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The Fram Centre is the short name for FRAM - High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment.

The Fram Centre is an important arena nationally as well as internationally, and contributes with inputs on climate-related issues.


OUR RESEARCH Flagship research programmes Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, technology and agreements Effects of climate change on sea and coastal ecology in the north Ocean acidification and ecosystems effects in Northern waters Effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosys tems, landscapes, society and indigenous peoples Hazardous substances – effects on ecosystems and human health Environmental impact of industrial development in the north (MIKON)

Printer Lundblad Media AS

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Layout TANK Design AS www.tank.no

Akvaplan-niva CICERO - Centre for International Climate Environmental Research Oslo Institute of Marine Research National Coastal Administration National Veterinary Institute NGU - The Geological Survey of Norway NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research NINA - Norwegian Institute for Nature Research NIKU - Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research Nofima - The Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research NORUT - Northern Research Institute Norwegian Meteorological Institute Norwegian Polar Institute Norwegian Insatitute for Bieconomy Research Norwegian Institute for Water Research Norwegian Mapping Authority Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority Norwegian University of Life Sciences SINTEF Group UNIS - The University Centre in Svalbard UiT - The Arctic University of Norway Associated member: Polaria

Cover photo Frode T. Stefanussen

We contribute to Norway’s sound management of the environment and natural resources in the north – and we aim at excellence in said management. With scientific research as our foundation, we communicate knowledge to management authorities, the business communities and the general public.

Project leader and editor Helge M. Markusson helge.markusson@ framsenteret.no

The Fram Centre is based in Tromsø, and consists of scientists from 20 institutions involved in interdisciplinary research and outreach in the fields of natural science, technology and social sciences.

Fram Forum Conference edition 2017 Publisher: FRAM – High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment

About the Fram Centre



Fram Centre side events at Arctic Frontiers 2017

Regulating Arctic Collaborating Shipping: Political, opportunities in legal, technological the Fram Centre and environmental Challenges

Adaptive long-term research in the face of the climate change

Monday January 23rd 2017

Tuesday January 24th 2017

Thursday January 26th 2017

14:45 – 15:25 at UiT

16.15 – 16.45 at The Edge hotel

12:15 – 12:45 at UiT

The prospect of regular international shipping through Arctic waters is probably the most topical issue at the moment. The retreat of the sea ice provides for shorter routes between Europe and Asia and for transport of resources etc to/from the region. Get an update of the big picture by professor Tore Henriksen, UiT The Arctic University of Norway.

The Fram Centre is the short name for FRAM - High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment. We consists of scientists from 20 institutions involved in interdisciplinary research and outreach in the fields of natural science, technology and social sciences. How to collaborate and get the opportunities of getting funding from us. Presented by Director Frode Kjersem and Research coordinator Jo Jorem Aarseth, The Fram Centre.

The Arctic Tundra is predicted to be more challenged by climate change than any other terrestrial biome. The rapid shift to new climate regimes is likely to give rise to new ecosystems with unknown properties, making science unable to accurately predict the consequences. These realizations have led to international calls for action. COAT (Climate ecological Observatory for Arctic Tundra) is the response of the Fram Centre to these calls. Get insight from professor Rolf A. Ims, The Arctic University of Norway/The Fram Centre.




The flying whale Picture of the year 2015 Five years ago the herring changed its migration route along the coast of northern Norway. In November, masses of herring now gather in the outer fjords of Kvaløya, the island just west of Tromsø. This bounty naturally attracts fishing boats, but also many humpback whales, orcas, and fin whales. The whales, in turn, attract human spectators, delighted to have an opportunity to see these huge mammals just a stone’s throw from town. The first weekends after the whales arrived in November 2014, so many people wanted to see the spectacle that there were traffic jams on the roads.

