A premier symposium focused on the effective use and optimal performance of wood and wood-based materials in wood window and door manufacturing
Opening Keynote Martin Despang, University of Hawaii-Manoa Bio: Martin Despang had received his architectural education in the late 80’s/early 90’s at his native University of Hannover Germany and the University of Nebraska to which after a decade of award winning practice and adjunct teaching in Germany he returned in 2005, where he got tenured and promoted to Associate Professor in 2008 and transferred to the University of Arizona in 2010 as tenured Associate Professor for critical practice from which he came this fall 2012 to join the University of Hawai`i Manoa as tenured Associate Professor. Martin’s research of sustainability as the synergy of typological diversity through related “tactics and techniques of typology, tectonics and technology” case studied in the widest variety of structures/materialities/post-fossil technologies by his firm “Despang Architekten” in Hannover/Dresden/Munich Germany and his students is being regionally, nationally and internationally awarded and published in Europe, South and North America and increasingly in Asia. Amongst the many building materials Martin is experienced with and has highly recognized expertise in wood and particular TMW is his favorite and he continues to create buildings with it which are “ planet and people friendly”, comply to the Passive House System as the most rigorous energy system in the world and which have received many international recognitions as the German “ Lower Saxony States Award” , Danish “Index Design Award “ and US “Miami Biennale” award and been featured in the “Phaidon Atlas of 21st Century World Architecture”. Martin has been a keynote speaker at the Institute of Wood Technology Dresden workshops since their beginning and a keynote speaker, juror and advisory board member with WoodWorks in the US.
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Session 1 Designing For Improved Durability of Wood Windows and Doors Overview: The goal of this session is to inform attendees of the science behind wooden fenestration. Presenters will highlight the use of wooden windows and doors and discuss their strengths and also educate the attendees on technological advancements that improve the competitiveness of wooden fenestration in today’s marketplace. Session Speakers The Window (and Door) of Opportunity: Identifying and resolving wood fenestration durability issues. Janelle Leafbladd, SGH Bio: Janelle Leafblad has more than eight years of experience in investigation, design, and construction contract administration of building-envelope components on both historic and contemporary structures in the United States. Ms. Leafblad holds an advanced degree specializing in wood-building materials. She is experienced in authoring published technical papers and presenting her work to technical and nontechnical audiences. Abstract: Designing and specifying wood fenestration for buildings requires evaluating the advantages and challenges under various project conditions. A large part of the design process is consumed with evaluating compromises when: Design, industry, and manufacturer standards clash, Manufactured products cannot match desired profiles, Test data is not available for custom products, Water management systems (flashing) were not or cannot be achieved , Cost, lead time, and maintenance requirements are higher than non-wood products. When durability issues impact the fenestration, the client’s first inclination,
A premier symposium focused on the effective use and optimal performance of wood and wood-based materials in wood window and door manufacturing
right or wrong, is to blame the product. Therefore, whether the project requires conservation of historic fabric, replacing existing products, or installing new products, the project team (including manufacturers) must approach durability challenges with interdisciplinary and collaborative methods to address the system installation. This presentation examines durability issues where guidelines and standards conflict, common specification shortcomings, and flashing challenges and opportunities with project examples. Christian Zuani, Zuani srl Bio: Mr. Cristian Zuani has been a part of the 40-yearold Zuani, S.r.l. family since 1997. Conforming to the ISO9001 Standards and EN 847-1 Rules, Zuani, S.r.l. strives for measurably well-engineered and preciselyproduced cutting tools dedicated to the solid wood production of window, door and millwork. Mr. Zuani’s leadership, in all aspects of involvement in the cutting edge design and the production of European windows and doors, contributes to the Company’s successes in both the mechanical fixing solid carbide cutting tools and its latest NaDia diamond-coating technology in many European countries and North America. By having his extensive relationships with leading wood suppliers, machinery producers as well as glass and sub-components industries, Mr. Zuani’s knowledge is critical to the growth of the wood window and door industry in Europe and the world. Testing the Biological Resistance of Wood-Based Window and Door Components Peter Laks, Michigan Technological University Bio: Peter Laks is on the faculty of the School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science at Michigan Technological University. He has an active research
