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Designing Journal Zhenghong Pan (Forest) 380089

Architecture Design Studio: Air ABPL30048

Contents Part 1: Expression of Interest: 1.1 CASE FOR INNOVATION Week 1 Architectural Discourse Week 2 Computing in Architecture Week 3 Parametric Modeling 1.2 RESEARCH PROJECT Week 4 Matrix Combinations + Develop Week 5 Reverse Engineer: Spanish Pavilion Week 6 Materials Effects: Fabrication Week 7 Assembly Methods: Fabricate

Part 2: Project Proposal: Week 8 Project Interpretation: Gateway Design Week 9 Project Delivery: Jointing Development Week 10 Project Presentation: Physical Fabrication Week 11 Project Proposal Conclusion

Part 3: Learning Objectives and Outcomes: Week 12 Learning Progress Week 13 Learning Outcome

Week One

Part 1: Expression of Interest A special thanks to my group mates Amanda Ngieng and Qing Ping Lee Lim for taking me through this amazing journey. And to my tutors David Lister and Jerome Frumar for guiding me on my way.

Project: Metropol Parasol - Redevelopment of Plaza de la Encarnacion

Location: Seville, Spain

JĂźrgen Mayer-Hermann 1965- Stuttgart, German


Jurgen Mayer H. Andre Santer Marta RamĂ­rez Iglesias

The redevelopment of Plaza de la Encarnacion designed by German Architect Jurgen Mayer H. has made the plaza a new icon for Seville. Gernerally, there are 3 reasons why I choose Mayer's work. First, I was deeply attracted by his parametric graphic work in Berlin Arts Museum which is shown as the background above. Those dataprotection pattern not only enlarges the entire museum walking in space but also stands for confidential communication between people and parties. Second, after researching his parametric work, this built elevated plaza was known not only as its fascinating geometric shape but also its multiple functions, such as multiple bars, restaurants underneath and panorama terrace on the top for sightseeing. Projects of J. Mayer H.,, viewed on 4th March 2012

Last but no least, the efficiency of installation of the whole timber structure. By researching its installaiton process, the prefabricated timber pieces and metal joints may be very doable in my future gateway design. Therefore, this project kind of satisfied the purpose of aesthetics, functionality, sustainability and building efficiency, which can be basic requirements of advancing architectural discourse.

Project: Zaragoze Bridge Pavilion 2005-2008 6415m2

Location: Zaragoza, Spain

Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects

Regarding to contemporary parametric design works, Zaha's projects can be the most well known. However, not many people know that this parametric bridge pavilion actually made Zaha Pritzker Prize. This work definitely became the focus of Zaragoza Expo 2008 through its parametric structure system and organic form. It was also the first trial that Zaha imply her parametric geometry and fluid form in bridge design. Moreover, it also met those four requirements of advancing architectural discourse. Archive of Zaha Hadid Architects,, viewed on 6th March 2012 (All Pictures from this Page)

Archive of Zaha Hadid Architects, abu-dhabi-performing-arts-centre/, Viewed on 6th March 2012

Project: Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Centre 2007-TBC 62770m2

Location: Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects

This new performing arts centre in Abu Dhabi consists of five theatres, music hall and opera house------conceived as a sculpture form combined with parametric geometry. It emerges naturally from the intersection of pedestrain pathways within a new culture district. Zaha's firm called it "fruits on the vine". The organic form integrated into its surrounding environment naturally and leading pedestrains to this commerial arts centre. Those parametric structures for supporting windows also make the performing centre more attractive. This kind of combination of organic form and parametric structure always happen in Zaha's works which greatly enhance the aesthetics and structure efficiency of those architecture. Therefore, those combinations elaborate those basic discourse of architecture successfully.

Project: Ras Al-Khaimah-Gateway In pragress 450000m2

Location: Ras Al-Khamah

Architect: Snohetta Firm(Norway)

Projests from Snohetta Architecture Co.,, Viewed on 7th March 2012

This a particular gateway project situated in the desert 150 km to the east of Dubai. This landmark project designed by Snohetta Co. will sign the gateway to the emirate and form the entrance to the new planned capital city of Ras Al Kahimah. The Gateway also elabrates the combination of organic form and parametric substructure. The first one satisfied the aesthetic requirement and the second one achieved the structural and instralling efficiency. Based on those structure and space efficiency, multiple functionality can be approached consequently.

My Project: GrasshopperTest Project

Designer: Zhenghong Pan (Forest) 380089

Programs: Rhino (grasshopper+Vray)

This parametric form is my test project by using grasshopper. This is basically a parametric skin which used very simple grasshopper definition. The internal radius of each flat hollow cylinder is disturbed by a curve in certain degree. It brought changes and movement into the design of this skin. Actually, this kind of definition is broadly used in nowadays parametric architecture design and most of them are skin design. I chose this project as a example of advanced architecture discourse because it also elaborates the aesthics, construction efficiency and functionality of design work. The movement in this particular parametric design make people think about the source and process of getting this form, which revealed the mystery of parametric work that we might live in a parametric world but every complicated geometry has its own rational definition and logic way of changing behind it.

