FRANCESCA DEBENEDICTIS PORTFOLIO
Francesca DeBenedictis firstname.lastname@example.org 781.801.2102 27 Burard Street Boston, MA
TABLE OF CONTENTS Maverick Mills....................................................................................................................... 3-10 Bussey Brook........................................................................................................................ 11-18 Gowanus Canal....................................................................................................................19-26 Deer Island............................................................................................................................. 27-30 Construction Documents.............................................................................................. 31-36 DeBenedictis Building..................................................................................................... 37-40
MAVERICK MILLS EAST BOSTON, MA The repurposing of a low lying industrial site in the heart of East Boston into a comprehensive piece of infrastructure to mitigate storm water. This landscape incorporates a series of constructed drumlins to protect against storm surges, while also increasing the amount of permeable surfaces within the area to encourage absorption. Said green spaces accommodate both passive and active recreation that fluctuate in response to inundation levels.
INFRASTRUCTURE + SEA LEVEL RISE
LU EL INE
WITHIN 1 MILE OF MAVERICK MILLS THERE ARE EIGHT OIL TERMINALS WITH AN APPROXIMATE CAPACITY OF OVER 226 MILLION GALLONS
CHELSEA A SE EL E CH IDG BR
R iv e r
Sea Level 2100 Flight Patterns Rail Lines *AutoCAD, Illustrator, Photoshop
DRUMLINS OF BOSTON HARBOR NATURALFORMS in relation to storm surge 30’
5’ BOSTON INNER HARBOR
BOSTON HARBOR ISLANDS
2’ Contour 1860 Shoreline *AutoCAD, Illustrator, Photoshop
7 2050 7’
By excavating to the water’s edge the remaining soil can be used to elevate the on site buildings to protect against sea level rise, as well as construct various landforms to emulate the Boston Harbor Islands that mitigate against storm surge. Softening the edge allows for more innundation and creates active landscapes that can accomodate a variety of programs, while promoting new opportunities for unique vegetation across the site.
(2’ SLR +5’ STORM SURGE)
CUT & FILL
2050 7’ (2’ SLR +5’ STORM SURGE)
2050 7’ (2’ SLR +5’ STORM SURGE)
*Laser cut model, Photoshop
Wetland Drumlin Field
Sea Level Rise Education Center
DESIGNATED VS. PASSIVE CIRCULATION
Maverick Mills is a blend of commercial, residential and infrstructural practices within the same site. While the lower level of the landscape varies in access depending on weather and time, the elevated circulation allows for continual experience of the site, despite inundation events.
CONSTRUCTED HYDROLOGY & DRUMLINS WATER MOVEMENT
*AutoCAD, Illustrator, Photoshop
WATER + SEA LEVEL RISE
LOW TIDE 1’
HIGH TIDE 10’
HIGH TIDE 10’ + SLR 2’ + STORM SURGE 5’
*AutoCAD, Illustrator, Photoshop
Commercial Retail:16,000 sf Office: 8,000 sf Commercial Retail:14,000 sf
Commercial Retail: 7,000 sf Office: 14,000 sf Residential 14,000 sf
Commercial Retail:10,000 sf Office: 10,000 sf Residential 20,000 sf
Commercial Office: 17,000 sf Residential 42,500 sf
Residential 91,000 sf Parking 26,000 sf
Commercial Residential: 8,500 sf Office: 8,500 sf Residential 17,000 sf
Commcercial Retail: 7,500 sf Office: 7,500 sf Residential 22,500 sf
Commercial Retail: 6,500 sf OfficeL 6,500 sf Residential 30,000 sf
+18.5 + 19.5 + 18.5 + 22.5 + 14.5 + 18.5 + 13.5 + 7.5 + 11.5 + 3.5 + 16.5 +17.5 + 7.5 + 14.5 + 7.5
+ 16.5 + 13.5 + 3.5
*AutoCAD, Illustrator *Rhino, Illustrator
Commercial Office: 13,500 sf Residential 67,500 sf Parking 27,000 sf
BUSSEY BROOK MEADOW ARNOLD ARBORETUM BOSTON, MA The transformation of Bussey Brook Meadow through the utilization of the existing processes, such as storing floodwater, producing oxygen, and filtering storm water runoff. Harnessing the hydrological flows of Brook Meadow exclusively through topography manipulation will encourage natural infiltration, organic plant growth, and remediation.
