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Walker Residence A Tropical Design Analysis & Intervention

Frankie Abraham // Chiara Marquez

TROPDES DAR1 // A.Y. 2017 - 2018 // Mentor: Arch. Aaron Lecciones De La Salle College of Saint Benilde

1


TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary

------------------------------- 3

Acknowledgement

------------------------------- 4

Building Profile

------------------------------- 5 - 11

Thermal Comfort Profile (as existing)

------------------------------- 12 - 28

Thermal Comfort Profile (as intervention)

------------------------------- 29 - 74

Sustainability Assessment

------------------------------- 75 - 89

Simulated Green Rating

------------------------------- 90 - 96

Building Smart Automation

------------------------------- 97 - 101

References

------------------------------- 102

2


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Walker Residence, a one-storey vacation and retirement home for a couple, is the subject of this tropical design analysis and intervention. Through the analysis of the structure’s physical attributes, thermal comfort, shadow study, wind study, and energy audit, the group was able determine the different strengths and weaknesses of the structure.

Strengths, such as the amount of sunlight received during the year or usable roof space, and weaknesses, such as not being in the thermal comfort zone, were used to suggest the most appropriate interventions to achieve a more sustainable and efficient structure than it was originally. Key interventions include the incorporation of solar panels, raising the house on stilts, on-site water purification, and a number more. 3


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The group would like to acknowledge the following people who have helped accomplish this research study. First and foremost, we would like to acknowledge our Tropical Design Professor, Ar. Aaron Lecciones, who not only entertained us with his wit and humor but also inspired us with his knowledge and passion for sustainable design in tropical architecture.

We would also like to thank our classmates for always being open to inquiries and giving us sufficient answers regarding the subjects they have reported during our classroom sessions.

We would like to acknowledge our friends and families as well for their undying support throughout all of this.

Finally, we would like to thank God for everything. 4


BUILDING PROFILE The Walker Residence is a one - storey residential retirement & vacation home for a couple. It is located in San Jose Sico, Batangas City. The site is 40 minutes away from the city and is still under development, a perfect location to get peace and quiet.

The original design of the residence already tries to allude to some concepts and principles of tropical design, but still needs some intervention.

5


// SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN // VICINITY MAP // SAN JOSE SICO, BATANGAS CITY, PHILIPPINES

6


// F L O O R P L A N

The spaces are designed to be occupied by a couple that likes to cook, read and invite guests.

7


// E L E V A T I O N // F R O N T & R E A R

A simple pitched roof allows hot air to rise, and cool air to enter

8


// E L E V A T I O N // R I G H T & L E F T

A lanai will serve as a lounging area during the cool afternoon, and a sun buffer for the rest of the day.

9


// S E C T I O N // F R O N T & L E F T

A large clerestory window allows hot air above to move out.

10


// P E R S P E C T I V E

11


THERMAL COMFORT PROFILE (AS EXISTING) The existing design of the Walker Residence already practices some concepts in tropical design. The high pitched roof with openings allows hot air to easily move out of the structure.

The use of louvers for the windows and doors decrease the impact of the sun’s heat indoors. Although the material of the louvers used is steel, which needs to be changed to a material that doesn’t absorb much heat.

12


// B I O C L I M A T I C C H A R T

None of the months fall within the comfort zone.

Through increasing air movement within the structure, a significant increase in thermal comfort may be reached

13


// B I O C L I M A T I C C H A R T Air movement needed

Months

1 m/s

May June July August September

.4 m/s

January March April October November

.1 m/s

February December

14


// M A X , M I N & A V E R A G E T E M P E R A T U R E

The hottest months in Batangas are from: March to late July

15 https://www.worldweatheronline.com/batangas-weather-averages/batangas-city/ph.aspx


// A V E R A G E R A I N F A L L A M O U N T & R A I N Y D A Y S

The months of mid July - early January are good for rainwater harvesting

16 https://www.worldweatheronline.com/batangas-weather-averages/batangas-city/ph.aspx


// A V E R A G E S U N H O U R S & S U N D A Y S

The months of late march to early november are viable for harvesting energy for solar panels

17 https://www.worldweatheronline.com/batangas-weather-averages/batangas-city/ph.aspx