Week Two

To compensate for design deficiency, while taking advantage of the obvious benefits of design vs. craftsmanship, architects adopted a design process that would ensure that their creations met the design goals, abided by its constraints, and reduced the likelihood of errors. This process which has been practiced for hundreds of years but was only formalized in the 1960s,4 consists offour intertwined phases: • Problem analysis • Solution synthesis • Evaluation • Communication


As mentioned in Kalay's article towards the design process of advanced architecture design, this parametric bridge was completed under the samilar concerns towards the 4 steps. It demonstrates not only the bueaty of parametric form but also the advancing design process. Most importantly, this bridge illustrates the convenience of useing digital computer technique in design process. As the bridge is built in Grasshopper, even if some of dimentions and form need to be changed, they can still be done by changing parameters in Grasshopper instead of redesign the whole project, which enormously elaborate the final two steps evaluation and communication. Towards our gateway project, there must be several changes need to be done when installing the whole structure to fit the site much better. Sometimes several prefabricated pieces might need alter due to systematic error. In this way, parametric gateway might provide great convenience.

Project: Parametic Bridge

Software: Rhino + Grasshopper

Architect: Daniel Gillen

This parametric bridge is designed by Daniel Gillen and his partners, who is the now senior Architect at MAD architects. This is one of his group's work when he was tutoring the NonLinear Architecture Parametrics Workshop 2010 at Tsinghua University, in Beijing. It is completely designed by Rhino and Grasshopper and the movement of surface geometry is apparent. Although it is just a conceptual design work done by contemporary computational design technique, it still represents the basic requirement of advanced architectural discourse in certain aspects. The fluid form makes it integrated with the water under it and the cross movement on its surface emphasize the change of its form but also together with the movement of river. Even it was created by precise calculation, the bridge is not that formalistic.

Aperiodic Vertebrae is an installation by Theverymany Architecture Cooperation presented for the first time in Berlin in Januray 2008 and then in a reworked version in Frankfurt. Based on earlier experimentation the first installation is an assembly of nearly 500 flat panels all milled within six sheets of corrugated platic and also nearly 500 assembly details (joints). The subdivision algorithm which creates the installation is according to a recursive protocol that involves first drawing a primitive tetrahedron which then get subdivided. Such a process is repeated many times within itself to generate the kind of self similarity. Seen from pictures at the right hand side, this parametric structure designed by Marc Fornes, who is the founder and principal of THEVERYMANY, consists of two sets of parameters. One is the base geometry which are those plastic panel, the others are those joints. This remind me of the future installation of the gateway project. By comparing to other project such as Daniel Gillen's parametric bridge, Marc' work meets the general installation method of parametric design and seems to be more time saving and efficient. The order of each piece (panels and joints) can be essential to the final installation. Actually, even the work was done by contemporary computational design technique, this project experienced one installation issue in its' first version (the green one) due to small rounding errors in each generation of subdivisions and those errors tended to accumulate, which became apparent in the montage process. Thus, the accuracy in designing and ordering process is the key between digitalization and physical installation, especially when number of parameters is huge.

Project: Aperiodic Vertebrae V2

Location: Frankfurt, Germany, April 2008


This fabrication method can probaly be borrowed for our future gateway project, espectially when applying those irregular and organic pattern onto the skin of our gateway. Those circular joints are much more preferred to connect cutting edges of those pannels.

Scripting Cultures: The mathematical phenomenon always develops out of simple arithmetic, so useful in everyday life, out of numbers, those weapons of the gods: the gods are there, behind the wall, at play with numbers. ---------- Le Corbusier An algorithmic understanding of creativity - that the act is not a flash in the dark, a blessing from heaven but the result of hard rigorous thought which can in many parts be represented mathematically - that is the important step. Right now, scripting is a very useful paradigm but it is not exclusively so. ---------- Tom Kvan

Week Three


Designer: Alisa Andrasek Tobias Schwinn

The RETICULARS are parametrically variable series applied to interior architectural systems such as ceilings and walls. This surface “accessory� distributes soft infrastructures such as lighting, sound and storage. Wave functions were used as a dominant algorithmic logic to differentiate size and orientation of cells. Cellular units can be parametrically and algorithmically varied into a range of scales, orientations and densities that can provide variant storage capacities, different paths of lighting or sound distribution and different transparency levels. Mathmatical scripting applied in this case may give a great contribution to manipulating sounds and light elements in our future gateway design. Furthermore, the scripting program Biothing used hugely increased the convenience of adjusting and creating organic form, which might also appear in our gateway project.

Scripting Cultures: Works from Biothings In Bifid the differential behavior of the material system is a composite of: algorithmically derived intersection points between the components (wave interference pattern), constraints of the numerically controlled fabrication method, material properties of the polycarbonate material (proportion of stiffness and elasticity). Pulsing lighting patterns were programmed based on the same mathematics of wave interference applied to geometry of the ceiling. Unfolding fabrication drawings is scripted into design process such that any number of different fields designed through the bifid interface are already constrained by the data coming from the fabrication process and therefore it’s possible to produce infinite number of variation without increasing the cost of production. This example provided by Biothing again raised the significance of scripting in design process. Comparing it to our gateway project, if we want to apply several initial concept into our design process, scripting can be helpful in simplify the abstract concept and resolve it in mathmatical expression or texts. Thus, not only those dimensions and volumes are paramatricised by scripting but also the whole design concept. As Burry said, arithmetric and geometric value of the design can be simplified and improved by using scripting program.

