These didactic contents have been elaborated by an educators’ team and reviewed by the dermatologist Dr. Asunción Vicente Villa of the mother-child hospital of Sant Joan de Déu.
Introduction ISDIN, committed to the prevention of solar damages, has set this 19th edition of the Campaign Fotoprotégete Bien in motion with the support of the digital platform IsdinSunLab.com. We are totally convinced that educating school children in good photoprotection habits is especially important, since according to the Foundation of skin cancer, using a photoprotector during the first 18 years of a person’s life decreases in 78% the probability of developing skin cancer in the future. The main goals for this stage between 6 and 8 years of age are: •
Improving and changing photoprotection attitudes and habits
Acquiring a basic knowledge about the skin
Reflecting about the main benefits of the Sun for life in the Earth
Becoming aware of the risks of the Sun for our skin and of the consequences of a bad exposure to solar rays.
Establishing relations between geological and atmospheric knowledge (passage and rotation movements, effect of solar rays on different surfaces, climates, seasons, ozone layer) and photoprotection habits.
Therefore through this campaign, ISDIN contributes its experience in photoprotection highlighting the importance of having healthy photoprotection habits, from a preventive and awareness point of view. All that through two dimensions: •
Informing: investigating and experimenting
Internalizing: habits and attitudes
Didactic material The specific material that ISDIN has developed for the intermediate level (pupils between 6 and 8 years of age) comprises the story “The day that the Earth stopped spinning around”, a treasure hunt “In search of the lost word” and the experiment “The protective shield”. Telling stories is an essential element at the ages of these children for motivating and presenting the different concepts that we want to transmit and that shall be later on developed in other working materials (treasure hunt and experiment). The story is the ideal place for presenting the need of an appropriate photoprotection. The IsdinSunProtectors, the photoprotection superheroes, help us take care of our skin against external aggressions from the Sun through an entertaining adventure story. Once you have worked with the story as an introductory activity, we propose two working activities in the classroom that shall help pupils acquire knowledge and develop attitudes about photoprotection: 1. An experiment: “The protective shield” 2. A treasure hunt: “In search of the lost word” These activities are accompanied by an article that is in the library of the web page www.isdinlab.com: “We know a lot about the Sun, Skin and Photoprotection” In order to get these activities started, you have this teacher’s book where the necessary didactic guidelines and suggestions are provided, and a researcher’s notebook for the pupils, where you will find the necessary tasks to carry out both for the experiment and the Treasure Hunt, which you can download in pdf from www.isdinsunlab.com As well as the group competition, we also invite your students to participate in the individual competition via the application that we have developed for tablets and mobile phones. In order to participate in the individual competition, they must publish the image with the results they obtained in the game, with the help of their parents. Encourage them to take part, they can win fantastic prizes!!!
Diploma of experts in photoprotection Once all activities have been completed, we suggest that each pupil takes home the diploma of expert in photoprotection, with the aim that the members of his/her family also contribute in the project carried out in the school about the Sun, Skin and Photoprotection, and that the family assumes in this way the commitment to follow healthy habits in the future. We propose that the pupils hang the diploma at home, in a visible place (fridge, door, etc.). The diploma is in the private area of www.isdinsunlab.com. In order to achieve the goal of making sure that the concepts are assimilated and that pupils continue learning about the Sun, Skin and Photoprotection while having fun, we suggest that you encourage them to play with the games they shall find in www.isdinsunlab.com.
Timing of the material The first activity, the experiment, shall be developed in four sessions of 50 minutes each; and the second activity, the Treasure Hunt, shall be developed in just one session of one hour.
Experiment – The protective shield 1. Introduction The experiment we present now comprises three stages and it aims at letting your pupils observe how higher solar radiation is during certain hours of the day and the harmful effects that a solar exposure without photoprotection during these hours has. •
In order to do so, we will use the sundial in the stage 1 of the experiment, a tool that has been used since the ancient times in order to measure time. Its operation is based in the rotation movement of the Earth and, therefore, the time is measured by taking into account the projection of the shadow on a surface. For this reason, the sundial not only gives us information about the time, but we can also use the shadow as an indicator of solar radiation.