// A V E R A G E & M A X W I N D S P E E D & G U S T

The months of early October to late January have high amounts of wind

18 https://www.worldweatheronline.com/batangas-weather-averages/batangas-city/ph.aspx


// V I C I N I T Y M A P W I T H P R E V A I L I N G W I N D S

These are the seasonal wind directions as seen on the site. Amihan, being the winds from the NorthEast. Habagat being the winds from the SouthWest. The Tradewinds being the winds from the East

19


// P R E V A I L I N G W I N D S GROUND FLOOR PLAN

Most of the prevailing winds enter from the north east wing of the house. The layout of the openings allow for continuous airflow within the residence.

20


// A I R M O V E M E N T GROUND FLOOR PLAN

The presence of clerestory windows allow for hot air to rise and exit the house and cool air to come in.

21


// S T R E N G T H S

STACK EFFECT

The presence of clerestory windows allow for hot air to rise and exit the house and cool air to come in.

22


// S T R E N G T H S

Ceiling is high, promoting convective air movement. The clerestory windows at the top allow hot air to move out and cool air in.

23


// S T R E N G T H S

Existing openings are already designed for passive cooling.

Orientation of windows Folding doors that may be opened during the day to let in air

Windows Doors

24


// S T R E N G T H S

Orientation maximizes North Eastern Winds (Amihan).

Site is closeby a mountain range that potentially brings in high pressure & low pressure winds

Site is elevated/sloped.

25


// W E A K N E S S Thermal Mass (Earth coupled slab on ground).

As mentioned in the site analysis, using the DBT, Batangas’ RH and Wind movement converge away Gate

from the comfort zone.

Access to the house is meters away from the main road.

Specified windows are not double glazed or low - e. 26


// O P P O R T U N I T Y Rich in greens that can be used for shading and directing wind.

No nearby surrounding structures.

Site is large enough to accommodate other sustainable technologies. (AREA OF 24,647 SQ.M)

Adding more on-site water purification systems 27


// T H R E A T

Climate change Stronger typhoons causing accidents (i.e. trees falling in the vicinity).

Hotter weather.

Trend in the rise of El nino causing months of no water collection

28


THERMAL COMFORT PROFILE (AS INTERVENTION)

This Chapter contains the Shadow Analysis, Wind Speed Analysis, and the interventions considered and to be applied as a result of the analyses done.

Interventions that were applied were designed to create a more comfortable living space for the users.

29


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SUMMER SOLSTICE-JUNE21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// F R O N T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

30


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SUMMER SOLSTICE-JUNE21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// R I G H T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

31


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SUMMER SOLSTICE-JUNE21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// R E A R E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

32


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SUMMER SOLSTICE-JUNE21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// L E F T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

33


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SUMMER SOLSTICE-JUNE21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

// T O P V I E W

10:00 am

4:00 pm

12:00 pm

34


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SUMMER SOLSTICE-JUNE21;8AM-4PM

SUMMER SOLSTICE

8AM

10AM

FRONT

Top: Half light

Top: No light

Bottom: Full light

Bottom: Full light not too harsh

BACK

12PM

2PM

4PM

No Light

No Light

Top: No light Bottom: Full light for bottom windows angled and not harsh

LEFT

RIGHT

¾ Light received and not too harsh

No Light

No Light

¾ Light

Full Light

35


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S AUTUMN EQUINOX-SEPTEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// F R O N T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

36


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S AUTUMN EQUINOX-SEPTEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// R I G H T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

37


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S AUTUMN EQUINOX-SEPTEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// R E A R E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

38


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S AUTUMN EQUINOX-SEPTEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// L E F T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

39


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S AUTUMN EQUINOX-SEPTEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

// T O P V I E W

10:00 am

4:00 pm

12:00 pm

40


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S AUTUMN EQUINOX-SEPTEMBER 21;8AM-4PM AUTUMN EQUINOX

8AM

FRONT

Top: No Light

10AM

12PM

2PM

4PM

Top: No Light

Top: Right side gets more light than left

No Light

Bottom: Full light and angled

BACK

No Light

Bottom: Full light and angled

LEFT

RIGHT

Full Light

Half Light not as harsh as 8AM

Bottom: Full Light

No Light

Full Light at an angle not too harsh

41


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S WINTER SOLSTICE-DECEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// F R O N T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