Project: BIFID 2005 | Biothings

Location: OSU Columbus Ohio

Architect: Alisa Andrasek Andrea Flamenco


Week Four cut project

1. Circles on Arbitary Points 1.1




























2. Circles on Boolean Patterning

3. Circles on Boolean Patterning

4. Rectangle Inputs

5. Rectangle Inputs

6. Blending Inputs

7. Surface Grids + Attractor Points + Circle

Using Surface Normals (Surface created by the Sum Surface component), Attractor Point, Data Driven Shading

8. Surface Grids + Attractor Points + Data Driven Extrusion

The Sum Surface component generated a form that was interesting when combined with Data Driven Shading. Taking the form further, I rotated a flattenned version of the data, producing this form... blalablah.


Using Surface Normals (Surface created by the Sum Surface component), Attractor Point, Data Driven Shading

9. Surface Grids + Streaming Text Files + Rotation

The Sum Surface component generated a form that was interesting when combined with Data Driven Shading. Taking the form further, I rotated a flattenned version of the data, producing this form... blalablah.


10. Custom + Image Sampler + Data Driven Components




Using Surface Normals (Surface created by the Sum Surface component), Attractor Point, Data Driven Shading

ed by ace creat

the Sum




Data Point, Attractor


n Shad



The Sum Surface component generated a form that was interesting when combined with Data Driven Shading. Taking the form further, I rotated a flattenned version of the data, producing this form... blalablah.








als (Surf

ce Norm

Surfa that form ted a Data Driven ned nent genera a flatten ed with compo ah. combin , I rotated Surface The Sum ting whenform further form... blalabl the ing this was interes produc g. Taking Shadin of the data, version


11. Surface Normals + Attractor Points + Data Driven Shading


12. Surface Grids + Streaming Text Files + Hexagon 12.0

13. Curve Intersection 13.1






























14. Explicit Grid 14.5

15. Overlapping Patterns 15.4

16. Applying 1D points onto a surface 16.4

17. Applying 2D curves onto a surface

18. Applying 3D solids onto a surface

Group Matrix


Index of Group Matirx 1.1 Arbitary Points 1.2 Arbitary Points + Surface Divide + Attractor Point 1.3 Extrude according to Attractor 1.4 Rotate around mid axis 2.1 Boolean Pattern - true, false, true 2.2 Surface Normal + Cylindrical Plane 2.3 Rotating circles along Z axis 3.1 Curve attractor + Math Functions 3.2 Extrude according to Curve attractor 3.3 Rotate Circles 3.4 Rotate + Extrude according to Curve attractor 4.1 Curve Attractor + Sets 4.2 Image Association + Rotation 4.3 Math Function + Sets 4.4 Math Function + Rotation 5.1 Boolean Pattern + Math Function 5.2 Data Driven Component 5.3 Overlapping Sets 6.1 Curves + Data Driven Components 6.2 Circles + Surface Normals 6.3 Graph Association (Bezier Graph)

7.1 Little change to orignal definition 7.2 Remapped boundary reversed 7.3 Two layer of grids with slightly different parameters 8.1 Little change to original definition 8.2 Two attractor points, relationship: subtraction 8.3 Change in distance between attractor points 8.4 Two attractor points, relationship: division 9.1 Little change to original definition 9.2 Stream Text affects offset distance and rotation 9.3 Steam Text file altered 9.4 Steam Text file altered 10.1 Alteration of base curve 10.2 Alteration of base curve 10.3 Alteration of base curve 10.4 Alteration of Image Sampler 10.5 Alteration of Image Sampler 11.1 Sum Surface to create base form 11.2 Rotation of base form around an axis 11.3 Multiple rotations 11.4 Alteration of base curve 12.0 Alteration in scale of polygons

13.1 Curve Intersection + Attractor Point 13.2 Curve Intersection + Polygon + Shader 13.3 Curve Intersection + Curve Attractor 13.4 Curve Intersection + Extrusion 13.5 Curve Intersection + Rotation + Shader 13.6 Curve Intersection + Rotation + Extrusion 13.7 Curve Intersection + Polygon + Rotation + Extrusion 14.1 Explicit Grid + Image Sampler 14.2 Explicit Grid + Polygon + Image Sampler 14.3 Explicit Grid + Shader 14.4 Explicit Grid + Maths Function 14.5 Explicit Grid + Sets 14.6 Explicit Grid + Rotation 14.7 Explicit Grid + Extrusion 14.8 Explicit Grid + Polygon + Image Sampler + Extrusion 15.1 Overlapping Pattern + Image Sampler 15.2 Overlapping Pattern + Polygon + Image Sampler + Shader 15.3 Overlapping Pattern + Graph Sampler + Maths Function 15.4 Overlapping Pattern + Image Sampler + Rotation 15.5 Overlapping Pattern + Image Sampler + Extrusion 15.6 Overlapping Pattern + Graph Sampler + Extrusion 16.1-16.4 Surface Normal + Image Sampler 17 .1-17.5 Curve Division + Remap + Pipe 18.1-18.4 Surface Normal + Image Sampler + Extrusion