In the stage 2 we work on the concept of the passage of time, based on the rotation movement of the Earth, and therefore, on the shadow the Sun projects when it strikes an object. At the same time, the pupil is expected to understand that our shadow can give us a lot of information about the risk that our skin faces when it is exposed to the Sun.
Finally, in the stage 3, through an easy observation and taking into account everything we have learnt in previous stages, pupils shall be capable of experimenting how the Sun strikes on the different parts of their body, and they shall be able to tell which phototype their skin belongs to.
2. Results of the learning process At the end of the experiment pupils shall be able to:
a) Follow correctly the instructions for the execution of the experiment. b) Use the obtained results in order to increase their conclusions. c) Know the consequences of Sun exposure.
d) Understand the way the skin
defends itself from the Sun, and that that is related to the tan in the areas of our body that are exposed to the Sun.
e) Enumerate photoprotection habits.
3. Necessary materials •
Cutouts of the card (in the researcher’s notebook)
Pencil and eraser
4. Development of the activity As we have already mentioned, the activity shall comprise three stages. Stage 1: Building a sundial Either individually or in groups, we shall build a sundial. In order to do it, pupils shall need a card “the sundial” that they will find in the researcher’s notebook. The necessary materials are: •
Cutouts of the card.
In this stage 1 there are five steps what must be followed. Four of these steps are aimed at building the sundial.
Step 1: Knowing the parts that form it In the first place, the three parts that form the sundial shall be presented to the pupils. They shall be in cutout format in the researcher’s notebook. •
Part of the spring-summer side.
Part of the autumn-winter side
Template of the gnomon, which is the object that projects the shadow (4 possible angles, to be selected according to the latitude) Spring-summer side 18 6 17 7 16
9 14 13
6 18 7 17 8
Since the Sun does not strike in the same way in summer than in winter, the sundial has two sides. We have included both sides of the sundial, which will end up forming a sole part. Depending of the season we are in, the shadow shall be casted towards one side or the other. Another factor we must bear in mind is the latitude: depending on the latitude of the place we are at, we must select one gnomon or other, since the latitude of the place shall determine the incidence of solar rays. In the pupilâ€™s notebook there are four templates with different gnomons. Each template corresponds to one latitude, and the Spanish cities these latitudes correspond to are indicated. If your city is not included, select the gnomon template of the latitude of a close city. Step 2: Cut out and paste Once you have selected the gnomon depending on the latitude, children must cut the three parts following the red lines to paste them in a piece of cardboard and then cut the cardboard with the shape of the sundial. They must not forget to cut through the slots that are marked in the circumference. When they are done with the aforeexplained steps, they must paste the gnomon template on another cardboard, cut it out and make also the slot for both parts to fit as shown in the illustration. Step 3: Fit the parts Fit the parts as shown in the picture.
Upper side: s pring-summer
Lower side: autumn-winter
Step 4: Positioning the sundial As we show in the illustration, children must position the sundial towards the North or the Pole Star, in a place where the Sun strikes (window, playground, etc.), a compass can be used. Tell your pupils which side they must observe depending on the time of the year when they build the sundial: •
he upper side shall read the time in the spring and summer.
The lower side shall read the time in autumn and winter.
Step 5: Observation of the shadow The reasercher’s notebook is designed for them to play the leading role in the process, since during the experiment they can be autonomous in the observation and completion of the questions raised. The teacher will be a guide and will help whenever necessary answering possible doubts and questions. When they are done building the sundial and they have put it in the place they have decided, pupils must observe and answer card 2 “solar time”, which they will find in the researcher’s notebook. In this card children will look at the sundial and take notes of the relevant measurements. By doing this we expect pupils to differentiate between solar time and conventional time (civil time) and that they relate the movement of the shadow in the sundial with the Earth’s rotation. Warning: Remind your pupils that sundials do not show conventional time, but solar time. It is necessary to apply a little correction: the time shown by the sundial is advanced one hour in winter time (from the last Sunday in October until the last Sunday in March) and two hours in summer time. That is to say, we must add to the solar time one or two hours, depending on whether the observation was made in winter or summer.
