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History of Writing

IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Crosscurricular Project 2º ESO “A”

History of Writing Course 2010/11

Contenido: Objectives

Pie de imagen o gráfico.

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Key Competences

Objectives  To find out how the Mesopotamians and Egyptians wrote.

 To research how

writing

developed

through ages

 To discover which writing instruments were used in the past

 To learn about the importance of scribes in Ancient Civilizations.

 To investigate different materials used to write on: clay, papyrus, parchments, paper, etc

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Writing in Egypt

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The invention of paper

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The invention of Ink

5

Brief history of writing instruments

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Gutemberg, printing and

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Linotype and offset

8

Typewriting

9

Computers and Printers

10

Mobile text messeges and email

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The Phoenician Alphabet

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How did we learn?

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How did we evaluate?

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 To discover how ink was made and used throughout the ages.

 To

research how technology has improved the digital means of communication

Key Competences Linguistic competence Vocabulary related to writing instruments, Ancient Civilizations….. Digital ICT competence Accessing websites for the purpose of investigation Using the e-mail to share information. Making a PowerPoint presentation Temporal competence Comprehension of the time-scale of developing of writing. Interpersonal and civic competence Investigating, sharing information and producing texts together.

Writing in Mesopotamia

Autonomy and personal initiative Using a website to research more about aspects of different topics. Knowledge and interaction with our world Discussing and sharing information using appropriate technology Comparing….. Cultural and artistic expression Drawing or searching for pictures to illustrate findings Describing illustrations and discovering their historical value Evaluating a historical text or document


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History of Writing

Writing in Mesopotamia. By Miguel A. Evora, Dylan Medina & Laura Mirabal THE DEVELOPMENT OF WRITING Over five thousand years ago, people living in southern Mesopotamia developed one of the earliest writing systems in the world. The system was developed so that information could be recorded. A reed stylus was the main writing tool used by Mesopotamian scribes. This writing system began with pictures or signs drawn on clay tablets. Later the signs developed into a script we call “cuneiform”

Writing in Mesopotamia THE STORY OF A SIGN

The signs changed over many years, and this is the story of what happened to just one of the signs: Around 3100 B.C. people began to record amounts of different crops. Barley was one of the most important crops in southern Mesopotamia and when it was first drawn it looked like this.

pointed tool, probably made out of a reed. The barley sign changed shape when the scribes used a writing tool with a squaredone off end instead of a point. The end of this tool was used to press wedge shapes like these into clay tablets.

Scribes drew the sign on soft clay tablets using a

CUNEIFORM WRITING Cuneiform writing was used to record a variety of information such as temple activities, business and trade. Cuneiform was also used to write stories, myths, and personal letters.


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History of Writing

Writing in Egypt. By Camila Balsa, Fernando Delgado & Alejandro Santos WHAT IS EGYPTIAN WRITING CALLED? The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government. Thus, around 3100 BC they invented written scripts that could be used to record this information. Using these scripts, scribes were able to preserve the beliefs, history and ideas of ancient Egypt on temple and tomb walls and on papyrus scrolls. The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is hieroglyphics. However, throughout three thousand years of ancient Egyptian civilisation, at least three other scripts were used for different purposes This Egyptian writing used small

pictures to represent different objects, actions, sounds or ideas. Some pictures stood for whole words The individual characters are called 'hieroglyphs' There were more than 700 hieroglyphs.

and shorter form of hieroglyphs). They were the only people in Ancient Egypt who could read and write the sacred hieroglyphs.Scribes had two main duties:They kept government records and wrote letters for the Pharoe

The word hieroglyph is made from two Greek words:Hieros meaning holy; Glyphe meaning writing.So hieroglyph means holy writing. The Egyptian scribes had to learn how to read and write hieroglyphs and hieratic (a quicker

Writing in Egypt WHAT DID ANCIENT EGYPTIANS WRITE ON? Hieroglyphs were written on papyrus reed. Papyrus was a water or marsh plant that grew in ancient Egypt. It was cut into strips, pressed together, pounded, and dried to make sheets which were written on. 'Papyri' is the plural form of the word papyrus. The Egyptians also carved hieroglyphs onto stone and painted them on the walls of tombs and temples.

