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K.M.R Forging Heritage 2013 Made In Sheffield


Forging Heritage

Kelly Marie Redhead Inspire, Surprise, Evoke In Collaboration with Sheffield Hallam University W.Wright Cutlery and Silverware Sheffield Amie Parsons Photography Boss Model Management Tina Sattarin Radha Pethers Pinders Sheffield 2013


K.M.R Kelly Marie Redhead Bridalwear Designer


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Contents Design Connection

Personal Design DNA Design, Opportunity, Issue Understanding the Issue

Inspire, Surprise, Evoke

Design Rationale Concept Theme

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Who, What, Why?

Market Clientele History

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Theoretical Research

Questionnaire Interviews Ethnographic Observation

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Literature Research

Decline of Craftsmanship Sustainability Emotional Attachment Theory

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Creative Research

Collaboration Heritage Image Analysis

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Journeymen

Trends Reinvention Cycles

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Own Hands

Exploration Experimentation Reflective Analysis

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Personal Craft

Drafting Refining Forging

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Practical Solutions

Creative Outcome Trademark Stainless Quality

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Sheffield Past, Present and Future

Origin Personal Hallmark Cutting Edge

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Referencing

Bibliography Image List Acknowledgements

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Chapter Design Connection

Personal Design DNA Design, Opportunity, Issue Understanding the Issue


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“Skilled artistry of traditional construction techniques mixed with innovative fabrics and contemporary silhouettes combine to showcase heritage through luxury pieces of fine quality and craftsmanship�. Kelly Redhead 04th December 2012

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Kelly Marie Redhead Personal Design DNA “Skilled artistry of traditional construction techniques mixed with innovative fabrics and contemporary silhouettes combine to showcase heritage through luxury pieces of fine quality and craftsmanship�.


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“Using THE SAME philosophy as marriage itself I aim to bring five issues together; the decline of local craftsmanship, challenging traditions, sustainability, culture and social family values�. Kelly Marie Redhead 04 December 2012


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Design, Opportunity, issue AND solution

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Understanding the Issue


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Understanding the Issue Solutions Five issues were highlighted; the decline in local craftsmanship, challenging traditions, sustainability, culture and social family values. Each issue was identified as an opportunity a problem to be addressed in the project and solved through creative development and a final outcome. The aim of the project is to create awareness of the decline in local craftsmanship; this will be done through collaboration with a local craftsman/ company. When showcasing the final outcome working with a traditional journeyman will strengthen the concept and highlight the issue to the client/ viewer. The ambition is to use traditional craft skills mixed with innovative fabrics and modern silhouettes to create a contemporary marriage collection.

Traditions are commonly associated with weddings; a marriage collection will be designed and manufactured challenging age old wedding traditions. This will involve unconventional fabrics, colour story, silhouettes, styling and construction. Sustainability is an issue often not associated with bridalwear. Most brides marry once and wear their bridal attire only the once. Many keep their bridal attire for the duration of their lives as they feel an element of emotional attachment to them and the items encapsulate this memory. This is a social issue that needs addressing, to inform modern young brides to be more sustainable by rewearing, treasuring and passing down to future generations strengthening family values and cultural wedding traditions.

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Chapter Inspire, Surprise, Evoke

Design Rationale Concept Theme


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“It is not craft as ‘handcraft’ that defines contemporary craftsmanship: it is craft as knowledge that empowers a maker to take charge of technology”. Dormer 1997 P.140

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“Sheffield has a long tradition of metalworking- cutlery, steel- making, the manufacture of tools and later silver manufacture�. Dormer 1997 P.140


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Design Rationale Identification After identification of a personal area of interest I recognised a design opportunity and problems to address. Initial investigations led to a proposed outline of work and various issues to respond to. Studying in Sheffield has increased an awareness of the local heritage of craftsmanship and the legacy it has created for the city today. "Sheffield has a long tradition of metalworking, cutlery, steel, making, the manufacture of tools and later silver manufacture." Uniwin, Hawley 2005 p.7

to be more sustainable. To ensure this would be achieved investigations were undertaken regarding the philosophy of marriage the cultural, traditions and family values that has kept this union as a corner stone of society.

To articulate the produced work through a contemporary collection of three statement pieces a marriage collection was designed and manufactured. These pieces will incorporate metalwork and jewellery encouraging a bride to pass down the pieces to future generations, creating a legacy and being sustainable. The As an aspiring bridal designer the aim word marriage has been adopted is to challenge the norm and create instead of bridal to make the project crafted pieces that address the more contemporary in an ever modern bride whilst educating them changing world of social standing.

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Inspire, Surprise, Evoke


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Concept Inspire, Surprise, EVOKE With the introduction of mass production and technology over the last 50 years a demise of traditional craft skills has been seen due to changing consumption behaviours. “It is not craft as ‘handcraft’ that defines contemporary craftsmanship: it is craft as knowledge that empowers a maker to take charge of technology”. Dormer 1997 p.140 Studying in Sheffield has increased awareness of craftsmanship and local heritage which has become an inherent part of my work as a designer. In order to construct garments traditional craft skills have been adopted. Exploration of Sheffield’s heritage as a leading innovator and producer of metalwork was investigated. “The location of Sheffield was an advantage in the development of metalworking trades”. Uniwin, Hawley 2005 p.7 The skills learnt have been adopted into the design and manufacturing process to produce a three piece marriage collection collaborating with Sheffield craftsmen. The aim of the collection is to highlight the decline of craftsmanship whilst informing a modern young bride to be sustainable and preserve cultural wedding traditions. A collection of pieces has been produced that have elements of jewellery/ metalwork that can be re-worn, treasured and passed down to future generations, Through emotional attachment between the user and the product’s legacy family values and a sense of belonging will be strengthened. By creating this collection the aim of the project is to solve the problems highlighted showcasing Sheffield’s past, present and future.

