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Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Natural park analysis

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Wadi alluvial dynamics of Amoladeras

The alluvial streams arriving to the sea from the surrounding hills form over the milleniums linear depressions over the terrain showing the composition of the terrain veins. This is the case of the wadi of the Amoladeras

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Quaternary fossil beaches & wind farms

The quaternary fossil beaches were formed through the erosion provoked by the hot winds and the impact of salty water on its cliffs. Different layers can be discovered revealing the effect of different eras.

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El Argamasón / 123 hab.

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Sand dunes and wetlands at the mouth of the Rambla de Morales These sand dunes were created over the time thanks to the thin sand coming from Africa and is nowadays a permanent beach. The wetlands create a genuine vegetation that attracts important migratations every year.

‘Cabo de Gata-Nijar’ Natural Park is located in the SE part of the Iberian peninsula, it is part of the region of Andalusia and encloses some of the most arid areas in Spain due to its severe climate conditions. N36°58’

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The natural park of Cabo de Gata-Nijar occupies an area of 49.512,23 Ha that extend over the land and sea. It covers the area of Gata cape and extends towards North-East leaving outside its boundaries more humanmarked areas

Cabo de Gata-Nijar National Park

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Cabo de Gata lagoon

The lagoon of Cabo de Gata is also a big attractor to birds migrating over the seasons and creates a unique ecosistem in the area of Cabo de Gata

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Mesa Roldán

Agua Amarga / 426 hab. N

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Volcanic domes and structures of Vela Blanca

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The volcanic structures of Vela Blanca are the effect of land expansions over the time following geometrical shapes that appear as stepped extrusions of stones

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Fernán Pérez / 323 hab. 06

Natural reserve sectors are highly protected areas that include the most representative and valued areas inside the Natural Park. They all are protected by medium protection areas that serve as buffers to preserve their natural integration. More severe regulation apply to these areas.

Vulcanos & dune at the Barronal hill

Cabo de Gata is a land originally formed by the lava expelled by the vulcanos in the area. These vulcanos are nowadays innactive, but still conserve an important prssence in the regional landscape

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Las Negras / 349 hab.

Natural reserve (A)

Los Frailes Vulcano

Los Frailes vulcano was one of the main vulcanoes in the area and its surrounding lands show the irregular shapes conformed by the lava when touching the water

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Hortichuelas / 106 hab.

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Trail B

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Trail P Difficulty: Baja Length: 4.1 km Max height: 154 m Min height: 101 m

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Meeting point

‘Amoladeras’ viewpoint ‘Punta Colorada’ peak

‘Vela Blanca’ pass ‘Morrón’ anchorage ‘Higuera’ cove

View point

‘Tomate’ cove access

Bunker ruins

Fossil dune

‘San Miguel’ entrance

‘Morales’ wadi mouth

‘Barronal’ viewpoint

‘Carbon’ cove

Frailes well

Cortijada de las puertas path

Cortijos Grandes

‘Majada Redonda’ wadi

‘Requena’ ravine

Majada Redonda Cliff

Isleta del Moro viewpoint

Cortijo Colado path

‘Piedra seca’ old well Wadi mouth

roads junction

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Marine sequences in Cañada Méndez

The marine sequences is conformed by the visual perspectives of the cliffs in the region from the different paths and viewpoints existing in the area, close to the shoreline.

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Mineral treatment plant

Quarries

View point

Camping

Cortijo Grana dilla

‘Granadilla’ ravine

Cortijo Escarichuela

Pine forest

Porous ravine

The volvcanic range includes all the hills and mountains that were created with the lava expelled by the vulcanoes in the area. Their presence configures the landscape of the area.

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Ore dock The ore dock is one of the elements in the area that shows the mining history of the region. This dock was used to organise the goods

Agua Amarga

Meander

AL-5106

Path to cove

‘La Higuera’ hill

‘Punta Javana’ hill

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Mesar Roldan contains a water basin with a rich lake bed that contains many species unique in the area. The water basin has experience a slight decrease of its dimension over the last decades, but its main features are maintained

Light house

Light house path

Cliffs viewpoint

Mesa Roldán Reef

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kilometers

Las Negras volcanic range

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Las Negras reef also maintains rich features under the water. Diverse and colourful reefs rest in the seabed in the first meters of sea that can be seen with the help of diving equipment

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Las Negras Reef

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River bank

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Ravine

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River bank

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Difficulty: Low Length: 1.9 km Max height: 212 m Min height: 93 m

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The Natural Park also includes a salt coastal fringe of 300 hectares which, by its geographical location, provides a stopover site to many birds traveling between Europe and Africa and a nesting habitat for other species.

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Trail O scale: 1 / 75,000

‘Viruegas’ wadi

Difficulty: Low Length: 8.2 km Max height: 108 m Min height: 0 m

Paths junction

Trail N

Limestone superficial reefs

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Paths junction

Difficulty: Medium-High Length: 11.1 km Max height: 249 m Min height: 0 m

‘San Pedro’ cove

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on the top of a cliff and then to transport them down to the shoreline to ship them over the world.

Trail M C

Coastal viewpoint

Difficulty: Medium Length: 1.5 km Max height: 66 m Min height: 2 m

Cliff viewpoint

‘El Playazo’ inlet

Trail L

Barroñal

Ravines

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Ravine

Difficulty: Low Length: 4.7 km Max height: 82 m Min height: 6 m

Rodalquilar valley

Mineral treatment plant

Trail J Almadraba de M. / 34 hab.

