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GREAT MACHINE CABINET


GREAT MACHINE CABINET

Politecnico di Milano Master degree in Architectural Design and History Sede di Mantova Supervisor Pier Paolo Tamburelli Assistan supervisor Fabio Gigone Francesco Rambelli Academic year 2017/208 3


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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1.1 Premises 1.2 Promises

p. 10 p. 22

2 Photographic index

p. 40

3 Analysis 3.1 Commuter status chart 3.2 Typological study of gas stations 3.3 Regional road connections

p. 74 p. 78 p. 92

4 Program strategy 4.1 Division by NIL of Milan and their commuting rate 4.2 Location of existing service sharing spots 4.3 Program redistribution strategy 4.4 Specific district overview

p. 102 p. 106 p. 108 p. 110

5 Design process 5.1 Measuring the program 5.2 Diagram strategy 5.3 De Angeli - Monterosa 5.3.1 drawings of the existing 5.3.2 drawings of the new intervention 5.4 Maciachini - Maggiolina 5.4.1 drawing of the existing 5.4.2 drawing of the new intervention 5.5 Porta Romana 5.5.1 drawing of the existing 5.5.2 drawing of the new intervention 5.6 Giambellino 5.6.1 drawing of the existing 5.6.2 drawing of the new ntervention

p. 116 p. 120 p. 126 p. 130 p. 146 p. 150 p. 166 p. 170 p. 186 p. 190 5


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INTRODUCTION

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PREMISES

The most general aim of this research is to compete with contemporary reality, the related problems and the possible consequent opportunities for improvement. Specifically, the elaboration of a critical reflection on today's vehicular mobility of the city of Milan is the goal of this study that is realized through the development of an architectural project. Architecture has always been the mirror of society and of the values of the time in which it found itself living; relying only on a systematic exposition of the topic would mean depriving ourselves of the opportunity to grasp and enhance possible intuitions that contribute to improving the reality that surrounds us; elaborating a project without theoretical research would mean not fully understanding the potential of the response that it could, or perhaps should, give. 10


In this context, within the present work, the realized projects are placed, as results of an analysis carried out on the sustainable mobility of the city of Milan. The starting point in setting this is the intention to align with the objectives proposed by the municipal administration to improve the car sharing and bike sharing offer in the Milan area by 2020. To this purpose it has been fundamental the reconstruction of a historical background of the problem in which the identification of the dynamics grafted by the urbanistic policies in Milan at the end of the 19th century, up to the present day, has allowed the configuration of an essential reference framework necessary to contextualise the demand of today, and stimulated a useful and rational reflection in order to make the offer possible and valid. The four pilot projects, which are part of a broader capillary strategic design, are located along the Milan external ring road, a historic road artery ideal both for its daily traffic and for the borderline position between the hinterland and the heart of the historic city. The planning strategy envisages replacing gas stations, icons of obsolete mobility, with car sharing and bike sharing interchange stations containing public social services. Through the serial repetition of elements and the ability to adapt to the place without losing formal recognition, the projects try to take charge of the legacy of the replaced service stations, reinterpreting the spirit that has made them unique in the collective imagination.

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The model of individual mobility that was consolidated during the last century and which is based on the use of the vehicle of ownership is still an essential part of the lifestyle of the advanced industrial countries and is extremely rooted in the behavior of individuals. The mass use of one's own means of transport, especially cars and especially in urban areas, is the cornerstone of a very complex system that goes beyond the transport sector and involves the overall functioning of advanced industrial societies. For years the cultural aspect of owning one's car was highlighted as one of the obstacles to overcome to propose alternative mobility models. The car as a status symbol, the car as a handbag, the car as a favorite child, are all incarnations of a social and cultural model that goes beyond the usefulness of the car as a means of transport. One of the main causes of air pollution is the car. Air pollution refers to the modification of the composition of atmospheric air through the emission of gases, fine dust and fumes, substances that can cause serious consequences both for human health and for the state of conservation of what's this. The quantitatively most important pollutant is carbon monoxide, a poisonous and odorless gas capable of irreversibly combining with the hemoglobin contained in the blood. Today, the number of vehicles registered around Milan is 690.824, about 509 cars per 1000 inhabitants. Encouraging numbers if we observe that from the decade between 2003 and 2013 there has been a reduction of over 93.0001 cars. On the other hand, from the point of view of the diffusion of the four wheels, the metropolitan city as a whole and Lombardy are recording growing data. In the province the numbers had begun to rise already in 2015 and today we are 1 million 784 thousand cars in circulation. 1. De Vito L. 2017. Milano, torna a salire dopo 15 anni il numero di auto in cittĂ . Available at https://milano.repubblica.it

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Meanwhile in the region in 2016 the share of 6 million cars (5 million and 998 thousand) has been reached. The agency AMAT (Agency for Mobility, Environment and Transportation) of the Municipality of Milan, based on the research and analysis conducted, estimated in 2013 that the aggregate demand for mobility gravitating on Milan is about 5.3 million car-trips a day2. In addition, again in the survey on the mobility of people in the Milan area it is possible to catalog this number in two large macro-categories: 2.991.000 internal movements in Milan (57%) against the 2.232.000 exchange shifts at the border of Milan (43%). The commuting phenomenon has particular dimensions and meanings in the reality of Milan, perhaps the only example in Italy of an effective "metropolitan area". The strength of the functional exchanges of the capital with the surrounding municipalities is also expressed through the intensity of the flows of daily trips for study and work, which in the case of the municipality of Milan are spread over a much wider territory than other metropolitan areas more monocentric. The presence in the Milan metropolitan system of other poles and the diffusion of different functions throughout its territory entail a daily mobility with origins and destinations distributed in a very large area, which induces substantial trips out of the city and directed towards the surrounding municipalities. As far as it concerns the destinations of the commuter band residing in Milan, we note that the internal movements of the capital clearly exceed the external ones directed to other cities in Lombardy. According to a study carried out by the statistical sector of the Municipality of Milan in 2011, 63.700 commuters, between students and workers, move within the province of Milan; on the other hand only 2. Elaboration on AMAT data - Survey on the mobility of people in the Milan area (20052006). Available at https://www.amat-mi.it