In mid-November, I set out in a boat with two other nature photographers to try to capture the drama. With less than a week remaining until the sun went down for good, leaving only winter twilight, the light we had at our disposal was dim and the day was short. We had been out for a couple hours, and I was only mildly pleased with the pictures I’d taken, but we had to head for home. Near the village on Vengsøya we came across several humpback whales close to shore and decided to try to take photos of them. After we arrived, nothing happened for quite some time, but I kept my camera ready. Suddenly one of the humpbacks jumped straight out of the water a few dozen metres from our boat. Patience and quick reflexes paid off and I caught the gigantic leap on my camera. But it wasn’t until I arrived home and downloaded the images that I realised I had captured a truly exceptional moment.

Text and photo: Karl-Otto Jacobsen Norwegian Institute for Nature Research




Åshild Ø. Pedersen // Norwegian Polar Institute Audun Stien // NINA – Norwegian Institute for Nature Research Eeva Soininen and Rolf A. Ims // UiT The Arctic University of Norway

Climate-Ecological Observatory for Arctic Tundra The arctic tundra is challenged by climate change – more so than most other ecosystems on Earth. The rapid shifts to new climate regimes may give rise to new ecosystems with unknown properties. These dramatic changes call for ecosystem-based monitoring of climate impacts on arctic food webs.


he Climate-Ecological Observatory for Arctic Tundra (COAT) is a response from five Fram Centre institutions to the urgent international calls for establishment of scientifically robust observation systems that enable real time detection, documentation and understanding of climate impacts on arctic tundra ecosystems. ECOSYSTEM-BASED OBSERVATORY COAT is a system for long-term research on arctic terrestrial ecosystems. It uses a food-web approach, which combines research at the very forefront of climateecological science with management according to long-term adaptive protocols. Two Norwegian Arctic regions are in focus — the Low-Arctic Varanger

Peninsula and the High-Arctic Svalbard — that harbour vast stretches of pristine wilderness with intact ecosystem functions and endemic biodiversity of great fundamental and societal significance. In a circumpolar perspective, these two regions provide pertinent contrasts in system complexity, climate and management regimes. COAT builds on and expands the ongoing research and long-term monitoring in both places. “COAT Infrastructure” is essential for “COAT Science” — the long-term research program facilitated by the infrastructure. The long-term scientific endeavour will be fully operative in 2020. Further reading: Fram Forum 2016


Placing a photo box in the field. Photo: Leif Einar Støveren, UiT The Arctic University of Norway

Making field observations on a sunny summer day. Photo: Kari-Anne Bråthen, UiT The Arctic University of Norway



In the ice Picture of the year 2016

After spending five weeks aboard the Research Vessel Lance with the N-ICE project, my colleague Andy Isaacsson and I were returning to Longyearbyen. The helicopter pilot offered to circle the ship and open the doors so I could shoot some photographs. I sat on the edge of the helicopter with the wind pushing my camera into my face and my eyes full of water. I was able to get just a few frames before the mist encircled the ship and obscured it from view. The picture shows Lance “moored” to the edge of an ice floe, with ropes running from the ship to stakes in the ice. If you look very carefully, you may spot a member of the science team, JeanCharles Gallet, working on the ice a few hundred metres away from the vessel. He’s in a “snow pit” taking samples for detailed analysis of snow crystals as part of his work on the snow cover of sea ice. Text and photo: Nick Cobbing






Ole Magnus Rapp text and photo

The man with the golden Canon Professor Audun Rikardsen combines cutting edge expertise as a fish biologist with a keen interest in outreach activities. Not only that, his photographic talents have swiftly earned him a place among the ranks of elite wildlife photographers.


is unique photographs of fish, seals, eagles and whales have attracted attention the world over, and some of his images are on display in the reception at the Fram Centre. Now his research findings on the migration of wild salmon are being published internationally, and he can watch humpbacks and killer whales from the verandah of his home at Skulsfjorden on an almost daily basis. His photographs are used in the media, and he often employs them to spread knowledge, for example about how the migration patterns of herring change over time and how this affects the whales that follow them. The professor stresses how privileged we are in Tromsø, having things like the world’s largest accumulation of whales right on our doorstep during the long polar night. A unique situation for fishermen, the tourist industry, city residents and researchers. Most of his research has probed salmon migration in rivers and oceans. But the principles and the theories about why and how animals migrate are often the