42


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S WINTER SOLSTICE-DECEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// R I G H T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

43


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S WINTER SOLSTICE-DECEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// R E A R E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

44


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S WINTER SOLSTICE-DECEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// L E F T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

45


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S WINTER SOLSTICE-DECEMBER 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// T O P V I E W

12:00 pm

46


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S WINTER SOLSTICE-DECEMBER 21;8AM-4PM WINTER SOLSTICE

8AM

FRONT

Barely any light at 8AM because it is angled at the front elevation almost perpendicularly, so it looks like it has light

10AM

12PM

2PM

4PM

No Light

(Bottom Left Windows)

BACK

LEFT RIGHT

No Light

Full Direct Light

Top: Still has no light

Top: Still has no light

Top: Receives just a bit of light

Top: Receives direct light ¾

Bottom: The right most bottom window receives just a pinch of light

Bottom: Receive full light (angled)

Bottom: Full light and harsher cause more direct light

Bottom: Full direct light

Full Angled Light

Half Angled Light No Light

No Light Angled Full Light Not as Harsh

47


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SPRING EQUINOX-MARCH 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// F R O N T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

48


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SPRING EQUINOX-MARCH 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// R I G H T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

49


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SPRING EQUINOX-MARCH 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// R E A R E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

50


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SPRING EQUINOX-MARCH 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// L E F T E L E V A T I ON

12:00 pm

51


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SPRING EQUINOX-MARCH 21;8AM-4PM

8:00 am

2:00 pm

10:00 am

4:00 pm

// T O P V I E W

12:00 pm

52


// S H A D O W A N A L Y S I S SPRING EQUINOX-MARCH 21;8AM-4PM

SPRING EQUINOX

8AM

FRONT

Top: Top middle and top right just get a bit of light

10AM

12PM

2PM

4PM

Top: No Light

Top: Only getting ¼ light or less

Bottom: Angled light not too harsh

Bottom: Full light

No Light

Bottom: Full angled light

BACK

LEFT

RIGHT

No Light

Full angled light

¾ light not too harsh

No Light

No Light

Full Angled Light not so harsh

53


// W I N D A N A L Y S I S The following table from (Shane 2011) lists a range of comfort classes based on wind speeds and limiting criteria. These classes attempt to quantify pedestrian comfort assuming suitable attire. They only consider wind speed and do not account for other weather conditions such as temperature and humidity: Wind conditions used are of those that fall within the comfortable class.

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/flow-design/learn-explore/caas/CloudHe lp/cloudhelp/ENU/FlowDesign/files/GUID-3B35931F-AB23-45E9-BFCA-2E578D26 BF3A-htm.html

54


// W I N D A N A L Y S I S FRONT : 4m/s WIND SPEED

Minimal passage of air inside the house

55


// W I N D A N A L Y S I S FRONT : 6m/s WIND SPEED

Moderate passage of air inside the house

56


// W I N D A N A L Y S I S FRONT : 8m/s WIND SPEED

Moderate passage of air inside the house

57


// W I N D A N A L Y S I S TOP :4/s WIND SPEED

Minimal passage of air inside the house

58


// W I N D A N A L Y S I S TOP : 6m/s WIND SPEED

Moderate passage of air inside the house

59


// W I N D A N A L Y S I S TOP : 8m/s WIND SPEED

Moderate passage of air inside the house

60


// W I N D A N A L Y S I S

The prevailing winds coming from the east are received by the living, dining & den areas. The North east monsoon winds (Amihan) is received by the living, dining & kitchen areas. Majority of the wind passing from the windward side is passed through the leeward side, due to the placement of fenestrations. Much of the left (facing the front) side of the house is receiving the impact of the wind. The north east side of the house receives much of the wind due to its orientation.

61


// S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y S T R A T E G Y 1.

THERMAL MASS raising house on stilts to create an open subfloor that will allow wind to travel underneath the house and cool it. Not only does it cool the structure but it also minimizes environmental impact because it hovers over the landscape instead of being set into the earth.

2.

