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FO R E S T C E R T I F I CAT I O N I N CA N A DA

The Programs, Similarities & Achievements


INTRODUCTION TO CERTIFICATION

CHAIN-OF-CUSTODY CERTIFICATION

Independent forest certification provides a stamp of approval, showing customers they are buying products that come from forests managed to comprehensive forest management standards. A certificate is issued only after a thorough review by third-party auditors determines, among other things, that long-term harvests are sustainable, there is no unauthorized or illegal logging, wildlife habitat is preserved, and soil quality is maintained. Canadian forest managers can certify their lands to one of three internationally recognized forest certification programs. All three set high thresholds that forest companies must clear– above and beyond Canada’s tough regulatory requirements. Moreover, they are tailored to take into account global forestry issues plus circumstances specific to the Canadian landscape, such as the livelihood of local communities and the interests of Aboriginal peoples.

Forest management certification can be complemented by chain-of-custody certification, an accounting process that tracks the production of a forest product – from the origin of raw materials through each stage of the manufacturing and distribution process to the eventual consumer. Chain of custody focuses on the tracking and accurate reporting of the amount of certified and recycled content, and the legality of any wood from non-certified forests. Growing concerns over illegal logging and deforestation have led to greater scrutinty of fibre from forests that are not certified. Industry and consumers are demanding proof that the forest products they purchase have been sustainably and legally harvested – which in turn has boosted demand for chain-of-custody certification.

TRACEABILITY Illegal logging in developing countries is a major cause of deforestation, and poses a significant threat to the overall sustainability of forests and the economic viability of forest communities. It can undermine the viability of legally harvested and traded forest products. Members of the Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC) have signed a commitment to purchase and use wood from legal sources only, and a Traceability Commitment that provides additional documented assurance that all of their fibre is from well-managed and legal sources.

1

CHAIN OF CUSTODY CERTIFICATES WORLDWIDE 8000 # OF CHAIN OF CUSTODY CERTIFICATES ISSUED

FOREST CERTIFICATION

PEFC

7000 FSC

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Source: American Forest and Paper Association


CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS USED IN CANADA

INTERNATIONAL ENDORSEMENT PROGRAMS

Three major forest certification programs are used in Canada. They all apply to public and private lands, can be used for both large and small forest areas, and include environmental objectives and performance measures.

FSC International and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes (PEFC) are global, independent non-profit programs that endorse national and regional forest certification programs. To be endorsed, programs must meet common international requirements and must be developed in a multi-stakeholder process.

The Canadian Standards Association (CSA). (CAN/CSA-Z809-02). CSA International was founded in 1919 and is Canada’s oldest and largest standards development organization. The CSA Sustainable Forest Management Standard (CAN/CSA Z809-02), Canada’s National Standard for sustainable forest management, was first released in 1996 and approved by the Standards Council of Canada. It uses a definition of sustainable forest management developed by the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM) during the Montreal Process, an intergovernmental process for developing global criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). FSC Canada was constituted in 1998 and operates under FSC International (see below) to develop regional standards under Principles and Criteria for responsible forest management. It is a non-profit organization governed by a Board of Directors representing a balance of interests. FSC International has accredited three FSC regional (subnational) standards for Canada: a Maritimes Standard (1999), a British Columbia Standard (2003), and a National Boreal Standard (2004). A fourth regional standard, for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region, is under development.

FSC International was founded in 1993, and operates through a network of national initiatives in 45 countries. It accredits national or sub-national forest certification standards that operate in accordance with FSC’s 10 Principles and 56 Criteria. It also accredits independent third-party certification bodies that can certify forest operations and forest products to FSC standards. By 2008, over 90 million hectares (222 million acres) in more than 70 countries had been certified to FSC-endorsed or locally adapted generic standards.1 PEFC was founded in 1999, and assesses and provides mutual recognition for certification programs that put into practice internationally agreed-upon sustainable forest management criteria. These criteria result from intergovernmental processes such as the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, which are recognized and supported by 149 governments. Auditors are accredited by national accreditation bodies, which are members of the International Accreditation Forum (IAF). By 2008, PEFC had endorsed 25 national forest certification systems accounting for close to 200 million hectares (494 million acres) of certified forest. The CSA and SFI programs were endorsed by PEFC in 2005.2

The Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (SFI®Inc.) (SFI 2005 – 2009). The SFI program was established in 1994 and is a nonprofit organization now governed by an independent Board of Directors representing a balance of interests. Original SFI guidelines were expanded into a standard with complete procedures for verification and third-party certification in 1998, and the standard was updated in 2005. The SFI standard is applied on lands across North America. It is based on nine Principles of Sustainable Forestry and 13 Objectives integrating the growing and harvesting of trees with the protection of a variety of conservation goals. 1

www.fsc.org

2

www.pefc.com

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CANADIAN ACHIEVEMENTS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

INDUSTRY’S COMMITMENT TO Third party certification

WORLD LEADER IN FOREST CERTIFICATION 3

In 2002, FPAC – whose members manage the vast majority of the commercial forest in Canada – became the first, and is still the only, national forest trade association in the world to require, as a condition of membership, that members’ forestry operations be thirdparty certified (CSA, FSC, or SFI). Four years later, that goal was met. There is a five-year window under which new FPAC members and operations acquired by member companies must meet the certification requirement. This has been instrumental in spurring the phenomenal growth of forest certification in Canada, allowing the country to meet the growing customer demand for certified forest products.

