”, with exception to a few respondents in Lima and Chinca (2%) that rate NAPA’s quality as “bad” (2%). By using an open question respondents were asked how NAPA could improve the overall quality of the show. The following five ideas were mentioned most frequently: - More informative content - More focused on youth and more about Peru - More entertaining, attractive appearance (via music, ‘fun elements’) - Improve reports

4. Level of Engagement with NAPA In order to determine the level of engagement with NAPA, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicated a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “NAPA is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / NAPA informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / NAPA helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching NAPA/ NAPA regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “NAPA really informs me about different opinions on important news topics”. There is also a group that disagrees on whether they feel engaged with NAPA as a programme. When looking more critically at the numbers it appears that on the statement “NAPA informs me much better about important news topics than adult news” respondents reacted the most negative. Gender When filtering this data on gender it appears that relatively more boys disagree or have no opinion with the 10 engagement statements. The results on the statement “NAPA is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” gives a good representation of a statement where boys react relatively more negative than girls.

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The level engagement with NAPA versus gender

Age Between the different age groups there is no consistent difference evident. How the different age groups reacted depends very much of the statement. Nevertheless it seems that the respondents that are 16 years and older tend to disagree relatively more with the 10 statements than the respondents younger than 16 years.

5. Level of Empowerment by NAPA In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all of 5 statements indicated a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “NAPA gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / NAPA makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / NAPA takes me seriously as a young citizen / NAPA has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / NAPA has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agrees or strongly agrees with the 5 empowerment questions. For the statement “NAPA gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” respondents answered the most positive (55% agrees, 19% strongly agrees). In addition, for the statement “NAPA takes me seriously as a young citizen” there were also positive reactions (47% agrees, 24% strongly agrees). There were a few respondents that reacted negatively on a few the statements, however this small percentage (7,4 % disagree, 4,4% strongly disagrees). Gender There are differences between boys and girls. Girls slightly agree more with the statements except on the statement “NAPA gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard”. Here, boys appear to be slightly more negative.

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The level empowerment with NAPA versus gender

Age Between the different age groups there is no consistent difference evident. Comparable with the results on engagement, it very much depends on the statement how the different age groups react. From this no explicit observations can be made.

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups From the respondents that watch NAPA the majority is younger than 16 years. The majority of respondents that had never seen the programme appeared to be 16 years and older. Though the few respondents that were 16 years and older that had seen NAPA, the majority disagreed with the statements regarding the level of engagement and empowerment of NAPA. Based on these observations it can be stated that NAPA is more attractive for children younger than 16 years old. However, the data also shows that the older respondents (of 16 years and older) seem to rate the quality of NAPA slightly higher than the respondents younger than 16 years. The younger respondents have ‘no opinion’ more often. This could be because children of 16 years and older are more critical in general than children younger than 16 years and therefore disagreed relatively more often on the empowerment and engagement questions. However, it must be stated that “to be empowered or engaged” is different than rating the quality of the programme; to become engaged or empowered is another goal than producing an informative programme. Regarding the question of what topics the respondents want to see covered more in NAPA there were differences visible between the different age groups. These seemed to be somewhat random, and not to be divided into ‘hard news’ or ‘soft news’ topics. Additionally, all age groups agreed that the topics ‘science & technology & IT’ and ‘music, film and entertainment’ could be covered more. From the respondents that watched NAPA, majority was younger than 16 years. In comparison to the older age group, the respondents younger than 16 years felt relatively empowered and engaged by the NAPA programme. Nevertheless, this age group also rated the quality of NAPA lower than the 16 years and older respondents. Thus the main target group of NAPA is younger than 16 years old, they feel empowered and engaged by the programme, but they think that the quality of the programme could be improved. Based on this, the 16 years and older age group that watches NAPA seems to be more empowered or engaged in some manner. Discovering what manner this precisely is would be interesting for more in-depth studies in future research, since the 16 years and older non-watchers group could be a potential target group for NAPA to focus on.

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Conclusions difference between gender The data shows that there are very small differences between girls and boys. Girls tend to watch NAPA more in comparison to boys, however this difference is not convincing. Girls seemed to see NAPA more as a social activity as they watch NAPA more in the company of other people, such as siblings or their parents, whereas boys prefer to watch the programme on their own. Girls rated the quality higher than boys, however it must be noted that girls are more extreme in rating. For example, girls responded with the extremes, “very good” or “ strongly disagree”, more often, whereas boys selected “good” or “disagree”. It is difficult to estimate if this is just a preference or that the girls really perceive this stronger opinion. In addition, girls agreed more on the statements about the level of empowerment and engagement. Based on the presented data, and not taking into account for other possible moderating variables that can influence this relation (type of schools, type of family, personal interests, level of intelligence, etc.) it can be stated that NAPA is a programme that appeals, engages and empowers girls more than boys. Conclusions difference between region There were no convincing and consistent differences between the different regions, so no clear conclusions can be made. Is NAPA informing their audience? It is expected that respondents that do not watch NAPA would think that ‘soft news topics’ such as ‘sports’ and ‘entertainment’ are more important to them compared to the NAPA watchers. However, the data did not support this assumption. It actually appeared that NAPA watchers thought that ‘sports’ and ‘entertainment’ are most important. In the open question on how to improve the quality of NAPA and about what topics they want to see more, the respondents also suggested more sports and entertainment. Apparently, this is important to the NAPA watchers and is currently not covered enough. Could the NAPA content be too informative for the current audience, and could that be the reason that the respondents request more coverage of entertainment and sports? It would be interesting to study this question via a qualitative research method. Overall, the NAPA viewers are very positive about the quality of the programme, they do feel engaged with and empowered by the programme, and many respondents know the programme. The majority of the respondents indicated NAPA gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard and that the programme takes them seriously as a young citizen. In addition, the respondents indicate that NAPA makes them feel more confident that people will listen to their opinions. Though the sample is small, based on the data that is available, and not taking into account other variables that could influence the NAPA audience (such as culture, type of family, type of school), it can be stated that NAPA is informing, engaging and empowering their audience.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sierra Leone

This section covers the data gathered in Sierra Leone, where Concept Multimedia produces and broadcasts the programme Wetin Now. ‘Wetin Now’ is a weekly news bulletin of approximately 30 minutes that is produced by the Sierra Leone News for Kids production team. The programme targets children and youth between 12 and 21 years and is aired through SLBC, STAR TV, and AYV. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards Wetin Now television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Freetown, Bo, Kenema, and Western Area Rural. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/ Wetin Now, 3) coverage of important topics by Wetin Now, 4) level of engagement with Wetin Now, 5) empowerment as a news consumer, and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

679 respondents

Gender

348 boys, 331 girls

Areas

Freetown, Bo, Kenema, Western Area Rural.

Age ranges

11 - 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

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55% 45%

(N= 373) (N= 306)


1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (47%), radio (31%), social networks (9%) and Internet (6%) Newspapers and magazines (3%) and friends and family (2%) are also used to receive the news but less often. Gender Television is the main medium for both genders to receive the news. Boys (49%) tend to receive the news slightly more via television than girls (46%). On the other hand, girls receive the news more via social media networks (10%) compared to boys (8%). Age Respondents that are younger than 16 years receive the news more via television (50%) and newspapers/ magazines (4%) than the respondents that are 16 years and older (television = 44%; newspaper/magazines = 2%). The 16 years and older respondents receive the news relatively more often via social networks (12%) and Internet (8%) than the younger respondents (social networks= 7%; internet = 5%). Region As shown in the table below, in Kenema the respondents receive the news most often via television in comparison to the other regions. In Freetown and Bo the respondents equally obtain the news through television and radio. In the Western Rural Area all mediums are used. Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? Gender The majority of the respondents indicate that they watch the news at least once a day (92%) or at least once a week (5%). There is no convincing difference between boys and girls. Age The respondents that are 16 years and older receive the news slightly more often (93% at least once a day) than the respondents that are younger than 16 years (91% at least once a day).

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Region The majority of the regions receive the news at least once a day. In Freetown the respondents receive the news most frequently, followed by Kenema. In Bo (2%) and Western Rural Area (3%) few respondents indicate that they never receive the news.

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the topics that are mentioned most and considered important are: 1. Education (61%) 2. Health (38%) 3. Human rights (34%) Gender Regarding what are considered the most important topics by the audience, there is an evident difference between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘education’, ‘human rights’, ‘health’ and ‘arts & culture’ are most important, whereas boys clearly think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘science, technology & IT’, and ‘politics in their own country’ are most important. Most important topics for boys/girls

Age There is a visible difference between respondents younger than 16 years and respondents that are 16 years and older. As shown in the table below, the older respondents prefer topics such as ‘human rights’, ‘politics in your country’, and ‘politics in other countries’. The younger respondents seem to have more interest in ‘soft news topics’ as they most often selected ‘education’, ‘health, ‘sports’, ‘science’, ‘religion’, ‘entertainment’ and ‘environmental and natural disasters’.

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Most important topics versus age

Region Between regions there are also convincing differences. In Freetown and Kenema the topic ‘education’ is seen as most important. In the Western Rural Area ‘health’ was selected most often as important in comparison to the other regions. In Bo and Western Area Rural ‘religion’ is also seen as an important topic, whereas in Freetown and Kenema it is indicated that this topic was not selected often. All regions see the topic ‘war & conflict’ as least important topic. Most important topics versus region

2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from Wetin Now? Majority of the respondents receive Wetin Now at least once a week (74%), or once a day (5%). 22% has never seen the programme. Gender Boys (76%) tend to receive Wetin Now slightly more in comparison to girls (72%). Girls (23%) indicated more often boys (19%) that they had never seen the programme.

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Age Respondents that are 16 years and older receive Wetin Now slightly more than the respondents that are younger than 16 years. The older respondents indicate that they receive the news ‘at least once a day’, whereas the respondents younger than 16 years receive Wetin Now more ‘at least once a week’. It appeared that the respondents younger than 16 years (22%) more often ‘never’ receive the programme than the older respondents (20%). Region From the table below it is evident that in Freetown and Kenema, Wetin Now is received most. In Western Area Rural and Bo respondents receive the programme the least. Receiving Wetin Now versus region

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the program, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 679 to 532.

What medium is used most to watch Wetin Now? The medium that is used most to receive Wetin Now is television (70%), followed by radio (30%). Gender Girls (71%) follow Wetin Now using television relatively more than boys (68%). Boys tend to follow the programme more via radio (32%) in comparison to girls (28%). Age There are no convincing differences between the different age groups. Region As shown in the table below, the respondents in all regions indicate that they receive Wetin Now most via television. In Kenema respondents receive Wetin Now most via television and the least via radio compared to the other regions.