Stage 2: Human clock In this activity, carried out in work groups, pupils will understand the risks of the incidence of the Sun depending on the length of the shadow. In order to carry out this activity the class must be divided in 4 or 5 groups. Each pupil shall have a role within the group: •
Child responsible for measuring
Child responsible for taking notes
In case that there are more than four pupils, they can build couples and play the same role. In order to take notes and then draw their own conclusions, pupils have card 3 “Is your shadow always the same?” in the researcher’s notebook.
Each group needs:
The note tables in the researcher’s notebook
A pencil and an eraser
A tape measure
During the day teams shall go out to the playground twice. Taking the civil hour as reference, the times when they will go out will be 10am and 1pm. 30 minutes before, they shall correctly apply photoprotector, essential each time children carry out an activity outdoors (playground, day trip, sport, etc.).
They will observe their own shadow and they will write the differences in length depending on the time of the day. For that purpose the responsibility of each child according to his / her role will be the following: •
Human clock: be in a place where the Sun strikes him /her.
Child responsible for measuring: will take to measurements. The first one, of the clock’s height (it is only necessary to do it the first time they go out) and the second, of the length of the shadow it projects on the ground.
Child responsible for taking notes: take note in the table in the researcher’s notebook of the results that the child responsible for measuring communicates him /her.
Observer: must pay attention to make sure that everyone in the team carries out their tasks correctly. Then, they must mark in the table which is the biggest measurement: the human clock or the shadow.
The activity ends when each team draws their conclusions of the research and answers the questions posed in the researcher’s notebook. Finally the conclusions will be shared in the class. At the end of the activity pupils must understand that the shadow is an indicator that tells us where the Sun is located: At 10am the location of the Sun in the horizon is more horizontal, the shadow is longer and, therefore, the Sun strikes less directly on our skin. At 1pm the location of the Sun is more vertical in the horizon, the shadow is smaller and therefore the sun strikes more directly on our skin. At this time we must maximize photoprotection measures before the Sun; and we must bear in mind that we should avoid solar exposure between 12pm and 4pm (time of the day when the intensity of the Sun is the greatest and the shadow the smallest). In addition to this, we can relate these conclusions with the temperature at the time when the measurements are carried out (at 10am and 1pm).
Now we provide you with the answers to the activity 6 of card 3: The more temperature the less shadow and the Sun is at a higher point. The less temperature the more shadow and the Sun is at a lower point.
Stage 3: Solar exposure In this last stage of the experiment and by means of three different activities, we will explain our pupils the relation between the Sun, the melanin as a protective shield for the skin and the color of our skin. For the first activity of this stage 3 they will have to use the shadow rule in order to select the time of the day in which the Sun strikes the most directly on the Earth (central hours of the day) and all together they shall go out to the playground, if possible with a short-sleeve T-shirt and shorts. 30 minutes before they must properly apply photoprotector, completely essential each time children carry out an activity outdoors (playground, day trip, sport, etc.) We will ask them to sit for a while in the Sun, to lie in the Sun for a while and play in the sun for a while (no more than 15 minutes all together). Then we will look for a shade and we will ask them to touch their faces, arms, forearms, the legs in the front part and the curves of the legs to tell which parts of their bodies are the hottest. We will go back into the classroom and we will fill in the card “Under the noon’s sun” in the researcher’s notebook. In this card pupils must remember in which parts of the body they have noticed the most heat and establish a hypothesis to explain why. By doing this they will be able to conclude that those parts of the body that are the warmest are those that are directly exposed to the Sun and where the Sun strikes directly. When they have established this starting point, they will carry out activity 2 of this stage 3, where they must observe how their skin has different shades depending on the location. For instance, the area of the forearms is fairer than the area in the front of the arms. Once they have observed this difference they will have to relate the data of the two activities. Are the parts less exposed to the Sun the fairest? Why? In order to be able to contrast the hypothesis proposed by the pupils, it is essential that they read the article “We know a lot about the Sun, the Skin and Photoprotection”. This article is in the library of the web page www.isdinsunlab.com When they are done reading the article you must help your pupils build up groups, depending on the phototype they belong to, in order to carry out activity 3 of this stage 3. In order to do so you can base the classification on the following phototype table attached, where depending on the shade of the skin and the eye and hair color the six different phototypes are established in which the population can be classified. Children have to understand that there are different skin shades and different eye and hair colors, and that each one of them is more or less sensitive to the Sun (for instance there are people with very fair skin that never get tanned and always get burnt, and on the other hand, there are people with dark skin that get very tanned and never get burnt). Once you have read the article and you have built up the groups, each pupil has to think how he / she can photoprotect himself / herself against the Sun and they must reach a consensus as to what they must never forget for a responsible photoprotection against the Sun (especially if they belong to the group with very fair skin, light eyes and blond hair): appropriate photoprotector applied in the proper way, cap, sunglasses, T-shirt, sunshade and be well hydrated.