same, even if those animals differ in size, from tiny salmon fry swimming in the river to the gigantic whales that gather in the sea off Tromsø in the long polar night. The methods used to map the animals’ migration are also often the same. Rikardsen’s research on anadromous fish and where salmon migrate in the great oceans when they leave their home rivers has cast new light on a species that is considered one of the world’s most intensively studied. “Look here,” he says. “Most of the salmon from Norwegian and European rivers go north. We find them near Svalbard as far as 80 degrees north and all the way east to Novaja Zemlya. This is largely contrary to previous knowledge and the belief that salmon mainly stayed in the southern waters of the North Atlantic, scarcely at all in the Barents Sea.” He points enthusiastically at a map plotting the salmon’s migration route from the Alta River. He likes trying to take “impossible photos”, and the one he wins prizes for in major international photography com-

petitions are often those that demanded a great deal of planning, creativity, knowledge and, not least, time. He often combines field work with photography, taking well-planned images that are brilliant both technically and subject-wise. With his hectic work schedule, he tries to combine activities, perhaps providing online instruction for students back at the University while sitting on the seashore, observing and photographing walrus visitors to Tromsø. Much-photographed killer whales and humpbacks are also outfitted with electronic tracking equipment in the service of scientific research. At the same time, he takes photos to document the research or as part of the research itself. Photo: “A good image is like good research: it takes a lot of patience, planning and creativity,” says the photographer and research professor. Further reading: Profile article, Fram Forum 2016, page 6 - 9



Ole Magnus Rapp text and photo

Reindeer rover Åshild Ønvik Pedersen, researcher at the Norwegian Polar Institute, enjoys good old-fashioned fieldwork. A long working day in Svalbard can entail 40 kilometres on foot with binoculars and a notebook. She observes the reindeer herds, checks if they’re doing alright, and looks to see what they’re eating. Based on fixed rules, she then determines herd size.


hen an unpredictable climate brings a mild spell in winter, and the grazing areas freeze over, her animals face a hard time. But that’s just part of life in the Arctic: survival of the fattest. Everything is connected to everything else. A reindeer’s most important task in a bad year is to die, so the arctic fox can find an edible cadaver and produce lots of puppies. “And an arctic fox with lots of puppies needs lots of food, and will feast on birds and the eggs in their nests on the ground. So what happens to the animals and the climate in winter has impact on the next summer’s production of eggs and chicks on the tundra. And so life goes on,” she explains.

“Life is all about being outdoors,” says Åshild. From her office window she can see bare mountains to the north, and her thoughts wander happily away from impressive ring binders with titles such as “Ptarmigan habitat models” and thick folders that only those with a PhD in ecology would understand. She sees our quizzical look and is happy to explain. “For a long time researchers only concerned themselves with individuals. In the ocean we studied cod, in the mountains, ptarmigan, on the ice, the polar bear. Now I look at everything, and look for connections. It’s called ecosystem thinking. Using it, researchers can provide administrators with a better tool for protecting nature.”

Climate and global warming also have an impact on the research. Changes are noticed first in the north. Monitoring is becoming more and more urgent now that spring comes earlier than ever and long periods of mild weather occur in an otherwise stable, ice-cold winter. “Svalbard provides opportunities for research in an ecosystem that’s easy to get a good overview of. Much of what we discover here about cause and effect can be important both nationally and internationally,” she says. Further reading: Profile article, Fram Forum 2013, page 6 - 9




What’s out there People boating around Svalbard often encounter bearded seals on drifting ice. These large sea mammals are named for their magnificent whiskers, which tend to curl as they dry. Bearded seals are easy to spot where they lie basking in the sun, and since they are also relatively unafraid, it is possible to admire them from a respectful distance. Many other seals take to the sea at the first sign of humans. Bearded seals hauled out on ice floes will keep a wary eye on intruders, but they appear reluctant to go back into the icy water. Some bearded seals have red fur on their faces. These are individuals that feed on clams, crabs and other small prey in the soft sediment of the seafloor. Iron compounds in the sediment stick to the seal’s fur and rust when exposed to air, making the seal a redhead. The seal in this picture apparently prefers other types of food. And judging from the curl of its whiskers, it has been out of the water for some time. Photo: Audun Rikardsen