CHARCOAL PERSPECTIVE A recreation of Bussey Brook to visually communicate the atmosphere, textures and movement of nature.
*Charcoal on watercolor
Section demonstrating the responses of vegetation to topography changes above and below ground.
*Graphite on watercolor
SEQUENTIAL PLOT reconstructed transect
scale: 1/32” = 1’-0”
HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF BUSSEY BROOK 60’
Blackwell Foot Path
Surface Water Flow The low elevation of the Bussey Brook directs surface water towards the meadow, occasionally resulting in spring floods.
Bussey Brook Culvert MBTA
Bacteria Sedges Rushes Grasses
Bussey Brook Arboretum Entrance
Water Pollution Levels of dissolved zinc and copper consistently exceed the applicable water quality criteria in seventy percent of the samples taken by the BWSC from Bussey Brook. The samples also revealed concentrations of E. coli and fecal coliform bacteria within the brook and storm water runoff. The sedges, rushes and grasses located within the meadow indicate the high degree of pollution, as they are first responders in a disturbed wetland.
Amt. of Precipitation (in.)
0-2 in/mo 5
1 Time (mo.)
As precipitation events vary seasonally, each Spring Bussey Brook floods into the meadow. This innundation of water provides a unique habitat for migratory birds and other wildlife. Bussey Brook meadow is ideal for floods due to the low-lying nature of the site, which results in constant ground saturation. Thus water cannot run off quickly enough to stop accumulation.
POLLUTION [matrix] INDIVIDUAL WASTE Neighborhood Trash Illicit Activity Remnants Pedestrians
INDUSTRIAL WASTE Construction Dumping Landfill GROUND WATER Sewage Infiltration/CSO SURFACE WATER RUNOFF 1-2 in./mo Stormwater Runoff 3-4 in./mo Bussey Brook Culvert 5+ in./mo MBTA Runoff Storage HIGH - LOW Interferes with Wildlife Non-Biodegradable (years) Noise (decibles) Prevents Safe Human Interaction
PREVENTS SAFE HUMAN INTERACTION Drugs Alcohol Glass
Commuters MBTA Walkers/Joggers Residents Bikes Homeless
NON-BIODEGRADABLE Broken Bottles Metal Concrete Asphalt Pet Waste Fertilizers Grease Oil Paper Textiles Rubber/ Tires Household Trash Leather Plastic
INTERFERES WITH WILDLIFE Bacteria Stumps Walls Bricks Food Wate Building Components Wood Fences
ON SITE CONTAMINANTS
The combination of first responder plants and various forms of litter made it abundantly clear that there is a significant amount of pollution throughout the site. This lead me to create a catalog of the contaminants to better help inform my design strategy. Controlling the hydrological flows, as well as points of access to the site would manage the amount of pollution within Bussey Brook meadow.
*Lasercut 1/8â€? Cardboard
This design utilizes a series of strategic pleats that exaggerate the existing topography to direct water flow and infiltration. Intercepting surface water flows and re-mediating pollutants prior to being carried into the meadow.
*AutoCAD, Illustrator, Photoshop
The undulating surface encourages a variety of plant growth, in correspondence to inundation and salinity levels. The reimagined meadow would emulate the functionality of a retention basin, while incorporating qualities of remediation and aesthetic attributes.
*AutoCAD, Rhino, Photoshop
THE GOWANUS CANAL RED HOOK, BROOKLYN, NEW YORK The softening of Red Hookâ€™s edge conditions incorporates protection for energy related infrastructure against sea level rise and climate change. Implementing a theoretical surface structure, derived from a multiscalar investigation of infrastructural failures will help negate these adverse consequences.
