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How$to$Write$an$Argumentative$Text$

Fonte: Imagem retirada de https://www.papermasters.com/argumentative-essay.html

Formadora: Elvira Rodrigues

Formando: Francisco Xavier Coelho

Ação de Formação: C569A1-15_16. Instrumentos de Transdisciplinaridade e Coaprendizagem Sediados e Mediados por Plataformas Digitais

Setembro 2015


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How$to$Write$an$Argumentative$Text$ ! ! ! ! ! !

Formando: Francisco Xavier Coelho ! !

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setembro de 2015

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Table!of!Contents!(Sumรกrio)! ! ! 1.! Introduction! !

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2.! Example!A!

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3.! Example!B!

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3.2!How!to!link!the!points!or!opinions,!or!reasons!together! !

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3.1!How!to!make!a!point,!or!express!an!opinion,!or!reason!

4.! !Exercises!

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! ! ! 1.! Introduction! When%discussing%a%topic,%or%giving%your%opinion,%you%first%have%to%take%notes%about%the%advantages% and%disadvantages,%or%the%arguments%for%and%against,%the%topic%you%are%going%to%write%about,%then% organise%and%expand%them%into%a%full%text%and%finally%take%a%conclusion.% % % % %

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% 2.! Example!A! Topic:%Discuss&the&advantages&and&disadvantages&of&air&travel.% Look%at%the%notes%we%have%taken%for%this%composition:% ! Advantages!/!Disadvantages% Quick&No&feeling&of&travelling% Easy&and&comfortable&Don’t&see&the&countries/&enjoy&landscapes&on&the&journey% Relatively&cheap&tiring/&Weather&delays% Now,!see!how!these!notes!have!been!organised!and!expanded!into!a!full!composition.% The!first!obvious!advantage!of!air!travel%is%that%it%is%quick.%You%can%fly%from%Europe%to%America%in% a%few%hours,%and%with%the%introduction%of%supersonic%planes,%travelling%time%between%continents%is% getting%shorter.%It%is%very%easy%and%comfortable%to%travel%by%planeC%someone%looks%after%your%luggage% and%all%you%have%to%do%is%to%get%on,%sit%down,%relax%and%enjoy%a%meal%or%a%film.%Your%comfortable%seat% is%reserved%and%there%is%excellent%waitress%service.%Another!point!in!favour!of!air!travel%is%that%it%is% relatively%cheap,%especially%for%longEdistance%travel.% On!the!other!hand!(However),!travelling!by!air!has!some!disadvantages.!Perhaps!the!most! important! is! that% (For! example)% you% fly% directly% to% your% destination% and% you% have% no% feeling% of% travelling%from%one%country%to%another.%Another!point!(disadvantage)!is!that!because%(as)%air%travel% is% so% quick,% people% going% long% distances% nonEstop% often% suffer% from% tirednessC% so% they% save% time% travelling,%but!waste%time%recovering.!It!also!happens!that%passengers%are%often%delayed%by%fog%and% other%weather%conditions.% Anyway,!I!think%that%the%advantages%of%travelling%by%plane%outweigh%the%disadvantages,%mainly%when% you%have%to%travel%long%distances%and%want%to%save%time.%% ! !

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! 3.! Example!B! Topic:!Do&you&think&old&people&should&be&looked&after&by&their&families&when&they&become&too&old&to& manage&by&themselves?&If&so,&give&your&reasonsE&if&not,&say&why&not,&and&suggest&how&they&should& be&looked&after.% In%this%composition%you%are%asked%something%more%than%in%the%first%one.%Here%you%are%asked%to%give% your%opinion,%to%give%reasons%and%to%give%suggestions.%% Look%at%the%notes%for%this%composition:% Opinion:%I"don’t"think"that&old&people&should&be&looked&after&by&their&families.% Reasons:%difficult&to&be&looked&after&properlyE&relationships&between&generations&not&easy.% Suggestions:% financial& assistance& from& the& stateE& government& nursing& systemE& special& homesE& special&housing&areas&with&supervision.% Now,!see!how!these!notes!have!been!expanded!into!a!full!composition.% The%problem%of%looking%after%old%people%is%greater%today%than%ever%before.%It!is!difficult!for!them!to% be% properly% cared% for% by% the% family% because% quite% often% both% parents% go% out% to% work.% Another! problem%is%that,%if%nowadays%the%relationship%between%two%generations%in%one%house%is%often%difficult,% with%three%generations%it%may%be%impossible.% Bearing!this!in!mind!(Considering!this)%I%think%that%old%people%should%be%the%state’s%responsibility,% not% the% family’s.% They% should% be% given% financial% support,% so% that% they% can% end% their% lives% without% worrying%about%money.%If%they%wish%to%live%in%their%own%houses,%but%need%special%care,%this!should! be!given%by%a%government%nursing%system.% In%many%countries%old%people%can%live%in%special%housesC%public%money%should%be%spent%on%building% more%of%these%houses,%and%improving%their%facilities.%Even!better%would%be%to%build%old%people’s%flats% or%bungalows,%grouped%together%and%under%the%supervision%of%trained%staff.% To! sum! up! (In! conclusion)% I% believe% that% families% can’t% look% after% their% old% people% satisfactorily% nowadays,%and%that%this%should%be%the%responsibility%of%the%state.% %