Rocky cape

Los Escullos ‘Negro’ ravine

Difficulty: Medium Length: 7.4 km Max height: 465 m Min height: 49 m

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The backbone of the Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park are its volcanic mountains whose southwestern flank falls directly onto the Mediterranean sea forming abrupt cliffs interrupted by small coves at the mouths of major canyons that erode the slopes of the range.

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Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura e Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Trail I

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The Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park is one of the most ecologically diverse coastlines in the western Mediterranean and is the first marineterrestrial Natural Park in Andalusia. The Natural Park counts with an area of 34,000 hectares on land and a marine strip a mile wide (12,000 hectares).

The image of this natural site is, in essence, strongly marked by the volcanic origins of the two-thirds of its surface and the strict conditions imposed by the dry local climate. As a result, the volcanic structure – a range that is composed of peaks, pins, crests and domes – gives rise to a rugged and dissected landscape.

Due to its subacquatic biodiversity, these areas enjoy a high protection inside the Natural Park

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Paths junciton

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Difficulty: Low Length: 1.6 km Max height: 19 m Min height: 0 m

AL-5106

Sea reserves (A)

Trail H

Lighthouse path

Due to its subacquatic biodiversity, these areas enjoy a high protection inside the Natural Park

Wadi mouth

Difficulty: Low Length: 2.8 km Max height: 178 m Min height: 87 m

San José / 1001 hab.

The alluvial fans of the Isleta are the result of the sea erosion on a long cape that is nowadays penetrated by sea water. It is believed that this geographical feature will dissapear over the time.

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Wadi source

Trail G

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Paths junction

Pozo de los F. / 460 hab.

San Miguel / 1501 hab.

‘Las Negras’ ravine Promontory

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Natural park plan

Sea regions under explotation (B)

Difficulty: Low Length: 4.7 km Max height: 82 m Min height: 6 m

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regulation

Ancient alluvial fans of the Isleta

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Trail F

Ravine

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‘Tomate’ house

Difficulty: Low Length: 5.9 km Max height: 136 m Min height: 16 m

‘Grande’ pass

Trail E

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Common areas (C)

Pine alley

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‘Geno veses’ mill

Difficulty: Low Length: 2.3 km Max height: 41 m Min height: 0 m

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Common regulation areas are low protection areas conform the thrid level of protection on land inside the Natural Park. This areas host either inhabited cores or agricultural lands inside the boundaries of the Park.

Trail D

La Isleta del M. / 229 hab.

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‘Mónsul’ house

Difficulty: Low Length: 3.4 km Max height: 192 m Min height: 7 m

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‘Curria’ ravine steppe viewpoint

Trail C

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‘Cortada’ cove

Torregarcía

‘El cuervo’ cove

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Civil war bunker

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Difficulty: Low Length: 6.4 km Max height: 6 m Min height: 0 m

Pocico well

Rodalquilar

Torre García beach

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Difficulty: Low Length: 6.7 km Max height: 57 m Min height: 16 m

‘Amoladeras’

Trail A

Rodalquilar / 187 hab.

Meeting point

Theses areas occupy the great majority of the Natural Park extension. They are areas with important natural features that need to be preserved inside the park.

Special regulation areas (B)

Escullos oolitic fossil dune

The Escullos oolitic fossil dune was formed through the erosion provoked by the hot winds and the impact of salty water on its cliffs. Different layers can be discovered revealing the effect of different eras.

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Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Cultural heritage and industrial sites

Cisterns

Cisterns are reservoirs for storing rainwater from areas as impervious as possible, such as rocky slopes or watersheds, which are directed by a channel constructions to the cistern. Generally, cisterns were owned by individual owners

Cortijo Montano

Cortijo del Fraile Cortijo doña Fca.

Wells

Wells are widely conserved due to their functionality. The process of building a traditional well is simple but at the same time effort-takin. It consists on progressively digging reinforcing the walls with brickwork until a hard vein is found. Then the well construction requires a deeper digging until water is reached.

‘Madroñal’ cattle axis Cortijo Segura Cisterns Wells Cortijo Requena

Waterwheels

Waterwheels

Mills

In the semiarid Almería wells are common for the use of groundwater, more or less deep, through different forms of extraction. The waterwheel is composed of a shaft and a machinery to lift water to the surface, composed primarily of two large wheels.

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Cultural heritage

Wells Waterwheels Mills Cortijos N

‘Cortijos’

‘Cortijos’ are the most traditional housing unit of the area. They usually host more than one family and have space for storing animals. Along with this construcitons mills, wells and cisterns are usually found.

Cultural heritage

scale: 1 / 150000

Hoyazo crater mines

36°57’34‘’N 2°10’15’’W Abandoned mines with no constructions on site

Quaternary fossil beaches & wind farms ‘Ana’ quarry 36°56’46‘’N 2°12’48’’W Abandoned quarry with constructions on site

‘Cortijos’ are large extension country houses that usually provide shelter to more than one family. In an area with such a dry clime it becames esential to construct a series of infrastructure that allows the families enjoying an easy access to water and grain. Because of that necessity it is common to find wells, cisterns, mills, waterwheels and other constructructions close to ‘cortijos’.

Cattle track

Through

Cistern

Traditionally, having a reduced cattle was a common practice by the Cabo de Gata region villagers. They used to walk through the mountains in search of pasture to feed their animals. Along to pasture the cattle needs water to stand the usually warm temperatures of the region. Cisterns are also built along some of the cattle tracks to fulfill this need, collecting and storing rainwater, with a through attached to it.