Characteristics of the skin, the hair and the eyes
Action of the Sun on the skin (without protection): burns and tan
Tolerance to solar light
These are people with a very fair skin color (milk white), blue eyes and freckles on the skin
They present intense solar burns, they virtually never get tanned and their skin detaches intensely
Very sensitive to solar light
Their skin is white; they have blond or red hair, blue eyes and freckles
They easily and intensely get burnt, they get a little bit tanned and their skin detaches remarkably
Sensitive to solar light
Their skin is fair, without freckles. They have blond or chestnut hair.
They get moderately burnt and they progressively get tanned.
Normal sensitivity towards solar light
They often have brown skin. Hair and eyes are dark.
They get moderately burnt, they easily get tanned immediately when they are in the Sun
The skin has tolerance to solar light
These are people with brown skin and dark eyes and hair
They seldom get burnt and they easily and intensely get tanned; they always have an immediate reaction to the tan
High tolerance to solar light
They never get burnt and they get intensely tanned, they always have immediate reaction to the tan
Very high tolerance to solar light
Treasure hunt - In search of the lost word A treasure hunt game is a resource online that presents a series of questions and a list of web pages or resources where pupils look for the answers. At the end there usually is a “big question” and in order to answer it pupils must integrate and assess everything they have leant during the research. Treasure hunts are useful strategies in order to obtain information about a particular topic and practice skills and procedures related with information and communication technologies in general, accessing the information through the Internet. The treasure hunt we propose here has as learning contents for the pupils: •
The Sun and its relation with the planet: benefits and risks.
The skin and its main function for human life
Main photoprotection habits: use of an appropriate photoprotector, moisturizing, use of adequate clothes and elements
Through which we would like to: •
Present the main characteristics of the skin
Introduce the risk elements of Sun exposure
Make children aware of the basic habits for a responsible photoprotection.
Being faithful to our goal of developing the skill of learning how to learn, this activity shall be carried out in three stages that are explained in the researcher’s notebook and that can be downloaded through www.isdinsunlab.com to give support to this activity. •
Introduction of the Treasure Hunt through the reading by part of the pupils of the section Introduction,
Development of the Treasure Hunt “In search of the lost word”
Conclusions through the card “The found word”
Pupils must connect themselves by means of a computer with Internet to the private area of www.isdinsunlab. com in order to be able to answer all the questions posed by the Treasure Hunt. For each one of the posed questions, they must select the correct answer among several options, which they shall discover by clicking on the links we shall provide them with and which are in the button of the clue, near each question. If you click on the correct answer you´ll see a letter on the screen that you must write down on the card “the found word” in the researcher’s notebook. If they arrange the 14 letters in the correct order they will discover the answers to the posed question.
Following we will give you the answers to the 14 questions of the Treasure Hunt and the solution of the card “the found word”. Answers 1. The answers to the questions are:
1. Which is the biggest star of the solar system? •
2. Which is the most extensive organ of the human being? •
3. What do plants use solar energy for? •
4. How many layers does the skin have? •
5. What types of ultraviolet rays are there? •
UVA, UVB and UVC
6. Why are there different skin colors? •
Due to the melanin
7. Which vitamin is produced thanks to the solar exposure? •
8. Which solar rays do penetrate in our skin? •
9. What is a sunstroke? •
A health problem caused by a long exposure to sun rays without protection
10. Which parts of the body are most sensitive to the Sun? •
The nose, the lips and the feet
11. What do I have to do in order to protect my skin against solar rays? •
Use photoprotector, cap, sunglasses and T-shirt
12. What happens to my skin if I don’t protect it against UVA rays from the Sun? •
13. What is photoprotection? •
A product that we apply on the skin and helps protect ourselves against UV rays.