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% % % 3.1!How!to!make!a!point,!or!express!an!opinion,!or!reason! % % •% First%of%all...%% •% One%advantage/%disadvantage%of%(...)%is%...%% •% Another%point%in%favour%of/%against%(...)%is%...%% •% A%further%argument%in%favour%of%/against%(...)%is%...%% •% The%biggest%advantage/disadvantage%is%...%% •% One%objection%to%this%argument%is%...%% •% No%doubt%...,%however%...%% •% This%is%not%always%the%case%...%% •% Take%for%instance%(to%present%an%example)%...%% •% In%my%opinion,%...%% •% I%think%...%% •% If%....,%then%...%% •% It’s%important/true/necessary%to%remember/%to%point%out%that%...%% •% Bearing%this%in%mind/%considering%this,%I%think%...%% •% It’s%worth%remembering%that%...%% •% To%sum%up/In%conclusion%I%would%say%that%...%%

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% 3.2!How!to!link!the!points!or!opinions,!or!reasons!together% On!the!one!hand!...,!on!the!other!hand%(the%second%part%can%be%used%alone%to%introduce%an%opposite% point)% On!the!one!hand%travelling%by%air%is%very%fastW!on!the!other!hand%it%has%several%disadvantages.% •% But%%

There%are%many%advantages%in%owning%a%dog,%but%there%are%one%or%two%disadvantages%too.% •% In!contrast%%

Cats%are%rather%independent.%Dogs,%in!contrast,%provide%real%companionship%(much%more%usual%is% “on%the%other%hand”)% •% Besides%%

Besides%this%problem,%there%is%the%question%of%exercise%for%dogs.% Besides%providing%financial%help%for%old%people,%the%government%should%build%more%special%houses.% •% Moreover%(used%to%add%another%point)%%

Air%travel%is%easy,%comfortable%and%quick.%Moreover,%it%is%relatively%cheap.% •% WhereasW!while%%

Dogs&are&fairly&expensive&to&keep,&whereas/while&cats&cost&very&little.% Dogs&must&be&taken&for&walks,&while/whereas&cats&can&look&after&themselves.% 1.%HoweverW!althoughW!in!spite!of%% % %

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% 4.% EXERCISES% ! ! % A[! Using! the! ways! of! liking! points,! expressing! opinions! or! reasons! complete! the! following:! % 1.% football/excitingC%Cricket/%more%relaxing%% %

Football%is%an%exciting%game.%cricket,%in!contrast,%_____________________% 2.% living%in%a%foreign%country/difficult/%rather%exciting%%

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People%say%that%living%in%a%foreign%country%is%difficult.%On!the!other!hand%it%__________% 3.% northern%countries/rather%reservedEMediterranean%countries/extrovert%% %People% from% northern% countries% tend% to% be% rather% reserved.% Those% from% Mediterranean% countries,%on!the!other!hand,%__________________________% 4.% England/monarchyEPortugal/republic%%

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England%has%a%monarchy,%whereas%__________________________________% 5.% England/%drive%leftErest%of%Europe/right%%

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In%England%people%drive%on%the%left,%while%_______________________________% 6.% England%pounds%sterling/%most%European%countries/euro%%

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Our%currency%is%pounds%sterling,%whereas%_____________________________% 7.% England/nonEcompulsory%military%service%–%efficient%armed%forces%% England%has%no%compulsory%military%service,%however%_______________________% 8.% no%high%mountains%in%England%–%Switzerland%very%mountainous%country%%

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There%are%no%really%high%mountains%in%England,%whereas%_________________% 9.% television%kills%conversation,%makes%people%dumber%%

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Besides%killing%conversation,%television%______________________________% 10.%gardensE%place%for%children%to%playE%beautify%the%houses%%

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Gardens%provide%a%place%for%children%to%play.%Moreover,%they%_____________%%

% B[! Following!the!patterns!given!before!write!down!your!notes!(!not!complete!sentences)! and!ideas!for!one!of!these!topics.! ! 1.% Boys!should!receive!a!different!type!of!education!from!girls.%What%is%your%opinion% on%this?%Give%your%reasons.%% 2.% Television! is! doing! an! irreparable! harm! to! our! society.% Are% you% of% the% same% opinion?%State%your%reasons.%% 3.% Space!race!is!the!word’s!biggest!waste!of!money.%Are%you%of%the%same%opinion?% State%your%reasons.%% 4.% New!fashions!in!clothing!are!created!only!for!commercial!exploitation!of!women.% Comment%on%this%topic.%% 5.% Examinations! have! a! pernicious! influence! in! education.% Are% you% of% the% same% opinion?%State%your%reasons.%% 6.% Parents! are! too! permissive! with! their! children! nowadays.! Are% you% of% the% same% opinion?%State%your%reasons.%% 7.% Capital!punishment!is!the!only!way!to!stop!criminals.%Comment%on%it.%% ! ! ! C.!Compulsory!military!service!should!be!abolished!in!all!countries.!Comment!on!it.! %

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How$to$Write$an$Argumentative$Text$

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Fonte:%Elaboração%própria%em%http://www.tagxedo.com%

% “For%good%ideas%and%true%innovation,%you%need%human%interaction,%conflict,%argument,%debate.”% Margaret!Heffernan %

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How to write an argumentative text