‘Virgen del Mar’ quarry

36°51’00‘’N 2°09’39’’W Abandoned quarry with no infrastructure present on site

‘Rodalquilar’ and ‘Cinto’ hill quarries 36°51’21‘’N 2°03’38’’W Abandoned quarry close to the Rodalquilar mineral treatment plant

‘La Mezquita’ mine

‘Triunfo’ mine

Hoyazo Crater mines

‘La Mezquita’ mine

‘Rodalquilar’ mines

‘Los Trancos’ quarry

‘La Polacra’ quarry

36°58’03‘’N 1°55’02’’W Abandoned quarry with a mineral treatment plant on site

‘Ana’ quarry

Cistern

Cisterns

Cortijos and cattle tracks as heritage binders in the rural landscape

Wind is the force traditionally used in the area of Níjar for grinding grain. This was due to the absence of permanent streams that are those which allow the water mill. In Andalusia there are only two areas with dominance of windmills: Vejer de la Frontera in Cadiz and Almeria mills

Well

Mills

See zoom on the right side

Chapel

Cortijo construction

scale: 1 / 50000

‘Los Trancos’ quarry

36°51’21‘’N 2°03’38’’W Abandoned mines close to the Rodalquilar mineral treatment plant

‘Mesa Roldán’ quarry Agua Amarga Wharf

‘Mis padres’ mine & quarry ‘Jukia’ quarry

‘Carboneras’ mine

‘Vicentito’ quarry

36°56’33‘’N 2°00’48’’W Abandoned quarry with small constructions on site

‘340 vein’ mine

‘El Plomo’ mine ‘Mesa Roldán’ quarry

36°48’03‘’N 2°04’11’’W Abandoned quarry with no constructions on site

‘Virgen del mar’ quarry

36°50’57‘’N 2°01’35’’W Abandoned quarry with with small constructions

Pb-Zn - (Cu-Ag-Au) deposit) ‘Las niñas’ mine

Alunite vein N

‘Mis padres’ mine & quarry

36°56’23‘’N 1°58’59’’W Abandoned mine and quarry with a small construction on site

‘Ramona’ quarry

36°49’25‘’N 2°07’43’’W Abandoned quarry with no infrastructure present on site

‘La Polacra’ quarry

Industrial sites

scale: 1 / 50000

‘Ramona’ quarry Extension to ‘Los Murcianos’ quarry

‘Vicentito’ quarry

36°56’18‘’N 1°58’34’’W Abandoned quarry with no constructions on site

‘Prejillas bajas’ quarry 36°48’36‘’N 2°04’55’’W Abandoned quarry with small constructions

See zoom on the right side

‘Carboneras’ mine

‘Los Escullos’ quarry

36°56’20‘’N 1°54’24’’W Abandoned quarry with a former mineral treatment plant

Extension to ‘Los Murcianos’ quarry 36°48’36‘’N 2°04’21’’W Abandoned quarry with no infrastructure present on site

‘Los Murcianos’ quarry ‘Jukia’ quarry

36°54’16‘’N 2°05’38’’W Abandoned quarry with small constructions on site

‘Los Escullos’ quarry

36°48’03‘’N 2°04’11’’W Abandoned quarry with a small construction on site

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Industrial sites

scale: 1 / 150000

‘El Plomo’ mine

36°55’16‘’N 1°57’28’’W Abandoned quarry with no constructions on site

‘Los Murcianos’ quarry

36°46’38‘’N 2°04’13’’W Abandoned quarry with no infrastructure present on site

Gold extraction in Rodalquilar

‘Maria Josefa’ mine

‘Prejillas bajas’ quarry

Au - (Cu-Te-Sn) deposit)

‘La Polaca’ quarry

36°52’42‘’N 2°06’01’’W Abandoned mine with no constructions on site

‘Rodalquilar’ quarries (I, II & III) and Cinto hill qarry

‘Rodalquilar’ mines

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

‘San Diego’ mine

‘Maria Josefa’ mine

The existence of gold in the Rodalquilar area was discovered accidentally in the late nineteenth century. Gold was detected in lead smelters of Cartagena and Mazarron, which used the quartz from the lead mines of Cabo de Gata as a flux. Mazarrón smelters used the auriferous quartz, and with the low gold content used to cover the transport costs. English society of Rodalquilar Mines extracted until 1939 a total of 107,000 tons of mineralized rock, obtaining 1125.5 kg of gold.

The discovery XIX - 1939

In 1940, the State ordered the seizure of the mines, entrusting the tasks of research to the Geological and Mining Spanish Institute (IGME), which worked the ancient veins without favorable results. In late 1942, the National Insitute of Industry (INI), expands and enhances the research, focusing the work on the Cinto Hill area, where the mineralization occurs as disseminated in the mass of acid volcanic rocks, cubed a mass of 4,000 tons of mineralized rock with 4.5 grams of gold per ton. The population reached 1400 inhabitants then.

The dream 1940 - 1966

The mines closed in 1966 ending its golden age. Shortly after the population declined dramatically to 75 people. After the operation carried out in the previous period, concessions and permits return to their owners. Research still persist during this time, both by national and mining companies, to a greater extent, abroad. This period is characterized by intense research in the Rodalquilar mining district with focusing on genetic models for gold mineralization. Yet this reality is imposed, even though estimated reserves of about 3 tons of gold, exploitation is not profitable given the complexity of the site.