SOLAR ORIENTATION The structure will be re-oriented 180 degrees to maximize the light received and reduce heat received in key areas of the house (i.e. Living room, Master’s bedroom)

3.

ON-SITE WATER PURIFICATION A series of cisterns converts rain into drinking water and treats wastewater for use in irrigation and flushing so that neither storm water nor sewage ever leaves the site. Water collection would be through the roof water collection system. Gray water and black water recycling systems will be used as well.

62


// S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y S T R A T E G Y 4.

.

6.

NO-TECH VENTING As some trees would be taken down to increase windflow in the site, the wood would then be used to create wood cladding and SLATTED PANELS to allow cross ventilation at night. These slatted panels will be placed above doorways and windows RESIZING OPENINGS Windows or other openings should be located, sized and designed to optimise air movement, not solar access. Locate larger openings on the downwind, or leeward, side of the house and smaller openings on the breeze, or windward, side CHANGING WINDOW TYPE Windows with maximum opening areas (louvres or casement) that can be tightly sealed when closed 63


// S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y S T R A T E G Y 7.

SOLAR CHIMNEY WITH EVAPORATIVE COOLING Aside from the above mentioned strategies, as there are no water sources located close to the site, an artificial pond and a solar chimney would be placed in the southern side of the structure to release heat from the interior and bring in cooler air from the water source. This would help in reducing the use of power for mechanized air-conditioning systems. SOLAR PANELS Using the photovoltaic effect through the use of solar panels, the house can save up to 25% of its energy by storing energy during the day to be used later on. SOLAR WATER HEATING Solar water heaters use the solar energy from the sun to generate heat (not electricity) which can then be used to heat water for showering, space heating, industrial processes or even solar cooling. 64


// S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y S T R A T E G Y

10.

WATER CONSERVING FIXTURES Low flow fixtures such as toilets, faucet aerators, and shower heads that increase significant savings and sustainability in water consumption.

11.

LIGHT CONSERVING FIXTURES With the use of energy saving light-bulbs, switches that have dimmers, and refrigerators, will reduce energy consumption.

12.

SMART PLANTING Using plant species that are native to the site or that are known to thrive in the Philippine climate.

65


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N

1.

THERMAL MASS Entire floor will be raised; creating a subfloor. This will allow wind to cool the ground mass.

66


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N

2. SOLAR ORIENTATION *Main entrance facing SouthWest NorthEast - brighter during the morning and cooler the rest of the day SouthWest - Area used for utility rooms like the Kitchen

67


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N

3.

ON-SITE WATER PURIFICATION Roof collection & wastewater collection from the kitchen and bathrooms

68


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N

4.

NO-TECH VENTING East - Slatted panels will be faced toward the wind

69


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N 5.

6.

RESIZING OPENINGS North - East facing (windward side) openings will be smaller South - West (leeward side) openings will be bigger

CHANGING WINDOW TYPE Master Bedroom, Kitchen, Living, Dining & Den windows will be changed from Sliding to Louvers or Casement windows. 50% breeze

up to 95% breeze

70


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N 7.

SOLAR CHIMNEY WITH EVAPORATIVE COOLING South - to maximize the cooling of the structure during the afternoon as the sun is oriented toward the south more in the Philippines.

71


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N

8.

SOLAR PANELS Solar Panels will be placed on both sides of the roof and will only be turned on during the dry months of November to April and from 10am to 4pm.

9.

SOLAR WATER HEATING Gathered electricity will be used to power heating for the water fixtures.

72


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N 10.

11.

WATER CONSERVING FIXTURES Water conserving fixtures are to be installed in the bathrooms, kitchen and consuming areas.

and other water

LIGHT CONSERVING FIXTURES Light conserving fixtures will be installed throughout the residence, including outdoor lighting.

73


// A R E A S O F I N T E R V E N T I O N 12.

SMART PLANTING Aside from the existing Mango Trees, native planting in Batangas such as Guijo, Ilang-ilang, Narra, Molave and other trees and plants will be placed around the site

74


SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT In this chapter we evaluate the overall situation of the residence. We look into its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. With this analysis, we create recommendations for interventions and changes.

The results of the assessment will also be used to simulate green ratings.