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9.100 towards Monza, 3,300 in Varese, 1,700 in Bergamo and Pavia, 1,400 in Como, 1,000 in Lodi. On the other hand, from a general viewpoint, as regards daily travel within the city of Milan, carried out by residents in the municipality itself, there is a total flow of 649.327 commuters, of which 191.636 for study purposes, while 457.695 for work reasons3. From a survey carried out by the statistical sector of the Municipality of Milan in 2011, whose interest was focused on the means of transport used daily by both internal commuters and outgoing from the municipality, used to complete the longest part of their path to reach their destination, it is emerged a general framework that shows how, for commuter workers within the municipal territory, the use of the collective vehicle (42.1%) exceeds that of the private vehicle (35.9%). While, as regards the commuter workers heading to other Lombard municipalities, the car remains the most popular solution (74.3%) against the scarce use of the collective vehicle (23.6%). The ecological shift, such as the use of the bicycle or on foot, is preferred by those moving internally in the territory of Milan (22.0%), while it remains less frequent in those who leave the municipal borders for work reasons. (1.0%)4. Briefly, business journeys within the compact city enjoy a denser and more efficient transport network, which leads people to prefer the collective vehicle to the private one. Those who live in the most central districts of the city can not afford to use motor vehicles, thus making an ecological choice. The lack of public transport services due to the difficulty in covering the entire demand in relation to the size of the territory makes the car essential for the whole category of workers moving in the opposite direction from the city center. 3. Statistic sector of the Municipality of Milan, 2011, Pendolarismo per studio e lavoro a Milano, (PDF) pp. 14 4. Statistic sector of the Municipality of Milan, 2011, Pendolarismo per studio e lavoro a Milano, (PDF) pp. 34

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These data show how Milan and its province are increasingly center of the 'gravity system' of the entire Lombardy region, and justifies the great investments in the future, both on the ex-novo plan and on the redevelopment, in the infrastructural and mobility. Over the years, the municipality of Milan has promoted interventions aimed at reducing the amount of daily traffic by introducing, for example, new pedestrian areas, Limited Traffic Zones, Limited Speed Zones in places that could afford such solutions; specifically, in June 2014, the areas surveyed were 437,000 square meters while in 2011 they were limited to 388,000 square meters. At the same time, the network of cycling routes has been expanded and redeveloped, with the consequent arrangement of suitable parking areas for bicycles, in order to increase the cycle road traffic in contrast with the use of the vehicle itself. In fact, it is enough to think that, in addition to the cycle paths in its own right, the use of making space for bicycles from the carriageway is rapidly spreading; this operation is favored both by the ease of implementation and by the low cost of the intervention. Moreover, in 2012, the area C was established, an area that includes the interior of the Cerchia di Bastioni, with the aim of reducing the traffic rate within the historic core of the city of Milan. This proposal is based on the desire to make greater use of public transport, to promote less impactful means, and to reduce the exposure of the population to polluting emissions. Area C is therefore configured as a Limited Traffic Zone, operating from 7.30 to 19.30 on weekdays between Monday and Friday. During the first 30 months of its implementation, an ecological emission balance shows a 42% decrease for ammonia5, 18% for nitrogen oxides and 35% for carbon dioxide. 5. Lanzani G. 2017. L’inquinamento da PM10 in Lombardia: il ruolo delle emissioni di ammo niaca . Available at https://ersaf.lombardia.it

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In 2001 Milan adopts the car-sharing service. Car-sharing is nothing more than an urban mobility service that allows users to use a vehicle on reservation by renting it for a short period of time, in minutes or hours, and paying for the use made6. This service is used within policies of sustainable mobility, to facilitate the transition from the possession of the vehicle to the use of the same (ie access to the mobility service), so as to allow you to renounce the private car but not the flexibility of their mobility needs. The car, in this way, passes from the scope of consumer goods to that of services, replacing access to possession. Historically, a first form of documented car sharing appeared in Zurich in 1948 promoted by a housing cooperative, under the name of Selbstfahrergemeinschaft. Subsequently, around the 70s, thanks to Luud Schimmelpennink in Amsterdam they made their first appearance a series of electric vehicles with a reservation and redelivery system. Schimmelpennink, founder of the white bicycles movement, also designed a large number of stations to support the sharing service, scattered throughout the city; the project was inaugurated in 1974, ceasing to work in 1988. In the '80s and' 90s no great progress was made in the area of sharing, but with the development of communication systems in the early 2000s there was a substantial increase in the possibilities linked to the car-sharing service; in 2008 there were already several companies in the most advanced countries, so that in 2010 car-sharing was widespread also in developing countries such as Brazil, China, India, Mexico and Turkey, favored by high population density7. The National Car Sharing Program was born in Italy between 1999 and 2000 by the Ministry of the Environment in the scope of the Environmental Protection Excerpt Program. 6. car sharing definition in Vocabolario - Treccani, available at www.treccani.it. 7. S. Shaheen, D. Sperling, C.Wagner,1998, Carsharing in Europe and North America: Past Present and Future, vol. 52, nยบ 3, Transportation Quarterly.

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Car sharing is in fact identified as one of the strategic factors for the development of sustainable mobility in urban areas. The first car-sharing service was activated in Milan in 2001 by Legambiente; of clear embryonic form, the experimentation counted 3 machines on the territory and a management entrusted to 20 members. Since 2002 the service has spread to Bologna, while since 2005 participating in the project Florence, Genoa, Savona, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Rome, Turin, Venice. In Milan in 2004, ATM, ACInnova, AEM, Zincar and Unione Commercio create GuidaMi Srl. In the following years, more precisely in 2009, Azienda Trasporti Milanesi Spa totally manages the car sharing service in Milan, maintaining the brand GuidaMi, adding the car-sharing service to the mobility offer program of the Milanese municipality. This system is part of the ICS Initiative Car Sharing circuit, a structure promoted by the Ministry for the Environment and Territory Protection that brings together and coordinates the Italian cities participating in the service. In 2013, following a research published by AMAT concerning the potential development of car-sharing services, the Municipality of Milan has published a Call for Expression of Interest in order to find private managers interested in starting a free-floating service on the municipal territory8. In March 2017, there are six car sharing companies in Milan: Car2Go with 800 vehicles and 144,000 users, Enjoy with 700 vehicles and 290,000 users, Share'ngo with 700 vehicles and 35,000 users, GuidaMi with 120 vehicles and 5,000 users, DriveNow with 500 vehicles and 72,000 users and finally E-go with 106 vehicles and 33,000 users9. Of these only Share'ngo and E-vai are services that offer a more ecological choice, proposing electric battery vehicles and therefore rechargeable. 8. S. Riazzola, 2015, Milano sharing city: la città in condivisione. Available at www.comune. milano.it 9. F. Noè, 2017, Guida definitiva ai Car Sharing di Milano. Available at www.amilanopuoi.com