Writing in Egypt WHAT DID ANCIENT EGYPTIANS WRITE WITH? Egyptian writing was done with pen and ink on fine paper (papyrus)

HOW TO READ HIEROGLYPHCS

Egyptian "pens" were thin, sharp reeds, which they would dip into ink to write with.

How do you know which way to read Hieroglyphs?

The ink and paint came from plants which they crushed and mixed with water.

This writing was uncovered by the French Champollion through the Rosetta Stone.

You need to look closely at the hieroglyphs to discover. It depends on which way the people or animals are facing. For example, if an animal hieroglyph faces right, you read from right to left. If it faces left, you read from left to right (the same way that we do). Just to confuse you, sometimes they read hieroglyphs from top to bottom.


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IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

History of Writing

Brief history of writing instruments. By Leticia Glez, Mª Victoria Hdez & Adrián Vera STYLUS,BRUSHES AND REED PEN

GREEK NEEDLE AND ROMAN REED-PEN

Styluses were first used by the ancient Mesopotamians (around 3400 BC) and Egyptians (around 3100 BC). They made styluses in various materials: reeds that grew on the sides of the rivers, bones and metals.

The earliest means of writing using pen and paper was developed by the Greeks. They employed a writing stylus, made of metal, bone or ivory, to place marks upon wax-coated tablets

Cuneiform was entirely based on the "wedge-shaped" mark that the end of a cut reed made when pushed into a clay tablet. The Egyptians developed a form of writing with pictures. For writing on papyrus scrolls scribes used thin reed brushes or reed pens.

The Romans (753BC) also used a metal stylus for writing upon thin sheets of wax (on wooden tablets). When they no longer needed the writing, they rubbed it out with the flat end of the stylus. The Romans created a reed-pen perfect for parchment and ink, from the hollow tubular-stems of marsh grasses,

Brief history of writing instruments QUILL PEN AND DIP PEN

hawk and turkey.

The writing instrument that dominated for the longest period in history (over one-thousand years) was the quill pen. Introduced around 700 A.D., the quill is a pen made from a bird feather. Goose feathers were the most common; swan feathers were of a premium grade being scarcer and more expensive. For making fine lines, crow feathers were the best, and then came the feathers of the eagle, owl,

Quill pens were used for writing with ink. But quill pens had a problem: they lasted for only a week. Quill pens went into decline after the invention of the metal pen. It was first patented in America in 1810. The dip pen is a metal nib with capillary channels mounted on a holder. It has no ink reservoir.

Brief history of writing instruments PENCIL AND MECHANICAL PENCIL

remains in use.

In 1795, Nicholas Jacques Conté discovered a method of mixing powdered graphite with clay and forming the mixture into rods that were then fired in a kiln. By varying the ratio of graphite to clay, the hardness of the graphite rod could also be varied. This method of manufacturing, which had been earlier discovered by the Austrian Joseph Hardtmuth of Koh-I-Noor in 1790,

The first patent for a refillable pencil with lead-propelling mechanism was issued to Sampson Mordan and John Isaac Hawkins in Britain in 1822. After buying out Hawkins' patent rights, Mordan entered into a business partnership with Gabriel Riddle from 1823 to 1837.

especially from the jointed bamboo plant. They converted bamboo stems into a primitive form of fountain pen. They cut one end into the form of a pen nib or point. A writing fluid or ink filled the stem, squeezing the reed forced fluid to the nib.


History of Writing

IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Brief history of writing instruments FO U N T A I N PEN AND INKWELLS The first fountain pens appeared in the 1850s. In the 1870s Duncan MacKinnon, and Alonzo T. Cross created stylographic pens. Stylographic pens are now used mostly for drafting and technical drawing but were very popular in the decade beginning in 1875. Inkwells began in the 1880s, with the invention of the first practical fountain pen by Lewis Waterman. With its own supply of ink, the flow of the ink was emitted in a regular, controllable stream.

BALLPOINT PEN In 1938, László Bíró, a Hungarian newspaper editor, with the help of his brother George, a chemist, began to work on designing new types of pens including one with a tiny ball in its tip that was free to turn in a socket. As the pen moved along the paper, the ball rotated, picking up ink from the ink cartridge and leaving it on the paper.