Facing the reality 1967 - 1990

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Analysis of Rodalquilar and the Rodalquilar mining industry

Rodalquilar former mining industry

Abandoned site since 1966. Acquiired by the Andalusian Regional Administration in 1991. Composed of buildings, pools and interconnecting stairs

Quaternary fossil beaches & wind farms Geologic centre

Small exhibition space with panels on the geology of Andalusia and a model of Rodalquilar

Art exhibition centre

Exhibition space devoted to small temporary exhibitions.

to q uar ries

Rodalquilar former mining industry Natural Park administration offices Two story building hosting the central administration of the park

Crushing processes Botanical garden

Geologic centre

During this step, the mineral is received in hoppers, segregated, crushed and ground in smaller sizes to be manipulated afterwards

Garden counting with all the plants and tree species present in the park

400 Tm hopper / 108m2 Botanical centre

Centre for the study of species in the area

Filtering bld. / 220m2

Feeding belts Electrical transformer / 48m 2

Garden centre

Art exhibition centre

Hoppers / 171m2

Centre specialised on raising plants to reforest damaged sites

The belts carry the minerals to the following step in the chain

Water tanks / ~20m 2 each

Thickening process Nature room

National Park direction offices

Thickening tank / 343m2

Room with didactic material used in group visits to the Natural Park

Thickening tank / 343m 2

Steril solution tank / ~20m 2

In this step, the mineral are treated through chemical processes in order to segregate materials

Cleaning process

Botanical garden Former Miners Houses

Abandoned houses originally built for the miners of the Rodalquilar mining industry

Cleaning tanks (4) / 446m 2 each

Affter the chemical processes, the materials are stabilised and cleaned in this step

Botanical centre

Obtention of mineral ch

The minerals are finally collected in this phase

to La

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Nature room Garden centre

Tanks

Former miners houses

to La Isleta

Filtering bld. &Mineral belts

Hoppers

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Program analysis

Visitors’s centre Ore extraction

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Las Médulas

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‘Las Médulas’ is a historical site near the town of Ponferrada, which used to be the most important gold mine in the Roman Empire. The landscape of Las Médulas resulted from the ruina montium, a Roman mining technique described by Pliny the Elder in 77 AD

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The main Spanish coal extraction points are located in Leon, Asturias, Palencia. In the nineteenth century maintains a tight competition in prices and quality with the British coal thanks to the protectionist measures introduced by the Spanish government.

keywords DISCOVERY, EXPERIMENTATION, NEW PERSPECTIVE

Copper

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Tin

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Silver

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Toilets (f-m)

Area: 20 sqm each / Equipment: Regular toilet eqp.

Toilets included inside the ‘Visitor’s centre’ area.

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Almadén

The mercury deposits of Almadén account for the largest quantity of liquid mercury metal produced in the world. Approximately 250,000 metric tons of mercury have been produced there in the past 2,000 years.

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South-East regions

Southeastern Spain is an area of great mining tradition. Although often associated with a popular underground activity, the reality is that there is a mix of quarry and mine work. There are still some reserves of metallic minerals under activity of extraction.

The main valuable minerals that can be found, in different proportions, throughout the country are copper, tin, silver and gold.

ORE EXTRACTION

screens, exhibition of machinery and significant minerals and objects.

Spaces showcasing the history of the mineral extraction in the area through interactive resources, videos,

Northern mines of coal

Spain is a diverse geologic environment that counts with numerous extraction points throughout the territory. Historically, the different civilisations that have settled in the Iberian Peninsula have profited from this diversity by finding valuable lands from which ore could be extracted. The extraction points are mainly distributed around the peninsula, being the central part generally poor in this regard.

Exhibition spaces Area: 2500 sqm / Equipment: Showcases, Projectors, Interactive

Research unit

Storage Area: 1500 sqm / Equipment: Archive shelves, Consult computer Space for storing a collection of samples of materials in the area as well as machinery for conservation

keywords STORAGE, CONSULTATION, ARCHIVE, CONSERVATION, ETC

Gold

Restoration & research spaces

Computer units, Shelves, Basic instruments

Area: 1500 sqm / Equipment: Tables,

Conceived as spaces for the study and restoration mining elements.

keywords RESEARCH, STUDY, WORK keywords RESEARCH, WORK

Academic institutions

Toilets (f-m) Area: 20 sqm each / Equipment: Regular toilet eqp. Technical School of Mining Studies of Almaden Location: Almaden No. of students: 600

Technical School of Mining Studies of Oviedo Location: Oviedo No. of students: 180

Auditorium Area: 500 sqm / Equipment: Seats, Lecturer’s equip, Projector, Projection canvas space for the projection of videos, hosting congresses, courses and other educative projects.

Technical School of Mining Studies of Madrid Location: Madrid No. of students: 1500

Technical School of Mining Studies of Vigo Location: Vigo No. of students: 120

Despite the fact that it was the only academic institution devoted to these studies, the school remained small for many years. In the XIXth century, the school opened a new branch that shortly after became the main school in the country: the mining academy of Madrid.

ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS

Ore extraction

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Technical schools of Mining

In the XXth century more schools were created They all are geographically linked with mining works, except for the school in Madrid.

Area devoted to research activities that require the use of special machinery, materials or spaces.

Toilets included inside the ‘Didactic spaces’ area.

1777 was a key year for the mining industry in Spain. It was the year in which the first mining industry was founded in Spain. This institution was obviously created right next to the main mining works at that time: the mining works of Almaden.