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Medium to watch Wetin Now versus region

Where is the main place you watch/listen to Wetin Now? Most of the respondents watch Wetin Now at home (76%), at another home (18%), at school (1%) or mobile (6%). Gender Girls watch Wetin Now more when they are ‘at home’ (82%) compared to boys (70%). Boys (24%) watch the programme more ‘at other homes’ than girls (11%). Age The respondents that are 16 years and older (79%) receive Wetin Now more ‘at home’ than the younger respondents (79%). Respondents younger than 16 years receive the programme more ‘at other homes’ (19%) and ‘mobile’ (7%) than respondents that are 16 years and older (‘other home’ = 16%; ‘mobile’ = 4%). Region As shown in the table, in all regions the respondents watch Wetin Now mostly ‘at home’. In Bo the respondents watch the programme relatively more ‘in other places’ than at ‘home’ (‘mobile/on the move’, ‘at school’, ‘another private place’) in comparison to the other regions. Place to watch Wetin Now versus region

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Who are the main people you watch/listen to Wetin Now with? Most of the respondents that watch Wetin Now watch with their friends (28%), parents (25%), siblings (24%) on their own (12%) or with relatives (10%). Gender The data shows that there is a difference between girls and boys. Boys (32%) tend to watch Wetin Now more with their friends than girls (24%). Girls (28%) seem to watch the programme more with their parents or siblings (25%) than boys (parents = 23%; siblings = 23%). Age As shown in the table, the respondents from older age group watch Wetin Now more (33%) with their friends than the respondents younger than 16 years (23%). The respondents younger than 16 years watch the programme more with their parents and siblings. Main people to watch Wetin Now versus age

Region As the table below indicates, between regions there are differences. For example, in Freetown and in Kenema the respondents watch Wetin Now relatively more with their friends when compared to the other regions. In Bo and Western Area Rural the respondents watch relatively more on their own. In Freetown, Wetin Now is watched the least with parents in comparison to the other regions. Main people to watch Wetin Now with versus region

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3. Ideal way of getting the Wetin Now What is the ideal way of getting Wetin Now? Most of the respondents think the ideal way of getting Wetin Now is through Live TV broadcasts (53%) or Live radio broadcasts (24%). Web postcasts/downloads (1%) and social media updates (1%) are also mentioned as an ideal way to receive Wetin Now, but less than television. Gender There is a slight difference between preferences of boys and girls. Boys indicate slightly more (54%) than girls (53%) that the ideal way of receiving Wetin Now is via Live TV broadcasts. Boys (25%) tend to also think that live radio broadcast is more of an ideal way to receive the programme in comparison to girls (22%). Girls indicate to prefer web podcasts /downloads (1%), or indicate ‘none of these’. Age There are no indicative differences between the two age groups. Region In Kenema the respondents indicate, more than in other regions, that the most ideal way to receive the news is via Live TV broadcasts. Only in Kenema and Western Area Rural do respondents also prefer social media updates and web podcasts / downloads. Freetown is the only region where respondents indicate a preference to receive Wetin Now via sms updates.

What could be improved in terms of content of Wetin Now? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘war and conflict’ (16%), and ‘religion’ (13%) were topics that could be treated more in the Wetin Now content. A few respondents selected the topics of ‘crime & accidents’ as being covered too much (4%) in the content of Wetin Now. Differences between gender From the data it appears that boys would mainly like to see more about ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘politics in other countries’. Note that this was also mentioned as item that was treated too much. When this was checked for gender it appears that mainly girls indicated this. Girls want to see more items covering ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘war and conflict’. Differences between age When filtering the data on age, it becomes evident that from the respondents that want to see more about ‘religion’, ‘crime and accidents’ and ‘politics in other countries’, the majority is younger than 16 years. The respondents that want to see more items covering ‘war & conflict’, most are 16 years and older. Differences between seen and not seen When making a distinction between the respondents that have seen Wetin Now and the respondents that have not seen the programme, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme generally select most of the topics, except for ‘education’ and ‘sports’. Note that the data is relatively skewed since there were more respondents that have seen Wetin Now than respondents that have not. Nevertheless it is visible from the respondents that have never seen the programme, that the topics ‘health’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘economy’ are clearly more preferred when compared to the respondents that have seen the programme. The respondents that do watch Wetin Now selected most topics less, but they did select ‘education’, ‘sports’, and ‘arts & culture’ most often.

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Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/have not seen Wetin Now

What is the overall quality of Wetin Now? Gender/ age/ region The overall quality of Wetin Now was rated as very good (70%) or good (29%). Boys rate the quality relatively higher than girls since they selected the ‘very good’ category more often than girls. Respondents that are 16 years and older rate the quality of the programme slightly higher than the respondents that are younger than 16 years, as they select the ‘very good’ category more than the younger respondents. There are no differences between regions. By using an open question respondents were asked how Wetin Now could improve the overall quality of the show. The following three ideas were mentioned most frequently: - Increase (programme) time; - Let the news be entirely in English; - Need to concentrate on other news stories as well, such as religious stories.

4. Level of Engagement with Wetin Now In order to determine the level of engagement with Wetin Now, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicates a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Wetin Now is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / Wetin Now informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / Wetin Now helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Wetin Now/ Wetin Now regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “I can easily relate to all of the Wetin Now news presenters” (89% agrees, 1% strongly agrees), and “Wetin Now helps me feel for children in other parts of the world” (88% agrees, 13% strongly agrees). Gender When filtering this data on gender, it appears that there are slight differences visible between genders. Girls tend be more positive, but this difference is only visible since the option ‘strongly agree’ was selected more by girls in comparison to boys. From the respondents that are boys, 1% disagreed with the statement: “Wetin Now is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world”. For the statement: “Wetin Now news stories cover a very wide range and mix of topics/issues” both boys and girls disagreed, however, this was only 1% for both boys and girls.

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Age When filtering this data on age, it appears that the respondents that are younger than 16 years tend to agree more with the engagement questions compared to the respondents that are 16 years and older. The boys that disagreed with the statement “Wetin Now is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” appeared to be 16 years or older. In addition, the girls and boys that disagreed with the statement “Wetin Now’s news stories cover a very wide range and mix of topics/issues” appeared to be 16 years or older.

5. Level of Empowerment by Wetin Now In order to determine the level of empowerment by Wetin Now, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all of 5 statements indicated a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Wetin Now gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / Wetin Now makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / Wetin Now takes me seriously as a young citizen / Wetin Now has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / Wetin Now has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agrees or strongly agrees with the 5 empowerment questions. For the statement “Wetin Now takes me seriously as a young citizen” respondents answered the most positively (83% agrees, 13% strongly agrees). However, on the statement “Wetin Now has encouraged me to become more active in local/ school politics” the majority of the respondents responded negatively (45% disagrees; 8% strongly disagrees). Gender When filtering the data on gender it appears that girls disagree more often than boys, and boys tend to strongly agree more. Thus, one can observe that boys feel relatively more empowered by the programme than girls. However, on the statement “Wetin Now has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics”, both genders responded negative. Age When filtering the data on age it appears that respondents younger than 16 years disagree more often than respondents that are 16 years and older. However, in the statement that received the most negative reactions - “Wetin Now has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics” - it appears that older respondents disagree slightly more. The respondents younger than 16 years have ‘no opinion’ more often or think it is ‘not relevant’. Nevertheless, from the data it appears that mainly respondents that are 16 and older feel more empowered by Wetin Now.

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups Respondents that are 16 years and older rate the quality of Wetin Now slightly higher than the respondents that are younger than 16 years. In addition, the older respondents also receive the programme more often than the younger respondents. From the data it appears that the respondents that are 16 years and older feel more empowered by Wetin Now. Nevertheless, the respondents that are 16 years and older disagreed more with the statements regarding the level of engagement of Wetin Now. Despite the differences being small, they indicate that the programme is more engaging for viewers that are younger than 16 years. It can be assumed that children that are 16 years and older generally feel more empowered because they are developing themselves as independent individuals, and are more aware of their own empowerment, however, this can only be assumed and not be supported by the data of this study. Nonetheless, based on the findings above it can be stated that, regarding the sample of this study, Wetin Now is mostly viewed by and empowers mainly teens that are 16 years and older. Yet, the programme is more engaging for children that are younger than 16 years.

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Conclusions difference between gender From the data it appears that boys rate the quality of Wetin Now higher than girls. However, this is only the case as boys rate the quality as “very good” whereas girls rate it as “good”. Boys also receive Wetin Now slightly more in comparison to girls. Additionally, it was indicated that boys felt more empowered by the programme than girls, but boys also felt less engaged with the programme. Thus it can be stated that Wetin Now is mostly appealing and empowering to boys, but more engaging to girls. Conclusions difference between regions From the data it appeared that in Freetown and Kenema, Wetin Now is being received the most. In Western Area Rural and Bo respondents receive the programme the least. Is Wetin Now informing their audience? It was hypothesized that respondents that watch Wetin Now would think that soft news topics such as ‘sports’ and ‘entertainment’ are less important to them, in comparison to the non-Wetin Now viewers. However, this assumption cannot be supported with the data of this study. The fact that the data was slightly skewed must be considered since there were more Wetin Now viewers than non-viewers. Regardless, from the data it became evident that the non-viewers were eager to obtain information in general and mainly on hard-news topics such as ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘economy’. It can be assumed that if these non-viewers would start watching Wetin Now, this urge for information could be fulfilled. These non-Wetin Now viewers are an attractive potential target group to focus on in the future. It would be interesting to further study the ways to reach this group. In addition, education scored very high as a topic the Wetin Now viewers would like to see more of in the content of the programme. Apparently, this is important to the Wetin Now viewers and is currently not covered enough. In the open question, respondents also mentioned that Wetin Now could increase their programme time and include topics on religion. In general the respondents rated the quality of Wetin Now as very good, and felt engaged with and empowered by the programme. Besides this, the programme appears to have high viewership. From the 679 respondents, 532 indicated to have ever seen the programme, which is a good representation. Thus, is Wetin Now informing their target audience? Yes, and besides their target audience they are also reaching secondary audiences such as parents, siblings and other relatives.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

South Africa

This section covers the data gathered in South Africa, where Vuselela Media produces and broadcasts the programme Bona Retsang. ‘Bona Retsang’ is a twice-weekly 30-minute youth news and opinion show that is produced by the Vuselela Media production team. Bona Retsang aims to reach 14- to 18-year-olds and is broadcast on five community TV stations. The best work produced by the Bona Retsang community journalists is showcased daily on the Geleza Nathi ‘edutainment’ show broadcast on SABC1. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards the Bona Retsang television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; Johannesburg, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Mamelodi and Orange Farm. The survey took place from August until December, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/ Bona Retsang, 3) coverage of important topics by Bona Retsang, 4) level of engagement with Bona Retsang, 5) empowerment as a news consumer, and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

411 respondents

Gender

228 boys, 183 girls

Areas

Johannesburg, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Mamelodi and Orange Farm

Age ranges

11 - 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

65% 35%

N= 266) (N= 145)

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (73%), radio (11%), the Internet (4%), social networks (4%) and newspapers and magazines (3%). Friends and family (2%) and sms updates/ mobile apps (1%) are also used to receive the news but less often. Gender Television is the main medium for both genders to receive the news. Boys (77%) receive the news more via television and Internet (6%) in comparison to girls (Television =69%; Internet=3%). However, girls receive the news more via radio (16%) compared to boys (8%). Age Respondents that are younger than 16 years receive the news relatively more via television (77%) than the respondents that are 16 years and older (68%). The younger respondents (12%) also receive the news more via radio than the older respondents (10%). However, the respondents that are 16 years and older receive the news more via Internet (6%) and social networks (10%) than the respondents that are younger than 16 years (Internet= 3%; social networks = 2%). Main way of getting the news versus age

Region In most regions television is the most popular medium, with exception of Port Elizabeth. Here, all the respondents receive the news via social networks. In the region â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; radio is relatively more used than in the other regions.