CASCADING FAILURES Multi-Scalar Reconnaisssance
To understand the infrastructural systems of New York, I first had to understand the larger systems which they are part of. Through the investigation of three case studies, the BP Oil Spill, Northeast Blackout of 2003 and Hurricane Sandy, I was able to interpret the vulnerablilites of liquid fuels, electricity and natural gas. It is not until after disater strikes that the weaknesses within our infrastructure become apparent.
Expansive Contamination BP OIL SPILL
days million gallons
Oil Refinery Capacity
square miles affected
thousand barrels per day
million people affected
110 - 250 50 - 110 less than 50 basins plays Ogallala Aquifer BP Oil Spill Major Oil Pipelines North American Freight Railroads
Vulnerable Power Grid
NORTHEAST BLACKOUT OF 2003
MOVEMENT OF ENERGY
2680 50 6
This image represents the movement of energy visble to the naked eye. Each square is a subsequent freeze from a video capturing smoke flowing from a smoke stack along the Gowanus Canal. The first square is the earliest part of the video with the last square capturing the scene one minute later.
Interconnected flows of energy Regions impacted
minutes for system shutdown days without power power plants shut down square miles affected million people affected billion dollars
Rochester Buffalo New York City
Fragile Coastal Resilience HURRICANE SANDY
9 90 3 820 65 68
days without power mph winds nuclear reactors shutdown square miles affected million people affected billion dollars
1 in. of precipitation 3 in. of precipitation 7 in. of precipitation
BP Oil Spill (2010) Hurricane Sandy (2013) Northeast Blackout (2003)
CASCADING FAILURES Vulnerabilities of New York City
sprawl 75 days 9 days 2 days
21 mil 65 mil 50 mil
40,000 sq.mi. 820 sq.mi. 2,680 sq.mi.
Temperature Rise in New York City Temperature (ËšF)
85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45
Each large scale disaster can be seen reflected within New York City. During Hurricane Sandy almost all energy related infrastructure was affected on both micro and macro scales. The complex interconnections of our decentralized energy systems are only going to become more vulnerable as natural disasters and storm surges become stronger and more frequent.
barrelsâ€” about 7% of the nation's capacity
oil spills & leaks gas stations
500 year flood plain waterways
while 94% of capacity
Buckeye and Colonial pipelines supply Pipelines shut down for one week due to saftey 825,000 barrels per day concerns 600,000 barrels per day of product
217,000 barrels per day of product
Current utilities cannot handle the exponential demand for electricity during the predicted environmental changes.
of New Yorks generating systems are within the 100 year flood plain.
Current climate change has increased the probablility of stronger and more frequent storms.
August Tropical Storm Hurricane 2013
68 bil 6 bil
Adaptable Edge Condition
Vegetation Hard Infrastructure
Basins Wet Meadow
Pools Basins BACK
SURFACE TYPOLOGY This prototypical surface typology works to restore the Gowanus Canal and protect the surrounding areas against sea level rise. The various ridges and depressions encourage the emergence of both upland and riparian ecologies.
*Rhino, AutoCAD, Illustrator
DEER ISLANDâ€™S FORGOTTEN PAST DEER ISLAND BOSTON, MA Creating a social demonstration highlighting the landscape inequalities and injustices to shed light on the tragic history and marginalized populations that Deer Island has witnessed over the past 300 years. Achieved through the implementation of updated signage and satirical pamphlets.
UPDATED SIGNAGE Boston Established Deer Island named Animal Pound Built
Native American Internment Camp
Irish Immigrant Quarantine Hospital Almshouse Established House of Industry
House of Corrections Established
Revealing Deer Island’s Forgotten Pasts
Lying in the distance of Boston’s Harbor is a model of exemplary environmental protection and stewardship; Deer Island houses the second largest wastewater treatment facility in the United States. Despite the necessary ecological service that it has provided the region for ever 300 years, this landscape witnessed a deep and complicated history of tragedy that is no longer visible. Many marginalized populations and institutions inhabited Deer Island’s shores, each leveling the one before it. Our goal with this demonstration is to reveal the stories of injustice that have long been isolated and buried by redevelopment.