Research workshops Area: 200 sqm / Equipment: Specific machinery, Water supply,

Tables

Didactic spaces

Library Area: 200 sqm / Equipment: Chairs, Tables, Shelves keywords LECTURE, CONFERENCE, PRESENTATION, EVENT, CONGRESS keywords INFORMATION, CONSULTATION, READING keywords WORKSHOP, INDUCTION, LIFELONG LEARNING, PRESENTATION keywords DIRECTION, DATABASE, DOCUMENTS

Library devoted to the study of the industrial activity and the mineral collection in general and in the area. Its purpose is to satisfy the information needs of visitors, researchers, institutions as support for a further understanding of the activity. This library would be connected with databases on the subject from other institutions and the library funds would be included into the regional public libraries database (http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/cultura/idea/opacidea)

Classrooms (x2)

Projection canvas

Area: 40 sqm each / Equipment: Chairs, Lecturer’s equip, Projector,

Room fully equipped for the development of didactic workshops or specific activities of students on school visits

Office Area: 40 sqm / Equipment: Chairs, Table, Shelves Working space for the director of the centre with the possible assistance of another worker.

Technical School of Mining Studies of Leon Location: Leon No. of students: 200

Toilets (f-m) Area: 20 sqm each / Equipment: Regular toilet eqp.

Common facilities

Toilets included inside the ‘Didactic spaces’ area.

Foyer Area: 100 sqm / Equipment: Reception desk Entrance to the building with information point

Cafe Area: 300 sqm / Equipment: Bar, basic kitchen equipment

keywords BAR, EATERY keywords GIFTS, SAMPLES

Small size cafe with confectionery, sandwiches and today’s specials

Shop Area: 150 sqm / Equipment: Shelves, Desks, Counter

Small size shop for the promotion of books and elements related to the mining history of the area

Car park (visitors) Area: 1000 sqm / Equipment:

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Parking places for visitors and loading bay

Visitor’s centres The end of the XXth century has seen a rise of territorial protection, that together with the will of preserving different mining works, has evolved into: 1. the musealisation of unused mining sites 2. the conservation of mining industry infrastructure.

"Marcelo Jorissen" Mine museum at the T S M S of Madrid Location: Almaden Facilities: Recreation of a mining environment for the realisation of studies. Open to visitors first Sunday of every month.

Technical School of Mining Studies of Oviedo

Mining museum

Location: Puertollano Facilities: Visitor’s centre into the simulation of a hypothetical mining workshop

Area: 100 sqm / Equipment: Water deposit, water pump, electrical boards, gas counters, mechanical ventilation machinery.

Museum of mining and industry

Location: El Entrego (Asturias) Facilities: Visitor’s centre / Parking for visitors and groups / Leisure area / Gifts shop

Didactic spaces

Location: Barruelo de Santurián (Palencia) Facilities: Visitor’s centre associated to a present mining route of the area

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Technical spaces

Technical spaces to provide air, electricity, water and gas to the different functions of the building

Museum of mining and industry Ore extraction

Car park (staff) Area: 850 sqm / Equipment: –– Parking places for staff

keywords PARKING, CAR

These vistor’s centres have always appeared in relation either to mining sites, to mining schools or to both of them, understanding that the actual mining practice and research are key factors for a comprehensible exhibition.

VISITOR’S CENTRES

keywords PARKING, CAR, BUS, BIKE, GOODS BAY

Location: Almadén Facilities: Visitor’s centre

Museum of mining in the Basque Country

Common facilities

Location: Gallarta (Bizkaia) Facilities: 6000sqm visitors centre under construction with exhibition spaces / restaurant and conference rooms.

Research unit

Visitor’s centres

Visitor’s centre spaces

Museum of mineralogy at the ‘Universidad autónoma de Madrid’ Location: Madrid Facilities: Visitor’s centre with showcases

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Analysis of systems in cultural heritage elements and environmental analysis of the area

Analysis of systems in cultural heritage elements

Round shape

Reducing heat exchange

Environmental Analysis of the Area

Thick walls

Providing a greater insulation

White colour

Maximising heat reflection

Cistern

Underground tank

Taking advantage of underground mild temperatures

Waterways network Guiding water to the cistern

Fully covered

Wells are fully covered to avoid heat exchange

Thick walls

Effectively insulating the interior

Well

White colour

Maximising heat reflection

Geographical situation

Morning breeze

Air temperature

Latitude: 36° 51’ N Longitude: 2° 02’ W Height: +120m

Winter: 9° / 15° Summer: 20° / 30°

From the sea to the interior

Evening breeze

Relative humidity

Climatic region

From the interior to the sea

Winter: 65% Summer: 75%

Mediterranean - South East - Arid

Land winds

Parallel to the coast through the hills corridor Major activity: March-July Speed: 10km/h

Wind

Different directions. 6-28km/h

Rain

Low. 200mm/year

Thermal confort diagrams

Mechanical energy Used on food production

Waterwheel

Location

The following diagrams of Olgyay and Givoni show the relation of Temperature and Relative Humidity over the different months of the year. These months are represented by lines and fall into areas that determine whether their thermal confort, and if there is not, how it could be reached. A quick interpretation of the diagrams can be that thermal confort is reached in some of the spring/autumn months, while during winter and summer it is necessary to apply certain techniques to get to it.

Located next to rivers/wadis

Water stream Narrow water stream to obtain a faster water speed

Mechanical energy Used on food production

Wind direction

The machinery allows different orientations depending on wind direction

Mill

Location

Located on high spots

Orientation and openings Tha major problem buildings of the area have to deal with is the solar radiation, especially during summer months. For that reason pasive methods are commonly used, as orientation and distribution of the program or realising very small openings only on North and South facades, while East and West remain protected from the horizontal sunrays during summertime. The openings on the North and South facades permit a certain permeability to wind to be used during warm months (until July, as previously explained).