Trude Haugseth Moe UiT The Arctic University of Norway

SOS from the Arctic What happens if a ship loaded with toxic chemicals founders in the Arctic during the dark months of the polar night? What about the crew? And the ecosystem? This was the starting point for a major research project about shipping in the Arctic.


n brief, the answer is that there is a high risk that human lives will be lost – and that it is untrue that there is very little biological activity in the Arctic during the dark months. In fact, many species really thrive also in moonlight and under the northern lights – and this means that nature is vulnerable all year round, even during the polar night. FOUNDERING IN THE ARCTIC Imagine that it is November; we are in the dark months and it is bitterly cold in the Arctic. The Oleum, a freighter from Hamburg, is on its way towards the Kara Sea near Novaja Zemlya. The cargo consists of chemicals, a delivery for an oil platform in Siberia. In the middle of the bitterly cold polar night, the winds increase in strength, the waves become huge and the Oleum rolls and pitches perilously. Sudden the engine stops. In despair, the captain realises that they are unable to cast anchor because there is a thick layer of ice over the anchor winch. The ship drifts helplessly towards land and founders.



Northern waters seen from the deck of RV G.O. Sars, operated by the Institute of Marine Research and the University of Bergen. Photo: Kjartan MĂŚstad



What happens to the crew? And what about the toxic cargo and the fuel that will soon be on its way to the bottom of the ocean? How will this affect the ecosystem all the way down there in the deep, dark seas? MELTED ARCTIC ICE MEANS NEW TRAFFIC This fictitious scenario formed the starting point for the major cross-disciplinary research project called ‘A-lex’, which addresses the political, legal, environmental and technological challenges connected with a completely new type of shipping in the Arctic. The background for the project was that over recent years the Arctic sea ice has melted so much that the Northeast Passage is now open for shipping. Today it is possible – for parts of the year – to sail between Asia and Europe via the Arctic. A-lex is a collaboration project between the Fram Centre, the Faculties of Law and of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education at UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Marintek and Akvaplan-niva. After four years, the project has now officially ended. HIGH RISK OF LOSS OF HUMAN LIFE

Tore Henriksen. Photo: Trude Haugseth Moe

from UiT The Arctic University of Norway started to go on winter expeditions to the ocean in the Arctic. Up to now, one has assumed that since sunlight is the basis for all biological production on land and in the sea, and since the sun does not shine in the Arctic during the winter, there is no biological activity there in winter. In fact, most seabirds and whales have also migrated south.

One of the conclusions the researchers have reached is that there is a high risk that human lives will be lost if ships founder in the Arctic. Search and rescue services are too far away if accidents occur. It is far from infrastructure, the weather is cold and variable, and in addition, there is the human factor in conditions that are so physically demanding. For instance, how would thousands of elderly people on board a cruise ship tackle this kind of situation?

“This ‘established assumption’ has now been challenged and in many ways repudiated”, says Lars-Henrik Larsen from Akvaplan-niva.

The project has also uncovered a great number of legal issues concerning international regulation of shipping, liability and compensation in cases of accidents, and safety for both crews on the ships and any search and rescue crewmembers.

So what about the chemicals that disappeared into the dark depths of the sea when the fictitious ship Oleum foundered? The spillage will probably seriously affect the ecosystem. The place in which the imaginary ship the Oleum sank is in fact the spawning ground for Arctic cod. The Arctic cod is not present at the exact time that the ship’s toxic cargo sinks, but swims in to spawn a couple of months later. Now the spillage of both diesel and chemicals has taken place and we have little knowledge about how this may affect the success of the Arctic cod’s spawning.