Canada leads the world in third-party forest certification. As of December 2007: Certified Hectares In Canada

MILLIONS D’HECTARES CERTIFIÉS AU CANADA

140 FSC

120 SFI

100

78

CSA

80 60 36

40 20

24

0 1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

• There are more than 138 million hectares (341 million acres) in Canada third-party certified to the three sustainable forest certification standards. • FPAC members account for 95 million hectares (235 million acres) of those certifications.

Source of 3 Bar Graphs: Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition. January 2008

3

3

3

2007


CERTIFIED HECTARES WORLDWIDE – FSC AND PEFC

150

250

138 MILLIONS OF HECTARES CERTIFIED

OTHER COUNTRIES

120

90

60 42 30

21

18

18

9

8

6

4

2

Ma lay sia Fr an ce Ch ile

3

Br az il

Fin lan d Sw ed en Ru ss ia Au str ali a Ge rm an y

US A

0

Ca na da

MILLIONS OF HECTARES CERTIFIED

Certified Hectares By COuntry

• Canada has the largest area of third-party independently certified forests (CSA, FSC, SFI) in the world.

200

83 CANADA

150

100

114 69

50 24 0

FSC Worldwide

PEFC Worldwide

• Canada has more than half of all PEFC endorsed certifications (CSA and SFI) and more than one quarter of all FSC certifications.

• Canada has 40 per cent of the world’s certified forest area. • Only 10 per cent of the world’s forests are certified.

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KEY ELEMENTS OF CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS

The CSA, FSC and SFI forest certification programs were each developed to meet specific needs and, like the world’s diverse forests and ecosystems, have differences. For example, FSC was originally developed to raise the standard of forest management worldwide. CSA operates in Canada where most forestlands are publicly owned and tough regulations are enforced. It has a strong focus on public participation and avoids repeating legal requirements. SFI is applied on public lands and has a specific set of additional public land requirements. It is also applied on many privately held lands and in situations were multiple suppliers could be involved, and incorporates strong outreach and training requirements for suppliers, and risk assessment for wood bought from non-program participants. The standards have evolved over time, just as the definition of sustainable forest management itself has. They remain current and relevant through standard reviews that accommodate new science and changing public views, and on many fronts there has been convergence over time. For example, FSC standards have become more responsive to economic concerns, CSA has become more responsive to social concerns, and SFI is now governed fully independently from industry. Many government agencies and corporate buyers in North America with procurement policies that include a preference for certified products recognize the CSA, FSC and SFI programs. Globally, the programs are endorsed either explicitly or through the FSC or PEFC international programs, and are accepted by the governments of France, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. A robust independent assessment carried out by the British government’s Central Point of Expertise on Timber (CPET) found that CSA, FSC, SFI and PEFC provided assurance of legal and sustainable forest products. 5

CELEBRATING THE VALUE OF ALL STANDARDS The CSA, FSC, and SFI certification standards should all be recognized in purchasing policies aimed at obtaining environmentally sound products from well-managed forests. Benefits include: • Ensuring a healthy supply of certified forest products • Giving freedom of choice (options) to organizations that want to source certified forest products • Recognizing forest products sourced from wellmanaged and legal sources • Rewarding leadership in sustainable forestry practices • Promoting competition and continual improvement amongst the standards • Improving global forest management standards by encouraging the use of certification and increasing the availability of products from certified sources

CONCLUSIONS While there are some differences, the three certification programs used in Canada all promote sound forest management on the ground through principles, criteria and objectives that are viewed as the basis of sustainable forest management by governments around the world. For more on how these systems all help achieve this, please see the table that follows entitled “Key Elements of Forest Certification Programs Used in Canada” At a time when only 10 per cent of the worlds forests are certified, the fact that 40 per cent of these certified lands are found in Canada means the country has a stable and secure supply of certified fibre. This independent verification provides added assurance of responsible forest practices from a country with some of the world’s toughest and well-enforced regulatory frameworks for forestry.


KEY ELEMENTS OF FOREST CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS USED IN CANADA

The three forest certification standards used in Canada are globally and nationally consistent across key values. However, each approaches national and sub-national standards in its own way • CSA has one standard with key elements that are consistent across Canada. Local public advisory committees participate in the development of Sustainable Forest Management Plans and contribute to the development of local auditable objectives, indicators and targets for each forest area seeking or maintaining certification. • FSC has a global set of Principles and Criteria that are common across FSC standards worldwide, including Canada. These are then further refined through the development of sub-national standards for Canada that include auditable indicators. • SFI® has one set of auditable requirements that are consistent across Canada and the United States, and include objectives, performance measures and indicators.