Additional Research : Metamorphosis and Voronoi Patterns

After taking the position of our site as consideration, we began focusing on voronoi patterns as a way to portray the concept of change from organised (city) to disorganised (rural), or from natural/organic (rural) to industrialised/complex( city). When exploring the effects of overlaying similar but different voronoi patterns interferred with point attractor, random movements are applied into each direction of coordinates of those points. Above is several illustration of our trials. 1st and 2nd column: Varies the random movement in the horizontal direction and vertical direction respectively. 3rd column: Combination of the previous two columns. (Overlapping accordingly)

Copyright@Amanda NG

Incresing the density of the grid to further emphasise the concept of change is also experimented. These sequences of images show the addition of points according to the distance from one end of the pattern to further control the density of the pattern. From top to bottom: Addition of points throughout the grid to no addition of points.

Project: My Matrix of "Cut" definitions

Designer: Zhenghong Pan (Forest)

Definitions used: Surface divide Image association Multiple Math functions

This model is the first atempt of applying 1D points onto surface although it looks like puttin g 2D curve patterns onto suface. In this trial, surface divide, image sampler and multiple math functions are used. It explores the possibility of applying simple pattern determined by image pixel grid. However, turning to relative more complex 2D pattern like voronoi patterns, making them onto surface like that can be challenging but interesting. The edge offset and connecting method can be the preliminary problems if we change the perferation pattern into voronoi holes.

Project: My Matrix of "Cut" definitions

Designer: Zhenghong Pan (Forest)

Definitions used: Curve divide Image Sampler Streming Text file

This trial is applying 2D geometry like curves onto surface. Although in 3D world, those strings are still 3d objects, it demonstrates one way of attaching 2D lines onto surface. It makes another possible model of using strings instead of direct perferation. By adjusting distance between those curves in certain position from using points or curve attractors, metamorphosis patterns can also be achieved. As this one's metamorphosis pattern mgiht be pretty much hard to realize in physical fabrication espectially when voronoi pattern would be applied. However, as a experiment, it illustrates the beauty of string structure in parametric model not just in a aesthetic way but also scientfic way. Probably, in certain parts of our gateway this kind of structure can be borrowed to work together with voronoi patterns in representing natural and organic form.

Project: My Matrix of "Cut"definitions

Designer: Zhenghong Pan (Forest)

Definition used: Input: Suface Normals Association: Image Sampler Output: Cylinder geometry

This model is apparently a trial of applying 3D solids onto the surface. Surface normal can be the most important definition used in this case and it makes the cylinders perform better than other display method. Actually, one of my group member Amanda plans to do sveral cubic display in future gateway design which is exactly belongs to this kind of morphing style. For details, this morphing style is similar to Morphcode's design prototyrpe. (see

Perforation on Organic Surface Explored from Cut Project

Voronoi Pattern under Metamorphosis Explored from Metamorphosis Research

TheEveryMany's Aperiodic Vertebrae Model Jointing Methods can be borrowed in future design

After exploring from Group Matrix and futher research, what can we achieve in the future gateway design is still a question. However, what is certain is integrating above elemets in gateway design as the concept of our urban and rural metamorphosis.


Week Five case study

This is my grasshopper test model styling from the BANQ restaurant as a case study project. When observing the BANQ pictures, the first thing came to my mind is cutting and contour lines. Then I found the finding of those contour lines can be the essential part of this design. Therefore, I came out a idea of cutting two nearly similar surface to achieve those lines which could be extruded. By learning the definition of cutting surface in ExLab tutorial 3, I changed a bit of them and finally get the geometry similar to those timber slabs in BANQ restaurant.

Applying our exploration on this case into our gateway project should be the most crucial part. First, the organic part of our final design might borrow this curvature structure. Second, the skeleton of this model might be used for structure elements in gateway project. Last but not least, those gradually changing panels indicates the metamorphosis concept in future gateway design.

My Project: GrasshopperTest BANQ Case Study Project

Designer: Zhenghong Pan (Forest) 380089

Programs: Rhino (grasshopper+Vray)

Week Six Fabrication

My Project: GrasshopperTest Metamorphosis Voronoi Pattern design

This is the first physical skin panel model fabricated by laster cuting. It generally comes from our further research towards metamorphosis and voronoi pattern in week 4. As the future goal of our gateway projects would related to shadow and air, this metamorphosis voronoi pattern performed well. Those gradually changing patterns are hopefully made to give such a urban/ rural changing impression. I have also documented several overlapping shadows to see several effects of overlapping, however, it seems not so good as we expected and probably will influence the visual impression of metamorphosis voronoi pattern. To conclude, this trial is still successful in exploring shadow and light effect of using metamorphosis pattern.