What is the frequency of getting the news? The majority of the respondents indicate that they watch the news at least once a day (61%), at least once a week (27%), at least once a month (5%) or at least once a year (2%). Only 1% of the respondents indicate that they never receive the news.

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Gender There are no convincing differences between boys and girls, except for that the 1% of respondents that never receive the news, they all appeared to be girls. Age The respondents that are 16 years and older get the news more frequently (66% at least once a day) than the respondents that are younger than 16 years (59% at least once a day). Frequency of getting the news versus age

Region In most regions respondents mainly receive the news at least once a week. The respondents that indicated that they never receive the news or at least once a year, appeared to be from Johannesburg and Mamelodi.

What topics are important to you? The most mentioned topics that are considered important from most respondents are: 1. Education (62%) 2. Arts & Culture (49%) 3. Entertainment (44%) Gender There is a clear difference between boys and girls regarding what is considered the most important topics. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘health’, ‘human rights’ and ‘crime & accidents’ are most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘entertainment’, and ‘science’ are most important.

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Most important topics for boys/girls

Age There is also a visible difference between respondents younger than 16 years and respondents 16 years and older. As shown in the table below, the older respondents have an interest for the topics ‘crime & accidents’, ‘economy’, and ‘politics in other countries’. The younger respondents prefer topics such as ‘education’, ‘entertainment’ and ‘sports’. Most important topics versus age

Region Between regions there are also a few differences. The topics ‘education’ and ‘arts & culture’ are clearly seen as most important topics in every region. An exception is Mamelodi, where the respondents also rate ‘entertainment’ as important. In Cape Town, besides ‘education’ the topic ‘sports’ is selected often in comparison to the other regions. ‘War & conflict’ is selected least in all regions.

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2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from Bona Retsang? The majority of the respondents that receive Bona Retsang watch the programme at least once a day (41%). The rest of the respondents watch it at least once a week (38%), at least once a month (10%), at least once a year (2%) or never (6%). Gender Girls (at least once a day 47%) tend to watch Bona Retsang slightly more than boys (at least once a day 36%). Boys (7%) indicate slightly more than girls (4%) that they never saw the programme. Receiving Bona Retsang versus gender

Age Majority of the respondents that watch Bona Retsang are younger than 16 years (47% at least once a day/ 39% at least one week) when compared to the amount of respondents that are 16 years or older (37% = least once a day; 29% at least once a week). Receiving Bona Retsang versus age

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Region From the data appeared that from all the regions, in Cape Town Bona Retsang is the least received. In Johannesburg and in Orange Farm the programme is watched the most.

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 411 to 377.

What medium is used most to watch Bona Retsang? The medium that is used most to receive Bona Retsang is television (82%), followed by social media updates (6%), live radio broadcasts (5%). A few respondents indicate that they receive Bona Retsang via live web streaming (3%) and web podcasts/downloads (2%). Gender Boys use television to watch Bona Retsang (83%) slightly more than girls (80%). Girls indicated that they receive the news relatively more using live radio broadcasts (6%, boys = 4%), live web streaming (5%, boys = 1%), and social media updates (6%, boys = 5%). Age As shown in the table below, the majority of respondents that follow Bona Retsang on television (85%) are younger than 16 years old (16 years and older = 76%). In addition, only the younger respondents indicate to receive the programme via web podcasts/ downloads. The respondents that are 16 years and older tend to receive Bona Retsang relatively more via social media updates (9%) than the respondents that are younger than 16 years (4%). Media to receive Bona Retsang versus age

Region In all regions live television broadcasts are the main medium to receive Bona Retsang. In Johannesburg, Orange Farm and ‘other regions than mentioned in the questionnaire’ the respondents indicate that they receive the programme via radio. In Johannesburg and Mamelodi live web streaming and web podcasts/ downloads are also used.

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Where is the main place you watch/listen to Bona Retsang? Most of the respondents that watch Bona Retsang receive the programme ‘at home’ (75%), ‘at an other home’ (11%), or ‘at school’ (3%) or ‘work’ (2%). Gender Boys watch Bona Retsang slightly more ‘at home’ (76%) or ‘at an other home’ (14%) than girls (at home=74%; at an other home=7%). Girls watch Bona Retsang more at ‘school’ (6%) in comparison to boys (1%). Age The respondents younger than 16 years watch the programme more ‘at home’ (78%) or ‘at school’ (4%) than respondents that are 16 years or older (at home = 89%; at school = 2%). The older respondents watch the programme more at ‘an other home’ (13%) than the younger respondents (10%). Region In terms of region, the majority of respondents in all regions receive Bona Retsang ‘at home’ or ‘at an other home’. From the data it appeared that the respondents that receive Bona Retsang ‘at school’ are all from Johannesbrug, Orange Farm, Mamelodi and ‘other regions than mentioned in the questionnaire’.

Who are the main people you watch/listen to Bona Retsang with? Most of the respondents that receive Bona Retsang watch the programme with their parents (22%). The rest of the respondents watch with their siblings (21%), on their own (20%), with their friends (20%), with other relatives (5%), with classmates (5%) or with colleagues (4%). Gender As shown in the table below, there is a difference between girls and boys. Boys (47%) tend to watch Bona Retsang more with their siblings (25%) and with their friends (22%) in comparison to girls (siblings = 17%’ friends = 17%). Girls seem to watch the programme more with their parents, with classmates, or on their own. Main people to receive Bona Retsang with versus gender

Age It appears that the respondents that receive Bona Retsang with their parents are generally younger than 16 years, as can be seen in the table below. From the respondents that receive the programme on their own, majority is 16 years and older.

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Main people to receive Bona Retsang with versus age

Region Between regions there were differences visible in the data. Respondents from Johannesburg, Orange Farm, Mamelodi and ‘other regions than mentioned’ receive Bona Retsang with their parents. In Cape Town the respondents tend to watch the programme more with their friends than the respondents in the other regions.

3. Ideal way of getting the Bona Retsang What is the ideal way of getting Bona Retsang? Most of the respondents (68%) think the ideal way of getting Bona Retsang is through Live TV broadcasts, social media updates (7%), live radio updates (10%), and live web streaming/podcasts/downloads/sms updates (4%). Gender From the respondents that prefer to receive Bona Retsang via television, the majority is boys (71%, girls = 64%), whereas girls appear to be the ones that would like to receive the programme more via social media (9%, boys = 6%) and live radio broadcasts (11%, boys = 9%) compared to boys. Age From the respondents that prefer to receive Bona Retsang via television the majority (74%) is younger than 16 years (16 years and older = 56%). The respondents that are 16 years and older appear to be the ones that would prefer to receive the programme via social media updates (11%, younger than 16 = 5%) and live radio broadcasts (13%; younger than 16 years = 8%). Region The majority of the respondents in the regions indicate to ideally receive the news via Live TV broadcasts, with exception of Port Elizabeth where social media updates are preferred. In Mamelodi, live radio broadcasts, live web streaming and sms updates are relatively more preferred in comparison to the other regions.

What could be improved in terms of content of Bona Retsang? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘religion’ (42%), ‘science, technology, IT’ (42%) and ‘crime & accidents’ (40%) could be covered more in the Bona Retsang content. A few respondents selected the topics ‘health and health care’ (28%) and ‘politics in other countries’ (28%) as covered too much in the content of Bona Retsang.

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Differences between gender From the data it appears that girls are the main respondents that would like see more about ‘human rights’ and ‘politics in your own country’. Boys were the main respondents that wanted to see more items covering ‘economic news’, ‘crime & accidents’, and ‘arts & culture‘. Differences between age When filtering the data on age, it becomes evident that there are differences between the age groups regarding preferred topics. The respondents that are 16 years and older think Bona Retsang should cover the topics ‘politics in your own country’, ‘environmental & natural disasters’ and ‘human rights’ more. The respondents that are younger than 16 years would like to see more coverage on topics such as ’sports’, ‘music, film & entertainment’ and ‘arts & culture’. Differences between seen and not seen When separating the data between the respondents that have seen Bona Retsang and the respondents that have not, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme selected the categories ‘education’, ‘entertainment’, ‘sports’ and ‘science’, ‘technology & IT’ most. The respondents that have seen Bona Retsang mainly think that ‘health’, ‘human rights’, and ‘crime and accident’ are important topics. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/ have not seen Bona Retsang

Suggested topics by children Through an open question it was asked whether there were any other topics then listed in the questionnaire that are important for the respondents. The following topics were mentioned the most: - Teenage pregnancy - Drugs and alcohol abuse - Peer pressure - HIV and aids - Gangsterism

What is the overall quality of Bona Retsang? Gender The overall quality of Bona Retsang was rated as very good (47%) or good (37%). A few respondents rated the quality of the programme as bad (3%) or very bad (3%). Girls (5%) rate the quality relatively lower than boys (1%), but boys more often have ‘no opinion’ (13%; girls = 5%).

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Age As shown in the table below, from the respondents that rated the quality as bad or very bad, the majority appears to be 16 years or older. The respondents younger than 16 years more often have ‘no opinion’, though generally rate the quality higher than the older respondents. Quality Bona Retsang versus age

Region In all regions the quality of Bona Retsang is rated as good or as very good. The majority of respondents that rated the quality as bad or very bad are from Mamelodi or Johannesburg. By using an open question respondents were asked how Bona Retsang could improve the overall quality of the show. The following five ideas were mentioned most frequently: - - - -

Live interviews with young people More community based news; Introduce local languages; Allocate more time.