The table on page 7 illustrates the forestry requirements of the programs. Examples are provided to show how the requirements are applied in Canada’s boreal region, where the majority of FSC certifications in Canada are. Regular font shows auditable requirements that must always be met, and italicized font is used for the examples showing the application of CSA in the boreal, to indicate that they are not auditable requirements and variable at the time of writing. A consistent set of core indicators is expected to be included in the revised CSA Z809 standard by the end of 2008. Requirements were generally listed under the topic they were felt to be most applicable to, in order to keep the table manageable in size. Finally, it should be noted that the table only shows the language of the programs, and should not be taken as giving an accurate indication of what happens on the ground when the standards are applied.

This makes it difficult to directly compare the three standards used in Canada, as they each take a different approach to developing auditable indicators. CSA does this at the local level every time the standard is applied, FSC does this at the sub-national standard level, and SFI does this directly in its standard, which is applied across North America.

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THE FORESTRY REQUIREMENTS

Conserve biological diversity

CSA SFM Standard (CAN/CSA-Z809-02)

FSC Principles & Criteria

SFI® Standard (SFIS 2005-2009)

CCFM Criterion1 – Conservation of Biological Diversity: Conserve biological diversity by maintaining integrity, function, and diversity of living organisms and the complexes of which they are part.

Principle 6 Environmental Impact: Forest management shall conserve biological diversity and its associated values, water resources, soils, and unique and fragile ecosystems and landscapes, and, by so doing, maintain the ecological functions and the integrity of the forest.

Objective 4: To manage the quality and distribution of wildlife habitats and contribute to the conservation of biological diversity by developing and implementing stand- and landscape-level measures that promote habitat diversity and the conservation of forest plants and animals, including aquatic fauna.

Also specified in Criteria 6.1 (Assessment of Environmental Impact), 6.2 (Species at Risk), 6.4 (Representative Sample of Ecosystems) and Principle 9 (High Conservation Value Forests).

Also specified in Performance Measures 4.1 (Biological DiversityStand and Landscape Levels) and 4.2 (Wildlife Habitat and Conservation of Biological Diversity).

Criterion 6.3: Ecological functions and values shall be maintained intact, enhanced, or restored, including:

Indicator 3: Procurement (by manufacturing facilities) from areas outside the United States and Canada promotes conservation of biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas.

Also specified in CSA SFM Elements: • • • •

1.1 Ecosystem Diversity 1.2 Species Diversity 1.3 Genetic Diversity 1.4 Protected Areas and Sites of Special Biological Significance

a) Forest regeneration and succession. b) Genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity. c) Natural cycles that affect the productivity of the forest ecosystem.

Maintain wildlife habitat and species diversity (Provides further detail on “CONSERVE

BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ”

above)

CSA SFM Element 1.1 Ecosystem Diversity: Diversity: Conserve ecosystem diversity at the landscape level by maintaining the variety of communities and ecosystems that naturally occur in the Defined Forest Area. SFM Element 1.2 Species Diversity: Conserve species diversity by ensuring that habitats for the native species found in the Defined Forest Area are maintained through time. CCFM Criterion 2 – Maintenance and Enhancement of Forest Ecosystem Condition and Productivity: Conserve forest ecosystem condition and productivity by maintaining the health, vitality, and rates of biological production. Also specified in CSA SFM Elements: • 2.1 Forest Ecosystem Resilience • 2.2 Forest Ecosystem Productivity

Protect / Maintain Special Sites (Biological And Cultural)

CSA SFM Element 1.4 Protected Areas and Sites of Special Biological Significance: Respect protected areas identified through government processes. Identify sites of special biological significance within the Defined Forest Area and implement management strategies appropriate to their longterm maintenance. CCFM Criterion 6 – Accepting Society’s Responsibility for Sustainable Development: Society’s responsibility for sustainable forest management requires that fair, equitable, and effective forest management decisions are made. CSA SFM Element 6.2 Respect for Aboriginal Forest Values, Knowledge, and Uses: Respect traditional Aboriginal forest values and uses identified through the Aboriginal input process.

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Criterion 6.2: Safeguards shall exist which protect rare, threatened and endangered species and their habitats (e.g., nesting and feeding areas). Conservation zones and protection areas shall be established, appropriate to the scale and intensity of forest management and the uniqueness of the affected resources. Inappropriate hunting, fishing, trapping and collecting shall be controlled. Criterion 6.3: Ecological functions and values shall be maintained intact, enhanced, or restored, including:

Performance Measure 4.1 Indicators: 1. Program to promote the conservation of native biological diversity, including species, wildlife habitats, and ecological or natural community types, at stand and landscape levels. 2. Program to protect threatened and endangered species. 3. Plans to locate and protect known sites associated with viable occurrences of critically imperilled and imperilled species and communities.

a) Forest regeneration and succession. b) Genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity. c) Natural cycles that affect the productivity of the forest ecosystem.

Also specified in Performance Measure 4.2 (Requires the application of research into wildlife management activities).