WHAT ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT? There are many unknown factors concerning the ecosystem in the Arctic, as there has so far been little research on it. It is only 3 – 4 years since scientists

“Fish eat and reproduce in the dark, there is an abundance of zooplankton and they thrive in moonlight and the northern lights”, the scientist claims. CHEMICALS IN THE SPAWNING GROUND FOR COD



Map: Wikimedia

“We see that even though the resources (the fish) in the sea are not present when an accident occurs, a spillage of chemicals or petroleum may harm them at a later time. The resources in the sea are not separated in time and space, and one must look at both shortterm and long-term consequences of an accident,” says Lars-Henrik Larsen.

MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE PROJECT: The complete name of the project is A-lex: Regulating Arctic Shipping: Political, legal, technological and environmental challenges The project has been funded by the Ministry


of Foreign Affairs, the Research Council of Norway, the Fram Centre and UiT The Arctic

Tore Henriksen, leader of the K. G. Jebsen Centre for Maritime Law at the Faculty of Law at UiT The Arctic University of Norway, hopes that it will be possible to continue research in this area.

University of Norway. More information about the project: https://en.uit.no/prosjekter/prosjekt? p_document_id=363938

“Cross-disciplinary research collaboration is both challenging and at the same time very useful. One has to communicate so that people outside one’s own field understand. But now that we have acquired so much knowledge in the different fields, we would like to continue and this is something we will aim to achieve,” Henriksen concludes.

This article will also be published in Fram Forum 2017, release in mars.



Zofia Burr and Øystein Varpe // University Centre in Svalbard

Seabird breeding timing at high latitudes Imagine an Arctic bird cliff in summer, teeming with fledging chicks and predators waiting below. Now fast-forward to a short time later and picture a quiet breeding cliff dusted in snow. What evolutionary adaptations and constraints shape when birds breed in seasonal environments? And when conditions change, will birds breed at the “right” time?


nimals living at high latitudes must adapt to environments where the physical and biological conditions go through extreme changes throughout the year. Phenology, the study of recurring biological phenomena, is one piece of the puzzle needed to understand how animals have evolved strategies to deal with strong seasonality. Seabirds, in addition to being charismatic, are great study subjects because it is far easier to study individual birds than individual fish or plankton, and understanding their breeding timing strategies helps shed light on ecological interactions. We have joined forces with SEAPOP, a network of seabird biologists whose work spans quite a latitudinal gradient to monitor several “key sites” in Norway. With support from Fram Centre incentive funding, 12 people representing 7 institutions are working together to understand large-scale variability in seabird breeding timing. Given that species have different strategies to time their breeding, they will likely face different challenges when it comes to successfully raising their chicks.

Perhaps under changing environmental conditions, some species will have difficulties adjusting to new conditions and may end up breeding at sub-optimal times, therefore risking reduced reproductive success. Read the full story in Fram Forum 2016


The study of cyclical biological phenomena, often in relation to climatic conditions and the annual cycle An important focus as climate changes, because the timing of ecological interactions is impacted by climate and influences reproduction and survival Examples of measurable phenological events include timing of breeding, migration and molting in animals, and leaf budburst and flowering in plants


Black-legged kittiwakes on their characteristic nests. Photo: Sébastien Descamps, Norwegian Polar Institute

Photo of Brünnich’s guillemot: Sébastien Descamps, Norwegian Polar Institute, all others: Zofia Burr, University Centre in Svalbard




Ole Magnus Rapp text and photo

Living the sea “Just think what enormous sea areas we have off Norway. Most of Norway’s waters lie north and west of northern Norway. We know something about them, but far from everything.”


lf Håkon Hoel likes the sea, as viewed from both his research vessel and from the oceangoing kayak he built with his own hands. And he takes pleasure in the fact that his researchers have an overview of the life down there in the watery depths, even though it is remote from where his own expertise lies. Hoel is walking proof that political scientists have many uses. For almost a generation he worked in maritime law, on complicated international maritime boundary lines, and on how the global community could induce coastal states to agree on contentious issues. The United Nations, the Arctic Council and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs have all benefited from Hoel’s insight and his ability to find solutions to a variety of problems. He continued to do research as regional research director at the Institute of Marine Research about maritime law and resource management, how to adapt fisheries management to meet climate change, polar issues, and other related subjects. And now he is in his second year’s leave, working as Counselor Fisheries and Oceans Royal Norwegian Embassy in Washington D.C. “A good diplomat should be involved in society and interested in what is going on. Solid professional experience is good ballast, but human qualities are the key to success in the job,” he adds.