4. Level of Engagement with Bona Retsang In order to determine the level of engagement with Bona Retsang, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicates a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Bona Retsang is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / Bona Retsang informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / Bona Retsang helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Bona Retsang/ Bona Retsang regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given on the statement “Bona Retsang is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” (53% agrees, 28% strongly agrees), and “Bona Retsang really informs me about different opinions on important news topics” (52% agrees, 28% strongly agrees). However, there was one statement that received relatively negative reactions: “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Bona Retsang” (8% disagrees, 3% strongly disagrees).

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Gender Most of the respondents mainly ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’ with the engagement statements. Nevertheless, it appears that boys disagree relatively more often with the 10 engagement statements than the girls. The statement that boys disagreed with most is: “Bona Retsang helps me feel for children in other parts of the world”. Age When filtering this data on age, it appears that there are slight differences between the two age groups. Both age groups equally disagree with half of the 10 statements, however, they disagree on different statements. Respondents that are 16 years and older tend to disagree most with the statement: “I can always understand what the key issues are in any Bona Retsang news story”. Respondents that are younger than 16 years disagree most with the statement “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Bona Retsang”.

5. Level of Empowerment by Bona Retsang In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all 5 statements indicates a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Bona Retsang gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / Bona Retsang makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / Bona Retsang takes me seriously as a young citizen / Bona Retsang has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / Bona Retsang has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’ with the 5 empowerment questions. For the statement “Bona Retsang gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” respondents answered the most positively (57% agrees, 27% strongly agrees). In addition, positive answers were selected for the statement “Bona Retsang has helped me to make better decisions about my future” (41% agrees, 38% strongly agrees). There were few respondents that reacted negatively to the statement: “Bona Retsang has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics” (6% disagrees, 2% strongly disagrees). Gender Girls tend to disagree more often than boys with the empowerment statements, however, boys more often have ‘no opinion’. Thus, this makes girls generally more positive. The statement, “Bona Retsang has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics”, (see table below) is a representative example of this. Level of empowerment Bona Retsang versus gender

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Age Between the different age groups it appears that the respondents that are younger than 16 years appear to disagree more with the statements of empowerment than the respondents that are 16 years or older. However, the older respondents tend to have â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;no opinionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; more often. The table below depicts this. Level of empowerment Bona Retsang versus age

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups Majority of the respondents that watch Bona Retsang are younger than 16 years. In addition, the younger respondents rate the quality of the programme higher than the older respondents. Nevertheless, the respondents younger than 16 years felt generally less empowered by Bona Retsang in comparison to the respondents that are 16 years or older. Both age groups feel generally engaged by Bona Retsang, though the respondents that are older than 16 years indicated more than the respondents younger than 16 years that they could not always understand what the key issues are in a Bona Retsang news story. However, respondents that are younger than 16 years indicated more often that they do not regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Bona Retsang. Conclusions difference between gender Girls tend to watch Bona Retsang slightly more than boys. Nevertheless, girls rate the quality relatively lower but feel slightly more empowered and engaged by the programme than boys. As the girls do watch the programme often and do feel empowered and engaged by the programme, the fact that they rate the quality relatively low is a point of attention. It would be recommendable to further study how to improve the quality of Bona Retsang in the viewpoint of girls. Conclusions difference between regions It appeared that from all regions, Bona Retsang is watched the least in Cape Town. In Johannesburg and in Orange Farm the programme is watched the most. The latter seems a plausible result since Bona Retsangâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s participatory youth projects are located around Johannesburg and Orange Farm. This could explain why in these regions the programme is watched most. A point of attention though is that there was a small group of respondents in Johannesburg that rated the quality as bad. Nevertheless, the majority of the respondents that rated the programme as bad were from Mamelodi. It would be interesting to further investigate what the reasons for the bad ratings are in Mamelodi.

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Is Bona Retsang informing their audience? In all regions the quality of Bona Retsang is rated as good or as very good. However, from the data it appears that the respondents that rated they quality of the programme lower, were respondents that are girls, 16 years and older or live in Mamelodi or Johannesburg. Based on this it could be assumed that the programme is not (yet) very appealing to girls, that are 16 years and older and live in these specific regions. When producing the programme, mainly their preferences should be taken into account to improve the programme and increase the number of viewers. The topics ‘religion’, ‘science, technology & IT’, and ‘crime & accidents’ were selected most as the topics that Bona Retsang is not covering enough of in their current programme. In addition, in the open question, respondents indicated that topics such as ‘teenage pregnancy’, ‘drugs and alcohol abuse’, ‘peer pressure’, ‘HIV and aids’ and ‘gangsterism’ are considered important topics too. The topics ‘health and health care’ and ‘politics in other countries’ appeared to be the topics that are currently treated too much in the Bona Retsang content. These findings could be taken into account when creating items and improving the quality of the programme. In addition, when separating the data between the respondents that have seen Bona Retsang and the respondents that have not, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme scored highest on soft news topics such as ‘entertainment’ and ‘sports’ and ‘science’. On the other hand, the respondents that do view Bona Retsang have an interest in these topics, and additionally crime and accidents, as well. However, in general the respondents that did see Bona Retsang selected hard news topics as important topics. Of course it could be argued that there could be other variables that influence this effect (type of school, type of family etc.). Nevertheless, based on this data it can be stated that children in South Africa who watch Bona Retsang are more eager to obtain information about hard news topics in comparison with children that do not watch Bona Retsang. Therefore, it can be assumed that because children are watching Bona Retsang they get informed, and therefore become more eager to obtain information in general. Overall, the respondents rated the quality of Bona Retsang as very good, and felt engaged with and empowered by the programme. Besides this, the programme appears to have high viewership. Thus, is Bona Retsang informing their target audience? Yes, and besides the fact that they reach their target audience, they are also reaching other secondary target audiences such as parents, siblings and other relatives.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Suriname

This section covers the data gathered in Suriname, where The Back Lot produces and broadcasts the programme 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal. ‘10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal’ is a daily news bulletin of approximately 10 minutes that is produced by the news for kids Suriname production team. The programme is aired through STVS and ABC. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Paramaribo, Nickerie, Coronie, Saramaca, and Moengo. The survey took place from August until October, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal, 3) coverage of important topics by 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal, 4) level of engagement with 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal, 5) empowerment as a news consumer, and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age6, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

506 respondents

Gender

255 boys, 251 girls

Areas

Paramaribo, Nickerie, Coronie, Saramaca, Moengo*

Age ranges

11 - 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

99% 1%

(N= 500) (N= 6)

The local partner in Suriname conducted the survey with an age group which they perceived as their target audience. Therefore only respondents between the ages of 11- 15 were interviewed by the local partner. In the analysis of this data, the variable age was operationalised in two categories where 0 = 11 and younger than 15 and 1= 16 years and older. But no data was collected in the 16 years and older category in Suriname. Based on this result it is decided not include the variable age in this country report. * Saramaca and Chupaca are combined as one category “other” in the variable region. Originally 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal planned to conduct the surveys in other cities, however due to circumstances they had to switch the conduction to Saramaca and Moengo. Because this was not listed they ticked “other” in the survey.

6. Only respondents that are younger than 16 years were included in the country analysis of Suriname

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? Gender/ Region For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (82%), Internet (8%), and social networks (5%. In these numbers there is no visible difference between genders. As shown in the table below, it is visible that in all regions television is also the most popular medium. Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? Gender/ Region The majority of the respondents indicate they watch the news at least once a day (50%) or at least once a week (19%), or once a month (4%). There is no convincing difference between boys and girls. Regarding regions, it appears that the majority of the respondents get their news at least once a day. As shown in the table below, in Nickerie the respondents get their news relatively less in comparison to the respondents in Paramaribo and Coronie. Frequency of getting the news versus region

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What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the most mentioned topics that are considered as important are: 1. Sports (59%) 2. Education (45%) 3. Arts & Culture (44%) Gender Regarding most important topics, there is a visible difference between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think almost every topic is important to cover in the news. The differences between girls in comparison to boys are mainly visible in the selection of the topics: ‘education’, ‘arts & culture’ and ‘health’. On the other hand, only the topic of ‘sports’ is seen as more important in comparison to girls. Most important topics for gender

Region Between regions there are differences in topic selections. In all the regions topics about ‘sports’ and ‘education’ are rated as most important to cover in the news. From the table below, it appears that in Coronie ‘arts and culture’ and ‘environment and natural disasters’ are regarded as relatively less important topics in comparison with the other regions. In Coronie the respondents seem to think that ‘religion’ and ‘economy’ are more important in comparison to the respondents in Paramaribo, Nickerie, Saramaca and Moengo. Most important topics versus regions

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2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal? From all the respondents, 44% claimed to watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal at least once day, or at least once a week (23%). 32% of the respondents were not sure whether they had seen the programme (34%). Gender There is a slight difference between genders. Girls (70%) tend to watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal slightly more than boys (66%) Region As shown in the table below, in Paramaribo the respondents watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal the most, followed by the respondents from Coronie, Saramaca and Moengo. In Nickerie most respondents indicate that they are not sure whether they receive the programme. Frequency of receiving 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal versus region

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that have seen the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 506 to 343.

What medium is used most to watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal? The medium that is used most to watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal (89%) is television. Some of the respondents also watch via live web streaming (4%) or radio (1%). Gender Boys tend to follow the programme more on television (92%) in comparison to girls (86%). Girls watch the programme using live web streaming more than boys. Region In all regions television is also the most popular medium to receive 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal, followed by live web streaming. The respondents in Nickerie indicate that they often use ‘other’ media to receive the programme. For a follow-up, it would be interesting to know what these ‘other’ media are.

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Where is the main place you watch/listen to 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal? Most of the respondents that watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjounaal watch it ‘at home’ (97%) or at an ‘other home’ (2%). There is not an indicative difference between genders. Regarding the differences between regions, in Nickerie the respondents tend to watch the programme relatively more in ‘ other homes’ in comparison to the other regions.

Who are the main people you watch/listen to the 10 M inuten Jeugdjournaal with? Most of the respondents that watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal watch with their parents (56%), on their own (18%) or with their siblings (18%). Gender The data shows that there is a slight difference between girls and boys. Boys (21%) tend to watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal more on their own in comparison to girls (15%), and girls tend to watch the programme slightly more with their parents or siblings. Nevertheless, the majority still watched the programme with their parents. Region Between regions there are differences visible in the data. In the table below, it is evident that, except for the respondents from Nickerie, Saramaca and Moengo watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjounaal the most with their parents. In Paramaribo and Coronie the respondents watch more with their siblings in comparison to the other regions. Main people to watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal with versus region

3. Ideal way of getting 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal What is the ideal way of getting 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal? Most of the respondents (86%) think the ideal way of getting 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal is via television. 12% prefers getting the programme via live web streaming or radio (1%) or other media than mentioned (1%). Gender There is a small difference between boys and girls. Boys indicate slightly more (15%) than girls (9%) that the ideal way of receiving 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal is via live web streaming. Girls (88%) tend to think that live television broadcasts are a more ideal way to receive the programme in comparison to boys (84%).