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Theme Heritage Inspiration Design inspiration was drawn from Sheffield's heritage. Investigation was undertaken of Sheffield's role as the world leader in metalwork which peaked during the 19th century and the industrial revolution. Studies the history of the Sheffield School of Art and Design, which was established in 1843 were explored. This involved looking at work from this period and how the development of metalwork shaped the landscape and fortune of Sheffield. This represents the unique mix of traditional skills and creative thinking which created a lasting legacy for the city. "Sheffield's role in the history of metal has been forged by it's unique contribution to innovation, past and present". Millennium gallery Sheffield.


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Chapter Who, What, Why?

Market Clientele History


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“We live in a material world, a world in which objects-including those that are hand-crafted are more than just props. They are heirlooms, mementos, cultural markers and tools of self-expression�. Dormer 1997 P.95

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market quality craftsmanship The selected market level is luxury designer as this market level best represents the concept and theme written in the proposal. Luxury designer is all about fine quality, craftsmanship and detail. Researching competitors was undertaken including Louis Vuitton and Vera Wang. Design detailing and construction methods were investigated. Documentation of the collaborative work undertaken with W.Wright has been documented through photographs showing the journeyman process of craftsmanship. As current exhibitions and events in Sheffield are celebrating 100 years since the discovery of steel by Harry Brearley the aim is to exhibit the outcome at the end of the project. Alternatively it could be exhibited in a bridal boutique. The bridal market today is a diverse sector of the fashion industry. Karly Lagerfeld chose to close his S/S 13 Chanel Couture show with two brides holding hands as a declaration of support for marriage equality. He made a statement through the catwalk. With political and social factors that could impact the bridal industry it was essential to ensure current world affairs were considered throughout the project.


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“I don’t even understand the debate. I do not understand why people who live together cannot have the same security as those bourgeois who are married. Since 1904 in France, the church and state have been separate.� Karl Lagerfeld 2013

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Who? Muse Maria Germanova

Theatrical, Dramatic, Unique, Bold, Edgy and creative.


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Who? Clientele and Muse A muse was identified to aid design, conceptual and theoretical development. The selected muse was Maria Germanova due to her theatrical, individual and dramatic appearance. Maria was a Russian actress from the late 19th and early 20th century, the era explored as part of my theme. Selecting a muse not only aided the development work but also helped identify a direction for the shoot and styling. Using a muse as a starting point allowed a client to be identified; a modern young bride who has traditional family values. She will appreciate the highest luxury products of craftsmanship and be trend aware. Involvement with the clientele and target market was evident throughout the project through questionnaires and interviews. Ensuring that the correct market was being reached and results were being collated correctly aided the project. Involving the clientele allowed reflection and analysis throughout the project aiding decisions that were made at various stages in the process.

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Traditions, Social Family Values


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History To have and to hold from this day forward With a chosen specialism of bridal wear a six month placement at Tickled Pink Bridal was undertaken with the design and manufacturing team. With a keen interest in construction and the manufacturing of garments the development of new and existing skills emerged. This led to an awareness of the decline of traditional craftsmanship within the fashion industry and other design disciplines along with the descent of manufacturing in the UK. Time spent in the industry allowed evaluation of the importance and relevance of traditional skills not just for designers but for our heritage. Whilst on placement the opportunity to work with customers who fit the selected market allowed identification of issues and problems that could be addressed. It was observed that traditions were still being followed leading to research into why and how they fit into today’s modern society. It was observed how consumption has changed and that due to this brides weren’t always socially responsible. Initial research was conducted into bridal trousseaus, their concept and origins. Originating in France during the Victorian era they were a symbol of wealth, luxury and social standing. Today however society has changed. Research was conducted regarding how and why this was the case. Through conducting interviews and questionnaires about married women a time line was establish to see how traditions have changed through history. One major tradition stood out that every bride wore a piece of borrowed jewellery from a family member. Traditions within families are still prominent with family values an important human factor today. Networking and social media sites have allowed families to search for relatives and learn about their ancestors. This has increased family values and increased awareness of ancestry. History and traditions are increasingly at the forefront of modern families. This shift in society has allowed an area of interest to be identified. “We live in a material world, a world in which objects-including those that are hand-crafted are more than just props. They are heirlooms, mementos, cultural markers and tools of selfexpression”. Dormer 1997 p.95 Many brides have an element of emotional attachment to their bridal attire and accessories. Collated results from the questionnaire showed 100 percent of married women said they have kept their wedding dress and 80 percent said they had an element of emotional attachment to it. 100 percent of engaged women asked have already said they will keep their wedding dress. When asked if they would like to wear it or elements again 70 percent answered yes. This allowed a niche to be identified and a concept to be explored. With future ambitions to set up a business it was essential that primary research was collected to ensure the project was designing for a need.