75


// E N E R G Y A U D I T

76 *ALL FIGURES ARE BASED ON THE MERALCO MOVE APPLICATION AND BASED ON MAX USAGE PER DAY


// E N E R G Y E F F I C I E N C Y A S S E S S M E N T ON-SITE WATER PURIFICATION SPECIFICATION: WASTEWATER TREATMENT / RECYCLING by Pure Flow Water Systems Inc. The membrane separation process eliminates the clarifier and allows high volumetric loading, resulting in a smaller footprint. The MBR can produce high quality effluent with high BOD5 removal (about 98%) and virtually complete TSS removal. The MBR unit uses Toray flat sheet membranes immersed in the process tank in direct contact with the mixed liquor. Air injected from a manifold at the bottom of the membrane assembly help keep the membrane surfaces clean as well as supply oxygen for the “bugs”.

77 http://www.pureflowater.com/product-categories/membrane-bioreactor-system


// E N E R G Y E F F I C I E N C Y A S S E S S M E N T

S O L A R C H I M N E Y W/ E V A P O R A T I V E C O O L I N G Aside from the above mentioned strategies, as there are no water sources located close to the site, an artificial pond and a solar chimney would be placed in the southern side of the structure to release heat from the interior and bring in cooler air from the water source. This would help in reducing the use of power for mechanized air-conditioning systems.

SPECIFICATION: *Note: Currently, there are no solar chimney with evaporative cooling systems that are locally supplied or commercially distributed in the Philippines. Specifications provided on the following slide are based on a study done in the laboratory of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (KUET) Bangladesh 78 Rahman, M. M., Mashud, M., Chu, C. M., Misaran, M. S., Sarker, M., & Kumaresen, S. (2015). A passive cooling system of residential and commercial buildings in summer or hot season. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering,100, 012031. doi:10.1088/1757-899x/100/1/012031


// E N E R G Y E F F I C I E N C Y A S S E S S M E N T

S O L A R C H I M N E Y W/ E V A P O R A T I V E C O O L I N G

SPECIFICATION: The Solar Chimney specified was originally made to face North, however for this study, the Solar Chimney would be facing South to effectively utilize the sun’s radiation. Moreover, the dimensions of the Solar Chimney would follow the specifications provided with dimensions of 1.3m in height and 1.2m in width. Subsequently and evaporative cooling system with an immersed copper tube (to cool the air) would be placed 3 meters to 4 meters away from the solar chimney to provide space for the cooled air to circulate through the living room area.

79


// E N E R G Y E F F I C I E N C Y A S S E S S M E N T SOLAR WATER HEATING SPECIFICATION: Solanda Enterprises Inc. Solahart Solar Water Heater - L Series

The Solahart L Series is a roof mounted, open circuit solar water heater specifically designed to provide economical service in medium to high solar gain areas. The L Series is ingenious in its simplicity. The black polyester powder coated aluminum absorber collects the sun's heat and transfers it to the water in the 6 risers. Copper is used for the risers for its high thermal conductivity ensuring the maximum amount of heat energy is passed to the water. The L Series has a double coated ceramic lined tank with a protective anode. 80


// O F F - G R I D S C E N A R I O A N A L Y S I S For a solar system to be able to provide for 110% of the energy for the home, the solar panels would have to produce 2356 KWH/month. (computed from the monthly average multiplied by 1.1) Monthly bill is at P11,678.7 Calculation for Solar Panel area: Solar Panel Area x 1000 watts solar energy x 20% efficiency x 6 hours sunlight = 83.6KW/day Solar Panel Area = 69.67 sqm *with an assumption of 6 hours solar energy a day received with 20% efficiency collection of 1000 watts solar energy

81


// O F F - G R I D S C E N A R I O A N A L Y S I S OFF - THE GRID PLANNED INTERVENTIONS:

“Living in a Self-Sufficient manner without the reliance of Public Utilities” REQUIREMENTS: -

110% of energy demand is provided for.