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Region Television is the most ideal medium preferred in every region. Only in Nickerie the respondents prefer to receive 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal slightly more via radio (2%) or live web streaming (15%). The respondents in Paramaribo are the only ones that indicate that they would also prefer the programme via social media networks, however this is a very small percentage (1%).

What could be improved in terms of content of 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal? From the data it appeared that the respondents are very positive about the topics that are treated in the content of 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal. A few topics came forward that the respondents would like to see addressed more in the 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal, which were: ‘war and conflict’ (36%) and ‘politics in other countries’ (33%). On the other hand, some respondents also mentioned that ‘war & conflict’ is covered too much, however this is just 4%. Differences between gender It appeared that boys want to see more of topics such as ‘arts & culture’, ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘science’, ‘health and health care’ covered in the 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal content. Girls want to see more topics such as ‘music, films and entertainment’, ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘politics in other countries’. Differences between seen and not seen When separating the data between the respondents that have seen 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal and the respondents that have not seen the programme, it appears that the respondents that have never seen the programme score highest on the ‘soft news topics’ such as ‘entertainment’ (39%) and ‘sports’ (61%). The nonwatchers also score higher on the topic ‘war & conflict’ in comparison to the watchers. For the respondents that do watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal, hard news topics such as ‘education’ (46%), ‘arts and culture’ (47%), ‘health’ (39%), ‘politics in other countries’ (28%), ‘economy’ (23%) and ‘human rights’ (21%) are seen as important. In addition, religion is also seen as an important topic by the 10 Minuten Jeugdjournal watchers. In the Discussion there will be further elaboration on this matter. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/have not seen 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal

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Suggested topics by children Through an open question it was asked whether there were any other topics which were not listed in the questionnaire that are important for the respondents. The following topics were mentioned the most: - Child abuse - Child labour - International affairs - Animals

What is the overall quality of 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal? Gender/ region The overall quality of 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal was rated as very good (65%) or good (27%). Girls seem to rate the quality slightly higher, however this is no convincing difference. Between regions the quality is similarly rated, namely as “good” or “very good”. As shown in the table below, only in Paramaribo and Nickerie, respondents rate the quality of 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal as “bad” (3%) or as “ very bad” (1%). Quality of 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal between versus region

By using an open question respondents were asked how 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal could improve the overall quality of the show. The following five ideas were mentioned most frequently: - - - -

More information and video’s about children in other countries; Transmission on more channels; Better presenters; Longer air time: 20 minutes instead of 10 minutes.

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4. Level of Engagement with 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal In order to determine the level of engagement with 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicated a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal/ 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please see the questionnaire in the attachment. Most of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers (95%) were given to the statement “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world”. Additionally, to the statement “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal helps me feel for children in other parts of the world” there was also a positive response; 78% agreed with this statement. On the statements “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal informs me much better about important news topics than adult news” and “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/ watching 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal” slightly more negative answers were given in comparison to the other statements. As shown in the table below 21% of the respondents disagreed or had opinion (17%). The level engagement with 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal – all respondents that have seen 1he programme

Gender When filtering this data on gender it appears that relatively more boys disagree with the 10 engagement statements. For example on the statement “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/ watching 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal” boys react relatively more negatively than girls.

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The level engagement with 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal versus gender

5. Level of Empowerment by 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all 5 statements indicated a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that were asked to rate included “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal takes me seriously as a young citizen / 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. The majority of the respondents agree with the 5 empowerment questions as well. For the statement “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal has helped me to make better decisions about my future” there were the most positive answers (75% agrees). The statement “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions” also received positive responses, 71% of the respondents agree. The statement “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics” was responded to most negatively (15% disagreed). Gender As shown in the table below, boys agree relatively more with the statements in comparison to girls. However, there was one statement “10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal has helped me to make better decisions about my future” were girls appeared to be positive and boys more negative.

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The level empowerment with 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal versus gender

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions difference between gender From the data it appeared that girls watch 10 Minuten Jeudjournaal slightly more than boys and that girls rate the quality of the programme slightly higher, however this difference was not very convincing. Girls also agreed more frequently with the statements regarding the level of engagement. Thus, it can be stated that girls feel more engaged by the programme. These observations above highlight how it seems that 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal appeals more to girls than to boys. On the other hand, boys agreed more often than girls on the statements regarding the level of empowerment felt by 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal, with the exception that boys feel that the programme has helped them less to make better decisions about their future than girls. Nonetheless, boys felt that the programme takes them serious as a young citizen and that their voices are heard more than girls. Boys generally responded more positively, leading to a conclusion that boys tend to feel more empowered by the 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal. The analysis above seems rather contrary, though when accumulated it can be concluded (when not taking into account for other possible moderating variables that can influence this relation such as type of schools, type of family, personal interests, level of intelligence, etc.) that 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal appeals to and engages girls more than boys, though is more empowering to boys. Conclusions difference between region Television is rated as the most ideal medium to receive the programme in almost every region. Only in Nickerie the respondents prefer to receive 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal via radio and live web streaming more. Besides this, Nickerie appears to also be the deviating region on several variables in comparison to the other regions. In Nickerie the respondents watched relatively more often with their parents, and respondents rated the quality of 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal worse. The deviation between the other regions could be the fact that Nickerie is one of the rural areas of Suriname. Hence, the respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; preference to receive 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal by radio seems logical, since radio does not need a highly developed media infrastructure. However, from the data it appears that the respondents are also active on live web stream media, and also prefer this medium as an ideal medium to receive 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal. The latter claim tests our assumptions that rural regions only prefer radio due to its accessibility. It would be interesting to further study the reason why Nickerie as a region deviates more from the other regions.

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In addition, the respondents indicated that print media is also an option to receive the news. However, print media was not included as an option for the ‘ideal’ media medium categories. Further analysis into the relation between print media and 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal would provide extra insights. Is 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal informing their audience? For the respondents that had never seen 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal there was more interest in soft news topics such as ‘entertainment’ and ‘sports’. Hard news topics such as ‘education’, ‘arts and culture’, ‘health’ and ‘politics in your own/ and other countries’ were clearly less preferred in comparison with the respondents that do watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal. Respondents that did watch 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal have a much higher interest in the hard news topics. This cannot only be attributed to 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal as there could be other variables that influence this result (type of school, type of family, etc.). Nonetheless, based on this data it can be stated that children in Suriname who watch 10 Minuten Jeudgjournaal are more eager to obtain information about hard news topics in comparison to children that do not watch the programme. Thus, is 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal informing their audience? Based on this data: Yes! The programme is not only informing their primary target audience but it is also informing a secondary target audience, since most respondents watch with their parents, siblings and other relatives. Therefore, it can be assumed that 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal reaches a broad audience. In addition, from the data it appears that most respondents do feel empowered and engaged by the programme. Thus, besides that 10 Minuten Jeugdjournaal is informing their audience, it is also engaging and empowering them.

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Zambia

This section covers the data gathered in Zambia, where Muvi TV produces and broadcasts the programme Zkids News. ‘Zkids News’ is a news for kids bulletin that is produced by the Zambia news for kids production team. The programme is aired through Muvi TV’s channels. This survey aims to assess the interests and the attitudes of the target audience towards Zkids News television programme. The findings of this survey can be taken into account for further developments and improvements of the programme in general. Besides this, the data can serve as a background in applications for donors and funders. The questionnaires were conducted in both urban and rural areas; in Lusaka, Ndola, Kabwe, Chongwe, and Mumbwa. The survey took place from August until December, 2015. The target-group of the survey is children and youth between 11 – 18 years old. The interviews were mainly conducted at private and public schools. The questionnaire contained nineteen questions in total that were subdivided into the following six categories: 1) general information, 2) getting the news/ Zkids News, 3) coverage of important topics by Zkids News, 4) level of engagement with Zkids News, 5) empowerment as a news consumer, and 6) overall quality of the programme. The answers on all questions are analysed on the basis of the three independent variables: gender, age, and region. With these variables it is possible to measure the extent to which these characteristics have a specific influence on the general responses of the survey. Respondents Sample

467 respondents

Gender

225 boys, 242 girls

Areas

Lusaka, Ndola, Kabwe, Chongwe, Mumbwa

Age ranges

11 - 18 11 - 15 years old 16 years and older

78% 22%

(N= 364) (N= 103)

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1. General news information What is the main way of getting the news? For most respondents the main way of getting the news is via television (85%), friends and family (11%) and radio (4%. Newspapers and magazines (1%) are also used to receive the news but less often. Gender Television is the main medium for both genders to receive the news. Boys (84%) and girls (85%) receive the news via television rather equally. Boys (12%) tend to receive the news relatively more via friends in comparison to girls (10%). Girls receive the news more via radio (5%) compared to boys (3%). Age Respondents that are 16 years and older receive the news relatively more via television (91%) than the respondents younger than 16 years (83%). The younger respondents (12%) receive the news more via friends/ and family (12%) and radio (5%) than the respondents that are 16 years and older (friends and family= 8%; radio = 1%). Region As shown in the table below, in all regions television is the most popular medium. In Chongwe the respondents also tend to receive the news relatively more via friends and family than the other regions. In Mumbwa the respondents obtain the news relatively more frequently via radio. Main way of getting the news versus region

What is the frequency of getting the news? The majority of the respondents indicate that they watch the news at least once a day (42%), at least once a week (42%) or at least once a month (9%). Gender Boys (45% at least once a day) tend to receive the news more frequently than girls (40% at least once a day). Girls receive the news more at least once a week (45%) than boys (38%). Age The respondents that are 16 years and older get the news more frequently (53% at least once a day) than the respondents that are younger than 16 years (39% at least once a day). Region As shown in the table below, in most regions respondents mainly receive the news at least once a week. In Kabwe however, the respondents indicate that they mainly receive the news at least once a day. In Ndola the respondents selected most that they â&#x20AC;&#x153;neverâ&#x20AC;? receive news.

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Frequency of getting the news versus region

What topics are important to you? Of all respondents the most mentioned topics that are considered important are: 1. Education (66%) 2. Sports (64%) 3. Entertainment (60%) Gender Regarding most important topics by the audience there is a clear difference between boys and girls. As shown in the table below, girls think topics such as ‘education’, ‘arts & culture’ and ‘religion’ are most important, whereas boys think topics such as ‘sports’, ‘health’, and ‘politics in other countries’ are most important. Most important topics for boys/girls

Age There is also a visible difference between respondents younger than 16 years and respondents 16 years and older. As shown in the table below, the older respondents have an interest for the topics ‘education’, ‘sports’, ‘health’, ‘economy’, and ‘politics in other countries’. The younger respondents prefer topics such as ‘entertainment’, and ‘arts & culture’.