Designer: Zhenghong Pan (Forest) Qing Ping Amanda NG

Approaches: Rhino (grasshopper) Laser Cutting

After experiencing case study and fabrication part, ways to illustrate and embody metamorphosis between urban and rural pattern became increasingly interesting and sophiscated. Togther with taking site condition and general environmental background into consideration, various attractors can be used to adjust both pattern and form of future gateway design. In this case, the point attractor and overlapping ways in our group matrix attract our interests and performed well in metamorphing procedure. Turning to the step of applying theory into physical modelling, the perforation surface on the left hand side represented the possibility of using those attractor parameters. As a result shown in those photos, the perforation organic surface achieved a relative success and it indicates plenty of clues and methods of skin design in future gateway project. No matter the metamorphing circle pattern, or those shadows created, those approaches in this skin work can definitely be borrowed and futher developed in gateway skin design. As it was made after the metamorphosis voronoi pattern, those future problems towards joinary system were seriously concerned. Hence, the Theeverymany's precedent work was taken into consideration and hopefully can be applied into our future jointing system in gateway physical model. Therefore, the perforation surface model insipred from Cut Project tested many possibilities of applying patterns onto surface.

My Project: GrasshopperTest Perforation Test Model

Designer: Zhenghong Pan (Forest) Qing Ping Amanda NG

Approaches: Rhino (grasshopper) Laser Cutting

Perspective View of BANQ model During the whole process of generating BANQ model, beside we finally achieved such a amazing way of ilustrating linear metamorphosis, we learned a lot from those failures. Starting from grasshopper definition and rhino adjustment to the final laser cutting process, we experienced various problems such as the scaling difference between digital model and cutting board and even making a holding box turned to be difficult. Those problems can possibly be avoided in final gateway project fabrication.

My Project: GrasshopperTest BANQ Case Study Project

Designer: Zhenghong Pan (Forest) Qing Ping Amanda NG

Approaches: Reverse Engineer Case Study: BANQ For the Reverse Engineering task, each of our group members undertook the task of developing a different case study each. Having 3 projects to choose from, the Banq case study was chosen to be further developed to the fabrication process. This choice was made as Banq was the ideal model to develop our concept of progression from city to nature. Banq in its form consist of a series of progressional planes that morphs slowly from plane to plane. This gives the structure an organic layout while still consisting of a series of planes. We wanted to mimic this form of progression and further understand its transition by fabrication. The Banq project also had a progression of views. As a persons view moved along the form, a diversity of views was encountered from a solid organic structure to a more linear slit form. We wanted to explore the diversity of views from its form which is seen from various perspectives such as a driver would view an object from the car. Fabrication would enable us to explore shadows and movement around the structure.

Rhino (grasshopper) Laser Cutting

Week Seven Exploration on Assemble

Project: Aperiodic Vertebrae V2

Location: Frankfurt, Germany, April 2008


Through this research, we took an interest in the work of TheVeryMany and their jointing methods to develop a 3D structure from a series of surfaces. It is basically an assembly of 500 flat panels which are joined with another 500 assembly joints. They used a subdivision algorithm which creates the model according to a recursive parameter that regenerates itself and draws a primitive tetrahedron which gets subdivided. This repetitive system form a series of components that can interlock at specified angles and form a network of structure. Using computer generated designs, they were all fabricated with machines within six sheets of corrugated plastic. “Like the form finding, all the panels, connections pieces and helpers coded strings engraved have all been 100% the result of a performative explicit protocol entirely coded in vb.� (Fornes 2010)

Perforation on Organic Surface Explored from Cut Project

Direction From our previous explorations of the Group Matrix Cut definitions with the further research of Voronoi patterns, we are trying to integrate them together to develop a form which would be able to be Fabricated. We are also looking into a Jointing method of interlocking planes and angles which could hold our Voronoi pattern design and form a feasible solid structure. This path has yet to be developed but what is certain is the integration of the elements above into our final Gateway design to bring forward our concept of urban to rural metamorphosis

Voronoi Pattern under Metamorphosis Explored from Metamorphosis Research

TheEveryMany's Aperiodic Vertebrae Model Jointing Methods can be borrowed in future design

Conclusion of Part 1: This section was crucial in the way it helped us bring our conceptual development and compare it with the requirements of the brief. It helped us relate back to the user and not lose focus in our design explorations. The scale of our design was also explored by placing the digital model on a site plan. This would give us a sense of how our conceptual design would interact with users. The exploration of jointing methods enabled us to experiment with different methods of putting a model together. Each jointing method had its positive and negatives, however all these jointing methods were derived through Parametric resolutions. From exploring the possibilities of Grasshopper first hand, I was able to better appreciate the possibilities generated from Parametric designing. The goal of pure experimentation here has been valuable to me as I had the freedom of designing without a specific outcome in mind. Reflecting back, the seemingly redundant freedom of direction has given me great experiences to take away. In developing an EOI, it enabled us to formulate the advantages of using Parametric designing in the Gateway Project. It also prompted us begin to formulate the direction of our design intent. Taking from the precedents and the experimentation we carried out, we needed to look into how we wanted to use these opportunities to address the project Brief. The EOI was a good guide to set us on our way in developing a design narrative. Developing our concept of “Transition between spaces� along the way also reinforced the design direction of our group. It was a good way to move forward from here, with this concept we could better focus on using the skills we have gained for more directed and effective experimentation.