The Invention of Ink. By Adrián Martín, Gloria Rguez. & Carolina Ibañez History

Ink in printers

The ancient Chinese used black ink and wrote with pens or brushes. It was composed of black carbon and rubber. The Chinese emperors wrote with purple ink. Different colours of ink were used according to status.

Nowadays, in the use of printers, we use ink cartridges. Black is always separate and colours come from mixing together magenta, yellow or cyan

Components Dye for ink came from metals, plants and marine animals, such as squid or octopus. Walnut ink was used by many artists to get a golden brown colour for their pictures. Other components were added to make ink more permanent, such as resins.

The Invention of Ink GLOSSARY Seeds: Any propagative part of a plant, including tubers, bulbs, etc. Resin: It’s a secretion of many plants, of an amber color. Cartridge: It’s a component of an inkjet printer that contains the ink. Dye: is a substance which is used to change the colour of something. Walnut: It’s a light brown edible nut. It has a wrinkled shape and a very hard round shell.

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IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

The Invention of Paper. By Claudia Pérez, Álvaro Berrocal & Aurora Bethencourt For centuries, people tried to discover better surfaces on which to record their thoughts. Wood, stone, ceramics, cloth, bark, metal, silk, bamboo, and tree leaves were all used as a writing surface at one time or another. Paper was created by the Chinese about two thousand years ago (200 BC). The next development in writing material was with the ancient Egyptians. It is from them that the word paper is derived. Paper comes from the Egyptian word "papyrus". The first paper made by the Chinese was made of hemp that had been soaked in water and beaten into a pulp. Papermaking didn't reach Europe for another thousand years.

The Invention of Paper The first real advance in papermaking came with the development of a smooth material for the mold covering, which allowed the reuse of the mold immediately… From China, papermaking moved to Korea, where production of paper began as early as the 6th century AD. Taught by Chinese papermakers, Tibetans began to make their own paper as a replacement for their traditional writing materials.

The Invention of Paper The shape of Tibetan paper books still reflects the long, narrow format of the original palm-leaf books. By the 10th century, Arabians were substituting linen fibers for wood and bamboo, creating a finer sheet of paper. Although paper was of fairly high quality now, the only way to reproduce written work was by hand, a difficult process.

History of Writing


History of Writing

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IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Gutenberg, Printing and Typography By Daniel Déniz, Rubén Polo & Patricia Sánchez The printer is an industrtial method of reproduction of texts and images on a paper or similar material,which consists of applying ink,usually oil on metal spikes,called types,to be transferred to paper by pressure.

claimed to be part of this art,although opinions suggest that it was the German Johannes Gutenberg, who had the initiative to join a team of printers,which supports him as the inventor of the typography.

New media appeared in a time of change and accelerated speed communications more and were a response to increased demand for information and entertainment. However,the modern printing press was not established until approximately the year 1400,by the hands of Johannes Gutenberg.In Europe,many people

Gutenberg, Printing and Typography All this has brought about changes that affect the book,for example ,the conventional composition is now so expensive that only justifies very large.spins, but there is a wide variety of cheaper printing methods,such as photocopy and electronic duplication. The evolution of printing from the simple method of buffer to the procces of printing press seems to be produced independently at different times and in different parts of the world..

Gutenberg, Printing and Typography red into a trough at the top. The sides were opened to release the type. HELD TIGHT.

TYPE MOULD The matrix was placed in the bottom of a mould like this.The mould was then closed and the molten metal was pou-

When the type was complete it was placed in a metal frame called a chase. The type is locked in a place with pieces of wood or metal to make a frame.The frame is then placed in the printing press,inked,and printed.

POURING HOT METAL. A ladle was used to pour the molten metal, a mixture of tin,lead, and antimony into the mould to form a piece of type.


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IES Chapatal CLIL 2Âş ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

History of Writing

Linotype and Offset By Alberto Abreu, Claudia SantamarĂ­a & Eva Basterrechea Fist Printing Machines When we speak of printing, we refer to the monotype system. It is said that Gutenberg invented the printing press using movable type, as does the monotype. The linotype and monotype machines that have been created to facilitate the composition of the type in the typographic workshops.. Although the monotype was more innovative than the linotype, the latter was the one that lasted for a long time, but today has been replaced by the computer, which does the job in much less time.