Simple volumes

Cortijo

Construction based on the aggregation of elements: · Home 01 / home 02 / etc · Backyard · Chapel · Estables · Oven · Cistern · Well · Waterwheel · Etc

East facade

North facade

West facade

South facade

Materials & construction techniques DIRECT CONTACT WITH THE GROUND Due to the reduced chances of rain, buildings are in direct contact with the terrain without risks of filtrations. The bottom plate constructive solution is basically a ground bearing slab made out of earth or plaster. This solution takes advantage of the high thermal intertia of the terrain, that is protected by the contruction from the sun and therefore brings in mild temperatures. MASONRY WALLS The masonry walls are constructed using stone from the surroundings and bond together with plaster mortar. Finishing is realised in whitewhash lime. The thickness of the wall varies from 30 to 40cm and the absorved radiation is around 20%. The stone contained in the wall has an absorver function absorving 90% of the heat and providing a heat lapse of circa 7 and a half hours.

Ground bearing slab

ROOF The roof is the part of the building that is most exposed to sun radiation throughout the year. Due to that reason, the materials commonly used on roofs are materials with a low thermal intertia. The solution is composed of wooden rods that support a mesh of reeds tied close together. On the top a 10cm layer of launa is laid. Launa is a maganesium clay of slate structure and grey-blueish colour that has an excellent waterproof behaviour and is commonly used in the provinces of Granada and Almeria. Launa is a material that becomes porous when dry and waterproof in presence of water. For that reson, and due to a majority of non-rainy-days throught the year, the constructions breathe through the roofs.

Masonry wall

In case of rain, the water is evacuated through gargoyles located on the most favourable side to conduct the rainwater downhill.

Roof system

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

New route through Rodalquilar quarries and mines

For the creation of a new route through the Natural Park, with a remarked industrial landscape character, all quarries and mines around Rodalquilar and the former worker’s houses have been included as main points of interest of the visit. N36°54’

Route highlights

Former miners houses

54 abandoned housing units that used to belong to the mining industry and were rented to workers

The new route links the quarries and mines around the town of Rodalquilar. It adapts to the topography of the area, and to the already existing paths when possible.

Route

Las niñas quarries

N36°53’

Quarries in state of abandonement partially covered by vegetation

La Polacra quarries

Quarries in state of abandonement partially covered by vegetation

Most of the parts of the route are intended to go through pre-existent paths, however parts of the route will run through the landscape, always cutting the shortest distance possible and aiming at having a low impact on surroundings.

Route parts

Los Tollos quarries

N36°52’

Quarries in state of abandonement with clear signs of former mining works

Triunfo mine

Los Tollos quarries

Maria Josefa mine The route has been thought to run through a track that is flat and softly inclined at times. The maximum steepness of the track will never be over 5% to be easily ridable by bike. To achieve that goal, some sections of the route will follow interventions of steepness reduction.

Triunfo mine

Abandoned mine entrance with clear signs of mining works

Cinto quarries

Path dificulties 340 vein mine

340 vein mine

Abandoned mine entrance with clear signs of mining works

San Diego quarries

N36°51’

Former miners houses

The route will cross in a couple of occasions a medium speed road and in one ocassion, a mountain. In the first cases, a basic and short tunnel will be necessary to protect routers safety on their journeys. On the last case, the route will cross a mountain through a pre-existent tunnel used for transportation of minerals.

Cinto quarries

Quarries in state of abandonement with clear signs of former mining works

La Polacra quarries

Tunnels

Maria Josefa mine

Abandoned mine entrance with clear signs of mining works

N36°50’

Las niñas quarries

All quarries, mining sites and the former worker’s houses will be equiped with basic and low landscape impact elements to ease the visitor’s journey. These elements are: informative panels, benches, viewpoint telescope, and fountain (only when close to a potable water source).

New route through existing paths

Equipment

Old route

San Diego quarries

New route through landscape

Quarries in state of abandonement with clear signs of former mining works

New route through existing tunnel Places of interest

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

W1°57’

W1°58’

W1°59’

Route equipement_ informative panels benches viewpoint telescope fountain

W2°00’

W2°01’

W2°02’

W2°03’

W2°04’

W2°05’

Visitor’s centre

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Plan 0

B

Genesis of the geometry Pools present on site The genesis of the geometry starts by respecting the presence of the circular pools in the new centre.

Offset Through a series of offsets, the building generates circulations and uses around the pools. These offsets vary in radius depending on the programmatic needs.

Back extensions The building extends towards the back to host additional uses foreseen in the program.

Soft compartimentation

The mix of different uses in the building encourages the idea of a soft compartimentation without losing the idea of an open and complete space. The idea of compartimentation will allow the use of different parts of the building at different times, permiting different combination of uses.

Presence of pools The site counts with 6 major pools distributed at different levels. The 4 pools located on the Southern part of the site (represented on the left side of the scheme) share a very similar height amsl, while the other two are exactly at the same height. This fact will have an influence on the sections and the perception of the pools from different levels.

A

A’

Orientation of pools The four lower pools are opened through the extraction of part of their perimetral walls. These openings are produced in accordance to the main directions of the building and intends to lead the visitor through a series of spaces before entering the tunnel.

Tunnel As anticipated in the previous scheme, the last part of the visit to the visitor’s centre is a tunnel and the actual fourth pool serves as an entrance to it. The tunnel will guide the visitors through a series of spaces and will lead the way towards the ancient quarries of the area.

Adaptation of car parks The main means of transport to reach the centre will most probably be the car, therefore two car parks have been designed: one for the public (in the exterior, right next to the entrance) and one for the staff (in the interior, directly connected to the different functions).