Native American Internment Camp 1675-1676
Prior to King Philip’s War, many Native Americans converted to Christianity and followed the zealous Congregationalist minister from Roxbury named John Elliot. Despite their pledge to Christianity, colonists were skeptical of the loyalty of newly converted Native Americans. On October 13, 1675, approximately 500 converted Nipmucks were forced to make the 30-mile journey from their homes in South Natick to internment camps located on Deer Island. Without proper shelter, food, clothing, and medicine on this barren island, the Indians fell susceptible to starvation and disease, culminating in the deaths of more than half of the population within mere months. Additionally, slavers often came to the island to steal Native Americans to be sold into human trafficking in both Barbados and Jamaica. After being eventually released, the majority of the surviving Indians were too sick to appreciate their freedom. Today, indigenous Wampanoag’s participate in a Sacred Paddle down the Charles River to the Boston Harbor Islands in traditional mishoons (canoes) made using ancient tools and techniques. The 30-mile journey is meant to commemorate their ancestors’ sacrifices during King Philip’s War.
*Illustrator & Photoshop
Steam-driven Sewage Pump Constructed Addition of Hill Prison Metropolitan District Commision
Hurricane fills narrow channel to Winthrop Fort Dawes Constructed
MDC’s Deer Island Plant for treatment of wastewater Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Phase I of Treatment Plant Completed
Waste Water Treatment Facility Opens
3 Native Americans hanged, sparking the need for rebellion The first Wampanoag attack on Swansea
June 1675 July 1675
New England Confederation declares war on the Indians The Battle of Bloody Brook
Sept. 1675 Sept. 1675
Great Swamp Fight
Attack on Plymouth Plantation Nine Men’s Misery Providence Destroyed
Mar. 1676 Mar. 1676 Mar. 1676
Natives defeated in Marlborough, allies begin to desert war
King Philip killed
Sir Edmund Andros negotiates treaty with Native Americans
Native American Internment Camp
UPDATED SIGNAGE Irish Famine begins
Irish Famine & Quarantine Hospital 1847-1849
Deer Island Quarantine Hospital Typhus outbreak
For more than 150 years, the island was left untouched until 1847, when 25,000 Irish immigrants fled the Great Famine only to end up on the shores of Boston, facing yet another tragic fate. On their journey to the Americas, thousands were plagued by “ship fever” a form of Typhus. Fearing an epidemic, the city of Boston erected a medical building to quarantine the infected immigrants on Deer Island. In just two years, the Deer Island Quarantine Hospital and Almshouse serviced nearly 5,000 people. For many suffering from illness, this was the first and last site in America people would see. Approximately sixteen percent of patients on the island died and were buried in the Rest Haven Cemetery, once located on the island. Even before the English settlers were able to fully grasp the severity of health risks brought on by the famine immigrants, the Irish were not welcome due to their beliefs in Catholicism. Those who made it into the city of Boston were forced to live in conditions no better than the ships they came on, further perpetuating illness and disease.
Deer Island Almshouse
Almshouse becomes the House of Industry
Deer Island House of Industry Frank Leslie’s Sunday Magazine Article
Apr. 1880 May 1884
All prisoners from South Boston transferred to Deer Island
The almshouse was converted into a juvenile detention center where both boys and girls could learn discipline through farm work and agriculture. The name then changed unofficially to the House of Industry. Eventually, in 1880, the island was yet again repurposed to house Deer Island Prison, also known as Deer Island House of Industry, ironically in remembrance to the almshouse and its supposed penal character. Majority of the prisoners were sentenced to short term convictions, for crimes such as drunkenness, drug possession, disorderly conduct, larceny and more. Again the prison underwent another name change in 1896 to the House of Corrections. In the early 1900s, physicians conducted a series of clinical tests on volunteers at the prison in an attempt to create a vaccine to prevent the flu. It wasn’t until 1991 that the 1,500 prisoners were transferred to South Boston and the building demolished to make way for the new wastewater facility.