The Linotype is a machine invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler in 1886 which mechanized the process of writing to be printed. The machine revolutionized typesetting and with it especially newspaper publishing. Before this invention, no newspaper in the world had more than eight pages.

The Linotype is a machine invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler in 1886 which mechanized the process of writing to be printed. The machine revolutionized typesetting and with it especially newspaper publishing. Before this invention, no newspaper in the world had more than eight pages.

The Linotype machine operator enters text on a 90character keyboard. The machine assembles matrices, which are molds for the letter forms, in a line. The assembled line is then cast as a single piece, called a slug, of type metal in a process known as "hot metal" typesetting. The matrices are then returned to the type magazine from which they came. This allows much faster typesetting and

composition than original hand composition in which operators place down one pre-cast metal letter, punctuation mark or space at a time.

printing on paper of inferior quality and cheaper than was traditionally used. Then, offset lithography became

the ideal procedure of the commercial printer.

Offset Offset Lithography a printed variant was discovered around 1904 by Ira W. Rubel, a printer of New Jersey (United States). Rubel discovered, accidentally, that printing the image onto a surface of rubber reproduced on paper much better than that produced by the iron directly. The reason for this improvement is that the rubber is softer and fits better than the iron. Working with this idea , it could start

Offset lithography is one of the most common ways of creating print. A few of its common applications include: newspapers, magazines and books.. Many modern offset presses use computer to plate systems as opposed to the older computer to film, which increases their quality.


History of Writing

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IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Typewriting. An Introduction By Laura Germán, Laura Martínez & Alicia Martín Introduction A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical device with keys that, when pressed, causes ink to be printed on a medium, usually paper.

 Introduction. 

History.

Typewriting in popular culture.

In music.

In film.

In television.

In videogames.

From their invention before 1870 through much of the 20th century, typewriters were indispensable tools for many professional writers and in business offices. Women started to work out of their houses as typists. By the end of the 1980s, word processors and personal computers had largely replaced the tasks previously ac-

complished with typewriters in the western world. Typewriters, however, remain in use in various areas of the world.

Typewriting. History History Some inventors have contributed to this machine. Henry Mills obtained a patent for a machine that, from the patent, appears to have been similar to a typewriter in 1714.

Henry Mills

The first typewriter to be commercially successful was invented in 1867 by C. Latham Sholes, Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soule in Milwaukee.

Lathan Sholes

Carles Glidden

Samuel W. Soule

Typewriting in Popular Culture In music

In Film

Some composers incorporated typewriters into their music.

Some actors and actresses are shown using manual typewriters

They have used the typewriter as a percsusion instrument

In TV Typewriters have been used many times. For example, in the popular television show Murder, She Wrote, Jessica Fletcher, played by Angela Lansbury is seen in the opening credits and in a few scenes throughout several episodes in different seasons

using a typewriter to type her murder mystery novels.


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History of Writing

IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Computers and Printers By Alicia Gargía, Alba García & Ana Heredia A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. A computer is a group of integrated circuits and other related components that can execute with accuracy, speed and as indicated by the user or automatically by another program, a variety of sequences of instructions. The computer, in addition to a software, needs some specific data (called Input) that must be supplied and are required at execution time to provide the end-product of data

processing (called „Output‟). Then, the information can be used, reinterpreted, copied, transferred or retransmitted to other people, computers or electronic components. It has some peripherals and auxiliary devices such as: screen, keyboard, mouse, scanner, speakers and secondary storage. Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers.

Computers and Printers Dot Matrix Printer A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer is a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth, or in an up and down motion, on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like the print mechanism on a typewriter. Each dot is produced by a tiny metal rod, also called a "wire" or "pin", which is driven forward by the power of a tiny electromagnet or solenoid, either directly or through small levers (pawls). Facing the ribbon and the paper there is a small guide plate pierced with holes to serve as guides. for the pins.

Laser Printer

Injet Printer An inkjet printer is a type of computer printer that creates a digital image by propelling variable-sized droplets of ink onto paper. Inkjet printers are the most commonly used type of printer and range from small inexpensive consumer models to very large professional machines. Features: the main characteristics of an inkjet printer are speed, measured in pages per minute (ppm), and the maximum resolution, measured in dots per inch (dpi). In both setting, the higher the better.