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Moreover, E-vai is the first car-sharing service on a regional scale, and not just an urban one. Founded in 2011 by Ferrovie Nord Milano, it has 12 stations in the Milan area located in strategic areas, such as proximity to the airport and railway stations, and others located between the various provinces of Lombardy10. Nowadays, there are 34 electric charging stations in the city on public land, while another 70 charging stations are located in company parking lots, condominiums, garages and interchange stations. The most significant innovation concerning the car-sharing service introduced in 2013 it is the start of the one-way / free parking mode and the on demand pick-up. The first allows the driver to not necessarily bring the car back to the place where he picked it up, while the second to be able to use the vehicle without prior reservations but instantly thanks to the app on the phone. Given its complementary character to local public transport, as defined by the Lombardy Region, initially the machines participating in the service were allowed free entry into ZTL areas, in reserved lanes and free parking in the pay stalls. Since 2013, given the wide response of use, the administration has decided to allow free access only in the ZTL Area C, to prevent a massive exploitation of the preferential lanes and LTZ. Therefore, car-sharing is mainly divided into two modes: the first, which was written above, free-flowing on demand, ideal for unscheduled trips; the second instead 'with fixed station reservation', obliges the driver to bring the car back to the original station, representing a valid alternative to the private car at lower costs. The positive effects of this second mode are clear. According to data released by ICS, over 40% of customers sell the private car after 10. A. Talliani, 2017, Con E-Vai auto sotto casa per raggiungere l'aeroporto di Malpensa. Avai lable at www.ilgiornale.it

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enrollment in this type of car sharing; 73% regularly use public transport or bicycle services (+ 30% as a result of car-sharing). Â The most important factor, which emerges from more in-depth studies, is that the two models are partly complementary, if not synergistic11; the growth of free-flowing car sharing, in some cases, has also had an effect on the growth of the fixed station service, and can be mutually fed, convincing more users to give up mobility based on the possession of a private car. The issue is still the subject of debate at the international level and several European cities implement different regulatory policies between the two car sharing models due to the above. A further strategy used by the Municipality of Milan to reduce the use of the vehicle and to promote zero-impact ecological movements has been to introduce, from 2008, a bike sharing service in the most crucial areas of the city. Technically, bike sharing or shared bicycle is one of the tools of sustainable mobility available to public administrations that intend to increase the use of public transport (buses, trams and subways), integrating them with each other (intermodal transport) and integrating them from the use of bicycles and shared trips for proximity where the public transport does not arrive or can not arrive. Currently, there are 132 cities with bicycle sharing. The service is active both in large metropolitan areas, in large cities, and in smaller cities12. BikeMi is the main bike sharing service in Milan. Inaugurated in December 2008, it is today the most extensive system used in Italy. The storage-stations of bicycles, installed in a capillary manner throughout the territory and close to the main attractions, offer a new mode of movement that integrates with local public transport, providing users with practical and fast movement opportunities. 11. F. Ciari, B. Bock, M. Balmer, 2014, Modeling station-based and free-floating carsharing de mand, Transportation Research Board, Whasington D.C. 12. G. Ceccarelli, 2010, Il bike sharing in Italia: un'istantanea del 2010. Available at www. nuovamobilita.blogspot.com

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The introduction of bike sharing has positively influenced the use of the bicycle as it has allowed many users to use a non-owned vehicle, which can be picked up and released at any of the active stations, relieving management costs, without fear for bicycle theft, without the obligation of a return journey with the same means of transport. Its development has been structured in phases: the first with 103 stations, the second with 110 stations and the third with 70 further stations. Their placement started from cerchia dei Bastioni (phase 1) and then spread concentrically towards the periphery (phase 2): the stations were positioned following some basic principles (eg: accessibility of the station, visibility, proximity to attractors and road intersections), so that between these there is an average distance of 300-400 meters (in order to allow users to reach the nearest station - on foot or by bicycle - in the event that the station is full of bicycles or empty). At the beginning of 2018 the territory coverage reached almost entirely the circonvallazione filoviaria, with 280 stations for 4.650 bicycles. In addition to the BikeMi service provided by the municipality of Milan, even private companies have helped to spread the culture of cycling within the city13. Unlike the BikeMi service, which provides, once used, to store the bike in the special stall, Mobike and Ofo are flee floating operators, which allow greater freedom of management of the vehicle, given the possibility of arking almost anywhere. Mobike, excluding those stolen, vandalized, or broken, counts a number of 8.000 bicycles. Ofo instead stops at 4.00014. It can be said that the bike sharing project in Milan has had a very positive response 10 years after its birth. The ATM's BikeMi service has steadily increased since it first appeared. 13. https://www.bikemi.com/it 14. S.Bogo, 2018, Bike sharing a Milano: BikeMi, Mobike e Ofo a confronto. Available at www. urban.bicilive.it

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The ATM's BikeMi service has steadily increased since it first appeared. If the subscribers at the beginning of 2008 were 8.257, to date there are a number equal to 45.463. The same applies to the annual takings of bikeMi bikes, which went from a number of 685.578 in 2008 to a peak of 2.421.802 at the end of 2015. At the end of 2017, withdrawals were 2.279.22015.

15. PUMS - Urban plan for sustainable mobility - plan document, (PDF) pp. 236

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PROMISES

In November 2012, the municipal council of Milan approved the Guidelines for the restart of the updating process of the Urban Sustainable Mobility Plan. PUMS is a strategic plan that is created to meet the mobility needs of individuals in order to improve the quality of life in the city in the medium to long term, with periodic interim checks. The document in question gives centrality to the coherent concepts of sustainability and innovation for more efficient mobility also towards 0 emission vehicles. It is a necessary centrality, coherent with European policies; this can be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the public transport system, including through the exploitation of digital technologies, intelligent systems and electric vehicles.