* Providing sustainable sources of water and electrical energy are needed

-

Solar Panels (Provides for 25% of energy) On-Site Water Purification

OTHER POSSIBLE INTERVENTIONS -

-

Rainwater collection system To provide for an alternative water source as there are no natural water sources in the vicinity. Wind Turbine “Balance of system” Reducing Electricity use and cost Including reducing lighting fixtures and usage Learning skill sets as an alternative to appliance use 82


// O F F - G R I D S C E N A R I O A N A L Y S I S

BALANCE-OF-SYSTEM *These need to be purchased in addition to a renewable energy system to be able to safely store and transmit the electricity to the load that will be using it. ●

Batteries ○ ○

Charge controller ○

Conditions electricity to match the requirement of the load

Safety equipment ○

Regulates the flow of electricity

Power conditioning equipment ○

Most effective with solar and wind power Lead-acid (charges and discharges 80% of energy continuously)

Protects from surges, grounding, and features safety disconnects

Meters and instrumentation ○

Allows the user to monitor the energy system’s batteries 83


// E N E R G Y C A P T U R E

WATER HARVESTING FROM AIR CONDITIONING UNITS Using a collection barrel to store the water from the ACU. A simple way to recycle this condensate in a home is to have the drain line run into a rainwater barrel or other storage container. Given that the system can produce up to 20 gallons of water a day, this can be a significant recycling of water.

Rooms w/ ACU Collection barrels Water collecting line 84


// E N E R G Y C A P T U R E HEAT ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY Using Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) in converting heat energy to electrical energy. It is a solid state device that converts heat flux (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy through a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect). A thermoelectric power generation system takes in heat from a source such as hot exhaust, and outputs electricity using thermoelectric modules.

Heat may be harvested from appliances in the kitchen as well as the heat produced by the Air Conditioning Units.

Heat to Energy 85


// M A T E R I A L S & I N D O O R A I R Q U A L I T Y FLOOR FINISH

CEILING FINISH

MATERIALS ANALYSIS ON VOCS

400mm x 400 mm Ceramic Tiles

12mm THK. Gypsum Board ceiling on metal frame in white paint finish

Ceramic tiles - these do not contain any VOC as they are mineral products.

100mm x 900mm Timber Plank Size 300mm x 600mm Ceramic Tiles Plain Cement Plaster Finish w/ Floor Hardener WALL FINISH White Semi Gloss Acrylic Water Based Latex Paint Finish 300mm x 600mm Ceramic Tiles

12mm THK. Moisture resistant Gypsum Board ceiling on metal frame in white paint finish

Timber planks - may be harvested from wood existing around the site and may be treated without any VOC products Cement Plaster Finish & Floor Hardener products of low VOC will be used Wall paint to be used is water based Gypsum board used will be one that is certified and that doesn’t contain any VOC. (https://www.proudgreenhome.com/news/ne w-gypsum-board-fights-vocs-for-better-indoo r-air-quality/) *Alternate solution would be reusing wood found in the site as ceiling material.

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// C O N S T R U C T I O N W A S T E M A N A G E M E N T INTERVENTIONS: Thermal mass intervention will require on-site fabrication for additional foundation to be added in the structure. Resizing openings will require minimum construction as only a number of existing windows will be reconstructed. Existing windows that will be changed may be reused for future renovations. The rest of the interventions are additions and will not create on-site fabrication and waste. The site is rich in source of wood from trees that are destroyed by typhoons. These may be reused to create wall & ceiling cladding.

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// R E D U C I N G E L E C T R I C I T Y U S E & C O S T S RESOURCES USED:

POLICIES: Lighting ● Lights should be shut off when not in use ● If possible to be used only from 6pm to 12am ○ Or depending on peak hours during the night Electronics and Gadgets ● Unplug a gadgget or appliance when not in use ○ Apart from those that need a continuous flow of electricity ● If possible place lighting and air conditioning units on timers to properly monitor and efficiently use energy Water ● Heaters will only be turned on for one hour a day ● Use low flow of water when washing and showering ● Set a duration in the day when water may be used

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// R E D U C I N G E L E C T R I C I T Y U S E & C O S T S

PAPER

PLASTIC

ORGANIC

WASTE PRODUCED:

RECYCLING POLICIES: Organic waste can be made into fertilizer using composter that can be placed in the backyard. (one may be purchased at a Home Depot or another department store with home development materials) Plastic waste may be recycled at home and made into a number of products like tires, pots, bowls, containers, bags, plastic used for 3D printing, etc. These recycling machines can be made at home as indicated in the site of The Fast Company. Instructions are provided to construct these machines Paper that is torn or damaged with water may also be recycled at home as indicated on multiple online sites

https://www.fastcompany.com/40486883/these-diy-machines-let-anyone-recycle-plastic-into-new-products http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-and-Recycle-Paper/

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SIMULATED GREEN RATING This Chapter contains simulated green ratings as obtained from the EDGE (Excellence in Design and Greater Efficiencies) website. Found in this chapter are the comparisons of the current and the improved green ratings were assessed through energy, water, and material efficiency ratings made by EDGE.