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Chapter Theoretical Research

Questionnaires Interviews Data Analysis


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“I Did yes ... I wore an old piece of jewellery and I also borrowed a piece of jewellery and a lace handkerchief, so that was something old and borrowed, new ... obviously the dress was new. The something blue I had a garter�. Julie Redhead 2012

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Questionnaire Engaged Women Will you keep your wedding dress/ outfit after your wedding? “Yes”. 100% “No”. 0%

Are traditions going to be an important part of your wedding? For example will you wear ‘something old, something new, something borrowed and something blue‘ Why? “Traditions are important to me”. “Because I am a more mature bride”. “I’d say this is a bit of a definitely maybe thing for me, I have a collection of hand made lace that my grandmother made that I would like to include in my outfit, but I absolutely hate the idea of a blue garter, seems just so tacky”. “Because it’s nice to be traditional sometimes”.

“=We will probably involve traditions long forgotten such as hand fastening because we will enjoy historical and fantastical features. I will probably do the more recent traditions like the example above because it will be fun to do with my mum”.

Will you wear borrowed/old jewellery from a family member? “Yes”. 88.9% “No”. 11.1%

Will you have / would you like your own bridal trousseau? “Because I've never heard of it, and we already live together”. “I love the idea of having a trousseau, but as I never considered ever getting married before, I haven’t collected anything, and as I'm doing this on a very tight budget anything I do get will have to be very ‘considered”. “Yes, great idea”. “I don’t wear much jewellery and don’t really need to collect things for the home, I’ve been collecting since moving out of home 10 years ago”.

Do you think wedding traditions still have a place today? ���Yes”. 100% “No”. 0%


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Questionnaire Married Women Do you feel you have an emotional attachment to your dress/ outfit? Yes "Yes but I wanted to make it into something wearable". "Definitely, I’d like to wear it again someday! “Still got it, just fits, couldn't get rid - sentimental reasons”.

Were traditions an important part of your wedding? For example did you wear ‘something old, something new, something borrowed and something blue’ why? “Remember family that had died”. “Because of he historic context of traditions and for me it was important”. “It was important to my family”. “Purely due to tradition - I’m not superstitious”. “You only get married once. It’s nice to have things to remember from your wedding day...memories are priceless”. “Because I was brought up with traditional values”.

Did you wear borrowed/old jewellery from a family member? “Yes”. 74.1% “No”. 25.9%

Did you have/ or would you have liked your own bridal trousseau? Lovely idea “I had what we call a bottom draw where I collected things for the wedding and my new home for about 2 years before”. “It was the war, back then we had to collect things”. “It was tradition”. “I had my own house before I got married”. “I didn’t have one but when my daughter got engaged we started collecting items for her”. “Its known as a ‘bottom drawer’ though my family. Guess we had ‘no hope’ but ‘big bottoms”.

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Interviews Research Married Women

Marjorie Hunt Married 11th December 1939

Pamela Nundy Married 2ND April 1956

Gosh.. What did you wear for your wedding day?

Was it important to you that your dress was made to a high quality using traditional construction techniques?

I had a blue blue suit err you know with a skirt and jacket. Erm..Pause. Did you keep your outfit after the wedding? Well yeah I wore it, you had to in them days hadn’t you? Oh yes so you re-wore it quite a few times? Oh yes definitely, yeah laughs we hadn’t enough money to be buying. Would you say you have an element of emotional attachment to it, does it bring back a lot of memories if you was to see the picture? No.. I mean I did.. but Norman has been gone over 4o years now.. Pause I’ve got too old to get emotional over that.

Errr, yeah, yes it was she was good dressmaker Did you keep your wedding dress? For a long while but it got, got erm…err… that it was…beginning to break away the, the or rot or whatever you would call it the net. # Would you have liked it if erm..an idea of passing it down generations? Yes if it had been a suitable type of dress, but with it being so much net. Would you say you had an emotional attachment to your wedding dress? Yeah I did at the time but as time went on. pause. I guess you don’t have the same attachment because it, it deteriorated.


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sHELAGH gOLLINS Married 7th April 1959

jULIE rEDHEAD Married 27TH august 1984

Do you think it’s nice if people can wear their wedding dress or outfit again?

Have you ever worn your wedding dress again? Or has anyone else?

Yes, yes I do really

No erm it’s not been worn again erm pause and nobody else has worn it I wanted to keep it.

Did you buy any jewellery? No I wore what I had. So, so you said that was borrowed was it from family, so that was passed down? Yeah So instead of getting passed down a dress you got passed down jewellery? Yeah So if someone could pass down elements dress whether it was embroidery or? I suppose I could have get the top layer of lace, which might have been nice and used again or used on my daughters dress pause that’s a shame.

So would you say you have emotional attachment to your wedding dress? Yes definitely I wouldn’t particularly want anybody erm else to wear it other than perhaps my daughter but it probably wouldn’t be her style anyway because the styles have changed a lot since then. Did you follow traditions for your wedding such as pause well you said you had a white dress, so something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue? I did yes I wore an old piece of jewellery and I also borrowed erm a piece of jewellery and a lace handkerchief erm so that was something old and borrowed. New obviously the dress was new. Something blue I had a garter

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Data Analysis Quantitative Data Collection

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Using the quantitative data collected during the questionnaires close examination was paid to the trends in the data. This included analysing whether traditions still have a place today. The graph above shows a cyclic trend with traditions becoming popular and then unpopular in around a 20 year cycle. The solid dark grey line reflects the data collected the dashed line is a prediction for the next 20 years. The research shows that we are entering a time at which the popularity is on the increase. Therefore these results reinforce the concept.