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The Guidelines for the Milan PUMS, amended in June 2017, explicitly refer to the principle of environmental, social and economic sustainability. The challenge that the Municipality of Milan has to face with the development of the PUMS, even in a cultural discontinuity with the past, is in fact to pursue and strengthen the possible optimal balance between applications for efficient mobility, quality of life, protection environmental and health. This perspective arises from the need to generate a virtuous circle that increases the offer of integrated services for those moving in the city, reducing dependence on the car as a means of transport and thereby increasing the competitiveness of the other modes as a system of sustainable mobility contributes to the reduction of air pollution, energy consumption, traffic accidents and congestion. Setting the conditions to improve the sustainable accessibility to the city, while reducing vehicle traffic and the number of cars on public land, also means making a decisive contribution to improving the urban environment, reducing air pollution and noise, recovering usability of public spaces, enhancing, even economically, the historical and architectural heritage of the city. The PUMS Objectives system is therefore divided into four macro categories, which refer to the four well-established dimensions of the concept of sustainability (development, environment, society, economy): sustainable mobility, safety and social inclusion, environmental quality, innovation and economic efficiency. Providing a strategic vision and a mobility governance plan, shared with the local, sustainable and "smart" community, facilitates access to resources - ideas and projects, entrepreneurial and decision-making skills, sources of funding - that can be provision in the next few years of programming Community funds, an essential condition for

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The city and the Milan metropolitan area have also been and are still affected by processes of transformation of urban fabrics, which in the recent past have changed the use and structured new polarities, not always supported and integrated with mobility public system. The PUMS inherits a complex scenario in which the relationship between mobility generators / attractors - being implemented or planned - and the transport system, presents conditions that are not always balanced between mobility needs and the provision of services and transport infrastructures. The PUMS is therefore called upon to confront, on the mandate of the PGT and in coordination with its implementation phase, with the urban transformations of territorial scale, which will mature in the timescale of the validity of the PUMS, in order to recover and give quality to the dynamics still completed, according to an integrated transport and land planning approach. Compared to the previous strategic planning tools, the PUMS has a more specific connotation for two fundamental reasons. The first reason refers to the local dimension and is closely related to the unavoidable integration of spatial planning and mobility tools1; the second reason refers to the innovation path of the transport planning tools introduced, in the European context, through the preparation of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) as tools for the definition of policies consistent with the criterion of environmental sustainability. This is a radical change in approach in which the paradigm, centered on supply policies such as services and infrastructures designed to satisfy the mobility of people and goods, is replaced by a proposal able to take into account both the factors determining the demand for mobility both of the impacts and the prevalent mobility model determines the environment in terms of social costs and lack of efficiency in the use of resources. 1. http://www.comune.milano.it/PUMS http://www.amat-mi.it/it/mobilita/pianificazione-strategica/PUMS/

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So the need for a new PUMS for Milan stems from the need to give substance and instrumentation to a new vision of policies for the mobility sector in the next decade, a strategic sector because it requires to guarantee levels of accessibility to the territory and at the same time to tackle the challenges related to environmental, economic and social sustainability that mobility involves. Regarding the latter, we can say that an epochal change is taking place: a new way of moving is emerging all over the world, based more on access to services rather than on the use of a vehicle owned. Technology makes it easier today, the environment needs it, an increasing number of people want to move freely, in and out of town, even without owning a vehicle. The share of families without cars and with only one car is on the rise, while the share of families with 3 or more cars is significantly reduced. This situation is also due to the size of the annual fixed costs of a private car (taxes, insurance, capital necessary for the purchase, ancillary costs such as parking, among others), which progressively increases the reduction of the annual travel achieved. This is how, together with the measures to limit and discourage the use of individual means, the core of all sustainable mobility policies has always been represented by the objective of changing people's behavior and inducing them to a more sustainable consumption of mobility. The European Commission has adopted a strategy that, in its rich articulation of actions, pursues the goal of reducing Europe's dependence on imported oil, as well as reducing 60% of carbon dioxide emissions in transport by 20502. To achieve this, a transformation of the current European transport system will be necessary. Electric vehicles already use high-efficiency engines for propulsion and it is expected that by 2020 electric vehicles will circulate in Europe from 2. European Commission, White Paper, 2011.

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8 to 9 million. In order to allow an adequate development of electric mobility, consistent with the objectives set by the European Union to 2030, which in urban transport plans to halve by 2030 the use of cars "fueled with traditional fuels" and eliminate all by 2050, it is estimated a need for electric / hybrid vehicles for the city in 2020 equal to 150,000 units (private, public fleets, corporate and sharing services). This objective can be pursued only in the presence of strong economic incentives to purchase, both at national and regional level, as in other EU countries; in the absence of such conditions, an electric / hybrid vehicle fleet of no more than 50,000 vehicles is estimated for the Milan metropolitan area by 2020. Milan must therefore prepare to facilitate the growth of the demand for electric mobility and encourage it in order to achieve the European objectives as an intermediate step to 2020. As described in the paragraph on the offer of sharing systems, a project has been launched to install charging points for electric quadricycles in technologically equipped areas, which at the end of 2018 consists of a total of 280 recharghe towers. To reach the target set at 2020, the recharging infrastructure needs would amount to around 800 points per 100,000 inhabitants, divided between the public network and the private network. For Milan, therefore, it would be a need for electric top-ups in 2020 of about 10.400 total recharge points, of which: 9.360 private charging points (corporate, shopping centers, car parks, garages, and private boxes / courtyards) and 1,040 recharge points on public land, of which 946 points of slow recharge on the road and 94 points of fast recharge3. In a consequential manner, the development of recharge points on the territory must be planned. Localization is planned in particular 3. PUMS - Urban plan for sustainable mobility - plan document, (PDF) pp. 266

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at strategic sites of the metropolitan city, such as garages, car parks, shopping centers car parks, fuel distributors, important service centers and workplaces, for example university buildings, artisan / industrial settlements, and finally the large areas of urban transformation and reconversion, where new productive, tertiary or residential activities will develop. In fact, the PUMS, in line with the regulatory instruments and planners / programmers of the Lombardy Region, deems it appropriate to develop and improve the distribution network of alternative fuels, as part of specific planning tools, in order to incentivize their spread throughout the territory, through two main guidelines. The first is to guarantee an adequate capillarity by identifying for this purpose a specific methodology and criteria for the location of alternative fuel distribution installations4; the second is to ensure an appropriate offer not only in quantitative terms but also in terms of quality, by realizing and / or adapting the new proposals also with services that are ancillary to the user. The setting of the strategies of the cycling plan is based on some essential themes and as many fields of action. As regards the essential elements, reference is made to the inclusion of cycling mobility between the priorities of transport policy, the continuous process of innovation, the improvement of liveability and urban quality, the progressive increase in comfort levels and the speed of movements, the sense of security that users must be able to perceive when they choose and use the bicycle as a means of transport. The fields of action on which investments are concentrated are networks, services, communication and marketing; in this regard, it is intended to proceed to the drafting of a cycling mobility plan that can develop in detail the strategies of the PUMS in terms of cycling. 4. F. Gemelli, 2018, Carburanti alternativi, l'Italia è prima in Europa. Available at www.motor1. com