Criterion 3.3: Sites of special cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance to indigenous peoples shall be clearly identified in cooperation with such peoples, and recognized and protected by forest managers.

Principle 7: Protection of Special Sites and Biological Diversity

Criterion 6.4: Representative samples of existing ecosystems within the landscape shall be protected in their natural state and recorded on maps, appropriate to the scale and intensity of operations and the uniqueness of the affected resources.

Performance Measure 6.1: Program Participants shall identify special sites and manage them in a manner appropriate for their unique features.

Principle 9 Maintenance of high conservation value forests: Management activities in high conservation value forests shall maintain or enhance the attributes which define such forests. Decisions regarding high conservation value forests shall always be considered in the context of a precautionary approach.

Objective 8, Performance Measure 8.1: For procurement from sources within the United States and Canada, participants shall encourage landowners to reforest following harvest, use BMPs, identify and protect important habitat elements for wildlife, including critically imperilled and imperilled species and communities.

Objective 6: To manage Program Participant lands that are ecologically, geologically, historically, or culturally important in a manner that recognizes their special qualities.

Performance Measure 12.4: Program Participants with forest management responsibilities on public lands shall confer with affected indigenous peoples. Indicator: Program that includes communicating with affected indigenous peoples to enable Program Participants to b) identify and protect spiritually, historically, or culturally important sites.


THE FORESTRY REQUIREMENTS (cont.)

Maintain soil and water resources

CSA SFM Standard (CAN/CSA-Z809-02)

FSC Principles & Criteria

SFI® Standard (SFIS 2005-2009)

CCFM Criterion 3 – Conservation of Soil and Water Resources: Conserve soil and water resources by maintaining their quantity and quality in forest ecosystems.

Criterion 5.5: Forest management operations shall recognize, maintain, and, where appropriate, enhance the value of forest services and resources such as watersheds and fisheries.

Objective 2: To ensure long-term forest productivity and conservation of forest resources through prompt reforestation, soil conservation, afforestation, and other measures.

CSA SFM Element 3.1 Soil Quality and Quantity: Conserve soil resources by maintaining soil quality and quantity.

Principle 6 Environmental impact: Forest management shall conserve biological diversity and its associated values, water resources, soils, and unique and fragile ecosystems and landscapes, and, by so doing, maintain the ecological functions and the integrity of the forest.

Performance Measure 2.3: Program Participants shall implement management practices to protect and maintain forest soil productivity.

Criterion 6.5: Written guidelines shall be prepared and implemented to: control erosion; minimize forest damage during harvesting, road construction, and all other mechanical disturbances; and protect water resources.

Objective 3: To protect water quality in streams, lakes, and other water bodies.

CSA SFM Element 3.2 Water Quality and Quantity: Conserve water resources by maintaining water quality and quantity.

Indicator 3: Use of erosion control measures to minimize the loss of soil and site productivity.

Performance Measure 3.1: Program Participants shall meet or exceed all applicable federal, provincial, state, and local water quality laws and best management practices... Performance Measure 3.2: Program Participants shall have or develop, implement, and document riparian protection measures based on soil type, terrain, vegetation, and other applicable factors.

Ensure Harvest Levels Are Sustainable

CCFM Criterion 2 – Maintenance and Enhancement of Forest Ecosystem Condition and Productivity: Conserve forest ecosystem condition and productivity by maintaining the health, vitality, and rates of biological production.

Principle 5 Benefits from the forest: Forest management operations shall encourage the efficient use of the forest’s multiple products and services to ensure economic viability and a wide range of environmental and social benefits.

CSA SFM Element 2.2 Forest Ecosystem Productivity: Conserve forest ecosystem productivity and productive capacity by maintaining ecosystem conditions that are capable of supporting naturally occurring species.

Criterion 5.6: The rate of harvest of forest products shall not exceed levels which can be permanently sustained.

Objective 1: To broaden the implementation of sustainable forestry by ensuring long-term harvest levels based on the use of the best scientific information available. Performance Measure 1.1: Program participants shall ensure that long-term harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with relevant growth-and-yield models and written plans.

CCFM Criterion 5 – Multiple Benefits to Society: Sustain flows of forest benefits for current and future generations by providing multiple goods and services. CSA SFM Element 5.1 Timber and Non-Timber Benefits: Manage the forest sustainably to produce an acceptable and feasible mix of both timber and non-timber benefits. Protect Forestlands From Deforestation And Conversion

CSA SFM Element 2.2 Forest Ecosystem Productivity: Conserve forest ecosystem productivity and productive capacity by maintaining ecosystem conditions that are capable of supporting naturally occurring species.

Criterion 6.10: Forest conversion to plantations (“Forest areas lacking most of the principal characteristics and key elements of native ecosystems...”) or non-forest land uses shall not occur, except in circumstances where conversion:

CSA SFM Element 4.2 Forest Land Conversion: Protect forestlands from deforestation or conversion to non-forests.

a) entails a very limited portion of the forest management unit; and b) does not occur on high conservation value forest areas; and c) will enable clear, substantial, additional, secure, long term conservation benefits.