Hoel builds his own kayaks according to old Inuit methods. This is an important part of his hobby, and the enjoyment factor of working with his own hands in the “boatyard” is a major reward.

Alf Håkon Hoel is eager to fill gaps in our current knowledge. Many facts remain unknown about life in the northern seas, facts that are necessary for accurate resource management. “We need more ecosystem-based management, where we see the totality, not just the individual species. We also expect a considerable growth of fish farming here in the north, and our institute will need better expertise to face the many challenges that aquaculture brings,” he observes. “Many research tasks still await us there. Important questions that concern many people still need answers. But we’re working on them, and we’ll be stepping up our efforts, working together with our good colleagues across the borders,” says Alf Håkon Hoel. Further reading: Profile article in Fram Forum 2014, page 6 – 9.



Ole Magnus Rapp text and photo

Passion for blueberries Laura Jaakola is thriving and controlling the climate, getting it just how she wants it for her plants.


aakola is passionate about the plants in the High North, especially the wild berries. If she has to choose, the blueberry is her favourite. Blueberries contain substances that the body needs; they are beautiful, available and free. And picking berries takes you out into the countryside and provides exercise, something that Laura Jaakola is also enthusiastic about. Wild berries have been her job for at least 20 years, and she has a well-regarded doctorate in the subject. Her research results attract attention, and many people both in Norway and abroad are keen to collaborate with her on new projects. Both Norwegian Institute for Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) and the Arctic University of Norway at Tromsø are involved in the climate laboratory, and Laura also divides her time between these two collaborating institutions.    “Among other things, blueberries contain antioxidants, which have positive effects on our cardiovascular and blood systems. These substances can also help prevent dementia and Alzheimer’s disease,” says Jaakola and hopes that new knowledge about berries can make even more people want to pick them and to eat nature’s own health-bringing substances.       The further north in the world the blueberry grows, the more of these good substances it contains. The reason for this is not quite clear, but may be genetic.

Jaakola and her colleagues have namely taken blueberry plants from a number of places and moved them south, all the way to Germany, put them in the laboratory, and the northern plants have done exceptionally well under otherwise equal conditions. “The climate of Northern Norway also has the same effect on green vegetables and root vegetables such as swede. The vegetables are healthier, better and crisper,” she explains, referring to research done by her colleagues at NIBIO. The fact that it is light 24 hours a day in summer may have significance for the quality of berries and vegetables. But the temperature in the High North can also have an effect, and a summer that is a few degrees warmer is not necessarily a plus.       In the climate laboratory, the scientists can set the desired temperature, light intensity and quality, humidity, CO2 and much, more. Here it is possible to create possible climate change scenarios and to monitor how and whether the plants react.  “Knowledge about what is likely to happen to our plants in a different climate reality is extremely important. Will the quality be affected? Or the nutritional content? Will any of our important food plants be threatened?” asks Laura Jaakola. Further reading: Profile article in Fram Forum 2015, page 6 – 9.



Contact information FRAM – the High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment Fram Centre AS Ph: +47 7775 02 00 Fram Institutions at the Fram Centre building Visiting address: Hjalmar Johansens gate 14 Postal address: POB 6606 Langnes N-9296 Tromsø Ph: +47 7775 0200 Web: www.framsenteret.no Fram Centre information portal: www.ifram.no Videos: framshorts.com Akvaplan-niva AS Ph: +47 7775 0300 www.akvaplan.niva.no Geological Survey of Norway Ph: +47 7775 0125 www.ngu.no Norwegian Coastal Administration Ph: 07 847, International calls +47 3303 4308 www.kystverket.no