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“I’m sure that brides today will do exactly the same thing. Collect things as they are planning their wedding day, traditions are part of the experience”. Julie Redhead 2012

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Chapter Literature Research

Decline of Craftsmanship Sustainability Emotional Attachment


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“Because the making of the object required skill; it is precious due to materials or time invested in labour; it is expressive in terms of subject matter, function, traditional or historical reference; and is enduring�. Dormer 1997 p.85

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Decline of Craftsmanship “Traditional crafts are being forgotten in favour of something requiring less skill and creativity”. dORMER 1997 P.24

Over the past 50 years there has been a demise in local craftsmanship due to the introduction of mass production and technology. “Craft practice is locked into changes such as the implications of developments in the global economy and information technology. The economic facts of global production mean that handwork is cheap in the third world”. Knott 1994 p.13. Technology has had a major impact on the decline of traditional craftsmanship. It has changed consumerism, cultural and social values. “Technocentric design has inadvertently authored a grossly transient culture of wasteful consumerism burdened with the unattainable task sustaining closeness to the state of the art”. Chapman 2005 p.11 The decline could impact innovation and Sheffield’s future heritage, with more products being manufactured overseas and less craftsman passing down the skills to future generations. “When it comes to innovation, we are looking down the wrong end of telescope: away from people, toward technology, Industry suffers from a kind of global autism”. Chapman 2005 p.10 Sheffield’s heritage as a world leader in metalwork is a prominent part of the city’s legacy. The city is known for its quality craftsmanship, traditions and innovative design. To commemorate 100 years since the discovery of steel an exhibition is on display at Millennium Gallery in Sheffield

showcasing work from varied disciplines. “It celebrates the fact that stainless steel is still widely used today and is in fact increasing in popularity amongst designermakers, both in Sheffield and further afield”. Millennium Gallery Sheffield 2013 Sheffield’s rich history of innovative metalwork is still prominent today. “Sheffield and quality meant the same thing”. Tweedale 1996 p.7. Due to changes in consumption behaviours and an increase in mass production the use of traditional craft skills and journeymen construction methods have decreased. This hasn’t changed Sheffield’s prominence as a world leader in metalwork. Despite huge changes to the industry and loss of jobs, Sheffield remains an important centre for specialist steel production”. Millennium Gallery Sheffield 2013. Studying in Sheffield has increased an awareness of the decline of craftsmanship. It was identified as an area to be highlighted

through this project. “Traditional crafts are being forgotten in favour of something requiring less skill and creativity”. Dormer 1997 p.24. Traditional craft skills would be adopted in order to showcase contemporary design through quality craftsmanship. “What continues to distinguish the crafts, to make them highly visible, is the care with which they have been made, the fact that they have been made by one human being for another, the individual ‘take’, the use of materials and the thoughtfulness of their design; design with attitude.” Charny 2011 p.33. As a designer the decline of craftsmanship is a subject of importance to be addressed and highlighted through the manufacture of a contemporary marriage collection. Collaborating with a local craftsman who still uses traditional construction techniques strengthens the concept and highlights the issue creating visual impact through final outcomes. “Because the making of the object required skill; it is precious due to materials or time invested in labour; it is expressive in terms of subject matter, function, traditional or historical reference; and is enduring”. Dormer 1997 p.85. The aim of the collection is to not only highlight the issue of declining craftsmanship and quality but also to appeal to modern brides to be more sustainable re-wear, treasure and pass down their bridal attire.


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“Design for sustainability, as opposed to sustainable design, refers to design that fosters more sustainable behaviour in users�. Gwilt 2011 p.135


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Sustainability “Consumers continue wastefully on, but do so, now, with recycled materials”.. Chapman 2005 P.9

Sustainable design has become a common phrase in today’s society as consumers are becoming more socially aware of the issue. It is essential that designers set out clear relationships between design decisions and environmental issues ensuring a balance between the two throughout the creative process. Many consumers support sustainable fashion but still want to follow trends and not have a detrimental effect to the aesthetics. The field of sustainable fashion is complex and often causes confusion between consumers and designers. “Sustainable design has developed a tendency to focus on the symptoms of the ecological crisis rather than the actual causes”. Chapman 2005 p.10. Education is key to a stronger understanding of the issue, for example teaching consumers how to lengthen the life of a product through laundering, drying, repair, alteration and delaying disposal. “For centuries, the art world has been implicitly aware of the need for mutual evolution between the consumer and the consumed”. Chapman 2005 p.20 It is down to both the designer and the consumer to change their behaviours towards sustainability. Designers should consider their approach to design throughout the creative

Sustainability isn’t usually associated with bridalwear. Bridal attire is usually made from high quality materials made up of many layers and metres of fabric. It is often the most prestigious and expensive item of clothing a bride will wear for one day only. This makes bridal attire one of the most unsustainable fashion garments. process, creating longer lasting and more durable designs. Consumers should consider their consumption behaviours and adopt a more ethical approach when purchasing products. Consumption habits of consumers today have entered a throwaway fashion era. Many consider themselves to be sustainable consumers by purchasing goods made from recycled materials but their consumption levels are high. “Consumers continue wastefully on, but do so, now, with recycled materials”. Chapman 2005 p.9. The fashion industry is driven by seasonal trend products with fast lead times which often means ethical and sustainable factors often get overlooked. Users follow trends and continue to buy goods with short life cycles. "The trend for fast fashion has generated an exponential rise in the sale of fashion garments that are often worn too little". Gwilt 2011 p.13