Performance Measure 2.1 Program Participants shall reforest after final harvest, unless delayed for site-specific environmental or forest health considerations, through artificial regeneration with two years or two planting seasons, or by planned natural regeneration methods within five years. Indicator 2: Clear criteria to judge adequate regeneration and appropriate actions to correct understocked areas and achieve acceptable species composition and stocking rates for both artificial and natural regeneration. Indicator 5. Artificial reforestation programs that consider potential ecological impacts of a different species or species mix from that which was harvested. Performance Measure 8.1 Indicator 1: Program to supply regionally appropriate information or services to forest landowners, describing the importance and providing implementation guidance on b). reforestation;

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THE FORESTRY REQUIREMENTS (cont.)

No Wood From Illegal Or Unauthorized Sources (Also see Chain of Custody below)

CSA SFM Standard (CAN/CSA-Z809-02)

FSC Principles & Criteria

SFI® Standard (SFIS 2005-2009)

4. Sustainable Forest Management Requirements. 4.1 General Requirements: The organization shall meet the SFM requirements of this Standard, which include but are not limited to: a) compliance with relevant legislation on the Defined Forest Area.

Principle 1 Compliance with laws and FSC Principles: Forest management shall respect all applicable laws of the country in which they occur, and international treaties and agreements to which the country is a signatory, and comply with all FSC Principles and Criteria.

Perf Measure 8.5. Program Participants shall ensure that their procurement programs support the principles of sustainable forestry, including efforts to thwart illegal logging and promote conservation of biological diversity.

Criterion 1.5: Forest management areas should be protected from illegal harvesting, settlement and other unauthorized activities.

1. Process to assess the risk that the Program Participant’s procurement program could acquire material from illegal logging. This process may include relying on the adequacy of legal protections in the United States and Canada, where laws against domestic illegal logging are enforced.

7.3.4 Rights and Regulations: The organization shall: a) demonstrate that relevant legislation and regulatory requirements that relate to ownership, tenures, and rights and responsibilities in the Defined Forest Area have been identified and complied with.

Indicators:

2. Program to address any significant risk identified under 8.5.1. 3. Procurement from areas outside the United States and Canada promotes conservation of biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas. 4. Program with direct suppliers to promote the principles of sustainable forestry. 5. Knowledge about direct suppliers’ application of the principles of sustainable forestry. Objective 11: Commitment to comply with applicable federal, provincial, state, or local laws and regulations.

Aboriginal Rights and/or Involvement

5.2 Interested Parties: The organization shall: c) demonstrate through documentation that efforts were made to contact Aboriginal forest users and communities affected by or interested in forest management in the Defined Forest Area; d) demonstrate through documentation that efforts were made to encourage Aboriginal forest users and communities to become involved in identifying and addressing SFM values; e) recognize Aboriginal and treaty rights and agree that Aboriginal participation in the public participation process will not prejudice those rights; CSA SFM Element 6.1 Aboriginal and Treaty Rights: Recognize and respect Aboriginal and treaty rights. CSA SFM Element 6.2 Respect for Aboriginal Forest Values, Knowledge, and Uses: Respect traditional Aboriginal forest values and uses identified through the Aboriginal input process. 7.3.4 Rights and Regulations: The organization shall: b) demonstrate that Aboriginal and treaty rights have been identified and respected

Criterion 3.1: Indigenous peoples shall control forest management on their lands and territories unless they delegate control with free and informed consent to other agencies.

Performance Measure 12.4: Program Participants with forest management responsibilities on public lands shall confer with affected indigenous peoples.

Criterion 3.2: Forest management shall not threaten or diminish, either directly or indirectly, the resources or tenure rights of indigenous peoples.

Indicator 1: Program that includes communicating with affected indigenous peoples to enable Program Participants to:

Criterion 3.3: Sites of special cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance to indigenous peoples shall be clearly identified in cooperation with such peoples, and recognized and protected by forest managers. Criterion 3.4: Indigenous peoples shall be compensated for the application of their traditional knowledge regarding the use of forest species or management systems in forest operations. This compensation shall be formally agreed upon with their free and informed consent before forest operations commence.

a) understand and respect traditional forest-related knowledge; b) identify and protect spiritually, historically, or culturally important sites; and c) address the sustainable use of non-timber forest products of value to indigenous peoples in areas where Program Participants have management responsibilities on public lands. Performance Measure 8.6. Program Participants shall encourage economically, environmentally, and socially sound practices. Indicator 1. Process to assess the risk that the Program Participant’s procurement takes place in countries without effective laws addressing the following: c) indigenous peoples’ rights. Indicator 2. Program to address any significant risk identified under 8.6.1.

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THE FORESTRY REQUIREMENTS (cont.)

Require Public Disclosure

CSA SFM Standard (CAN/CSA-Z809-02)

FSC Principles & Criteria

SFI速 Standard (SFIS 2005-2009)

7.3.7 SFM Plan: The organization shall document, maintain, and make publicly available an SFM plan for the Defined Forest Area.