N scale: 1 / 200

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0

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Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Plan +1

B

Flexibility of compartmented uses

Visitors centre Time: Weekends The visitors centre spaces can work independently from the other uses allowing visitors to see the different exhibition rooms without entering other areas

All uses fully functioning Time: Mon.-Fri. 10.00-18.00 The fully funcitoning scheme shows the normal functioning state of the building during weekdays

Congress / symposium Time: Punctual occasions The scheme shows the functioning scheme of the building in case of the celebration of a congress / symposium related to mining disciplines

A

A’

Bar / Events space Time: Weekend soiree The building allows the independent functioning of a bar space for weekend soirees or punctual celbrations

Research unit

N

Time: Flexible The spacial independence of the research unit allows it an independent functioning without depending on other uses’ timetables. Researchers would have freedom to access other areas in case of need.

scale: 1 / 200

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B’B’

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Plan +2

B

Sections s: 1/500

Visitors centre Time: Weekends The visitors centre spaces can work independently from the other uses allowing visitors to see the different exhibition rooms without entering other areas

C D

All uses fully functioning Time: Mon.-Fri. 10.00-18.00 The fully funcitoning scheme shows the normal functioning state of the building during weekdays

Section C-C’ Congress / symposium Time: Punctual occasions The scheme shows the functioning scheme of the building in case of the celebration of a congress / symposium related to mining disciplines

A

A’

Bar / Events space Time: Weekend soiree The building allows the independent functioning of a bar space for weekend soirees or punctual celbrations

Research unit

N

Time: Flexible The spacial independence of the research unit allows it an independent functioning without depending on other uses’ timetables. Researchers would have freedom to access other areas in case of need.

C’

scale: 1 / 200

Section D-D’

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B’B’

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Plan –1

B

Vehicle Park distribution

Car park for visitors The car park places for visitors are located in the Southern part of the site, adapting to the surrounding elements. Capacity:

· Regular car park places: 34 · Adapted for disabled visitors: 2

Level: Ground floor

Bus park The complex counts with a reduced park for buses of guided tour groups. Capacity:

· Buses: 4

Level: Ground floor

A

A’

Bikes park The intervention foresees the adecuation of a reduced number of bicycle racks. Capacity:

· Bicycles: 4

Level: gound floor

Car park for staff The car park for the staff is located in the back part of the site in the –1 level. This disposition inside the layout provides an easy connection with the different uses of the centre. Capacity:

N

· Regular car park places: 20 · Adapted for disabled staff: 2

Level: –1 floor scale: 1 / 200

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B’

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Section A-A’

Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

scale: 1 / 200 5m

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

0

5m

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Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Section B-B’

Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

scale: 1 / 200

5m

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

0

5m

10m

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Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

The tunnel

POOLS VIEWPOINT_

Platform with viewpoint towards the pools

LIT CORRIDOR_

Tunnel spaces

THE TUNNEL_

COVERED CORRIDOR_

Horizontal corridor naturally lit

The tunnel is part of the visitors’ centre program, comprised inside the intervention. Its aim is to guide the visitor from the old mining industry of Rodalquilar (located in a visible edge of the town) to the quarries and caves (that appear behind the hills). The connection is made through a series of excavated spaces, showing the visitor some of the key spaces in the ore segregation process fr

The covered corridor keeps the steepness at a walkable 10% and runs towards the goods control block.

DATA_

Tunnel length: 210 m Level diference: 34.65m Tunnel width: 3.00 m Tunnel height: 5.40 m Excavated volume: 3516 m3 Stone type: Vulcanic rock with low presence of gold / silver / alum / plumbom an internal point of view.

GOODS CONTROL BLOCK_

The goods control block room replicates the former goods control block, right underneath it, giving the providing a vertical connection to access it.

STONE GRINDERS ROOM

EXIT TOWARDS THE CAVES_

The last element of the tunnel is an escalator that easily brings the visitors to surface in the direction of the caves and mines. GOODS CONTROL BLOCK

0.00 m

GOODS CONTROL BLOCK

STONE CRUSHER_

Stone extraction

The rock disposal room contains a ramp that runs all the way up until the level where the rocks were disposed.

STONE GRINDERS ROOM_

The stone grinders room becames a two directions corridor at different levels, leading the way first under the electrical substaion and then onto the rock disposal room. The steepness is kept at an 8%

CONCEPT_

The rock extracted from the tunnel will be extracted applying techniques that will allow the reuse of the stone as construction material for flooring and facade in the building

MACHINERY_

RAMP_

The rock extracted for construction purposes is extracted in blocks with the help of special machinery. Researched machinery found in the region of Andalusia allows the extraction in blocks measuring 1.35x1.35x3.00m

Circular ramp with a 9% steepness inscribed into the pool contour. The ramp is self supported and comprises a bridge that spans for a distance of 10m

EXTRACTION_

The extraction produced by the machinery produces a tunnel section of 5.4m high and 3m wide. Within this section, the rock itself is able to support the weight of the terrain without an auxiliary structure.

ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION ROOM_ The electrical substation room replicates the former electrical substation space, right underneath it.