FRAM institutions elsewhere CICERO – Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Ph: +47 2285 8750 www.cicero.uio.no Institute of Marine Research Tromsø POB 6404, N-9294 Tromsø Ph: +47 5523 8500 www.imr.no NOFIMA Muninbakken 9-13 Breivika POB 6122, N-9291 Tromsø Ph: +47 7762 9000 www.nofima.no NIBIO Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research POB 2284 Tromsø postterminal, N-9269 Tromsø Ph: 03 246, International calls: +47 4060 4100 www.nibio.no NORUT Northern Research Institute www.norut.no

Norwegian School of Veterinary Science Dept. of Arctic Veterinary Medicine Stakkevollveien 23, N-9010 Tromsø Ph: +47 7766 5400 www.veths.no Norwegian Veterinary Institute Stakkevollveien 23, N-9010 Tromsø Ph: +47 7761 9230 www.vetinst.no NMBU Norwegian University of Life Sciences P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås Ph: +47 6723 0000 www.nmbu.no SINTEF Nord AS POB 118, N-9252 Tromsø Ph: +47 7359 3000 www.sintef.no University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) POB 156, N-9171 Longyearbyen Ph: +47 7902 3300 www.unis.no

NILU – Norwegian Institute for Air Research Ph: +47 6389 8000 www.nilu.no

NORUT Tromsø POB 6434 Forskningsparken, N-9294 Tromsø Ph: +47 7762 9400 Fax: +47 7762 9401 www.norut.no/tromso

UiT The Arctic University of Norway N-9037 Tromsø Ph: +47 7764 4000 uit.no

Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research Ph: +47 7775 0400 niku.no

NORUT Alta POB 1463, N-9506 Alta Ph: +47 7845 7100 www.norut.no/alta

Other institutions at the Fram Centre

Norwegian Institute for Nature Research Ph: +47 7775 0400 nina.no

NORUT Narvik POB 250, N-8504 Narvik Ph: +47 7696 5350 www.norut.no/narvik

Norwegian Mapping Authority Tromsø Ph: 08 700, International calls +47 3211 8121 www.statkart.no Norwegian Polar Institute Ph: +47 7775 0500 www.npolar.no Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority Ph: +47 7775 0170 www.nrpa.no

NORINNOVA Northern Innovation POB 6413 Forskningsparken, N-9294 Tromsø Ph: +47 7767 9760 www.norinnova.no Norwegian Meteorological Institute Main office: Henrik Mohns plass 1, N-0310 Oslo Forecasting Division of Northern Norway Kirkegårdsveien 60, N-9293 Tromsø Ph: +47 7762 1 00 met.no

Arctic Council Secretariat Ph: +47 7775 0140 arctic-council.org CliC International Project Office Ph: +47 7775 0150 www.climate-cryosphere.org Polaria Visitors’ Centre Hjalmar Johansens gate 12, N-9296 Tromsø Ph: +47 7775 0100 www.polaria.no




FRAM Forum in published once a year on behalf of FRAM – the High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment. Its aim is to inform the general public about the wide range of activities that take place within the Fram Centre. It is available free of charge to any and all who are interested in topics related to climate, environment, and people in the High North.

You can read online, or download, recent copys of Fram Forum at www.framsenteret.no and www.issuu.com Profile: Audun Rikardsen

fram-annual2013-fa_6.indd 1

In Brief/Outreach: Mercury, Mining, Fram Science Days, Arctic Council, Ny-Ålesund seminar, Arctic Frontiers, Fram Centre News

Norwegian Young Sea ICE Cruise Joint proxies – voices from the past

Fram centre

fram CEntrE


fram forum 2013


Harbour seal diet and behaviour Climate ethics: a new research priority Fram Strait outflow observatory Climate change is moving fish populations New ways to measure glacier mass loss Monitoring challenges in the Arctic Upward growth of sea ice

Research Environmental toxins and you Ocean acidification state in Svalbard Climate-Ecological Observatory Svalbard’s antique mountains Ecosystem modelling in the Arctic Polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the Arctic

Profile: Audun Rikardsen

In Brief/Outreach: Mercury, Mining, Fram Science Days, Arctic Council, Ny-Ålesund seminar, Arctic Frontiers, Fram Centre News