Criterion 7.4: While respecting the confidentiality of information, forest managers shall make publicly available a summary of the primary elements of the management plan, including those listed in Criterion 7.1 (management objectives, description of forest resource, environmental limitations, etc.)

Section 8. Public Communication and Claims (From Audit Procedures & Qualifications-SFI APQ)

7.4.3 Communication 7.4.3.1 General: The organization shall: b) establish and maintain procedures for receiving, documenting, and responding to relevant communication from external interested parties; c) make the SFM plan publicly available; d) make an annual report on its performance in meeting and maintaining the SFM requirements publicly available; and e) make the results of independent certification and surveillance audit reports publicly available.

Criterion 8.5: While respecting the confidentiality of information, forest managers shall make publicly available a summary of the results of monitoring indicators, including those listed in Criterion 8.2 (yield of forest products harvested, growth rates, regeneration and condition of the forest, etc.)

Section 8.1.1 Preparing and Submitting a Public Report: A Program Participant that wishes to make any public claims or statements about its SFI certification, recertification, or surveillance audit shall provide a report to the Sustainable Forestry Board (SFB) (Now SFI Inc.) not less than two weeks before making the report public. The public report will be posted on the SFB (SFI) website and available for public review. The auditor shall work with the Program Participant to prepare the public report, which shall include, at a minimum, g) a summary of the findings, including general descriptions of any non-conformances and corrective action plans to address them, opportunities for improvement, and exceptional practices, and h) the certification recommendation

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EXAMPLES: APPLICATION OF THE REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA’S BOREAL FOREST Boreal CSA SFM Plan

FSC National Boreal Standard

SFI Indicators

Regular font shows requirements. Italicized font shows the local application of the CSA standard (2002 version), which varies from forest to forest. Natural Forest Landscapes

Healthy, dynamic forest ecosystems that maintain essential forest processes and their productive capacity and are resilient to disturbances

Indicator 6.3.4. Restore forest units and communities that are under-represented relative to the pre-industrial condition of the forest

Indicators:

Indicator 6.3.6. Set targets for landscape patterns, consistent with the pre-industrial forest

• Forest type and age • Area harvested and burned • Size of harvested and burned areas Forest Age

• • • •

Interior forest Residual islands Residual stems and clumps Protected areas

Maintenance of a full range of forest ages and types that naturally occur on the Defined Forest Area.

Performance Measure 4.1 Indicator 5. Assessment, conducted individually or collaboratively, of forest cover types and habitats at the individual ownership level and, where credible data are available, across the landscape, and incorporation of findings into planning and management activities, where practical and when consistent with management objectives.

Indicator 6.3.5. Maintain range of old forests as identified in the analysis of pre-industrial condition.

Performance Measure 4.1 Indicator 6. Support of and participation in plans or programs for the conservation of oldgrowth forests.

Indicator 6.3.10. Harvesting activities maintain residual stand structures sufficient to fulfill ecological functions

Performance Measure 4.1 Indicator 4. Development and implementation of criteria, as guided by regionally appropriate science, for retention of stand-level wildlife habitat elements (e.g., snags, mast trees, down woody debris, den trees, nest trees)

Continued existence of all plant and animal species native to the Defined Forest Area.

Indicator 6.3.12. Maintain large areas of contiguous core forest habitat, making up at least 20% of the management unit

• Species are not put at risk as a result of forest management activities

Indicator 6.3.13. Maintain or restore connectivity between important wildlife areas

• Protect threatened and endangered species

Indicator 6.3.14. Set quantitative habitat objectives for species chosen to represent a range of habitat requirements.

Performance Measure 4.2 Indicator 1. Collection of information on critically imperilled and imperilled species and communities and other biodiversity-related data through forest inventory processes, mapping, or participation in external programs, such as NatureServe, state of provincial heritage programs, or other credible systems

Indicators: • Forest type and age Retention of Structure

Retention of vegetative structure (mature and/or immature trees) within harvested blocks Indicators: • Residual islands • Residual stems and clumps

Wildlife Habitat

• Contribute to provincial programs for species that may be affected by forestry operations (including Woodland Caribou management) • Maintain the overall tree species composition and density across the landscape, through regeneration and other management activities Indicators: • Species at risk • Road density • Species at risk-preharvest site assessments and protection

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• Species at risk management Initiatives • Regenerating species • Species association balance

Indicator 2. A methodology to incorporate research results and field applications of biodiversity and ecosystem research into forest management decisions.