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The growth of cycling in Milan is expected to be consistent with what is programmed by the PGT for the development of a multicentric and network scheme. This gradual development must take into account the current different distribution of traffic congestion and temporary and structural road systems that have led to an increase in cycling flows in a mainly radial sense between the suburbs and the center. These flows are then added to the journeys straddling the outskirts along some routes of mainly cycling interest. The planned network scheme fully considers the multiplicity of attractors and positions distributed on the territory of the epicentres, while at the same time assigning due importance to the city center as the main attractor / generator of cycle traffic. The center is in fact a part of the urban fabric that is already well adapted to the development of cycling mobility (as has happened in all other European metropolitan areas): it’s noticeable that the concentration of movements, 1 out of 5 , which take place by bicycle inside the cerchia dei Navigli and the success of bike sharing since its debut in 20086. The ongoing urban transformation and the progressive migration of the large tertiary sector from the center to peripheral localizations is not necessarily a phenomenon in contrast with the growth of cycling in the most central area of the city, as the demand for home-work journeys and home-study ones towards this area remain strong and the relevant commercial and tourist attraction; however, planning must respond appropriately to the natural evolution towards multi-centered functions in the area, facilitating access to new public transport hubs and terminals, thus distributing investments on a variety of itineraries. The cyclist is an urban presence, silent and visible, close and palpable: it comes into contact with the territory it passes through, it knows it. 6. PUMS - Urban plan for sustainable mobility - plan document, (PDF) pp. 34

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The more the moving experience becomes positive, the shorter and more agile each route will seem, and this will increase the attractiveness of the system. The presence of cyclists on the street, at various times of day, can help to make the roads more alive and safer, more enjoyable for everyone. Therefore, in order to increase cycling mobility, the strategy is essentially based on the two actions listed below. The first, as part of the interventions on the network, plans to build road conditions such that cyclists can follow safe routes in their journeys and whatever the reason for the trip, and which transmit a sense of security and where cycling is pleasant. simple and comfortable. The second, on the merit of services and other structures supporting cycling, to offer both free parking and organized and managed (type bicistazioni), widespread in the area and well located, accessible and safe, positioned according to the criterion of maximum proximity to destination, the presence of which, reducing cyclists the inconvenience due to the search for parking and fears for theft, is an encouraging factor to frequent use of the bicycle. The PUMS scenario confirms the perspective of implementation of the cycle route system by defining a clearly hierarchical structure of the network, coordinating priority routes with the creation of moderate areas (environmental islands and areas with limited speed) and determining the priorities for implementation. The overall length of the priority routes amounts to 186 km, 110 of which refer to the large radial routes and 38 to the ring roads (cerchia dei Bastioni and circonvallazione filoviaria esterna): to the 186 km are added the 60 km that would constitute the Green belt connecting large parks. In terms of quantity, the development of bike sharing also takes into account what has been achieved in other foreign cities in order to

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valuate the differences between the various systems in synthetic and parametric terms. The capillarity of the system, or how many bicycles are available with respect to the number of residents, puts Milan in a good position but there are clear margins for improvement. Milan offers a bicycle for every 291 residents5; According to the 2013 data VelĂŹb6, Paris offers a bike for every 97 residents, Lyon one every 121, Barcelona one every 270, Montreal one every 300, London one every 984, New York one every 8.336. Speaking in terms of future scenarios, with regard to the capillarity of the system, if one considers the ratio of one bicycle per 100 residents - compared to the situation in Paris where already in 2013 there was a bike every 97 residents - we obtain that, for the development of bike sharing in the municipality of Milan, by 2020 a total of 500 stations will be placed 10.000 bicycles, while for 2025 there will be 650 stations for 13.500 bicycles7. The first of the two phases, in 2020, concerns a greater number of stations and bicycles - in absolute values - compared to the final phase to 2025: the advanced hypothesis is in fact to extend the service area significantly already in the first phase and integrate that already served with the increase of the stations, leaving to the final phase the completion of the urbanized territory and any further integration of the existing area. The expansion of the system at these levels will require an economic balance different from the current one, since the sole identification of new advertising space would not be enough to cover the costs. It would be necessary to study new forms of financing that guarantee, for example, sponsorships (entrusted to the manager or obtained from the municipal administration), or management coordinated with the public transport system. 6. source from the registry of the municipality of Milan. 7. according to the website of the Paris bike sharing system. Available at www.velib-metro pole.fr 8. PUMS - Urban plan for sustainable mobility - plan document, (PDF) pp. 239

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The total cost of management and maintenance of the system in 2025, with 650 stations, would be around around 1% of the total cost for local public transport in 2014, which amounted to 720 million euros8. What is written above, represents the foundations for a project proposal that tries to read the present to propose a possible future answer. The territory in which the proposal operates is that of the external ring road of Milan. What is commonly referred to as an outer ring road or circonvallazione, is nothing but a concentric radial road in the historical center of the city, with an average radius of 2,896 meters. It was designed and proposed by the italian engineer Cesare Beruto 1884 and completed in 1889. It represents the first regulatory plan of the city of Milan, which has gone down in history as the Beruto Plan10. The evolutionary process of Milan has been, from the beginning, of a concentric nature. The inner circle of the city dates back to the Middle Ages, commonly called the ‘cerchia dei Navigli', and takes up the layout of the city's medieval walls. The following, now renamed ‘cerchia dei Bastioni' or area C, is due to the Spanish domination in Milan; it dates back to 1548 - 1562, a period in which, for defensive reasons, the Spaniards erected walls with the intention of replacing the old medieval walls of the city. Moreover Cesare Beruto, creator of the third and last circle, was so fascinated by the radial development of Milan during the centuries, probably influenced by the scientific theories of those years that saw in nature a principle of rationality, that spoke of it as follows: ''Of a few other cities it could be said as Milan that the material center is its heart. A single and no-emulsion center, since it is a relatively small city, it obliges the inhabitants to a daily convergence and irradiation movement that gives high vivacity. 9. PUMS - Urban plan for sustainable mobility - plan document, (PDF) pp. 240 10. M. Boriani, A. Rossari, R.Rozzi, 1993, La Milano del Piano Beruto (1884-1889), Società, urbanistica e architettura nella seconda metà dell'Ottocento, Angelo Guerini e Associati, Milano