A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper, in black as well as colours. The printing device consists of a photoconductive drum rotating device attached to a toner, and a laser beam that is modulated and projected through a mirror disk to the photoconductor drum. The disc rotation causes a sweep of the beam on the generatrix of the drum. The areas of the drum on the incident beam are ionized and, when these areas pass through the toner reservoir, they attract the ionized powder in the toner. Then, the drum contact the paper, impregnating powder in the corresponding areas. Finally, the ink is fixed to the paper by double action of heat and pressure. For monochrome laser printing is used one toner. For colour laser printing, are needed four toner.


History of Writing

IES Chapatal CLIL 2ยบ ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

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Mobile Text Messages and e-mails By Sara Yurda, Alfredo Rguez & Sergio Santos A mobile phone is an electronic device used for two-way radio telecommunication over a cellular network of base stations known as cell sites. Mobile phones differ from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within limited range through a single base station attached to a fixed land line, for example within a home or an office. The history of mobile phones begins with early efforts to develop mobile telephony concepts using two-way radios and continues through emergence of modern mobile phones and associated services

Mobile Text Messages and e-mails SMS language or Textese ,also known as txtese, chatspeak, txt, txtspk, txtk, txto, txtk, texting language, txt lingo, or txt talk, is a term for the abbreviations and slang most commonly used due to the necessary brevity of mobile phone text messaging, in particular the widespread SMS (Short Message Service) communication protocol. SMS language is also common on the Internet, including in email and instant messaging. It can be

likened to a rebus, using pictures and single letters or numbers to represent whole words (e.g. "i <3 u" which uses the pictogram of a heart for love, and the letter u replaces you).

adding the vowels (e.g. keyboard becomes kybrd).

For words that have no common abbreviation, users most commonly remove the vowels from a word, and the reader is required to interpret a string of consonants by re-

Mobile Text Messages and e-mails Electronic mail, commonly called email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, a la instant messaging. a

Today's email systems are based on store-and-forward model. Email

servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. An email message consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header, and the message body. The message header contains

control information, including, minimally, an originator's email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually descriptive information is also added, such as a subject header field and a message submission date/time stamp.


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History of Writing

IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

The Phoenician Alphabet By Mrs Marisa Ucar, The Phoenicians contributed to our modern system of writing: the phonetic alphabet. It was invented by the Phoenicians around 1200 BC. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization on the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria, and northern Israel. It was a trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean Sea during the period from 1550 BC to 300 BC. They traded with people over great distances from the Middle East to Europe and Africa. They invented a phonetic alphabet with twenty-two consonants, using symbols to represent these sounds. The Phoenician script used 22 consonants, but no vowels. The reader was assumed to speak the language, so they would know what sound to put between the consonants. This new method was simpler and easier and was soon used by many people. The alphabet used by the Hebrews, Greeks, Italics, Iberians, Germans, Indians and Arabs are based on the Phoenician alphabet. Later (circa 800 BC), the Greeks adopted this Phoenician alphabet and added vowels to it. The Etruscans adopted and modified the Greek alphabet and passed it along to Rome.

The Romans made their own refinements to it, and this led to the

alphabet we use today. This was the origin of our alphabet. The word itself comes from the Greek letters alpha and beta.

How did we learn?

How did we evaluate?

The students were divided into two groups. One group studied the History section and the other the technologic section. Then they were divided in groups of three and assigned specific topics in order to make the project. Visit to the Natural History Museum to take part in a workshop about the first techniques of writing. The students researched information on the Internet in order to prepare the specific topics. Each group handed in the work for revision by the teachers involved. Each group made a power point presentation of the chosen topic, which was sent by email to the teachers for revision. Each group explained his topic to the rest of the class using the power point presentation.

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1. Showing ability to find specific information in texts 2. Showing comprehension of the different peoples involved in….. 3. Showing comprehension of the social …. 4. Showing comprehension of texts about history in oral or written form

IES Chapatal CLIL 2º ESO Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Students of 2º A ( ESO) CLIL Group) Andrea Cedrés (Assistant) Ana Oñate (CLIL Coord) Marisa Ucar ( Teacher of History) Javier Pérez (Teacher of Science)


History of Writing