Week Eight

Part 2: Project Proposal Week 8 DesignConcept and Form development Week 9 Digital Modelling and Rationalising Week 10 Physical Fabrication Week 11 Final Presentation

Concept Diagram: Outline of Nature and Industrial City

Skyline of Rural and Urban Area

Sketch plan of Rural and Urban Area

Site Condition:

The site lies along Princes Freeway with the main target audience of drivers who commute from Melbourne City to Geelong. The main intention is for a sculpture which is iconic for commuters and also hold cultural meaning with the site. In relation to its location as a motorway sculpture, various explorations of arrayed structures introduced to us the concept of changing perspectives of the form. As drivers drive past the sculpture they would have different views of the sculpture and we want to explore this idea of creating a dynamic form which changes significantly in various views.

Concept: The main idea of our project was to convey the concept of change between two extremes of the suburbs to the city. Wyndham itself lies in the middle of these two extremes and acts as a transition point for these places and we would like to convey that concept in our Gateway Sculpture. “Change� is a relative vague concept - in our design we will focus on two aspects of change: Change that is gradual, and this is to show the contrast or difference in two areas that indicates a change in location. We would like to touch on the specifics of gradual change; in the increase and decrease of the density of buildings that define a city. Another concept is the definite contrast in the two poles of organic and structure and how Wyndham is caught in between. Like showing on the Concept Diagram at the left hand side, The form of our final Gateway Design will illustrate the abstract form of above two types of change. In order to achieve such a effect, Voronoi patern which we have done lots of research on can be the basis of our focus.

Location and Form

In terms of Form Developm As Concept is demonstrate by site restricions.

One of most influential res driver determined the loca that travelers driving at th middle may experience gr from 3 different motorways

Form Developmen

The two aspects of Conce slits as the interior form. T end, while the other end c the panels. This interior fo

The contrast of change we nature of rural areas to th on separate ends. This de traveling through it, the e creating a more disorgani then increasingly darker ag

Form Development

m influenced by Site restrictions:

ment, there are two most significant factors should be taken into consideration: Cocept and Site restricitons. ed on the former page, diagrams on the left hand side explain how our form developed which was influenced

striction elements in our case could be the changing angle of driver's view. The travel direction of each way's ation of our project. As shown on the diagram, the Gateway is located on the middle highway of the site so he other two motorways can see the sudden change effect most clearly. Meanwhile, travelers driving on the radual change of interior structure most when passing through the tunnel. Therefore, to make sure drivers s can experience different change effect, two types of skin are required in our Gateway sculpture.

nt influenced by Concept:

eptes (Change) are expressed on the two layers of the form. To show a gradual change, we used a series of The slits are placed at increasing angles from one end to the other, developing a form which looks solid at one consists of widely spaced thin lines. To further emphasise the change in density we increased the thickness of orm was sought to show growth of Wyndham and tie it in culturally to enrich this installation.

e showed on the exterior of the form, using voronoi to grided panels expresses the change from the chaotic he more organized nature of a city. To emphasise on this contrast, we cut out the middle section to put them evelopment also allows drivers along roads A and C to have a clearer glimpse of the interior form. For those exterior form can be experience on the Wyndham end where the interior panels are placed further apart, ized dappled pattern in light and shadows, after which it becomes brighter with the gap in the exterior form, gain with the increase in thickness of the interior form .

Week Nine Digital Modelling and Rationalising Interior Form: Gradual Change Exterior Form: Contrast of Change Joint System

Interior Form: Gradual Change To represent Gradual Change in our design, we decided to use a morphing structure which is similar to the BANQ case. By altering the density of isocurve on two sides of the tunnel, such a gradual changing shape can be achieved.

Isocurves derived from interior surface

Rebuild Isocurves to 3 control points

Connect End Points for later surface orientation

The interior structure was derived from an inner concept surface developed in Rhino. We wanted to obtain an internal form that morphs from a less dense to a denser arrangement. The rib structure was obtained through a process of rationalisation. Isocurves were obtained along the sheet by isolating the data structure of the surface, which formed the initial ribs. The doubly curved isocurves were straightened by projecting them down onto another straightened surface and reoriented onto a straight line to follow the road of the site. Thickness was then given to the ribs by projecting them further according to their normals. Taking from our Matrix explorations, the thickness of the ribs varied according to their distance to an attractor point. Some further changes to the internal form by manually deleting certain ribs to get a stronger change from one end to the other.

Changing of Depths of Panels:

In order to create the impression of increasing population and quantity of building from rural area to urban area, the depths of panels vary from thin to thick as illustrated above. The thin strip pieces on the left side should represent the rural side while the thicker side should represent urban side.

Changing of Distance between Panels:

To emphasize such a impression the distance between each panel also vary to represent the increasing density of people and buildings from rural to urban area. In this case, graph mapper in Grasshopper helped us a lot in spacing each panels of interior structure. Data to decide the distance also obtained from our research towards the population density from Wyndham to Melbourne.