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Most important topics versus age

Region Between regions there are differences. The topics ‘education’, ‘entertainment’ and ‘sports’ are clearly seen as important topics in every region. An exception is Mumba, where the respondents prefer the topics of ‘politics in other countries’, ‘politics in your own country’, ‘arts & culture’, and ‘religion’ above ‘education’. In Ndola, besides that the respondents think that topic ‘education’ is most important, the topics ‘politics in other countries’, ‘economy’ and ‘human rights’ are also seen as important topics.

2. Getting the programme How often do you get the news from Zkids News? Majority of the respondents watch Zkids News at least once a week (44%), or at least once a day (25%) or at least once a month (10%). Gender Girls (at least once a day 26%) tend to watch Zkids News slightly more than boys (at least once a day 24%). Boys (13%) indicate slightly more than girls (12%) that they never saw the programme, however this difference is negligible. Receiving Zkids News versus gender

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Age Majority of the respondents that watch Zkids News is 16 years and older (28% at least once a day/ 42% at least one week). The respondents that are younger than 16 years selected that they see the programme at least once a week (44%) relatively more than the respondents that are 16 years and older, however the younger respondents see the programme less at least once a day (24%). Receiving Zkids News versus age

Region Regarding region, it can be observed that in Kabwe the respondents never receive Zkids News (46%). In Mumbwa the respondents receive Zkids News the most (50% at least once a day, 48% at least once a week). Receiving Zkids News versus region

In order to highlight the information from the current audience of the programme, the rest of this report is based on the amount of respondents that did see the programme, unless stated otherwise. Respondents that answered that they either ´never´ saw the programme or are ´not sure´ how often they see the programme, are left out of the analysis. This brings the total respondents back from 467 to 384.

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What medium is used most to watch Zkids News? The medium that is used most to receive Zkids News is television (91%), followed by Live radio broadcasts (4%). A few respondents indicate that they receive Zkids News via social media updates (1%) and web podcasts/ downloads (1%). Gender Girls use television to watch Zkids News (93%) more than boys (90%). Boys indicated that they also receive the news via social media web podcasts/downloads. Both genders equally receive the programme via radio (4%). Age From the respondents that follow Zkids News on the radio, the majority (5%) is younger than 16 years old (16 years and older = 1%). In addition, the boys that receive the programme via social media updates are also younger than 16 years. The respondents that are 16 years and older receive Zkids News more via television (93%) when compared to respondents that are younger than 16 years (91%). Region In all regions live television broadcasts are the main medium to receive Zkids News. The respondents that indicate that they receive the programme via radio, social media updates and web podcasts/downbloads are from Chongwe. In Mumbwa, there are also respondents that use radio as medium to receive Zkids News. In Ndola it is indicated that the programme is received via ‘other people’.

Where is the main place you watch/listen to Zkids News? Most of the respondents that watch Zkids News receive it ‘at home’ (84%), at ‘an other home’ (12%), or ‘at school’ (1%). Gender Girls get Zkids News more ‘at home’ (66%) than boys (81%). Boys receive Zkids News more at ‘an other home’ (14%) than girls (10%). Both genders equally indicate that they receive the news in school (1%). Age The respondents younger than 16 years (82%) receive the programme less ‘at home’ or ‘at school’ than respondents that are 16 years or older (89%). The younger (14%) respondents receive the programme more at ‘an other home’ than the older respondents (6%). Region In terms of region, the majority of respondents in all regions receive Zkids News ‘at home’ or ‘at an other home’. From the data it appeared that the respondents that receive Zkids News ‘at school’ are all from Chongwe. In addition, Chongwe appears to be region were the programme is received the most ‘at other homes’.

Who are the main people you watch/listen to Zkids News with? Most of the respondents that receive Zkids News watch the programme with their siblings (44%), with their parents (23%), on their own (11%), with their friends (11%), with other relatives (6%) or with classmates (2%). Gender As shown in the table below there is a difference between girls and boys. Boys (47%) tend to watch Zkids News more on their own in comparison to girls (41%). Girls seem to watch the programme more with their parents, friends, or on their own.

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Main people to receive Zkids News with versus gender

Age As shown in table below, it appears the respondents that receive Zkids News with their siblings are 16 years and older. From the respondents that receive the programme with their friends and on their own, majority is younger than 16 years. Main people to receive Zkids News with versus age

Region As the table below indicates, between regions there are differences. For example, in all regions the respondents mainly watch Zkids News with their siblings. Almost all respondents from Kabwe watch the programme with siblings. In Ndola and Mumbwa the respondents watch Zkids News relatively more with their parents in comparison to the other regions. Chongwe is the only region where the programme is watched with classmates.

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Main people to watch Zkids News with versus region

3. Ideal way of getting ZKids News What is the ideal way of getting Zkids News? Most of the respondents (74%) think the ideal way of getting Zkids News is through Live TV broadcasts, social media updates (5%), live radio updates (4%), and sms updates (4%). Gender From the respondents that prefer to receive Zkids News via television the majority is girls (79%, boys = 70%), whereas boys appear to be the ones that would like to receive the programme via social media (7%, girls = 2%). Age From the respondents that prefer to receive Zkids News via television the majority (77%) is younger than 16 years (16 years and older = 64%). The respondents that are 16 years or older appear to be the ones that would prefer to receive the programme via social media updates (9%) and sms updates (8%) (younger than 16 years = 4% and 3%) Region The majority of the respondents in the regions indicate to ideally receive the news via Live TV broadcasts. Only in Mumbwe are social media updates and live radio broadcasts preferred as an ideal way to receive the news for kids bulletin.

What could be improved in terms of content of Zkids News? It was indicated by the respondents that the topics ‘economic news’ (59%), ‘science, technology, IT’ (56%), ‘war & conflict’ (54%) and ‘crime & accidents’ (48%) could be treated more in the Zkids News content. A few respondents selected the topics ‘sports’ (13%) and ‘music, film & entertainment’ (13%) as treated too much in the content of Zkids News.

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Differences between gender From the data it appears that girls are the main respondents that would like see more about ‘economy’ and ‘crime & accidents’. However, girls also indicate that they would like to see more items covered regarding ‘religion’ and ‘politics in their own country’. Mainly boys were the respondents that wanted to see more items covering ‘science, technology and IT’. Differences between age When filtering the data on age, it becomes evident that there are differences between the age groups regarding preferred topics. The respondents that are 16 years and older think Zkids News should cover the topics ‘health and health care’, ‘environmental & natural disasters’ and ‘arts & culture’ more. The respondents that are younger than 16 years would like to see more topics on ‘religion’ and ‘science, technology & IT’ covered in Zkids News content. Differences between seen and not seen When separating the data between the respondents that have seen Zkids News and the respondents that have not, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme only score high on the category “none of these”. Apparently the respondents that were interviewed about what topics they think are important selected that they think that none of the mentioned categories are important. What this suggests will be further elaborated in the Discussion. The respondents that have seen Zkids News mainly think that ‘education’, ‘sports’, and ‘entertainment’ are important. The topics ‘environment and natural disasters’, ‘politics in your own country’ and ‘war & conflict’ are seen as the least important topics. Differences in topics between respondents that have seen/have not seen Zkids News

What is the overall quality of Zkids News? Gender/ age The overall quality of Zkids News was rated as very good (65%) or good (34%). Girls rate the quality relatively higher than boys as they select the ‘very good’ category more often than boys. This also applies to the respondents that are 16 years or older, that rate the quality higher than the respondents that are younger than 16 years. Region There is no evident difference between regions; the quality is rated similar, namely as ‘good’ or ‘very good’. One notable result is that a few respondents indicated that they think the quality is ‘bad’ or ‘very bad’ in Lusaka, however this was just 1% in both cases.

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By using an open question respondents were asked how Zkids News could improve the overall quality of the show. The following five ideas were mentioned most frequently: - Allocate more time to political issues; - Improve signal quality; - More community news; - Introduce local languages; - Allocate more time.

4. Level of Engagement with Zkids News In order to determine the level of engagement with Zkids News, 10 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each statement. A high score on all ten statements indicates a high level of engagement. Statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Zkids News is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world / Zkids News informs me much better about important news topics than adult news / Zkids News helps me feel for children in other parts of the world / I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Zkids News/ Zkids News regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live”. For all ten questions please consult the questionnaire in the attachment. The majority of the respondents agree with the 10 engagement statements. Most positive answers were given to the statement “‘Zkids News’ news stories are always presented in an inspiring and engaging way that makes me want to find out more” (58% agrees, 34% strongly agrees), and “Zkids News is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world” (59% agrees, 35% strongly agrees). However, two statements received more negative reactions: “Zkids News informs me much better about important news topics than adult news” (14% disagrees, 6% strongly disagrees) and “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Zkids News” (14% disagrees, 6% strongly disagrees). Gender When filtering this data on gender, it appears that there are slight differences visible between the genders. Boys and girls equally disagree with half of the 10 statements, however, they disagree on different statements. Girls tend to disagree most with the statement: “Zkids News news stories cover a very wide range and mix of topics/ issues”. Boys disagree more with the statement “Zkids News informs me much better about important news topics than adult news”. Age Most of the respondents mainly ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’ with the engagement statements. Nevertheless, it appears that the respondents that are younger than 16 years disagree relatively more often with the 10 engagement statements than the respondents that are 16 years and older. The statement that the younger respondents disagreed with most is: “I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching Zkids News”.

5. Level of Empowerment by Zkids News In order to determine the level of empowerment, 5 statements were given to the respondents. The respondents could indicate to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of the statements. A high score on all of 5 statements indicates a high level of empowerment as a news consumer. The statements that respondents were asked to rate included: “Zkids News gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard / Zkids News makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions / Zkids News takes me seriously as a young citizen / Zkids News has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics / Zkids News has helped me to make better decisions about my future”.

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The majority of the respondents ‘agree’ or ‘strongly agree’ with the 5 empowerment questions. For the statement “Zkids News gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard” respondents answered the most positively (58% agrees, 33% strongly agrees). In addition, positive answers were selected for the statement “Zkids News has helped me to make better decisions about my future” (61% agrees, 29% strongly agrees). There were few respondents that reacted negatively on the statement: “Zkids News has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics” (15% disagrees, 3% strongly disagrees). Gender Boys tend to disagree more than girls with the empowerment statements. For the statement, “Zkids News has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics”, it appeared that mainly boys responded negatively. Although boys responded more negative than girls in general, some girl respondents did not agree with one statement, namely: “Zkids News has helped me to make better decisions about my future”. Age Between the different age groups it appears that the respondents that are 16 years and older are more positive than the younger age group.

