1.3 Social protection, a right for all Social protection is a broad concept encompassing public systems as well as community and initiatives:
Public systems of social security; Mandatory or voluntary private initiatives, such as private pension funds, mutual health organisations; Communal or associative social services.
Social security is the protection that society provides to its members through a series of public measures:
The compensation for a substantial reduction in earnings due to various risks (sickness, maternity, occupational accidents, unemployment, disability, old age and death of the breadwinner); Provision of affordable and high-quality health care; The granting of benefits to families with children.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) translates this into five basic objectives which are:
The insured and universal access to health services; The proper substitution of lost income; Secured funding for basic needs; The social integration or reintegration; The redistribution of wealth.
To achieve these objectives, social security systems need to rely on internationally recognized principles, based on an ethical position: Solidarity, Universality, Equality, Adequacy, Integrity, Participation, Compulsory affiliation, Uniformity, Responsibility of government, Justice, Fairness, and Respect for acquired rights or rights in the course of being acquired. The main functions of a social security system are:
Ensuring guaranteed minimum income with respect to income changes and providing social and health services that allow a dignified life;
Ensuring the replacement of income and the preservation of purchasing power.
Evaluation of fos health programmes
The concept of social security is based on the principle of communal risk. The cost of social security is financed through compulsory contributions from employers and/or the employee, with or without government subsidies. The mandatory nature of contributions is important as it builds solidarity and ensures adequate resources for the entire community. An important part of social protection is health care. In Belgium this has historically grown to be a system of social health insurance with compulsory contributions from employers and employees. Both public and private actors are involved, but the ultimate responsibility for provision rests with the government. An alternative to health insurance is to establish a universal system in which the government finances a uniform set of benefits that apply to all inhabitants of the country regardless of economic status or work history. This universal system operates in many countries in Europe, for example in the United Kingdom and Scandinavia. According to ILO calculations, 2 percent of the global income is sufficient to provide access to a minimum package of social protection for everyone in the world.