14. What is the solar protection factor? •
The multiplication of the time I can expose myself to the Sun without getting burnt if I use photoprotector
2. The 15-letter word is: Photoprotection
Arrange the letters in the correct order
P H O T O P R O T E C T I O N
3. The correct text they have to complete with the proposed words is: The skin is the most extensive organ of the body and has three layers. The Sun, which is a Star of the solar system, emits towards the Earth three types of ultraviolet rays: the UVA, UVB and UVC. Only UVA and UVB arrive to the Earth. In spite of the fact that the Sun has also benefits for the planet, for instance it allows plants to do the photosynthesis and people to produce vitamin D, ultraviolet rays UVA and UVB can damage our skin. In order to protect ourselves against the Sun, we must use a T-shirt, drink a lot of water, use sunglasses and select well the photoprotector with an appropriate solar protection factor for our skin type. If you do all that, you will have photoprotected yourself adequately.
Once all activities have been completed, we suggest that each pupil takes home the diploma of expert in photoprotection, with the aim that the members of his/her family also contribute in the project carried out in the school about the Sun, Skin and Photoprotection, and that the family assumes in this way the commitment to follow healthy habits in the future. We propose that the pupils hang the diploma at home, in a visible place (fridge, door, etc.). The diploma is in the private area of www.isdinsunlab.com.
Contest in group By means of the narrative and audiovisual resources provided by Isdin and through the research tasks that pupils have carried out in class, we have achieved awareness and learning process about the need to take care of our skin, since it is an essential organ for our lives. The Sun, although beneficial for human beings, and so have learnt your pupils, due to several factors half environmental and natural, also represents a risk for our skin. In this last stage of the 19th edition of the Campaign Fotoprotégete Bien, we suggest that pupils turn into messengers of the acquired knowledge: necessary habits for a responsible Sun exposure. Advertising is a communication strategy that has as goal arousing the need, motivating, capturing third party’s attention by means of an attractive message adequate for the public we aim at. When a publicists thinks about how to get many of us do or buy something, he carries out several efforts, cognitive works that lead to the in depth analysis of what he knows about that particular topic, to put himself / herself in the place of those he / she aims to persuade, to choose the language that is most appropriate for the product and the client and to think in a creative way. All these cognitive procedures, apart from the commercial weight advertising has, are desirable and very interesting to close a learning procedure with our pupils. One of the tools advertising uses the most is image and language. Looking for a good slogan, that captures the attention of people listening to it and creating an impressive and innovative image, are two of the challenges publicist have to face. This tool has a value in education: it synthesizes and transfers learning. The goal of this contest is that with the knowledge acquired on the topic of Photoprotection in the development of the proposed activities, together with the creativity of your pupils, they are able to create a mural which is an advertising element with slogan and images and synthesizes that learnt while trying to persuade the rest of classmates and families about the importance of adequately photoprotecting ourselves for the health of our body. Create all together a mural imitating an advertising element with a good slogan and image (that can be a drawing, collage, picture…) and that makes the rest of the classmates learn about photoprotection. You must persuade them of how important it is to adequately photoprotect ourselves in order for our body to remain healthy. Texts in the murals presented for the contest can be written in any of the official languages of the Spanish State. Once all this has been reflected in the Mural you can participate in the new edition of the contest in group, our national mural contest among schools and win great prizes for all the class. Consult how to take part and the contest rules on the website www.isdinsunlab.com.
Individual contest As well as the group competition, we also invite your students to participate in the individual competition via the application that we have developed for tablets and mobile phones. In order to participate in the individual competition, they must publish the image with the results they obtained in the game, with the help of their parents. Encourage them to take part, they can win fantastic prizes! The rules of the competition and the way it works can be found on the website www.isdinsunlab.com.