EXAMPLES: APPLICATION OF THE REQUIREMENTS IN CANADA’S BOREAL FOREST Boreal CSA SFM Plan

FSC National Boreal Standard

SFI Indicators

Regular font shows requirements. Italicized font shows the local application of the CSA standard (2002 version), which varies from forest to forest. Riparian Areas

Manage activities to protect and maintain water quality and quantity within lakes, rivers, and streams. Indicators: • • • • • •

Waste Watershed–disturbed condition Spills reaching water Watercourse crossings Ponding from roads Benthic macro-Invertebrates

Indicator 6.3.17. Forests surrounding or adjoining permanent water bodies are protected by inner riparian reserves extending at least 20 metres from the treed edge of water bodies, as well as additional riparian reserves averaging an additional 45 metres, managed to maintain fish or wildlife habitat and/or cultural and recreational values Indicator 6.3.18. Appropriate considerations are included for ephemeral or intermittent streams

Performance Measure 3.2 Indicators: 1. Program addressing management and protection of streams, lakes and other water bodies and riparian zones 2. Mapping of streams. lakes and other water bodies as specified in provincial BMPs and, where appropriate, identification on the ground 3. Implementation of plans to manage or protect streams, lakes and other water bodies 4. Identification and protection of non-forested wetlands, including bogs, fens, vernal pools and marshes of significant size. 5. Where regulations or BMPs do not currently exist to protect riparian areas, use of experts to identify appropriate protection measures.

Harvest Levels

Ensure future timber harvests can be sustained in perpetuity at or above current levels. Indicators: • • • • • • • • •

Aboriginal Rights or Involvement

Forest type and age including NSR lands Area harvested and burned Roads and landing reclamation Actual harvest compared to approved harvests Size of harvested and burned areas Harvest distribution Third-party operator plans Regeneration-speedy and successful Permanent sample plot measurements

Aboriginal and treaty rights are understood and respected in forest management planning and operations. Have employment (direct and indirect) be reflective of local demographics Endeavour to meet on a regular basis with Aboriginal communities with an interest in the Defined Forest Area to: • Discuss the most appropriate manner to consult with the community • Share knowledge and perspectives on the forest • Discuss and follow-up on forest management issues of importance to the community

Indicator 5.6.1 The analysis and calculation of harvest rates is based on a precautionary approach, credible growth-and-yield information, a current inventory, sensitivity analysis of the assumptions that go into the calculations, natural succession pathways and operational constraints.

Performance Measure 1.1 Indicators:

Indicator 5.6.3 The wood supply modelling exercise is subject to peer review.

1. Long-term resource analysis to guide planning, including forest inventory, land classification system, soils inventory and maps where available, access to growth-and-yield modeling capabilities, up-to-date maps or geographic information system, recommended sustainable harvest levels, review of non-timber issues.

Indicator 5.6.4 Actual harvest rates, averaged over five years, do not exceed the planned average level

2. Documentation of annual harvest trends in relation to the sustainable forest management plan.

Indicator 3.1.2 Agreement is obtained from each affected Indigenous community verifying that their interests and concerns are clearly incorporated in the management plan.

Performance Measure 8.6.1 Indicator 1. Process to assess the risk that the program Participant’s procurement takes place in countries without effective laws addressing the following:

Indicator 3.14. Jointly establish opportunities for long-term economic benefit.

d) indigenous peoples’ rights.

Indicator 3.1.5 A developed dispute resolution process has been jointly developed with affected Indigenous communities. Indicator 3.3.3. Where indigenous communities indicate threats of serious environmental, economic or cultural impact forestry operations are suspended or relocated until disputes are resolved.

Indicator 2. Program to address any significant risk identified under 8.6.1. Boreal operation, under Performance Measure 12.4: (Confer with affected indigenous peoples): Public participation program includes communicating with Aboriginal communities to discuss forestry plans and operations, the protection of important cultural and biological sites, economic benefits, respect for Aboriginal rights, and specific environmental and social issues

• Meet in locations acceptable to First Nations and Metis Communities • Work to develop a dispute resolution process that respects Aboriginal communities’ traditions • Strive to reach an agreement with each Aboriginal community that lives in or uses the Defined Forest Area which the company operates in.

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Other Program Elements CSA

FSC

SFI

Balance

Decisions are made with representation from a balance of social, economic and environmental interests. All standards are supported by various conservation groups.

Qualifications of auditors

Third-party audit by a certification body accredited by Standards Council of Canada (SCC), according to ISO 17021:2006 for EMS with specific forestry qualifications for CSA audits.

Third-party audit by a certification body accredited by Accreditation Services International (ASI), of which FSC International is the sole shareholder.

Third-party audit by a certification body accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) - ASQ National Accreditation Board (ANAB), or the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) according to ISO 17021:2006 for EMS with specific forestry qualifications for SFI audits.

Audits of Forest Planning & Practices

Audits to this standard are done by accredited certifiers and certified auditors who are independent of the standards-writing body (CSA).

Certification bodies shall follow the requirements for decision making as specified in section 8 of FSC-STD-20-002 Version 1 in applying this standard, and use the benchmarks, management processes, and targets identified in this Standard as the basis upon which to make assessments.