CAVES

PROCESSING_

After being extracted, the rock will be cut in smaller pieces. The flooring pieces will have irregular dimensions and a constant thickness of 3cm. The pieces cut for the facade will have a constant depth of 10cm, but its height will vary. In all cases, the dimensions of the pieces used in the building will follow the constrains given by the dimensions in which the blocks are cut by the machinery

RAMP_access to the tour through the mountain

LIT CORRIDOR_ Transition from the building inside towards the tunnel

POOLS VIEWPOINT_ observation of the pools from an upper point of view 90 o

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

180 o

COVERED CORRIDOR_tunnel

GOODS CONTROL BLOCK_ subterranean room replicating the former goods control block with a lift that connects the tunnel with the block 90 o

STONE GRINDERS ROOM (01)_ former stone grinder spaces now are accessible and the structures remain providing skylights to the spaces

ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION_ subterranean room replicating the electrica substation that provided electricity to the industry 90 o

STONE CRUSHER_ continuous ramp ,lit with a skylight

STONE GRINDERS ROOM (02)_ former stone grinder spaces now are accessible and the structures remain providing skylights to the spaces

EXIT TOWARDS THE CAVES_the exit escalator orientates the visitor towards the former mining spaces of the area

THE TUNNEL_ diagrammatical section

COVERED CORRIDOR_tunnel 90 o

90 o

80 o

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Tunnel sections

+23.55m

+23.55m

GOODS CONTROL BLOCK

ROCK

STONE GRINDERS

+23.55m

+34.67m

ELECTRIAL SUBSTATION

STONE CRUSHER

ORIGINAL STATE MAIN ELEMENTS IN THE RODALQUILAR MINING INDUSTRY

+24.40m

+12.80m +11.05m

+11.05m

+9.10m

+9.10m

+14.35m

TUNNEL TYPE SECTION

GOODS CONTROL BLOCK

STONE GRINDERS

ELECTRIAL SUBSTATION

STONE CRUSHER

INTERVENTION EXHIBITION SPACES (in order of appearance)

*levels are accounted from the structural level of the ground floor and is marked on the first drawing of the bottom series as level + 0.00, This level equals +101m above mean sea level

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Structural plans

Aditional spaces Offices and classrooms are disposed on the back part of the complex, getting light from a thin and long back courtyard.

Roof structure The roof structure is executed by a regular layout of beams that are supported by the perimetral wall and the mega-beams. This structure has also the funtion of regulating the light entrance into the building, by working as a lattice.

Perimetral wall The perimetral wall has the double function of being the contour of the building and having an structural function. This wall, together with the mega-beams, support the roof structure.

Research unit platform The research uses combine two different spaces. Underneath, we can find the archive, while on the top, risen by a series of columns, we find the actual research spaces.

Mega-beams Three mega-beams are laid in the interior of the space, leaving a free and open plan, in order to support the roof structure of the building. In addition, we find a set of perpendicular beams that help for the distribution of the auditorium and library

Parking structure The structure of the parking is conformed by a simple layout of columns and the presence of the bottom part of one of the mega-beams.

Main geometry plan s: 1/500

Excavation works The site is located on a steep terrain in which the original circular pools are disposed. In order to intervene, excavation works are required. *The drawing shows an schematical representation in which the -1 level is dug.

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Visitor’s Centre and Research Unit for the mining sites of Andalusia

Details

02

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01. Steel corner flashing 02. Stone finishing piece 03. brick of stone multi dimension (0.1 0.75 0.50) 04. Air Gap 05. ISOTEC 80 mm sandwich panel lusterless metal finishing 06. Steel supporting structure for stone bricks 07. Ceramic brick for base formation 08. Concrete Beam C25/30 according E.C. 09. Concrete Beam C25/30 according E.C. 10. Structural bar according to design 11. Grating tramex 12. Draining gutter canal 13. Concrete Spreadfood C25/30 according E.C. 14. Gravel 15. Stone flooring different formats 16. Leveling screed (100mm) 17. Waterproof membrane 18. Concrete slab C25/30 according E.C. 19. Vapor Barrier (2cm) 20. Compacted stones

21. Draining pipe with lime filtering barrier 22. Terrain 23. Bituminous layer 24. Rain water gutter canal 25. 5mm diameter non fixed screws 26. UPN 160 steel profile 27. Kingspan Regeb Europed (floor platform) 28. Kingspan Regeb Europed (Pods) 29. High resistance ceramic tile with non slip rough finishing 50x50x2cm 30. XPS (80 mm) 31. Bituminous layer 32. Prefab nerve slab 33. Air Gap 34. Concrete Beam C25/30 according E.C. 35. 5mm diameter fixed screws 36. stone finishing special piece 37. Silicone sealing 38. security single glass with U-V 39. Dry wall system panel 40. Dry wall anchor elemen

Detail A s: 1/20

Politecnico di Milano Scuola di Architettura y Società Tutor: Prof. Paolo Belloni

12

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01. Stone finishing piece 02. brick of stone multi dimension (0.1 0.75 0.50) 03. Air Gap 04. ISOTEC 80 mm sandwich panel lusterless metal finishing 05. Ceramic brick for base formation 06. Steel supporting structure for stone brick 07. Concrete Beam C25/30 according E.C. 08. Structural reinforcement according to design 09. Structural reinforcement according to design 10. Structural Column according to design 11. Hunter Douglas Luxalon c-carrier system 12. Hunter Douglas Luxalon wide panel 300A 13. Vapor Barrier (20 mm) 14. Concrete Beam C25/30 according E.C. 15. Plaster (20 mm) 16. Grating tramex 17. Draining gutter canal 18. Gravel 19. Stone flooring different formats 20. Compacted crashed stone B-200 layer 01 21. Compacted crashed stone B-200 layer 02 22. Bituminous layer 23. ISOTEC 80 mm sandwich panel lusterless metal finishing 24. Structural reinforcement according to design 25. Concrete Slab C25/30 according E.C. 26. Concrete secondary Beam C25/30 according E.C. 27. Window frame box 28. Double glass low E with U-V filter

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Detail B s: 1/20

Francisco J. Rodríguez Pérez (749831) Final thesis / Academic year 2011-2012


Final thesis sheets