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// S I M U L A T E D G R E E N R A T I N G CURRENT

Energy Efficiency Rating (Current)

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// S I M U L A T E D G R E E N R A T I N G IMPROVED

Energy Efficiency Rating (Improved)

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// S I M U L A T E D G R E E N R A T I N G CURRENT

Water Efficiency Rating (Current)

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// S I M U L A T E D G R E E N R A T I N G IMPROVED

Water Efficiency Rating (Improved)

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// S I M U L A T E D G R E E N R A T I N G CURRENT

Material Efficiency Rating (Current)

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// S I M U L A T E D G R E E N R A T I N G IMPROVED

Material Efficiency Rating (Improved)

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BUILDING SMART AUTOMATION In this Chapter, the group delves into the possible “Smart” technologies that can be incorporated into the structure to increase both efficiency of use with regards to the users’ habits as well as to increase the security of the users.

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// B U I L D I N G S M A R T A U T O M A T I O N S

Setting up a Smart home system that allows the users to automatically lock both doors and windows.

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// B U I L D I N G S M A R T A U T O M A T I O N S

Having lighting fixtures hooked up to the Smart Home system to be able to dim the lights and set times when the lights should be turned on and off based on the users’ activities.

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// B U I L D I N G S M A R T A U T O M A T I O N S

Placing CCTV cameras in key areas of the house to increase security and safety of the users. These may be hooked up to the Smart Home system as well to consolidate all automated systems.

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// B U I L D I N G S M A R T A U T O M A T I O N S

Installing a Smart Home System can also be programmed to control a number of home appliances (i.e. Television sets, Microwave ovens, washing machines, coffee makers, music players, etc.) and thus make it more convenient for users.

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REFERENCES C., & Instructables. (2017, November 11). How to Make and Recycle Paper. Retrieved April 16, 2018, from http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-and-Recycle-Paper/ How Thermoelectric Generators Work. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2018, from https://www.alphabetenergy.com/how-thermoelectrics-work/ Indoor Air Quality.(n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2018, from http://www.concretethinker.com/solutions/Indoor-Air-Quality.aspx New gypsum board fights VOCs for better indoor air quality. (2013, July 09). Retrieved April 5, 2018, from https://www.proudgreenhome.com/news/new-gypsum-board-fights-vocs-for-better-indoor-air-quality/ Off-Grid or Stand-Alone Renewable Energy Systems. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2018, from https://www.energy.gov/energysaver/grid-or-stand-alone-renewable-energy-systems Peters, A. (2017, October 30). These DIY Machines Let Anyone Recycle Plastic Into New Products. Retrieved April 5, 2018, from https://www.fastcompany.com/40486883/these-diy-machines-let-anyone-recycle-plastic-into-new-products Rahman, M. M., Mashud, M., Chu, C. M., Misaran, M. S., Sarker, M., & Kumaresen, S. (2015). A passive cooling system of residential and commercial buildings in summer or hot season. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering,100, 012031. doi:10.1088/1757-899x/100/1/012031 Reducing Electricity Use and Costs. (n.d.). Retrieved April 5, 2018, from https://www.energy.gov/energysaver/reducing-electricity-use-and-costs Solar Philippines: Solar Panel for Home - Solar Panel Installation. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2018, from https://www.solarphilippines.ph/solar-panel-home/ Thermoelectric generator. (2018, April 10). Retrieved April 2, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_generator WASTE WATER TREATMENT / RECYCLING. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2018, from http://www.pureflowater.com/waste-water-treatment-recycling

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Walker Residence: A Tropical Design Analysis & Intervention  
Walker Residence: A Tropical Design Analysis & Intervention  
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