6. Observations and Discussion Conclusions different age groups From the data it appears that majority of respondents that watch Zkids News is 16 years and older. However this might be due to the fact that the data regarding age was skewed as the sample of younger respondents was much larger than of older respondents. Thus, the results of the age group that is 16 years and older was automatically higher on various topics. For future research it is important that the data must be corrected for the influence of data skewness. Regardless of the skewness, majority of the respondents that are 16 years and older watch the programme ‘once a day’. It was visible that the respondents younger than 16 years watched the programme ‘once a week’ more often. Hence one can assume that Zkids News is still rather popular among the older target group. In addition, the respondents that are 16 years and older rate the quality of Zkids News higher than the respondents that are younger than 16 years. However, this may be a result of this age group being keener to choose the ‘very good’ category, whereas the younger age group prefers to select ‘good’. What the perceived differences are between ‘good’ and ‘very good’ cannot be concluded from the data. This would require further qualitative research. Nonetheless, the older age group generally rates the quality higher. Conclusions difference between gender Girls seem to watch Zkids News slightly more than boys and they also rate the quality of the programme higher. Although boys and girls both mainly agreed on the statements of engagement, a group of girls did disagree on the statement: “Zkids News its news stories cover a very wide range and mix of topics/issues”. In addition, boys disagreed more with the statements of empowerment. Nonetheless, there was one statement that girls firmly disagreed with, which was that: “Zkids News has helped them to make better decisions about their future”. Generally, girls agreed more on feeling empowered by Zkids News than boys. Based on this it can be stated that Zkids News generally is more appealing, empowering and slightly more engaging for girls than boys. Conclusions difference between regions With regard to regions, it can be observed that in the region Kabwe the respondents mainly never receive Zkids News, and that in Mumbwa the respondents receive Zkids News the most. For the few respondents in Kabwe that do receive the programme, they stated that they receive the news via television. Thus respondents can receive Zkids News in Kabwe but apparently they do not know Zkids News. A recommendation is that Zkids News could start promoting the programme more. In Kabwe the respondents indicated that for them the ideal way of receiving Zkids news was via social media or via sms updates.

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Furthermore, from the data it appears that the respondents that receive Zkids News at school and watch the programme with classmates, were all from Chongwe. Has a special arrangement been made between Zkids News and schools in Chongwe, or is this just a coincidence? In the case that this might be a specific project, this might inspire schools in other regions. Is Zkids News informing their audience? The topics ‘economic news’, ‘science, technology, IT’, ‘war & conflict’ and ‘crime & accidents’ were selected most as the topics that Zkids News is not covering enough of in their current programme. Apparently, these topics are important to the Zkids News viewers. These findings could be taken into account when creating items and improving the quality of the programme. In addition, when separating the data between the respondents that have seen Zkids News and the respondents that have not, it appears that respondents that have never seen the programme mainly selected “none of these” suggested topics. Apparently the interviewees that were questioned on what topics they think are important, find that none of the suggested categories are important. Though, the respondents that did see Zkids News selected many topics. As there is clear difference between the non-viewers and viewers of Zkids News, it can be assumed that because children are watching Zkids News they get informed, and therefore become more eager to obtain information in general. Overall, the respondents rated the quality of Zkids News as very good, and felt engaged with and empowered by the programme. Besides this, the programme appears to have high viewership. Thus, is Zkids News informing their target audience? Yes, and besides the fact that they reach their target audience, they are also reaching secondary audiences such as parents, siblings and other relatives.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Recommendations & lessons learned

The collected data from the audience survey provides insights into the viewersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; preferences and experiences of the programmes, and also measures the impact and importance of having a news for kids bulletin in every WADADA News for Kids partner country. Nonetheless, in every country there were limitations in collecting the data and conducting the survey, and in some cases issues concerning the reliability of the data and the content of the questionnaire. Some of the challenges and issues were similar or the same in several countries, others were more country specific. In order to conduct a better and more reliable audience survey in the future many lessons can be learned. In this section these challenges, issues and lessons learned will be discussed.

Recommendations for Data Collection The term data-collection refers to the complete process of the conduction of the 6000 surveys in the twelve WADADA News for Kids partner countries that participated in this audience survey. The main challenge during data collection and conducting the survey was the local authorities or the fear of the local authorities. In Bangladesh and Nicaragua, the local authorities did not always give permission to conduct the survey. In Ghana, the schools themselves insisted on a letter of approval from the government before they let the children be interviewed. In Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ghana, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone and Suriname the local authorities should have been approached for permission or at least been informed of the research in order to interview the children. It is recommended for future audience surveys to take this into account for all countries, but specifically for the aforementioned countries. The second biggest challenge was the length of the survey. In Bolivia, Ghana, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone and Suriname the respondents spent more time on the survey than anticipated. For example, in Bolivia there was not enough time in the school breaks to interview the children. This led to a delay in the collection of the surveys. It is recommended that a future survey is shortened or that the length of the survey is taken into account when calculating the time needed to conduct it. In Burma, Nepal and Peru the majority of the respondents had not seen the WADADA News for Kids programme. In order to not distort the results these respondents were not used for the analysis of the data. This led to a much smaller group of respondents, making the data less representative to analyse. It is important for future surveys, in all countries, that this is taken into consideration by agreeing on a minimum number of respondents that have seen the programme. Another challenge included local political conflicts, natural disasters and bad local infrastructure. In Nepal, Sierra Leone and Suriname these issues posed problems to reaching the respondents. Because the WADADA News for Kids network works in fragile contexts more attention should be paid to these issues.

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In Bangladesh, Burma and Suriname the local researchers selected the respondents themselves instead of randomly selecting them. This may have led to biased answers. Besides this, they only conducted data of the respondents of which they perceive is the audience that they target with their news programmes. In the data from other countries it appeared that a few news for kids bulletins aim for a different audience than targeted for. This became only visible because other respondents, besides the perceived target audience, were interviewed as well. It is therefore recommended that researchers are properly informed about how to collect data, and from which sample. It is important to stress independence, to avoid biased answers, of the researcher during such a process.

Recommendations for the Questionnaire Regarding the recommendations for the questionnaire, the issues concerning the process of construction, monitoring and implementation are evaluated here and should be taken into consideration for future studies. The main lesson learned concerning creating a questionnaire is that it is most important to have a clear objective of what you want to measure specifically, what you want to do with the findings and involve a person that knows statistics and research methods in this process. In this study it became evident that variables that appeared to be important to draw several observations were not included in the questionnaire and were therefore not possible to analyse a potential effect. For example, in this study variables regarding the channel and time of broadcast were not included. For future studies it is recommended that include these variables in the analysis since these independent variables could have an effect on for example viewer behaviour or the reach of target groups. Based on the received feedback, it can be concluded that the main issue with the questionnaire was the language style and terminology used. Though, the questionnaire was constructed in cooperation with the participating partner countries in which multiple moments of feedback were scheduled, nonetheless many respondents in Bolivia, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone and Suriname indicated that the language style and terminology was too difficult. This was especially the case for the questions about the level of empowerment and engagement. This may lead to misinterpretation of the survey questions and to distorted answers. It is therefore recommended that the language is further simplified. The second biggest challenge here was the presence of the researcher during the interviewing of the respondents. It was observed that the respondents in Bolivia, Ghana, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone and Suriname tended to answer more positively because they thought the researcher represented the programme. In order to avoid this in the future it is recommended to let the children fill out the questionnaires on a printed hard copy if this is possible. Or when the infrastructure is developed sufficiently make use of a digital online survey programme such as ‘survey monkey’ or ‘qualtrics’ so that the respondents can fill in the questionnaire anonymously in their own time. By doing this the respondents can not be influenced by the researcher. This will even save time because all the respondents can fill out the questionnaire at the same time and the researcher can fill it in on the tablet later without distractions. In Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal and Burma the respondents answered the open questions in their own language. Though this was convenient for the local researcher and the respondents this was an extra barrier in analysing the data. In order to avoid this it is recommended to ask the local researcher for explanations to each question in English. In addition, for the open questions there was no coding system available, which made it difficult and more time-consuming to analyse the answers of the respondents.

Recommendations for conducting an of the Audience Survey Regarding the process of conducting this audience survey as a whole, there were a few issues that should be taken into consideration for future studies. These issues concern the preparation, the methodology, the size of the audience survey, the data analysis and responsibilities of the researchers and process managers.

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Firstly, the data was not collected by Free Press Unlimited, or one external researcher, but each local partner hired a local researcher to conduct the data collection. Therefore it was quite difficult to oversee the process of data collection. In addition, because the local partners were responsible for finding a researcher, Free Press Unlimited was dependent on the partners in getting the data. A way to overcome this would be to send someone from Free Press Unlimited or an external researcher to all of the countries to oversee and aid in the process of data collection. In total, the audience survey required a total of more than 6000 respondents (around 500 per country). Although the more respondents you have, the more reliable and valid your results will be, it generates a lot of data that needs to be analysed in a short period of time. Therefore it is recommended to either hire additional manpower (internal or external) to analyse this data or to reconsider the amount of time that is needed to complete the analysis. Collecting less data is also an option, however this might be at the expense of the reliability and validity of the audience survey. Analysing data is typically something that does not have to be done by an external party or Free Press Unlimited employee, as that would not be cost efficient, but could be done by a statistics student. In contrast with the total amount of respondents, a sample of 500 respondents per country is a small amount. Generally, there were more respondents from the urban areas. Therefore the rural areas are under represented in the survey. To overcome this issue the sample of respondents should be better spread between rural and urban areas around the country. However, it must be noted that the partners were dependent on a small budget, which is why for some countries it was too costly to travel to certain (rural) regions. The data analysis was done with an external company. This can generate miscommunication and work having to be done twice. In addition, it would have been easier to have the option to work on a SPSS data file and analyse the data ourselves. It was time-consuming to request this every time from the external company. Finally, as already mentioned, it is recommended to assign one person who is involved in the entire process from creating the questionnaire until the data-analysis and writing the report. In addition, this person should know statistics (when it is quantitative) and research methodologies thoroughly. This way the objectives can be better achieved, analysis can be done more structured, and the process can be monitored better.

Recap All in all these recommendations offer possibilities to improve the questionnaire and the ways of data collection and monitor the process of the conduction of a quantitative audience survey. It must be taken into account that; local authorities, the size of the survey and local conditions all pose challenges to a smooth data collection. In addition, the language used in the questionnaire, the presence of the researcher and other issues all influence the reliability of the survey. The different lessons that were learned here should make future audience surveys better, easier to conduct and more reliable. Moreover, when preparing for a next audience survey of this scope, the methodology should be further thought out and prepared into detail, since this could determine the reliability and validity of the audience survey. In the overview below these lessons and the main recommendations can be found.