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program on the biological resistance of wood-based building products, specializing on the performance of wood preservatives. He also has a consulting business in this field. Abstract: A number of methods are used by the wood window and door industry to test the antifungal performance of treatment formulations and treated window components. The most important test methods are those required by the Window & Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA) in their IS-4 Industry Specification for Preservative Treatment for Millwork. These are the lab soil block test (WDMA TM-1) and field L-joint test (American Wood Protection Association [AWPA] E9). Other test methods can also be used to supplement this basic information on the resistance of treated wood window parts to biological deterioration. These methods include the AWPA E16 (lap-joint) and E18 (ground proximity block) fungal resistance field tests, and the AWPA E1 (termite resistance) and E24 (mold resistance) lab tests. These standard methods will be described and typical results given, along with how these tests are used by the wood window and door industry. Selecting and Specifying the Right Window to Meet Multiple Design Criteria John Carmody, University of Minnesota Bio: John Carmody is the Director of the Center for Sustainable Building Research at the University of Minnesota. He holds a Bachelors and Master’s degree in Architecture from the University of Minnesota. He has worked in building-related research for 30 years and is the author of several books on building design and construction. These include Window Systems for High Performance Buildings with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the new edition of Residential Windows: A Guide to New Technologies and Energy Performance. Mr. Carmody was one of the leaders of a team that developed the State of Minnesota Sustainable Building Guidelines required on State-funded buildings. In 2008, the
A premier symposium focused on the effective use and optimal performance of wood and wood-based materials in wood window and door manufacturing
Center received funding to lead the State of Minnesota in its transformation to zero net energy and carbon buildings by the year 2030. His work also includes research on life cycle assessment of materials, affordable housing, post occupancy evaluations, and the development of decision-making tools for designers. Abstract: Selecting and specifying wood windows involves addressing multiple design criteria. These include energy performance, summer and winter comfort, and condensation resistance. The Efficient Windows Collaborative has developed a Window Selection Tool that provides a comparison of wood and other window types on residential buildings in many US climates based on these criteria. Basic design conditions such as window area, orientation and shading are specified and common frame and glazing options are rank ordered based on energy performance. The paper will present the basis for determining energy performance, comfort and condensation in the tool. The new tool will be available at www.efficientwindows.org. In the commercial building arena, a similar tool is available at www.commercialwindows.umn. edu. The Facade Design Tool for commercial buildings provides comparative window performance results for energy, peak demand, thermal comfort, daylight, glare and view. The paper will present the basis for determining these criteria in the tool. Lunch Keynote Sean Barnaby, WWA Bio: Sean Parnaby has been the Managing Director of West Port Timber Windows and Doors for the past 9 years turning the company from a small timber business to the second largest window manufacturing business in the UK. During the same period Sean organised and managed the acquisition of the company by the VKR group. The VKR group is the largest window manufacturing group in Europe. Sean been involved in the Wood Window Alliance for the
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past 5 years and for the past 3 years has been the chair of the WWA. Sean is one of the driving forces behind the WWA giving a backbone to the campaigns that have been run over the past few years. Within the timber industry in Europe the WWA is seen as a driving force at gaining market share and a forum to meet and share knowledge of the industry with the competitors in the market place, setting standards and goals for each company to achieve, with the overall goal of setting standards and gaining market share. Session 2 What Innovative Wood-Based Materials Are Available For Windows and Doors? Overview: The goal of this session is to inform attendees on new and innovative wood-based materials that are suited for use in wooden fenestration. Session 2 Speakers Wood windows and doors that do not swell, shrink or rot: Dream or reality? Roger Rowell, University of Wisconsion-Madison Bio: Roger became a Research Chemist for the USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab in Madison Wisconsin in 1966 and worked there for 41 years retiring as a Senior Technical Pioneering Scientist in 2007. He joined the University of Wisconsin as a professor in Forestry in 1980 and transferred to the Department of Biological Systems Engineering and the Center for Plasma Engineering in 1988 teaching several courses in carbohydrate and wood chemistry until he retired in 2007. He is now a Professor Emeritus at the University and still advising graduate students in the US, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Mexico and Japan. He has been a visiting scholar in Japan and a guest professor in China, New Zealand, Australia, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Poland, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Egypt, Taiwan, Korea, Viet Nam,
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Romania, Portugal, Turkey, Estonia and Latvia. He is a consultant for companies in US, South Africa, The Netherlands, and The UK and was a Mission Leader for the United Nations Development Project in India for six years. He is now a Guest Professor at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm Sweden where he teaches 4 to 5 months a year and works with graduate students. He is a Fellow in the American Chemical Society, member of Sigma Xi (honorary research society) and a member of the International Academy of Wood Science. He has written over 350 scientific publications, edited and written12 books and has 26 patents. He has been married to his best friend for 51 years, has three sons, 7 grandchildren and 2 great grandchildren.
so when the wood gets wet, it cannot swell because the elastic limit of the cell wall has not been exceeded. This bulking chemistry also reduces the equilibrium moisture content below that needed for microorganisms to attack so this chemistry results in both stability and durability with no color change or loss of mechanical properties.