31


A city with fortified centuries, in some of its streets it maintains the perimeter course of the old walls abandoned in subsequent expansions, therefore also in the annular sense it is suitably disengaged. The plan of our city, on a small scale, has many similarities with the section of a tree; the extensions and the concentric layers are very well noticed. It is a very rational plant that has an example in nature; so we did give it the desired greater extension''11. In summary, that method used by Beruto was that of a concentric expansive method already adopted by the municipality of Milan, previously according to the spontaneous historical stratifications. As argued Giuseppe de Finetti, Milan architect and urbanist of the early twentieth century, the plan of Beruto was wrong in the prediction of population growth and the index of overcrowding; this error can be guessed from the words of Beruto himself, according to whom the 1984 master plan was designed for a city of a few hundred thousand people. It was therefore necessary to prepare a new plan for a city that, towards 1935, would have pleased a number equal to 1,100,000 inhabitants12. The scheme of the new plan, which was approved in 1912 by the engineer Giovanni Masera, from the point of view of the approach adopted, did not differ from that of its predecessor; the plan presented a clear concentric matrix, widening the surface of the inhabited city from 20 sq. km to 44 sq. km. Paradoxically, with every increase in traffic the monometric nature of the city reiterated by the two regulatory plans, determined a greater compression of the core, giving the Milanese inhabitants the impression that the entire road system was close to its saturation limit. What negatively links the regulatory plans examined, is that in them the new road networks appeared as derivative schemes, with a discontinuous pattern, designed quarter by quarter and not equipped with 11. G. De Finetti (edited by G. Cislaghi, M. De Benedetti, P.G. Marabelli), Milano, costruzione di una cittĂ , Hoepli, Milano, 2002 (1969), pp. 198 12. G. De Finetti (edited by G. Cislaghi, M. De Benedetti, P.G. Marabelli), Milano, costruzione di una cittĂ , Hoepli, Milano, 2002 (1969)

32


an address capable of unifying the entire urban body and connecting it to the surrounding region . For this reason it was difficult to conceive new studies and projects of urban transport, given the difficulties of tracing that resulted in economic difficulties. The discomfort in the urban circulation on the surface was one of the main causes that led the city of Milan to have a subway around the year 1926. Currently the external ring road of Milan, represents the limit within which the state roads and the motorway junctions coming from the neighboring provinces and not. Like a large reservoir, the road that forms the ring road, collects all the vehicular flows coming from outside and represents an obligatory passage for those who, conversely, leave the heart of Milan. As a result, the daily traffic flow rate between incoming and outgoing vehicles is considerable; this underlines the role its key role given the monometric character of the city. This artery is located in a strategic position, as it limits access to the historic center and, on the other hand, is the first road that faces the Milan hinterland. Its high attendance by the automobile is demonstrated by the number of gas stations present along its development. In recent years, the introduction of policies that protect the sustainable nature of mobility has seen a sharp decline in service stations in the municipality of Milan. As stated Paolo Uniti, national secretary general of Figisc Confcommercio, if in 2008 in the Milan municipality there were about 450 petrol stations, in June 2018 there are still 300. The introduction of the C area, with all the traffic regulations that involved, saw within it the disappearance of about 70% of service stations13. All this comes under the great design adopted by the municipal administration, which, intent on discouraging the use of the vehicle itself, both with a view to safeguarding the usability of the 13. A.L., 2018, Milano, quelle 150 stazioni di servizio sparite in cittĂ . Available at www. ilgiorno.it

33


historic center, and to protect the health of citizens and tourists, seeks to limit the use of it more and more. The project therefore, in line with the policies adopted by the municipality of Milan, seeks to promote a sustainable strategy, today more and more solid reality, reusing those places that bear an obsolete mobility ideal. The petrol stations, with their aesthetics linked to reproducibility, recognition and functionality, have marked a period from post-war to present. Their versatility has become a symbol in the imagination of people. Their style, unmistakable, is the result of a serial strategy capable of adapting to any place and therefore to none of them. The contradictory nature at the base of their architectural design is the negation of the fundamental principle of architecture: the conditioning of the site in which they arise. The proposal does not intend to turn away from this type of inheritance; the special condition characterizing these elements represents a challenge and a wealth that can dictate the guidelines for a strategy able to collect the indications imposed by the PUMS regarding the creation of spaces dedicated to sharing mobility. The designed buildings stand as pilot projects of a series of interventions aimed at covering the territory of the municipality of Milan in a widespread manner, hosting both the number of electric charging towers and bicycles, planned for 2020 by the administration . The four proposals are located equidistantly along the Milan ring road. The electric car top-ups and the number of bicycles hosted in each new building are calculated both on the basis of a neighborhood density factor and on the commuting rate of the same. On the ground floor of each intervention, depending on the area of each lot, in which a service station lay, services such as bike sharing, mechanics, bars and

34


access to the loading platform of the mechanized parking lot, are provided. In contrast to the self-referential character of service stations, the project tends to develop a sociability based on the area in which it is inserted. According to district analysis, conducted by PUMS, capable of highlighting the lack or exuberance of specific services at a local scale, the project offers itself as an opportunity to also host a function of public utility. In this way, the intervention not only aims to satisfy a growing demand in the ecological field, but at the same time it can become a social reference point for the neighborhood in which it is located.

35


38


PHOTOGRAPHIC INDEX

39


A

40


41


B

42


C

43


D

44


E

45


F

46


G

47


H

48


I

49


J

50


K

51


L

52


53


M

54


N

55


O

56


P

57


Q

58


R

59


S

60


61


T

62


U

63


V

64


W

65


X

66


Y

67


Z

68


69


PLACES AGIP di Piazzale Lotto, cc. 45.480651, 9.143387

A

Q8 di viale Renato Serra, cc. 45.483735, 9.142816 AGIP di viale Monte Ceneri, cc. 45.493347, 9.156155 ESSO di via Giovita Scalvini, cc. 45.498373, 9.167352 AGIP di viale Bodio, cc. 45.497824, 9.167079 TOTALE ERG di viale Bodio, cc. 45.496668, 9.169565 ESSO di viale Jenner, cc. 45.496460, 9.173106 PUMP di viale Jenner, cc. 45.497295, 9.179757 AGIP di viale Jenner, cc. 45.497126, 9.183814 Q8 di viale Marche, cc. 45.496639, 9.191434 TOTAL ERG di viale Marche, cc. 45.495611, 9.195221

B C D E F G H I J K

AGIP di viale Marche, cc 45.495471, 9.195861

L

TAMOIL di viale Lunigiana, cc. 45.490383, 9.206910 TAMOIL di viale Brianza, cc. 45.488936, 9.210408 AGIP di Piazza Trento, cc. 45.446619, 9.202486 Q8 di Viale Liguria, cc. 45.443463, 9.174101 AGIP di Piazza Belfanti, cc. 45.443425, 9.172333 ESSO di Viale Cassala, cc. 45.445323, 9.162381