Bridal designers should consider the ethical implications of encouraging brides to purchase expensive bridal garments that they will only wear once. Many brides choose to keep their bridal attire for the duration of their lives as they feel an element of emotional attachment to them and the items encapsulate this memory. This project aims to educate modern young brides to be more sustainable not through purchasing bridal garments made from sustainable fabrics but to re-wear, treasure and pass down to future generations. As a designer the key is to educate the user to change their behaviour to ensure a level of emotional attachment between the consumer and the product. Whilst changing their attitude and understanding of being sustainably aware. “Design for sustainability, as opposed to sustainable design, refers to design that fosters more sustainable behaviour in users”. Gwilt 2011 P.135


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Emotional Attachment Theory “Emotions reflect our personal experiences, associations and memories”. Normer 2004 P.47

Emotional attachment theory describes the relationship, bond or tie between a product and a user. Emotions have a crucial role in the human ability to understand the world. “The emotional system is also tightly coupled with behaviour, preparing the body to respond appropriately to a given situation. This is why you feel tense and edgy when anxious”. Norma 2004 p.12. As designers it is important that the consumer is understood, their behaviours, their needs and their desires. Aesthetically pleasing products appear to the user to be more effective and more precious due to their appearance; this forms an element of emotional connection with an object. “Along with emotions, there is one other point as well: aesthetics, attractiveness, and beauty”. Norma 2004 p.8 Designers should ensure a good understanding of the user or target audience this not only ensures they are designing for a need but that the user will form an attachment with the product. This could result in the user seeing the product as a symbol of themselves which would lengthen the products life. “At the most superficial level, an object can be seen by the user to resonate with and be symbolic of the self”. Chapman 2005 p.38

Emotional attachment to a product can be evoked from the past, memories and times gone by. Many brides keep their bridal attire after their wedding day. “Emotions reflect our personal experiences, associations and memories”. Norma 2004 p.47. When asked in a questionnaire 88.9 percent of married women said they have kept their wedding attire and have an element of emotional to it. 100 percent of engaged women said they will be keeping their wedding attire after their wedding. “Memories reflect our life experiences. They remind us of families and friends, of experiences and accomplishments. They also serve to reinforce how we view ourselves”. Norma 2004 p.53. To ensure the consumer has a level of

emotional attachment to the bridal attire a booklet will come with the garment. It will explain the history of the collection, its origin and purpose. The aim is to educate the consumer to re-ware, treasure and pass down to future generations. The booklet will also allow the user to document a family tree through photographs adding an element of emotional attachment between the product and the user. “What matters is the history of interaction, the associations that people have with the objects, and the memories they evoke”. Norma 2004 p.46 Giving the marriage collection a history explaining that it was made in Sheffield adds meaning to the products. Whilst also detailing the creative process that had been undertaken the user feels a sense of involvement and knowledge about the collection. In return this should add an element of emotional attachment. Explanation of the collaborative involvement will also understanding and underpin the concept behind the collection “For centuries, the art world has been implicitly aware of the need for mutual evolution between the consumer and the consumed”. Chapman 2005 p.20


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Chapter Creative Research

Collaboration Heritage Image Analysis

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“Good design begins with honesty. Asks tough questions, comes from collaboration and from trusting your intuition�. Thomas Freeman

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Collaboration Co-creation

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Following extensive research a proposal was produce, it was decided that collaboration with a Sheffield Craftsman would enhance the project. Metal is not commonly used within fashion design it was essential that basic skills would be learnt and adopted to ensure the best outcome could be achieved. Working with external craftsman highlights and raises awareness of the issues identified within the project. It aided the development of a variety of skills communication, teamwork and organisation. The aim of the collaboration was to design and produce a statement piece of jewellery and accessories. This was proposed due to the collated results collected through interviews and questionnaire. Old cutlery was recycled in the collaborated piece to ensure sustainability. Traditional craft skills were implemented but as a result proved costly with time. On reflection this is something that should be considered in future collaborative projects. Collaborating not only allowed me to highlight the issue of diminishing craftsmanship in Sheffield but also allowed me to produce a product that fits my concept. The company that collaborated with the project was W.Wright who manufacture cutlery and silverware in Sheffield Sidney Street. It was established over a 100 years ago and has always remained a family run business ensuring traditions, craftsmanship and skills are passed down the generations. Their ethos is to continually remember where they have come from whilst continually looking to the future and how they can preserve traditions whilst still being relevant to modern requirements. “Some things though will never change. Our craftsmanship, attention to detail and quality all remain the same. We hand finish every item of silverware that we produce. And we're still based in the heart of Sheffield�. Stephen Wright 2013.

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museum visits

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Museum visits were an essential research method explored throughout the project. Various exhibitions and galleries were visited to explore, develop knowledge and understanding to aid the creative process. Photographs and notes were taken and sketches drawn to aid research and the developmental process. Collecting primary research strengthened the project proposal and the creative direction. It was key to understanding Sheffield’s past heritage but to also ensure that the project had a purpose in today’s society. With the current exhibition celebrating 100 years since steel was discovered in Sheffield by Harry Brearley. “Over the following 100 years the production of stainless steel, in particular cutlery, reaffirmed Sheffield’s age-old reputation for quality metal wares”. Millennium Galleries Sheffield 2013. The exhibition explores a century of design and innovation. With a yearlong celebratory events programme commemorating the historic landmarks and Sheffield’s heritage the proposed project has purpose external to the creative boundaries within University. Exhibitions visited include: Sheffield Millennium Gallery - Metalwork Collection - Design to shine 100 years of Sheffield Steel Sheffield Western Park - Sheffield life and times V&A - Ballgown exhibition