Abstract: When we think of windows and doors made of wood, we know they might swell and stick in the spring, shrink in the winter and rot in the corners. But, we like wood and consider that aluminum or vinyl products are often limited in appearance and design form on increasing pressure from market sustainability positions. Wood swells and shrinks because of the hygroscopic nature of the cell wall polymers. The hemicellulose polymers are the most hygroscopic and sorb and desorb moisture depending on the environment the wood is in. Lignin and the accessible cellulose also sorb and desorb moisture. The cell wall polymers, mainly the hemicellulose polymers, are also targets for microorganisms that recognize them as a food source. Wood, however, can be modified to change its chemistry at the molecular level greatly increasing dimensional stability and durability.
Ben Wallace, Marvin Windows
There are several methods to accomplish this. Cell wall polymers can be cross-linked with formaldehyde to greatly increase stability and durability. However, due to the environmental concern for formaldehyde, this chemistry is not used. Wood can be heated to high temperatures (180-240 C) to increase stability and durability. The process is based on the destruction of the hygroscopic hemicellulose polymers. This chemistry, however, results in a dark color and loss of mechanical properties. A third chemistry, based on bulking the cell wall polymer with a nontoxic bonded chemical, is the reaction of acetic anhydride (acetylation) with wood. An acetyl group reacts with a cell wall polymer hydroxyl group resulting in a stable ester linkage. The bulking of the cell wall brings the dry wood volume back to its green volume
Acetylation chemistry (which is now commercial) and mechanisms of stability and durability will be the focus of this presentation. Testing of Innovative Window Materials
Abstract: Windows are made up of many materials that must work together to make a window unit that can stand up to challenging environmental conditions. Use of new materials requires rigorous testing to prove the materials will work within in a window system. Standard test methods, application specific tests, compatibility issues, and potential pit falls will be covered in this presentation. Examples of past innovative wood and non-wood materials offered to the window industry will be used to highlight how testing works to qualify materials for use in widow applications.
Session 3 Wood Coatings and Treatments: How Can They Improve The Performance Of Windows and Doors? Overview: The goal of this session is to inform the attendees on available technologies in the area of coating and treatments that lengthen the service life of wooden window components. Session 3 Speakers Matt Arro, NRRI, U. of Minn-Duluth Bio: Matt Aro joined the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) in 2003 and is a Research Fellow for the Institute’s Market-Oriented Wood Technology Program. His chief focus is to foster regional economic development by identifying, transferring, and developing innovative, environmentally-friendly, and energy-efficient building technologies. He provides product, process, and business concept research and development services to OEMs, entrepreneurs, organizations, and agencies associated with the wood products industry. He is currently Principal Investigator on a National Science Foundation Partnerships for Innovation: Building Innovation Capacity project, which is exploring the applicability of solid wood thermal-modification techniques to engineered wood products. The thermal-modification processes provide potential to substantially improve the dimensional stability, biological durability, and service-life of engineered wood products, ultimately increasing their value. Matt received a B.S. in Broad Field Science from the University of Wisconsin-Superior and an M.S. in Management of Technology from the University of Minnesota. He is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Natural Resources Science and Management from the University of Minnesota. Abstract: Softwoods have been the staple of the fenestration, exterior shuttering, and structural lumber industry for decades. Hardwoods, often, are not
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the preferred feedstock for fenestration products due to lower decay resistance and dimensional stability; softwoods and hardwoods alike are treated with chemicals to meet performance requirements. Thermal modification techniques provide the potential to improve performance and eliminate the chemical treatment of many species of wood, thus allowing for their use in new applications, including windows and doors. After thermal modification, the wood develops superior performance properties, including excellent dimensional stability, greater resistance to biological degradation and decay, and substantially reduced equilibrium moisture content – all without chemical impregnation. This presentation will provide an overview of thermal modification technologies and their strong, near-term potential to improve the wood window and door industry by opening new markets and mitigating the importation of nonnative wood, all while introducing added-value, high-performance products that improve the industry’s environmental footprint by reducing chemical treatment. Also, the presentation will highlight the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute’s (UMD NRRI) new capacity to assist the wood window and door industry by developing new products and applications for thermally-modified wood. This capacity has been developed with the installation of a very unique, 200-board-foot laboratory thermal-modification kiln. New Protection System for Wood Windows and Doors Alan Ross, Kop-koate products Abstract: Preservative treatments have been used for over 70 years by North American wood window and door manufacturers to protect their products from decay, mold and insect attack. The majority of these treatments utilize organic solvent carriers such as mineral spirits to enhance penetration of active ingredients, reduce swelling, minimize grain raising and speed the drying process. However, these solvents also contribute to air emissions and can be a flammability concern during the manufacturing process. A new treatment known as the TRU-CORE Protection System has been developed to address