Optimising Horizontal Ribs

Optimising Notches on Rakes

We then developed the supporting structure to hold up the ribs. Above is a rake that would interlock with the ribs and hold it into its intended angles. By extending the sides of our ribs, it enables a section for interlocking. Rationalising to balance between functionality and aesthetics. We isolated the curve of the interior structure and extruded this curve to form a surface that would act as the rake. The notches on rakes are also the crucial part of such a interlocking structure. The size of notches were determined by the final material we use to build our model. In this case, we are gonna use 3mm white perspex board by laser cutting.

Optimised Interior Structure

The rake is then intersected with the sides of the ribs to form notches that would follow the angle of the ribs. It was then a simple task of nesting these curves for fabrication. What I took away from this task was how effective Parametric designing was in rationalizing a design. Understanding and locating data structure could help isolat certain points on a surface to produce an exact design outcome. It gives me the knowledge of using Parametrics to process the repetitive and menial task, while having a manual over ride control to obtain the final desired outcome.

Preparation on Voronoi Pattern

It's preliminary to get the required metamorphing voronoi pattern in grasshopper. However, it's not just easy as applying the pattern onto surface by Map surface component. First, we met the problem of failure of getting a perfect pattern by using Regin Intersection component. Then supporting our exterior panels became the major issue for later modelling. After discussing with my group members, discarding several unimportant panels and using a interior timber structure became the final resolution.

Failure of Region Intersection Component in GH

Metamorphosis Voronoi Pattern

Exterior Form: Contrast of Change Rural Side (organic shape)

Urban Side (rigid shape)

To show the contrast of change, metamorphosis voronoi pattern was applied on exterior surface. In order to emphasize the word "contrast", the middle part was cut out so as to clear the definition of "change".

1. Metamorphing Voronoi Patterns were filleted, scaled and morphed onto the exterior surface we created before. 2. In order to build the timber supporting structure under exterior panels, midpoints of eace panel were used to generate a grid by using Delaunay Triangulation method. 3. As several lines generated are at wrong position, we seperated and modified the method of getting the mesh we want.


Timber slices obtained by extrude component

Notches on Joints obtained by Boolean difference component

As we only need curves for laser cutting, the outlines of our supporting structure is required to unroll onto plan. Entire Supporting Structure of our model

How to fix our panels onto such a structure is still a problem. This will be discussed on the later part of the journal in Fabrication part. After taking various factors into consideration, screws and screw caps can be the most effective and efficient way to fix our panels onto the interior timber joinst structure.

Final Form Development: Taking from our previously developed Voronoi Metamorphosis, we used this in developing the floating panels of our exterior structure which represents the two contrast between structure and nature.


With the Voronois projected onto the surfaces, we were able to obtain floating panels that morphed according to the structure of our surface. We then obtained a grid according to the centre points of the Voronoi patterns. The points were then interconnect with a polyline to form a grid of lines which connects the mid points of the voronoi panels. This grid was rationalised by manually removing the excess joints and offsetting the curves. Through a mix of Parametric and manual control we were able to obtain our intended effect of the floating panels. As illustrated on the right hand side, our final form was achieved after combining generally 3 layors together.

A= Interior Form B= Timber Mesh Supporting Structure C= Exterior Panels



Jointing System:

As the design was all generated digitally, using digital technologies we are able to use the design information as the construction information. The jointing method for the full-scale onsite installation is similar to that used in our physical model at 1:200 [detail of joints and materials]. In the physical model, the plywood structural members are held together by circular joints with unique notches, which hold the members in their correct orientations. Panels are held away from the joints through the use of screws and bolts, a panel directly above each joint. In the full-scale installation, the plywood structural members and screws will be replaced by steel rods with phosphorescent coating, and the joints replaced by CNC machine forged steel nodes. While the structural members were glued together in the physical model, the steel members will be welded together.

Construction Process Diagram:

The many unique panels and joints are prefabricated in factories, arranged and sorted before being transported to the site to be assembled. This diagram [image] shows the overall sequence of construction on site: 1. First, structural columns are placed, over pile footings, over which the rake of the internal supporting structure is placed. 2. The panels of the internal structure are connected to the rakes. 3. The exterior steel structure then goes over the interior structure. Their edges connected to the rakes by horizontal metal rods - they do not touch the panels of the interior form. 4. Unlike how the physical model was put together, the panels are placed last over the steel structure. Copyright: Amanda NG

Week Ten

Physical Modelling and Documentation

When assembling the model we also came across various challenges which were only discovered when explored in the physical world. These tribulations were in part due to the problem of systematic error in assembly. Our internal system of notching to hold the panels up was too fine and complex. When we actually sought to put it all together, there was some deviation in the fixing of the joints. By learning from TheEveryMany's Projects, the enlargement of systematic error was under our consideration but still cannot be avoided. If these joints were separate, the error would be dismissable, but when we have to join all the joints and notches to form a network of joints holding up a single structure, these errors multiply and in the end created joints which did not align at all with one another. This problem was overcome by removing certain joints which were not structurally needed.