Deer Island Almshouse & Prison *Illustrator & Photoshop
BHI CRUISE INSPIRED PAMPHLET
Using satire to generate interest and encourage new visitors to explore Deer Island.
THINGS TO DO SUMMER 2016
Sewage Kayaking (times vary) Calling all thrill seekers! Join our staff for a short paddle in the Massachusetts Bay Outfall tunnel. First come ﬁrst served (excluding all rain events). Kids Crafts (11 AM) Potato themed crafts for kids 12 and under.
Prison Bootcamp (6 AM) Come get ripped and join us for our prison inspired workouts.
Scary Stories Campﬁre (8PM) Get spooked! Listen to terrifying tales of tortured souls, while sitting atop the old Irish Graveyard.
DEER ISLAND SEE BOSTON FROM THE SEA
Deer Island Detectives (10 AM) The Nipmuck memorial is no where to be found! Can you solve the mystery? Kids and adults welcome.
Potato Sack Race (12 PM) Partner up and try your hand (or legs) at this potato sack race around the island.
Digester Climb (11 AM) Climb to the summit of Deer Island every third Sunday of each month and see Boston from new heights. Native American Arts & Music Festival (12PM) Come experience art and music showcases from local Native Americans every ﬁrst Sunday of the month.
EXPERIENCE THIS HISTORICAL LANDMARK THE SAME WAY
OUR ANCESTORS DID.
EASY TO GET HERE WICKED AUTHENTIC! ACTUALLY SOME OF YOU ARE ALREADY HERE, LOOK FOR THE 10-FOOT WHALE ATOP OUR TICKET CENTER.
Boston Harbor Cruises and the New England Aquarium are located on Boston’s Long and Central Wharves, one block away from Faneuil Hall and are easily reachable by public transport, car or on foot
Beat the lines and order tickets online or from your smartphone at deerislandcruises.com. Or call toll-free at 1-877-SEE-DEER for reservations. Or visit our Ticket Centers on Long Central Wharf in Boston. Be sure to check out our new signage all around Deer Island! Now featuring more information about the island’s forgotten history.
Not presented by
BHC ALSO OFFERS THESE CRUISES:
WHALE WATCHES • CAPE COD FAST FERRY • HARBOR CRUISES CODZILLA • HARBOR ISLANDS • SALEM FAST FERRY
BOSTON HARBOR CRUISES
877 SEE DEER
BOSTON HARBOR CRUISES
877 SEE DEER
2 YEAR CRUISE
4 HOUR CRUISE
11 MONTH CRUISE
WASTE WATCHING CRUISE
ADULTS: $27.95 SENIORS: $25.95 CHILDREN, AGES 3-11: $23.95 medical bills not included *
CRUISE OF CORRECTIONS
You have the right to remain silent! You’ve just commited a misdemeanor which means you’ll be sentenced to a short term conviction at the Deer Island House of Corrections. Famous inmates include Luigi Galleani and Mark Wahlberg.
WEEKENDS & HOLIDAYS Every hour on the hour
ADULTS: $20.95 SENIORS: $18.95 3 TO 6 MONTH CRUISE
JUNE 20 - SEPTEMBER 6 Daily at 8 AM (Except during rain events)
ADULTS: $37.95 SENIORS: $35.95 CHILDREN, AGES 3-11: $33.95
Always on the hunt for a genuine Native American experience? Look no further, Boston’s Winter Cruise has you covered (sorta)! Climb aboard traditional mishoonash and paddle 30 miles to Deer Island. There you will be left to fend for yourselves without proper shelter, food and clothing in the dead of winter. As you battle disease and starvation, don’t forget to watch your back: slavers could come at any moment to steal you away!