these issues. Unlike conventional treating methods, the TRU-CORE process uses no organic solvents, but only a minimal amount of water to carry the active ingredients into the wood. This results in a moisture pick-up of only 1-2%. Because of this there is no need for re-drying after treatment, no grain raising and good dimensional tolerances on machined parts. In addition, the treating system greatly minimizes air emissions and is non-flammable. Efficacy data shows excellent performance against decay, mold and termites. The new treatment system is being used to treat window and door components made from solid sawn wood as well as wood composites such as LVL and OSB. The TRU-CORE Protection System has been approved for use by the Window and Door Manufacturers Association in its Hallmark Certification Program. An Innovative Water-Repellent Preservative Treatment System for Window and Door Applications Lehong Jin, Viance Bio: Dr. Jin joined Viance-a Dow/Rockwood JV (formerly CSI) - in 1990, and is currently the Director of Research. Her research interests are wood chemistry and new wood protection research and development. Lehong graduated from Nanjing Forestry University, China in 1982 with a Bachelor degree in Chemical Engineering in the field of Pulping and Paper Science, and earned her Ph.D. degree in Wood Chemistry from University of British Columbia, Canada in 1987. She worked as a postdoctoral research scientist at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory, Madison and at Mississippi State University before joining CSI. Lehong served as General Chairman of the AWPA Non-Pressure Treatment Committee from 2003-2005 and was N2-Committee Chairman from 1997-2003. She also served on the Executive Council of the International Research Group on Wood Protection (IRG), representing the United States from 2008-2010. Lehong has been an active member of Treatment and Coatings Committee of Window and Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA) since 1999, and is the author of more than 70
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scientific publications and conference proceeding papers. Abstract: A water borne, VOC free, non-metallic wood preservative system has been developed for the pressure treatment of millwork. The product (Clearwood MW) combining a fungicide, insecticide and water repellent has been developed and successfully used in commercial treatments for approximately 10 years. This treatment system has been extensively evaluated using industry standardized laboratory and field testing methods with exceptional performance efficacy. ClearWood MW is approved by the Window and Door Association (WDMA) as one of â€œWater-repellent preservative treatment formulationsâ€?. Window and door materials are treated with Clearwood MW using an innovative and patented process that employs heat to make it possible for the preservative system to penetrate into the core of dimensioned lumber including wood species normally hard to treat. This paper summarizes chemical, treatment and biological performance data related to the system in comparison with traditional window and door chemical treatments. The advantages of a comprehensive treating plant onsite internal quality control and third party inspection program in addition to Hallmark Certification Program are also discussed. Treating new or in-service wood windows or doors with fused boron rods Jim Renfroe, Wood Care Systems Abstract: Fused boron rods were developed in Demark over 30 years ago, originally for treatment of railroad crossties. Since then, they have been used extensively in the UK for treatment of wood window and doors in old buildings. Later they were used to treat historical Naval vessels. They were brought over to the United States in 1988 where they started being used to existing log homes that were showing signs of decay. Later they found their place in the utility pole industry where they play an important role as supplemental preservatives that extend the life of poles for many decades. Fused boron rods are EPA registered wood preservatives. Made from molten boron and cast into molds these rods are inserted into drilled holes. When
moisture content in the wood reaches about 25%, which is about the point where fungal decay can begin, the rods begin to dissolve and the boron reacts with water to form boric acid which diffuses through the wood using the moisture as its carrier. Wherever the boron moves, the wood becomes toxic to decay fungi, beetles, termites and carpenter ants. Yet borates are virtually non-toxic to mammals. Fused boron rods can be used in new windows or doors in the areas most likely to get wet and will activate if and when the wood gets wet, then prevents rot from starting. They can also be used in existing doors or windows that are wet and where rot has begun. The borate will kill the fungal decay and keep it from returning. There are epoxy systems that can restore rot or insect damaged wood to like new condition and with good quality paint costly replacements can be avoided. Session 4 Current Market Opportunities For Wood Windows and Doors: What Does The Customer Want? Overview: The purpose of this session is to inform the attendees of new and innovative areas of research pertaining to wooden fenestration. Highlighted topics will include market outlooks from the WDMA, the application of nanotechnology to improve durability of wooden millwork, and advancements in fastener technology as it applies to whole wall glass-wood assemblies. Session 4 Speakers United States Window and Door Industry Market Statistical Research Report John McFee, WMDA Bio: John McFee is the Vice president of Certification Programs for the Window and Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA). John is responsible for working with volunteers to develop and execute effective strategies