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Data collection

Questionnaire

Project process

Informing local authorities about audience survey project in time

Define the objective of the questionnaire as clear as possible, ideally together with a person that know statistics and research methods

Hire external researcher or make one person responsible that oversees entire process of data conducting in all participating countries

Encounter length of the survey versus available time of the respondents

Take into account terminology and language in respect to the target group

Assess needed time and available manpower

Ascertain minimum sample size and minimum number of respondents that have seen the programme

Take into account the fact that the researchers presence can influence the respondents answers/ make use of online survey systems

Assess possibilities in terms of available budget

Pay attention to potential issues in fragile contexts

Avoid open questions or make sure you have a coding system available for open questions

Assess benefits of hiring an external party in the process of the data-analysis. Either outsource this completely or do it yourself. Not a combination of both

Independence of researchers to avoid biased answers

Assign one person that is responsible for the entire process from creating the questionnaire until writing the report

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Attachment 1: Questionnaire WADADA News for Kids audience survey

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DA

WA DA

WADADA News for Kids audience feedback questionnaire

Section 1: About you 1. Which country are you from? Tick just one Burma

Nepal

Zambia

Peru

Bangladesh

Nicaragua

Suriname

Bolivia

Ghana

Indonesia

South Africa

Sierra Leone

As soon as the respondent ticks at question 1 for example a country, the questionnaire will change into its local language, and the districts belonging to that specific country pop up at question 3. Also the word “[PROGRAMME]” in all the questions changes into the program belonging to that specific country. The word “[PROGRAMME]” is in every question mentioned except at question 1,2,3,4,5, and 6. For example: As soon as the respondent ticks at question 1 for example “Bangladesh”, the questionnaire will change into Bengali, and the districts belonging to Bangladesh pop up at question . In addition, the word “[PROGRAMME]” in all the questions except at question 1,2,3,4,5, and 6, change into the program belonging to Bangladesh: “KANASTARA”. Country

News program name

Languages

Burma

Youth Voice

Burmese

Peru

Napa

Spanish

Suriname

Tien Minuten Jeugdjournaal

Dutch

Indonesia

Teen Voice

Indonesian

Nepal

Naya Pusta

Nepalese

Bangladesh

Kanastara

Bengali

Bolivia

PICA

Spanish

South Africa

Bona Restang

English

Zambia

ZKids News

English

Nicaragua

De Humo

Spanish

Ghana

News Generation

English

Sierra Leone

Wetin Now!?!

English

2. Are you a girl or a boy? Tick just one Girl

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Boy


3. Where do you live? Tick just one 3.1. Burma Yangon/Rangoon

Myawaddy

Kachin State

Mandalay

Shan State

Magway Division

Pegu/Bago

Rakhine State/Arakan State

Other

Lima

Arequipa

El Carmen

Cuzco

Chuschi

Chincha

Trujillo

Nauta

Other

Paramaribo

Albina

Other

Nickerie

Brokopondo

Coronie

Klaaskreek

3.2. Peru

3.3. Suriname

3.4. Indonesia Jakarta

West Java

Pandeglang

Bandung

Lebak

Other

Depok

Cileungsi

Bekasi

Cisarua

3.5. Nepal Kathmandu

Dharan

Dhading

Biratnagar

Birtamod

Surket

Pokhara

Kavrepalanchok

Other

Butwal

Dhankuta

3.6. Bangladesh Dhaka

Shylhet

Bagerhat

Chittagong

Panchagar

Coxâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bazar

Rangpur

Munshiganj

Other

La Paz

Montero

Mizque

Santa Cruz

Yacuiba

Yunchara

Cochabamba

Sacaba

Riberalta

El Alto

Patacamaya

Other

3.7 Bolivia

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3.8. South Africa Johannesburg

Port Elizabeth

Jane Furse

Cape Town

Maluti

Nongoma

Bloemfontein

Bizana

Other

Lusaka

Kafue

Mumbwa

Ndola

Chibombo

Kasisi

Kabwe

Chongwe

Other

Managua

Le贸n

Chinandega

Masaya

Juigalpa

Rivas

Granada

Matagalpa

Other

Accra

Takoradi

Tamale

Kumasi

Ho

Bolgatanga

Cape Coast

Dhankuta

Wa

Sunyani

Koforidua

Other

Freetown

Port Loko

Other

Bo

Western Area Rural

Kenema

Moyamba

3.9. Zambia

3.10.Nicaragua

3.11. Ghana

3.12. Sierra Leone

How old are you? Tick just one 11 years old or under

13 years old

15 years old

12 years old

14 years old

16 years old or over

What do you think are the three most important news topics/issues for young people where you live? Please write-in below or write 999 if you do not wish to answer 1

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2

3


Section 2: Getting the news What is your main way of getting the news? Tick just one TV

The internet

SMS updates/Mobile apps

Radio

Friends/family

Other

Newspapers/magazines

Social networks

How often do you get the news from anywhere? Tick just one At least once a day

At least once a year

At least once a week

Never

At least once a month

Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not sure

How often do you get the news from [PROGRAMME]? Tick just one At least once a day

At least once a month

Never

At least once a week

At least once a year

Not sure

What is your main way of getting the news from [PROGRAMME]? Tick just one Live TV broadcast

Web podcasts/downloads

Via other people

Live Radio broadcast

Social media updates

Via other secondary sources

Live web streaming

SMS updates

Other

What would be your ideal way to get the news from [PROGRAMME]? Tick just one Live TV broadcast

Web podcasts/downloads

Via other people

Live Radio broadcast

Social media updates

Via other secondary sources

Live web streaming

SMS updates

Other

Where is the main place you watch/listen to/read [PROGRAMME] news? Tick just one My home

Work

On the go on a portable device

Someone elseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s home

Another private place

Other

School

Another public place

Who are the main people you watch/listen to/read [PROGRAMME] news with? Tick just one No one/on my own

Other relatives

Teachers

Parents

Friends

Colleagues

Brothers and sisters

Classmates

Others

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Section 3: COVERAGE OF IMPORTANT TOPICS/ISSUES BY [PROGRAMME] News topic/issue

12. Please tick all topics that are important to you Tick all that apply

13. For topics important to you, please say if [PROGRAMME] coverage is: Tick just one for each important topic Not enough

Arts & culture Crime & accidents Economic news Education Environment & natural disasters Health & health care Human rights Music, film & entertainment Politics in other countries Politics in your country Religion Science, technology & IT Sports War and conflict

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Just right

Too much

Not sure


Section 4: ENGAGEMENT WITH [PROGRAMME] 14. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements? Tick just one answer for each statement Strongly disagree

Disagree

No opinion

Agree

Strongly agree

Not relevant

14.01 [PROGRAMME] is very important for my understanding of what is going on in the world 14.02 [PROGRAMME] really informs me about different opinions on important news topics 14.03 [PROGRAMME] informs me much better about important news topics than adult news 14.04 I can always understand what the key issues are in any [PROGRAMME] news story 14.05 I can very easily relate to all of the [PROGRAMME] news presenters 14.06 [PROGRAMME] helps me feel for children in other parts of the world 14.07 [PROGRAMME] news stories are always presented in an inspiring and engaging way that makes me want to find out more 14.08 [PROGRAMME] news stories cover a very wide range and mix of topics/issues 14.09 I regularly discuss news stories with other people after reading/watching [PROGRAMME] 14.10 [PROGRAMME] regularly addresses the news topics/issues that I think are most important for young people where I live

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Section 5: EMPOWERMENT AS A NEWS CONSUMER 15. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements? Tick just one answer for each statesourcesment Strongly disagree

Disagree

No opinion

Agree

Strongly agree

Not relevant

Very good

Not relevant

15.01 [PROGRAMME] gives local young people a platform and voice that can be heard 15.02 [PROGRAMME] makes me feel more confident that people will listen to my opinions 15.03 [PROGRAMME] takes me seriously as a young citizen 15.04 [PROGRAMME] has encouraged me to become more active in local/school politics 15.05 [PROGRAMME] has helped me to make better decisions about my future

Section 6: OVERALL CONSUMER FEEDBACK 16. How do you rate the overall quality of news produced by [PROGRAMME]? Tick just one Very bad

Bad

No opinion

17. How could [PROGRAMME] improve the overall quality of its news? Please write in the box below or write 999 if you do not wish to answer

18. What do you like best about [PROGRAMME]? Please write in the box below or write 999 if you do not wish to answer

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Good


19. How likely is it that you would recommend [PROGRAMME] to a friend or colleague? Tick just one answer Not very likely 0

1

Very likely 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Not sure

10

IF YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY CONTRIBUTED TO PRODUCING NEWS CONTENT WITH [PROGRAMME] PLEASE ALSO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ON THE NEXT PAGE. IF NOT, YOU HAVE NOW FINISHED THE QUESTIONNAIRE AND DON’T NEED TO ANSWER ANY MORE QUESTIONS

Section 7: CONFIDENCE AS A NEWS CONTRIBUTOR ONLY COMPLETE THIS SECTION IF YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY CONTRIBUTED TO PRODUCING NEWS CONTENT WITH [PROGRAMME]. IF NOT, YOU DON’T NEED TO ANSWER ANY MORE QUESTIONS 20. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements? Tick just one answer for each statement Having helped produce news content for [PROGRAMME] I am confident that…

Strongly disagree

Disagree

No opinion

Agree

Strongly agree

Not relevant

20.01 I could produce a news story of my own without help 20.02 I could produce a news story that has a good balance of views and opinions 20.03 I could assist in the production of news in a live news production setting 20.04 I would feel comfortable being interviewed on camera or recording device 20.05 I could discuss important issues with a group of people my age or older 20.06 I could ask better questions to get more information from people on important things 20.07 I could apply the skills and experience I learnt with [PROGRAMME] in school or work 20.08 The skills and experience I have gained with [PROGRAMME] will help me in my career 20.09 I can express my views and opinions more clearly to others 20.10 My self-belief has grown and I have become more confident in myself

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Section 8: OVERALL CONTRIBUTOR FEEDBACK 21. How would you rate the overall quality of your experience with [PROGRAMME]? Tick just one answer Very bad

Bad

No opinion

Good

22. What could [PROGRAMME] have done to improve your overall experience? Please write in the box below or write N/A if you do not wish to answer

23. What did you like best about contributing to new content with [PROGRAMME]? Please write in the box below or write N/A if you do not wish to answer

THANK YOU, YOU HAVE NOW FINISHED THE QUESTIONNAIRE!

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Very good

Not relevant


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Wadada News for Kids audience survey report  

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