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Image Analysis Sheffield MetalWork 1850-1899

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Research of the history of the Sheffield School of Art and Design was undertaken. The school was established in 1843 and was influential in the Great Exhibition of 1851 at Crystal Palace where emphasis was placed upon the importance and value of home-grown art and design. The school has had various name changes including Sheffield Technical College of Art and the Sheffeild College of Arts and Crafts in 1926. The site for the school was on Arundel Street and Surrey Street which is now known as Arundel Gate. The original location is approximately where the Adsetts building currently stands today. Around 110 students were taken on a year and were made up of young artists and the children of wealthy industrial families. The School of Art and Design grew after World War One. In 1938 the premises on Arundel Street were expanded. These plans were changed due to World War Two air raid damage in 1940. Although students work was damaged, luckily investigating the school's resources found at Sheffield Hallam's archives allowed image analysis to be conducted. Sketches of metalwork from the school in the 1880’s was analysed and allowed the style of drawing to be examined. After the war the school moved to Pslater Lane and was launched in 1970 as a key element of Sheffield Polytechnic. It was a merger of the School of Art and Design and the College of Technology. This provided the seeds for Sheffield Hallam University with buildings around Arundel Street which has a rich heritage of design.


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Trends Reinvention Cycles


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“dreamlike and whimsical mix with theatrical and luxe craft elements in this romantic trend inspired by the Victorian and Edwardian eras.� WGSN 2012


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Trends Fragile Beauty Trends were researched and identified to support the creative process of the project. Using trend forecasting websites such as WGSN suitable trends were used to support the concept, theme and research collation. The main trend selected was ‘fragile beauty‘ an emerging womenswear trend in November 2012. The trend aided inspiration, designer influence, fabrics, colour story and styling. 'Fragile Beauty Inspiration/ Style blogs, magazine editorials, historical, theatrical and femininely ethereal. Designer Influence/ 1990’s Alexander Mcqueen and John Galliano. Victorian and Edwardian historical references and 19th century photographic storytelling. Romantic and Dreamlike/ Look to delicate sheers, trims, aged treatments and modern fantasy. Colour/ Inspired by a faded theatrical look and a layering of cobwebs and dust: palest dove grey, off-white, nude, antique rose pink, sepia tones and dirty lilacs.' WGSN 2012

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Story Board Cycles Story boards and mood boards where produced throughout the creative process to aid development and direction. They proved a good resource to refer to at various points during the project. Imagery was carefully selected and sourced to best represent the concept and theme. This storyboard was produced after conducting image analysis and led to the idea generation stage in the project.

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Fabric Sourcing Reinvention Colour story inspiration came from sourced imagery with the theme of Sheffield's heritage. The selected trend also influenced the colour story and fabric selection. Fabrics sourced include, leather, embossed silk, chiffon, metal mesh, paper silk, satin silk crepe, silk crepe, lace, silk dupion, sandwashed silk and textured leather. Fabrics where used to sample and moulage, a final fabric selection was made later in the creative process.


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“Inspired by Sheffield’s Heritage silver plate, a metallic palette of silver shades, dirty lilacs, pale dove greys and offwhites”. Kelly Marie Redhead 2013

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Exploration Experimentation Reflective Analysis

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“Sheffield has a long tradition of metalworking- Cutlery, Steel MAKING THE MANUFACTURE OF TOOLS AND LATER SILVER MANUFACTURE”. Unwin, Hawley 2005 p.7

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Following extensive image analysis of students work from Sheffield School of Art and Design and metalwork from the 19th Century the creative process developed. Selective images were developed further using moulage, toiling, sketching initial ideas. The main three ideas that were explored further were doilies, cutlery and armour. All three areas were derived from research and extensive image analysis.

Moulage Laser Cut Leatherette

Metal Table Inspired laser Cut DETAIL

laser cUT detail DRESS

Plate and bowl designs drawn in the image analysis phase of the process resembled doilies. Initial ideas were generated through moulaging paper doilies. This then developed to laser cutting in fabric and card, juxtaposing between structure and softness. Laser cutting developed through distorting doiley shapes and creating bold silhouettes. These were documented through sketches, photos and samples.

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Extensive research of Sheffield's heritage showed the city's legacy in the manufacture of cutlery. Various patterns were explored through sketching and museum visits. Initial ideas were generated through montage using the shapes of the cutlery to inspire silhouettes. This technique proved effective and allowed varied silhouettes to be explored. “Sheffield has a long tradition of metalworking- cutlery, steelmaking, the manufacture of tools and later silver manufacture�. Uniwin, Hawley 2005 p.7.


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Research of the students work from Sheffield’s School of Art and Design showcased metalwork drawings of armour. The bold structures and rivet detailing proved an interesting area to explore and generate initial ideas. Further research of armour was conducted looking at the different styles from different centuries. The use of protective layers was explored as concept through sampling and moulaging. The build up of layers began to create interesting and tangible silhouettes.


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drafting Following idea generation initial ideas were carried forward to the design development stage. Further sampling was be undertaken with toiling of garments and prototypes being produced. Both armour and cutlery were selected as areas to develop. It was considered that the two would work well together. The silhouettes that were being developed were fitted and tailored with structural elements.