Norwegian Young Sea ICE Cruise Joint proxies – voices from the past

Research at the end of the earth Fisheries in the Arctic Ocean? Keeping decision-makers updated Science in the City Arctic Frontiers 2015 Profile: Laura Jaakola Retrospective: The sea, fish and oil


THEME ISSUE Focus on arctic birds Goose patrol Geese beyond borders Seabird breeding timing The atmosphere and guillemot survival SEATRACK – tracking birds in winter

Harbour seal diet and behaviour Climate ethics: a new research priority Fram Strait outflow observatory Climate change is moving fish populations New ways to measure glacier mass loss Monitoring challenges in the Arctic Upward growth of sea ice

In Brief/Outreach Ocean acidification Eclogites – colourful rocks Plant biomass and climate change Seeing in the dark Arctic Council Secretariat Norwegian Meteorological Institute


Research Environmental toxins and you Ocean acidification state in Svalbard Climate-Ecological Observatory Svalbard’s antique mountains Ecosystem modelling in the Arctic Polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the Arctic

Methane from sea to air? The snow crab Modelling Arctic Ocean ecosystems Record high levels of siloxanes What hunting statistics can teach us Computer model finds contaminants Black carbon in snow and ice

Fram Forum 2012


THEME ISSUE Focus on arctic birds Goose patrol Geese beyond borders Seabird breeding timing The atmosphere and guillemot survival SEATRACK – tracking birds in winter

Research Grubbers on the Svalbard tundra Pollutants in polar bears Sea ice–ocean–ecosystem modelling Checking a sunken nuclear submarine Compiling mineral data Insurance branch and arctic shipping

Research Sea urchin deserts to kelp forests Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Ocean Lumpsucker and Themisto libellula Plastic litter in the ocean Future arctic sea ice regime A focus on plankton

research Ocean acidification Contaminant cocktails Warm Gulf Stream and methane Joint Norwegian–Russian cruise Cosmetics as contaminants Satellites and fieldwork

research Nitrogen deposition Planktonic food web Reindeer herders Invasive plants Methane release NCoE-Tundra

In brief Arctic Council Secretariat Nansen–Amundsen Year 2011 Geodetic antenna Ny-Ålesund Fram Centre expectations Fram Centre Flagships New books

Profile: Alf Håkon Hoel Retrospective: UNIS

Climate communication Norwegian-Russian cooperation Tundra schoolnet Expanding industries

in brief New ice-breaking vessel Greenland sharks Cod in the Barents Sea Various news items Fram Centre Flagships New books

In Brief/Education/Outreach New Flagship – MIKON Ocean acidification Improved sea ice charting Nansen Memorial Expedition Climate and Cryosphere Environmental monitoring

Education/outreach Ice drift in the Barents Sea TopoSvalbard Fram Centre Awards Research plaza Politics between two poles Recent doctorates

education/outreach High North Academy Reindeer cooling Antarctic logistics Kittiwakes Secondary schools Recent doctorates

Seafood and pollutants Carbon dioxide and acidification Seafloor secrets in Porsanger Harp seals in the Barents Sea Glacier mass balance in Antarctica Little auk distribution and threats Fram Centre Flagships

retrospective: CE Borchgrevink

Profile: Åshild Ønvik Pedersen

Climate-driven shifts Arctic hitchhikers Climate-ecological observatory

retrospective Adolf Hoel Norwegian-Russian cooperation

Profiles Paul Wassmann Torkjel Sandanger



About Fram Forum FRAM FORUM 2014



FRAM FORUM 2017 2016


FRAM Forum Fram Centre POB 6606 Langnes N-9296 Tromsø NORWAY

www.framsenteret.no post@framsenteret.no Phone: +47-7775 0200



22.02.13 10:26


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Fram Forum Conference Edition  

Get an update from the Fram Centre before the Arctic Frontiers Conference in Tromsø 22 - 27 January 2017!

Fram Forum Conference Edition  

Get an update from the Fram Centre before the Arctic Frontiers Conference in Tromsø 22 - 27 January 2017!