M N O P Q R

ESSO di viale Liguria, cc. 45.443777, 9.168433

S

Q8 di viale Cassala, cc. 45.445812, 9.159805 Q8 di viale Cassala, cc. 45.454622, 9.152604 AGIP di viale Misurata, cc. 45.454527, 9.152627 Q8 di Piazzale Tripoli, cc. 45.459208, 9.150682 Q8 di viale Bezzi, cc. 45.460772, 9.148953 Q8 di piazzale Brescia, cc. 45.469986, 9.144439

T U V W X Y

AGIP (e di Piazzale Accursio, cc 45.493482, 9.144597

Z

70


71


72


ANALYSIS

73


commuter workers (15-64 years old) living in the municipality of Milan

means of transport used to complete the longest stretch along the way to get to the place of work

21.000 workers 10.5000 collective means 2.100

private vehicles ecological movements

74


commuter workers incoming daily in the municipality of Milan

means of transport used to complete the longest stretch along the way to get to the place of work

train tram subway urban bus extra-urban bus company bus collective means private car (as driver) private car (as passenger) motorcycle, motorbike private vehicle bicycle other means by foot ecological movements

24,0 1,1 11,4 1,8 3,1 0,3 41,8 45,7 4,7 4,8 55,2 1,3 0,3 1,4 3,0

total

100,0

75


78


79


5 6

7

19

18 17 16

4 3

2

1

piazzale Lotto

25

24 23

22

21

0

80

1 km

20

8

9


9 10

11 12

13 14

Lodi T.I.B.B. 15

81


82

1 piazzale 2 viale RenatoLotto Serra

22viale vialeRenato Renato Serra Serra

7 viale jenner 2 viale Renato Serra

8 viale Jenner 2 viale Renato Serra

9 viale Jenner 2 viale Renato Serra

14 viale Brianza 2 viale Renato Serra

15 viale Brianza 2 viale Renato Serra

16 viale Liguria 2 viale Renato Serra

21 viale Cassala 2 viale Renato Serra

viale Misurata 2 22 viale Renato Serra

piazzale 223 viale RenatoTripoli Serra


3 viale Monte Ceneri

4 - 5 viale Bodio

6 viale Bodio

10 viale Marche

11 - 12 viale Marche

13 viale Lunigiana

17 piazza Belfanti

18 viale Liguria

19 - 20 viale Cassala

24 viale Bezzi

25 piazzale Brescia

0

75m

83


84


taxonomy of gas stations

0

50m

85


86


ads sign

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

shelter

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

administr.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

car wash

parking

.

. . . . . . . . . . .

shop

.

others

.

. . . . .

.

. . . . . . . . .

. . .

87


88


sqm. lot

smq. projection

n cars/24h

n employees

owner lot

1

1484

786

700

4

2

1070

212

200

1

3

462

110.5

250

2

4

682.8

175.2

350-450

3

/

5

947.9

281.1

300

2

/

6

516.8

157.4

200-300

2

oil company

7

672.3

178.4

300

3

oil company

8

486.7

211.1

250-350

3

9

331.5

331.5

500-600

4

10

642.8

230.8

300

2

11

940

435.2

450-500

3

oil company

12

1726.8

780.6

500

4

oil company

13

148

6

200

1

/

14

123.6

43

150-200

1

/

15

582

304.2

250

4

oil company

16

1321.3

221.5

500

3

oil company

17

1644.2

700.8

700

5

oil company

18

1536.3

369.2

500-600

4

oil company

19

447.8

160.9

200

3

oil company

20

1524.2

710.2

300

2

/

21

1403.5

470

300-400

3

/

22

557.7

384.6

450-500

3

23

761.2

158.9

200-300

2

24

1731.6

431

300

4

25

220.5

12.8

100-200

1

oil company

/ oil company

/ oil company

/

oil company

/ oil company

/

89


lot one free side

lot two free sides

lot three free sides

lot four free sides

90


1500 mq lotto 375

750

91


4

3 2

1

15

14

0

1 km

13

92

12


5

6

7

8

9

11

10

1 - spexss 11 dir. Vercelli-Novara 2 - ss 33 dir. Gallarate 3 - sp 233 dir. Varese 4 - sp 44 dir. Como 5 - sp 35 dir. Bergamo 6 - ss 36 dir. Monza 7 - spexss 11 dir. Lecco-Begamo 8 - sp103 dir. Bergamo-Brescia 9 - sp 14 dir. Treviglio-Crema 10 - corso Lodi dir. Lodi-Piacenza 11 - sp 412 dir. Genova 12 - sp 35 dir. Pavia 13 - Via Spezia dir. Alessandria 14 - ss 494 dir. Vigevano 15 - Via Novara dir. Novara

93


4

3 2

A

1

D 14

0

94

1 km


6

5

B

C 11

10

1 - spexss 11 dir. Vercelli-Novara 2 - ss 33 dir. Gallarate 3 - sp 233 dir. Varese 4 - sp 44 dir. Como 5 - sp 35 dir. Bergamo 6 - ss 36 dir. Monza 7 - spexss 11 dir. Lecco-Begamo 8 - sp103 dir. Bergamo-Brescia 9 - sp 14 dir. Treviglio-Crema 10 - corso Lodi dir. Lodi-Piacenza 11 - sp 412 dir. Genova 12 - sp 35 dir. Pavia 13 - Via Spezia dir. Alessandria 14 - ss 494 dir. Vigevano 15 - Via Novara dir. Novara

95


A

M

M

M

M

0

96

200m

M


B

M

M

M

M

M

circonferenza raggio 500m fermata bus fermata metropolitana fermata tram postazione biciclette bikeMi

97


C

M

0

98

200m


D

M

circonferenza raggio 500m fermata bus fermata metropolitana fermata tram postazione biciclette bikeMi