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Stretching leather

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Refining Design Development Shapes of cutlery informed silhouette development. The outlines, patterns and curves of the handles inspired panelling detail. Toiling aided the developmental process, several toiles were produced until the patterns fitted perfectly. Creative pattern cutting enabled panels of leather to be stretched without any side seams. An understanding of treating leather not as a fabric but as a skin developed the designs further. On reflection this stage proved critical in the development of the final range as many designs were refined.


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Forging On reflection the most important element of the design development stage was ensuring that both the armour and cutlery were forged together to create contemporary designs. Fabric selection was also key at this stage and changed numerous times. It was essential that both the fabrics and the silver plated metal complimented one another. Structural pieces were created through layer of fabrics which worked well against the fitted silhouettes.


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Following extensive design development and toiling a final range of six outfits were selected with three being manufactured. The silhouettes and panelling are inspired by the shapes of cutlery with structure informed by formidable armour. Fabrics include Japense hide leather, metal mesh, satin cotton and embossed leather. “Silver manufacture in Sheffield greatly expanded after the invention of Sheffield Plate in the mideighteenth century. Uniwin, Hawley 2005 p.8

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Final line up of six piece collection. The silhouettes and panelling are inspired by the shapes of cutlery with structure informed by formidable armour. The range includes a silver plated neckpiece, three floor length fitted gowns, three jackets, trousers, bodice, skirt and a midi length dress.


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“Fashion has two purposes: comfort and love. beauty COMES WHEN FASHION SUCCEEDS”. cOCO cHANEL.

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Photography / Amie Parsons Designer / Kelly Marie Redhead Model / Mary Jo Meenaghan MUA / Tina Sattarin Hair / Radha Pethers Collaborator / W.Wright


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“WHAT CONTINUES TO DISTINGUISH THE CRAFTS, TO MAKE THEM HIGHLY VISABLE, IS THE CARE WITH WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN MADE, THE FACT THAT THEY HAVE BEEN MADE BY ONE HUMAN BEING FOR ANOTHER, THE INDIVIDUAL ‘TAKE’, THE USE OF MATERIALS AND THE THOUGHTFULNESS OF THEIR DESIGN; DESIGN WITH ATTITUDE”. cHARNY 2011 P.33.

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memories REFLECT OUR LIFE EXPERIENCES THEY REMIND US OF FAMILIES AND FRIENDS OF EXPERIENCES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS THEY ALSO SERVE TO REINFORCE HOW WE VIEW OURSELVES”. nORMA 2004 P.53


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Chapter

Sheffield Past, Present, Future

Origin Personal Hallmark Cutting Edge


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“Using the same philosophy as marriage itself I aim to bring five issues together; the decline of local craftsmanship, challenging traditions, sustainability, culture and social family values” Redhead 2013. The identified design, opportunity and issues that were highlighted at the start of the project have been considered. The original statement has been reflected on throughout the process to ensure the issues highlighted were being addressed and the problems solved.

considered a booklet has been produced explain the collections history, authenticity of its manufacture and a family tree allowing personalised documentation by the consumer. All these considered factors should create an element of emotional attachment between the user and the product. Creating legacy for the collection which strengthening family values and a sense of belonging. technology”. Dormer 1997 p.140

By designing a three piece collection with a contemporary reflection of traditional techniques the aim was to create impact in two ways. The first being through the designs themselves making use of the traditional skills learnt but applied to a modern silhouette. Further impact is underpinned through the project concept raising awareness of the issues. The concept identified the introduction of mass production and a demise of traditional craftsmanship in Sheffield. This was addressed in the project through a collaboration with a Sheffield cutlery company who were involved in the joint manufacture of a bespoke statement piece of jewellery. The marriage collection showcases how traditional skills can be mixed with contemporary design. “It is not craft as ‘handcraft’ that defines contemporary craftsmanship: it is craft as knowledge that empowers a maker to take charge of

Skills were learnt and developed throughout the process and adapted in the construction of the garments. The collection has a metalwork jewellery piece along with hand crafted metalwork buttons and a fine mesh fabric on some of the garments. The use of these materials highlight Sheffield’s position as a world leader in metalwork and showcase it’s legacy in a contemporary way. Sustainability was another issue to be addressed in the collection. The marriage collection is designed to have pieces that can be treasured, re-worn and passed down to future generations. This has been created through a statement jewellery piece and items of clothing. The aim is that modern young brides will become more sustainably aware whilst preserving the cultural wedding tradition of wearing borrowed or old jewellery. To ensure this is

The concept of the project was met and a successful final outcome was achieved showcasing Sheffield’s heritage past in a present day collection to be remembered in the future. To begin the project a proposal was outlined explaining project details including concept, theme, time plan, plan of action, market, clientele, initial research and possible areas for direction. On reflection documenting the proposal created a piece that could be continually referred to throughout the project. Various research methodologies where used during the project including lit searches, questionnaires of engaged and married women, interviews of married women collecting historical data and, interviews of bridal designers and craft makers, image analysis, museum visits, boutique visits and data analysis. Literature research allowed me to find academic texts that supported