OCTOBER 13 - AUGUST 12 Boarding begins at 4 AM (Return not guaranteed)
ADULTS: $26.95 SENIORS: $24.95 CHILDREN, AGES 3-11: $22.95
JULY 12 - AUGUST 28 Mondays -11 AM and 3 PM (Inbound and oubound passages two years apart)
Ever wonder what happens when you flush a toilet in Massachusetts? On this four hour cruise you will explore the answer to that. We will take you deep beneath the ocean floor into the bowels of the Massachusetts Bay Outfall. Our aquatic humvees feature convertible roofs for optimum viewing, state of the art sound systems and unlimited air fresheners at your disposal. They say the sense most closely linked to memory is smell, which makes this cruise unforgettable!
Welcome to America! You and your family have just fled Ireland due to the Great Potato Famine. On this cruise, you will board a traditional Black 47, given the nickname “coffin ship” due to its cramped quarters and frequent Typhus-related deaths. Experience a historically accurate medical screening and quarantine. Will you survive “ship fever?”
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION Series of constructions drawings for a residential home.
50â€™ Wetland Buffer
99.25 TS 98.5 BS 98.5
TR 99.25 98.5 BR
d oo k W ec D ce
Driveway - Bituminous Concrete
Wood Deck and Ramp Ipe
Pool Terrace - Pourous Asphalt
Granite Cut Stone Curb
Stairs - CIP Concrete
d oo p W am R
FDESIGN NEU URBAN LANDSCAPE PROGRAM LARC2240
n de ar G of Ro
50â€™ Wetland Buffer
TOP COURSE BASE COURSE (ASPHALT)
DENSE GRADED CRUSHED STONE PREPARED SUBGRADE
1. BITUMINOUS CONCRETE HEAVY DUTY
18” GRANITE CUT STONE CURB 6” WIDTH 3” PVC PIPE
12’ BITUMINOUS CONCRETE DRIVEWAY
2. CUT STONE CURB WITH DRAINAGE PIPE
WATERLINE SEED AND SOD
APPROVED TOPSOIL PREPARED SUBGRADE
All rights Northeast
500 Sa Westw
REV. N 0
3. GRASS SWALE
DECKING 2x6 PT IPE
POST BASE CONNECTOR WITH MOISTURE SEALANT 1’-0”
CONCRETE SONOTUBE PIER (10” DIAMETER)
1. IPE WOOD DECK DECKING 2x6 PT IPE
2”X12” STRINGER 16” O.C. FOR 1” TREAD 24” O.C. FOR 2” TREAD METAL BRACKET
POST BASE CONNECTOR METAL BRACKET CONRETE SONOTUBE PIER (10” DIAMETER) REINFORCED CONCRETE DENSE GRATED CRUSHED STONE POROUS ASPHALT SURACE COURSE AGGREGATE SUBBASE PREPARED SUBGRADE
2. IPE WOOD DECK
All rights reserv Northeastern U
500 Sandy Westwood REV. NO. 0
SEE DRIVEWAY DETAIL
1” 3” 1”
6” CUT GRANITE STONE CURB 2X4 PT IPE WOOD DECKING ON PT WOOD JOIST, SECURED W/ STAINLESS STEEL FASTNERS SAND SETTING BED METAL JOIST FLANGE PT WOOD RAMP FOOT SECURED DENSE GRADED CRUSHED STONE PREPARED SUBGRADE
4. IPE RAMP FLUSH WITH PAVEMENT
CARRIAGE BOLT BLOCKING AS REQUIRED PT JOIST
2x4 PT IPE WOOD DECK
LEDGER SECURED WITH LAG BOLT BEAM
All rights reserv Northeastern Un
500 Sandy Westwood REV. NO. 0
4. IPE RAMP LANDING SECTION
DEBENEDICTIS BUILDING SHERBORN, MA Construction drawings for a newly built home and rennovated 200 year old barn located on over 100 acres in Sherborn, Massachusetts.
6” STONE SHELF
LVL BEAM LVL BEAM
1ST FLOOR FRAMING
36” X 36” FOOTNG FOR STONE PIER
8’ -0” X 8’-0” FOOTING FOR FIREPLACE