99


100


PROGRAM STRATEGY

101


Nuclei di identitĂ locale del comune di Milano 83 82

84

74

75

81

76

14

80

73 72 77

79

12

71 65

78

64

63

70

88

66

62

67

11

69

9

60 59 58

61

51

55

54

2

8

7

56

87

68

57

1

52 50

53

6 44

49 45

43

48 46

42

86 47

41

40

0

102

2,5km

5

37


15 17

16

13

19

2

18 20 10

23

22

21

24 4

25

26

29 28

27

30 31

36

35

33

38

32

85

39

34

01. Duomo 02. Brera 03. Giardini Porta venezia 04. Guastalla 05. vigentina 06. Ticinese 07. Magenta- san vittore 08. Parco sempione 09. Garibaldi-repubblica 10. Centrale 11. Isola 12. Maciachini-Maggiolina 13. Greco 14. niguarda- Cà Granda 15. Bicocca 16. viale Monza 17. Adriano 18. Parco Lambro -Cimiano 19. Padova 20. Loreto 21. Buenos aires-venezia 22. Città studi 23. Lambrate 24. Parco Forlanini-ortica 25. Corsica 26. XXii Marzo 27. Porta romana 28. Umbria Molise 29. Ortomercato 30. Mecenate 31. Parco Monluè 32. Triulzo superiore 33. Rogoredo 34. Chiaravalle 35. Lodi-Corvetto 36. scalo romana 37. ex om Morivione 38. Ripamonti 39. Quintosole 40. Ronchetto delle rane 41. Gratosoglio-Ticinello 42. Stadera 43. Tibaldi 44. navigli

45. San Cristoforo 46. Barona 47. Cantalupa 48. Ronchetto sul naviglio 49. Giambellino 50. Tortona 51. Washington 52. Bande nere 53. Lorenteggio 54. Muggiano 55. Baggio 56. Forze armate 57. Selinunte 58. de angeli-Monte rosa 59. Tre Torri 60. San Siro 61. Quarto Cagnino 62. Quinto romano 63. Figino 64. Trenno 65. Gallaratese 66. QT8 67. Portello 68. Pagano 69. sarpi 70. Ghisolfa 71. Villapizzone 72. Maggiore – Musocco 73. Cascina Triulza-expo 74.Ssacco 75. Stephenson 76. Quarto oggiaro 77. Bovisa 78. Farini 79. Dergano 80. Affori 81. Bovisasca 82. Comasina 83. Bruzzano 84. Parco nord 85. Parco delle abbazie 86. Parco dei navigli 87. Parco agricolo sud 88. Parco Bosco in città

103


Tasso di pendolarismo per NIL nel comune di Milano

0

104

2,5km


90% 86-90% 82-86% 78-82% meno del 78%

105


0

106

2,5km


e-vai recharging point provided by the municipality of Milan bikeMi station 283 total spots for 5.350 bicyles (2017) 107


1.380.000 1.380.000 inhabitants abitanti

9360 torrette totali points 9.360 recharge entro il 2020 within 2020

352.000 352.000 commuter lavoratori pendolari workers

2017 2017

6.973 torrette distribute 6.973 recharge point per tasso abitativo di proportionally distributed ciascun NIL for each NIL

2387 torrette 2.387 recharge point distributite per distributed by tasso di pendolaritĂ commuting rate

25 % 25%

271 per r. points NIL 271 un tot. for di 7 7NIL

20% 20%

un tot.for di 44 1364 1364 per r. point 44NIL NIL

15% 15%

511 un tot. for di 2222 NIL 511 per r. points NIL

10% 10%

170 un tot. for di 11NIL 170 per r. points 11 NIL

5% 5%

69 89 per un tot. for di 9 11 NILNIL r. points

tasso ridistr.

2020 2020

9.36 0 torrette 9.360 recharge points

108


2017 2017

283 bikeMI stations 283 postazioni bikeMi 4.650 4.650

2020

2020 500 bikeMi 500postazioni bikeMI stations 10.000 10.000

109


A De Angeli- Monte Rosa

0

110

500m

expected inhabitants 2020: 20.867 population density (inh/sq km): 15.767 inhabitants 18-65 years old: 10.337 recharge points provided for 2020: 135


B Maciachini - Maggiolina

expected inhabitants 2020: 27.091 population density (inh/sq km): 16.235 inhabitants 18-65 years old: 13.574 recharge points provided for 2020: 166

111


C Porta Romana

0

112

500m

expected inhabitants 2020: 20.867 population density (inh/sq km): 15.767 inhabitants 18-65 years old: 10.337 recharge points provided for 2020: 135


D Giambellino expected inhabitants 2020: 27.091 population density (inh/sq km): 16.235 inhabitants 18-65 years old: 13.574 recharge points provided for 2020: 166

113


114


DESIGN PROCESS

115


0

116

15m

parking for 135 cars


Santa Maria delle Grazie

117


histogram of 135 cars

5x2.5x1.5m

118


piazzale Lotto 119


ground floor typological elements

1

3 2

6

4

120

5


1 bicycle repair shop 2 bike sharing 3 retail / toilets 4 stairs / elevator 5 accueil car sharing 6 mechanic

0

5m

121


components

122


123


124


125


A De Angeli - Monte Rosa 1 piazzale lotto - agip

0

126

20m

existing


area sito: 331.5mq

area sito: 1502mq

0

10m

127


0

128

10m


129


0

130

20m

intervention


0

10m

131


0

132

10m


133


134


0

10m

135


0

136

10m


137


0

138

10m


139


1

2

3

4 5

140


from above to below 1 stabilized mantle 2 bedding screed 3 concrete screed 4 corrugated sheet 5 HEA beam 300mm x 290mm

0

1m

141


142


143


144


145


B Maciachini - Maggiolina 12 viale marche - agip

0

146

20m

existing


area sito: 1739mq

0

10m

147


0

148

10m


149


0

150

20m

intervention


0

10m

151


0

152

10m


153


154


0

10m

155


0

156

10m


157


0

158

10m


159


from above to below

0

160

1m

1 stabilization metal sheet 2 thermal insulation 3 corrugated metal sheet 4 metal tubular 100mm x 100mm 5 plasterboard ceiling


1

2

3

4

5

161


162


163


164


165


C Porta Romana 15 viale brianza - tamoil

0

166

20m

existing


0

10m

167


0

168

10m


169


0

170

20m

intervention


0

10m

171


0

172

10m


173


174


0

10m

175


0

176

10m


177


0

178

10m


179


1 2 3

180

4


from left to right 1 HEA beam 300 mm x 400 mm 2 IPE beam 300 mm x 150 mm 3 metal welded hook 4 prefabricated frame with metal grid

0

1m

181


182


183


184


185


D Giambellino

0

186

20m

existing


0

10m

187


0

188

10m


189


intervention 1.1000

190


0

10m

191


0

192

10m


193


194


0

10m

195


0

196

10m


197


0

198

10m


199


from above to below

0

200

1m

1 HEA beam 300 mm x 400 mm 2 anchor plate 3 mortar layer 4 coach screws 5 anchor bars


1

2

3 4 5

201


202


203


0

204

20m


205


206


207


GREAT MACHINE CABINET  

2018 Master thesis

GREAT MACHINE CABINET  

2018 Master thesis

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