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my theories and opinions, helping ground the concept. Conducting questionnaires and interviews of married and engaged women allowed a target market and clientele to be identified. Their responses led to the development of the concept and supported the ideas being generated. Interviewing bridal designers and visiting boutiques helped identify design issues that needed to be addressed. Museum visits aided both the theoretical and creative process, it allowed historical knowledge to develop whilst image analysis drove the idea generation. Creative research was undertaken of trends, fabrics through trend forecasting website WGSN. Again this acted as reference points but also supported the work being produced. This part of the process proved to be the foundation of the project, it was essential that the research supported the proposal and the outlines that were produced. Image analysis was then conducted, through intensive exploration of archives of Sheffield School of Art and Design’s history in the 19th century. A sketchbook was produced examining the work of students from that time, Sheffield metalwork and jewellery. This became a valuable resource throughout the project. It then led to idea generation where selected images were developed further using moulage, toiling and sketching initial ideas. Three main ideas were explored further doilies, cutlery and armour. All three were varied and tangible ideas to be taken into design development.

way and developing unknown and existing skills. Working with craftsmen external to the university began to prepare me for life after university. It proved a time consuming process and led me to become aware of the challenges and implications that can be faced through collaborating with another discipline. The design of the neckpiece had to be continually adapted and changed in order to manufacture something tangible and wearable. The process proved rewarding with a practical solution being resolved. developed further using moulage, toiling and sketching initial ideas. Three main ideas were explored further doilies, cutlery and armour. All three were varied and tangible ideas to be taken into design development. Design development was a challenging part of the process, undertaking collaboration with an external craftsman was a new experience. Knowledge of metals, metalwork and skills had to be developed and understood in order for tangible designs to be generated. Metalwork classes were joined in order to develop a better understanding. Both the metalwork pieces and the garments had to complement one another whilst also ensuring that they could be standalone pieces that could be re-worn and passed down to future generations. On reflection more time at this stage may have been beneficial. The collaborative process was a major part of the project. It involved working in a new

Once an initial range had been drawn up the toiling process began. The marriage collection has a tailored fitted aesthetic so this stage was crucial in assuring good fit and shape. Pattern cutting proved timely as pieces of the collection had stretched leather panels which had unusual pattern cutting. Numerous toiles were constructed, and designs developed even further to reach a final line up ready for manufacture. Final manufacture of the garments was made easier as numerous toiles had been produced. Problems arose when using the fine metal mesh as it would crease heavily so this was made into a feature. Stretching the leather and moulding it around the body also proved challenging. The final stage in the process was the shoot; all aspects of styling were considered. It was essential that the shoot showcased the collection in the best way possible. It aims to inspire and evoke interest of the pieces and their origins.


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Cutting Edge Sheffield Past, Present and Future a result a practical solution has been proposed. The proposed marriage collection highlights the decline of craftsmanship and sustainability through visual impact whilst strengthening family and social values through challenging traditions with unconventional fabrics, colours and contemporary silhouettes.

Upon completion of the project an understanding of the importance of educating through design has been strengthened. Time management has proved to be an important aspect to the completion of the project and is something that should be continually reviewed throughout an future work. Developments of new and existing skills have been learnt in both metalwork and fashion which will aid future work in both areas and the possibility of future collaborations with metalworkers and craftsman. Research was a major element of the project and as a result a better understanding of the bridal market, clients and market levels has been gained. This will aid future projects and career opportunities.

collaborative process was more time consuming and more challenging than first realised. In future projects more time would be allocated to this aspect of the creative process.

Collaborative design is both challenging and rewarding. Learning from this experience a better understanding of how to approach a collaborative project has been developed. Through a collaboration of two disciplines the aim of creating a marriage collection that is contemporary and can be considered as fashion has been achieved.

Varied skills have been developed throughout the project that will be carried forward to aid future work and career aspirations. Working on a large project has improved time management, communication and organisational skills as well as developing pattern cutting, construction and design skills. All skills learnt and developed will be taken forward to aid future projects and work.

If this project was to be conducted again a few changes would be made. The experience has made me realise the challenges of producing products using traditional skills. With more time and a longer project I would develop a better understanding of metalwork in order to have a stronger collaboration with a craftsman. To do this metalwork classes and workshops would be attended external to university to strength knowledge and ability. The

This project has allowed an exploration of a personal area of interest. As a result it has helped shape the designer that I have become. In depth research was undertaken into issues that as a designer I feel strongly about. With a better understanding of these issues they can be carried forward in to future work. The concept that was proposed was reached and fulfilled through an extensive creative process. Challenges were met along the way but resolved and as

Most significantly the concept has emphasised the importance of our heritage, as a society proud of Sheffield’s legacy designers should regenerate the past, bring it to the present and ensure a continued legacy for the future. As a designer I want to carry on highlighting the issues of personal interest, allowing the project to create a legacy after its end. To do this I will consider manufacturing the rest of the range and display the work on exhibition in Sheffield. The marriage collection could be displayed at either Sheffield museums, at events celebrating 100 years of Sheffield Steel, Sheffield Showcases and creative spark. It is essential that the project fulfils it’s purpose to educate others of the issues highlighted. In the future I would consider developing my concept further. I may explore and investigate the opportunity of producing pieces for both men and women. Developing the concept further would add cultural diversity. My future ambition is to own my own business as a bridal designer. This project has prepared me for my career ambitions. The contemporary collection produced has purpose and a story which will create a legacy, standing me apart from other bridalwear designers in the industry.


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Bibliography Image List Acknowledgements

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Amie Parson Photography Kelly Marie Redhead Millennium Galleries Sheffield Patternity Pinterest Royal Armouries Leeds Sheffield Industries, Cutlery, Silver and Edge Tools. Unwin and Hawley 2005. Shimmer Tumblr The Wallace Collecion Vogue WGSN W.Wright


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