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10th International Hamburg Symposium „Sport and Economics“

to the “Audiovisual Media Services Directive” which extends the provisions of the “Television Without Frontiers Directive” to new media. General provisions of EU competition law also have to be taken into consideration. Finally, a brief outline of future perspectives at EU level is provided through the presentation of the main tenets of the EU's Digital Agenda.

Why English football clubs become insolvent despite broadcasting rights John Beech This paper critically explores the evolution of the benefactor mode of English football club ownership and operation, and in particular the most recent phase th where this model is proving unsustainable. It covers from the late 19 Century, when benefactors were often either local churches or local breweries, through the ‘steady state’ of the professionalised era with a wages cap, to the commercialised era which began, at first slowly, with the abolition of the wages cap. From the first involvement with sponsors, the extent of commercialisation grew, driven by escalating wages, and the way that football clubs were financed changed dramatically with the introduction of significantly higher levels of broadcasting rights. This was exemplified by the breakaway formation of the Premier League in 1990, and, progressively since then, these rights have grown and grown, cascading down the football pyramid as far as Tier 5. The greatly increased scale of financial operation has led to an increased level of benefaction and the emergence of non-local benefactors (and sponsors) whose motivations are thus not locally embedded; rather they are often more related to externalities such as national celebrity status and basking in the reflected glory of the ‘trophy’ club. Such is the extent of this change that today half the clubs in the Premier League are in foreign ownership. By considering the change over time in the cashflows of football clubs, the paper focuses on the raised chances of the benefactor model proving unsustainable. It concludes with a tentative typology of specific benefaction models that have resulted in the failure of English clubs as businesses.

Vergabe internationaler Sportevents – Kräfteverhältnisse im internationalen Sport Helmut Digel Entscheidungen über die Vergabe internationaler Sportereignisse basieren auf demokratisch vereinbarten Regeln. Genaue Bewerbungsfristen sind definiert, Kriterienkataloge zur Bewertung werden allen Bewerbern zugänglich gemacht.

10th International Hamburg Symposium „Sport and Economics“


many expectations have been raised by the country’s leaders of the event’s prospective employment and growth impacts; concomitantly, extensive financial commitments have already been made by public authorities. The central question is how such investments and the infrastructural developments that have been undertaken articulate with broader economic processes in the country, and what the legacies of the tournament will be for South Africa’s political economy. What lessons, in this regard, could be taken from similar sport mega-events hosted in other locations? This paper evaluates the ex ante projections and potential ex post impacts of the tournament against the practices, experiences and principles derived from the study of sport mega-events in other parts of the world. It reviews the main economic and sectoral changes that have been made in recent years in lieu of the World Cup and considers what some of their longterm economic legacies – and their related socio-political fallouts – may be. To a significant extent the World Cup threatens to become part of South Africa’s broader politics of class contestation, as there is an increasing demand that the event does not only benefit major businesses and the affluent. Ultimately, the World Cup may create economic benefit for only a handful.

The home team scores! A first assessment of the economic impact of World Cup 2010 Stan du Plessis & Cobus Venter The FIFA World Cup, hosted by South Africa during June/July 2010, is a much anticipated sport spectacle, but also widely expected to yield lasting and considerable economic benefits for the host country. Optimistic scenarios have encouraged these expectations, but there have also been cautionary studies based on the economic impact of earlier mega sport events. There is also controversy about the cost of the large investment of public funds in infrastructure associated directly and indirectly with the tournament, the small share of the tournament proceeds that flow to the host country, and the opportunity cost of this allocation in a country with widespread poverty and underdevelopment. This debate cannot move forward without an assessment of the actual economic impact of the tournament and this paper aims to provide a first assessment thereof. The final match of the tournament will only be played on the 11th of July 2010 so this first assessment will use provisional data and a “nowcast” using the quarterly model of the Bureau for Economic Research (BER) at the University of Stellenbosch. Early estimates of tourist arrivals and expenditure on accommodation and the hospitality sector as well as transport, combined with survey data at the BER on retail expenditure and consumer confidence will guide the “nowcast” generated with the BERs econometric model. The results will be compared with pre-

Programmhaft 10. Internationales Hamburger Symposium "Sport und Ökonomie"  
Programmhaft 10. Internationales Hamburger Symposium "Sport und Ökonomie"  

Beinhaltet den Ablauf sowie Informationen zu den Referenten und Vorträgen des 10. Internationalen Hamburger Symposiums, 16.07. - 17.07.2010...