Audits are conducted in accordance with ISO 19011:2002 guidelines

In addition to the initial audit there are mandatory annual reviews, which include both a document review and on-site checks of the forest to ensure progress is being made towards the achievement of targets and that the SFM requirements are being upheld. A full re-certification audit is required periodically following the initial certification, in accordance with the requirements of the Standards Council of Canada. Revision of the Standards Chain of Custody

All forest standards remain current and relevant through an open, inclusive revision process involving public input, which typically occurs in Canada on a five-year cycle. All chain of custody standards require screening of any uncertified wood sources to ensure they come from legal (authorized) and credible sources. They also exclude ‘controlled wood’ in the case of FSC, and areas of high risk in the case of PEFC (CSA and SFI). The use of both segregation and percentage-based methods to calculate certified content is allowed with all of the standards. CSA CoC certification requires conformance with the internationally recognized PEFC Council CoC Requirements set out in PEFC Annex 4.

Labels

In cases where local or regional considerations have not been fully accounted for by this Standard, or where circumstances unique to an applicant’s operations are relevant, certifiers are expected to use their best professional judgment in ensuring that the spirit of the FSC Principles and Criteria is upheld in the management of the applicant’s forest.

A SFI audit shall: a) verify that the Program Participant’s SFI Program is in conformance with SFI objectives, performance measures, and indicators, and any additional indicators that the Program Participant chooses and b) verify whether the Program Participant has effectively implemented its SFI Standard program requirements on the ground

FSC CoC Standard (FSC-STD-40-004 Version 2) is effective for all new certificate holders as of April 1, 2008. Existing certificate holders have until Jan 1 2009 to comply.

SFI CoC certification requires conformance with SFI Annex 2, SFI CoC Standard. SFI recognizes fibre from PEFC North American-endorsed standards (SFI and CSA as of April 2008) and recognizes PEFC CoC certificates issued in North America for use of the SFI labels.

All programs have optional on-product labels for use by organizations that have a valid CoC certification under that standard, and meet the specified label use requirements. A label for 100% CSA certified content, and labels for 70% or greater CSA certified content. Ability to use PEFC labels as well. CSA is recognized by SFI because the CSA standard is endorsed by PEFC.

A label for 100% FSC certified content, and a 100% recycled label.

A label for 100% SFI certified content, and a 100% recycled label.

A variety of mixed source labels that include a combination of FSC certified, uncertified and/or recycled content. Combined FSC certified and recycled content must be 70%. Claims can be based on any combination of FSC certified and post-consumer reclaimed material.

A variety of SFI percent certified content labels that require reporting the exact percentage of SFI certified content in the product.

Under a percentage system, a reduced labeling threshold of 50% can be used for chip and fibre products until the end of 2009, and ‘FSC Recycled’ products may include up to 15% preconsumer reclaimed material.

Ability to count certified content from any North American PEFC endorsed standard (currently SFI and CSA). Ability to use PEFC labels with a PEFC CoC. SFI also has fibre sourcing labels for third party certified procurement (Objectives 8-13 of the SFI Standard) of raw materials from non-participant lands.

Cert no. XXX-XXX-000

Websites:

certifiedwood.csa.ca

www.pefc.org

Table Sources: Based on information publicly available at the time from CSA, FSC, PEFC, and SFI 13

www.fsc.org

www.sfiprogram.org

www.pefc.org


FPAC Member Companies AbitibiBowater Inc. www.abitibibowater.com

Mercer International www.mercerint.com

Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries Inc. www.alpac.ca

Mill & Timber Products Ltd. www.millandtimber.com

Canfor Corporation www.canfor.com

Papier Masson www.papiermasson.com

Canfor Pulp Limited Partnership www.canforpulp.com

SFK Pulp www.sfk.ca

Cariboo Pulp & Paper Company www.westfraser.com

NewPage Corporation www.newpagecorp.com

Cascades Inc. www.cascades.com

Tembec www.tembec.com

Catalyst Paper Corporation www.catalystpaper.com

Tolko Industries Ltd. www.tolko.com

F. F. Soucy www.brant-allen.com

UPM-Kymmene Miramichi, Inc. www.upm-kymmene.com

Howe Sound Pulp and Paper Limited Partnership www.hspp.ca

West Fraser Timber Co. Ltd. www.westfraser.com

Kruger Inc. www.kruger.com

Weyerhaeuser Company Limited www.weyerhaeuser.com

Louisiana-Pacific Canada Ltd. www.lpcorp.com

Glossary APQ

Audit Procedures and Qualifications

CCFM Canadian Council of Forest Ministers CoC

Chain of Custody

HCVF

High conservation value forests

SFI

Sustainable Forestry Initiative

ANSI ISO SFM

American National Standards Institute BMP International Organization for EMS Standardization NSR Sustainable forest management PEFC

Best Management Practices Environmental management system Not-sufficiently restocked Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes

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Website: www.canadawood.info

Canada (Head Office) 99 Bank Street Suite 410 Ottawa, ON Canada K1P 6B9 Tel: 613 563-1441 Fax: 613 563-4720

European Office 12 A Place Stepahnie B-1050 Brussels, Belgium Tel: +(32 2) 512.50.51 Fax: +(32 2) 502.54.02 Website: www.fpac.ca

For an electronic copy of this publication, please visit www.fpac.ca


FPAC_ForestryCertification_EN