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for the efficient, accurate and profitable administration of the WDMA product certification programs. John brings over 20 years of experience related to the fenestration testing and product certification industry. John currently manages all aspects of the ANSI Accredited Product Certification Programs for the WDMA. The certification programs are a key element of the WDMA strategy to demonstrate Total Product Performance TM to industry standards for building code officials, specifierâ€™s and consumers. The WDMA Hallmark Program is also recognized by the State of Florida and the Texas Department of Insurance for Product Approval. Testing experiences also include evaluations for air infiltration, water penetration, structural loading, acoustical properties, insulated glass integrity and fire testing. John also serves as an ex-Officio board member of the National Fenestration Rating Council. John has served as a board member of the Sustainable Building Industry Council representing WDMA. Abstract: The United States Window and Door Industry Market Research Reports will be discussed detailing the prime window, skylight, patio door and entrance and interior door shipments by market segment and material type. The information is published by the Window and Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA) and the American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) who jointly release the updated Study of the U.S. Market for Windows, Doors and Skylights. The detailed report will be discussed with accurate and timely information on window, door, skylight and curtain wall market trends and product relationships for both residential and commercial construction. Historic data and forecast data will also be discussed. How Nanotechnology will Transform Forest Products of the Future World Nieh, USDA-FS Abstract: Nanotechnology is one of the emerging research areas in forest products. As the technology is being adopted, scientists are actively researching wood properties at the nanoscale. Recognizing its transformational potential, the green and renewable cellulose nanomaterial has emerged as a major area of interest internationally. Two technical committees in the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Technical Association for the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) are engaged in developing U.S. and international standards for cellulose nanomaterials. This presentation will discuss U.S. national effort in nanotechnology development, nanotechnology R&D and standards development led by Forest Service and its partners, and nanotechnology as a game-changer in traditional and future forest products. Session 5 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Product Declaration for Wood Window and Doors Vs. The Alternatives Overview: The purpose of this session is to educate attendees on new and developing methodologies for the characterization of wooden fenestration as it applies to green building, carbon sequestration, and life cycle analysis. Presenters will present on life cycle analysis (LCA) and environmental product declarations (EPDs) for hardwood millwork as well as product category rules (PCRs) for wood windows and comparative LCA of wood windows and doors and also environmental issues associated with wood. Session 5 Speakers Keynote Mike Snow, American Hardwood Export Council Bio: Michael S. Snow has been the Executive Director of the American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC) since 1999, where he oversees the Council’s promotional programs around the globe, and manages AHEC’s overseas offices in Europe, Mexico, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and China. Previously, he served as AHEC’s Program Manager for Europe, China and Japan. Mr. Snow holds a Master’s Degree in International Economics from the
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George Washington University, and a BA in Developmental Economics from the University of Wisconsin. Before joining AHEC, Michael served as a Consultant on international education outreach programs for the National Geographic Society and the Smithsonian Associates, and spent several years in Seville, Spain teaching economics courses in English and Spanish for the University of Wisconsin. Abstract: We have been playing defense for far too long. Those of us in the American hardwood industry have long extolled the virtues of wood—a material which is not only recyclable and renewable, it is also a carbon store, has very low embodied energy, and creates very little waste throughout its life cycle. Yet, somehow, when it comes to environmental policies and “green marketing” we have had a hard time making ourselves heard. We may now, finally, have the ammunition we need to go on the offensive. The results of the recently concluded “life cycle assessment” (LCA) study commissioned by the American Hardwood Export Council as well as other science based research is clear that the wood sector has a very powerful story to tell when environmental impacts are taken on a full cradle to grave basis. This presentation will discuss the results of the LCA study, the development of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) and how these tools are being used by AHEC to promote American hardwoods overseas, and give wood products a fair shake in “green building” schemes. Understanding Your Environment: Forests, Trees and Responsible Wood Products Katie Fernholz, Dovetail Partners, Inc. Bio: Kathryn has worked on development and forest management issues in a range of roles. With a consulting firm, Kathryn was a member of the environmental services department where her work included natural resource inventories, comprehensive planning, environmental impact assessments and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). While working for the Community Forestry Re-
source Center, Kathryn developed and managed a group certification project for family forests and worked to increase local capacity to provide forest management and marketing services that are compatible with certification standards. Kathryn is also an experienced forest certification lead auditor. Kathryn has been a leader within the forestry community in the Upper Midwest through her service as Chair of the Minnesota Society of American Foresters and her appointment to the Minnesota Forest Resources Council. Kathryn served as a member of the Advisory Board for the Blandin Foundation’s Vital Forests/Vital Communities Initiative, and currently serves on the Minnesota DNR’s Stewardship Committee, and the Forests for the Future Committee. She is a member of the Board of Directors for the Minnesota Environmental Partnership, Renewing the Countryside, the Forest Guild, and the College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences Alumni Society. In 2011, Kathryn joined the NSF Joint Committee on Dimensional Stone Sustainability and became a member of the Board of Directors for the Sustainable Furnishings Council. Kathryn has a B.S. in Forest Resources from the University of Minnesota, College of Natural Resources and also studied at the College of Saint Benedict in St. Joseph, MN and Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska. Abstract: This presentation will address key questions about forests, forestry and wood products. What makes a forest ecosystem? What is responsible forest management? What kind of forests do we have in the US? Participants will gain a better understanding of how what happens in our forests is connected to the use of responsible wood products and green building programs. The Environmental Impact of Building Materials - The Growing Push for Impact Assessments and Declarations Jeff Inks, WDMA Abstract: The evolution of green building codes and standards, climate change, and other environmental concerns are changing not only the way homes and commercial buildings are designed, constructed, and sited, they are
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driving obligations that manufacturers of building materials and assemblies assess and declare the cradle to grave environmental impacts of their products in very specific ways. This session discussed recent and continuing developments in the growing push for life cycle assessment, certified Environmental Product Declarations, evolving federal green product purchasing specifications, FTC “green guides”, as well as LEED, ICC, ASHRAE, ISO and ASTM related activities impacting the manufacture, selection, sale and use of building materials and assemblies. Evaluation of Environmental impact and performance of aluminum, plastic, and wood window frames Arijit Sindhai, Oregon State University Bio: Ari Sinha is a structural engineer and a LEED Green Associate. Through his education, training, and experiences bridges the gap between wood material science and structural engineering. Sinha’s research interest and expertise lies in durability and structural service life predictions of green building materials and engineering. Specific focus of his research is to gain insights into the environmental aspects of green buildings from a material and engineering standpoint, assessing the durability of green building components, service life prediction, and engineered products and innovative systems for green building applications. Abstract: Sustainability is driving decision regarding material and component choices in buildings. Additionally, energy efficiency is also a big concern in a building envelope. Window frame material has significant impacts on the thermal performance of the window and in turn drives the energy efficiency. Moreover, with sustainable design becoming a necessity, window frame materials needs to have higher metric of environmental performance to be considered sustainable. As a result a holistic performance metric is needed to assess a window frame material. In this study three similar frames were considered manufactured from aluminum, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and
wood. First their thermal performance was evaluated and compared using a heat transfer model. Then, environmental impacts for the three materials were considered for 1m2 of window area with similar thermal performance. Environmental impact of window frames was analyzed with the “Cradle-togate” variant, an assessment of a partial product life cycle from manufacture (‘cradle’) to the factory gate (i.e., before it is transported to the consumer). Sound secondary life cycle data were sourced from Ecoinvent database 2.0 and modeled in Simapro (SimaPro Analyst Indefinite, Ecoinvent v2, Product Ecology Consultants, PEC, Netherlands). It was found that the thermal as well as the environmental performance of the window frame was superior to those of aluminum and PVC. On the other hand aluminum frames had high environmental impacts and comparatively lower thermal performance. This study provides a holistic viewpoint on window frames by considering both, environmental and thermal performance.
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Preliminary program for the North American Wood Window & Doow Symposium held on April 18-19, 2013 in Roseville, Minnesota, USA.