Also with the notches not being aligned exactly at the right angle, we were not able to get the exact shape of what we designed in Rhino. The Exterior Structure could not stand on its own after the model was built as the curvature was not fixed, with the joints flattening out. To solve this, we needed to keep the ends together to give it an arch structure and enable it to hold itself. This could be done with either retaining walls on the sides of the Exterior Structure or actually tieing the ends together. We opted for tieing the ends together as a retaining wall would disrupt the overall nature of the Exterior Structure. Another problem was the forces of Gravity on the large cantilever of the Rigid Panels. It could not support itself and we needed to provide columnar support to keep it upright.

This technological system “has the potential to span the architectural process from concept formation to digital fabrication in a system of related design models� (Aish 2003).

The actual fabrication process was very challenging bringing in new problems which were not considered in the digital development stage. Through this process, I better appreciate how the fabrication stage was a crucial learning platform for us to discover greater issues of design. From this, we learnt to take into consideration more of the physical world forces which would act on our design and consider the structural support for our design; this is something that is easily forgotten in the digital world. Another crucial aspect to me was learning on site problem solving skills. Through the Fabrication of our model and the encountering of problems along the way we developed diverse methods of solving these problems. As all designs will never be able to be perfect, and problems may arise, I believe it is a crucial skill to be able to handle these problems using critical analysis to obtain practical solutions.

Week Eleven Final Project Proposal

Conclusion of Part 2:

From the exploration of scale, the Sculpture which develops from a low lying erratic form which represents nature to a t evoke emotions to drivers. The concept of progressional from ordered to erratic would be an eye catching sight in its b facade design to its gradually morphing form, it would enhance the exciting nature of the Gateway Sculpture and becom have a dialogue between existing successful sculptures such as the Seeds of Change. Developing from the idea of sculpture would convey the concept of Growth and Change in Wyndham.

Overall, as required by the brief, the design aims to inspire interest in the Western Interchange by encouraging further glance. While we have mentioned specific examples to explain our concept of change, the final design may not necess instance, the gap in the exterior form could actually be expressing Wyndham as it is a transition point between Melbourne

Traveling through the interior, it gets darker on the city end. Does that have a deeper meaning other than an increase in th disagreements with the form, with some believing that the more messy end of the form should be representing the energy meanings and possible implications is likely to help generate discussion about the project, drawing attention to the project

towering iconic ordered structure that would barren surroundings. From both its Voronoi me an iconic landmark. The sculpture would the seeds and the start of something, our

reflection about the installation beyond first sarily refer back to the same examples. For e and other, more rural areas.

he density of buildings? There could also be y and activity of city life. All these ambiguous t and contributing to architectural discourse.

Panel 2 and 3 of Final Presentation

Part 3: Learning Objectives and Outcomes • • • •

Personal Background and Learning Objectives Learning Progress Learning Outcomes Future Work

Week Twelve

Altered Sketch Model after Crit Feedback

Personal Background and Learning Objectives I am an Architecture Student who got 1 year experience of using Rhino and its plugins (Grasshopper, T-spline, Panelling Tool and Vray etc.). However, it's my first time to do a group project by using GH. As I never touched scripting part of grasshopper, my group member Amanda who learned Informatics helped me a lot in our digital modelling. I like digital modelling not only because of the acuracy but also the efficiency of illustrating design works. I have learned Grasshopper for parametric design before but never done it systematically like learning Exlab tutorials each week. In terms of communication, I am able to demonstrate my thinkings properly by drawing sketches and then discuss with my group members. Towards the learning objectives, three goals could be considered. 1. Further developing my skills in 3D digital modelling. 2. Better using of diagrams and renderd pictures to make a project proposal; 3. Learning how to communicate with partners to develop a better design.

Learning Process Regardless of my prior knowledge of digital modelling and rendering, I have learnt a lot during this semester. Some of them can be achieved from reading books or articles while some of them can only be experienced by doing such a great group project. By doing weekly readings, the importance of digital modelling can be realised. Various benefits of parametric design attracted me to make some brave steps and trials in our design work. When practising some grasshopper components I never used before, I explored further more convenience of digital modeling. After those practices and excercises, my skill in using grasshopper improved substantially. The way of generating an argument like EOI influenced me a lot in making a design proposal. We never heard EOI before Studio Air but it's really a nice method to make design proposals to clients. By using wonderful diagrams and pictures, we can provide what clients want even in future company. It's also the most efficient way to tell clients what we are capable of and what we have already done as precidents. As it's a group work, we went through the journey together. We learned from each other. Learned from mistakes we made. Learned from lecturers and tutors, Learned from arguing, Learned from cooperation. Learned from feedbacks from others. There are various ways of learning, what influenced us most could just be the tough process we experienced together.

Learning Outcomes As there is a process, there must be couple of outcomes. Towards my learning objectives, I think I reached my goals basically in this semester. First of all, I tried almost all components in Grasshopper and plenty of relative plugins for Grasshopper. Moreover, I am capable of applying them onto generating forms I want. As I prefer to do render works in our group design, my skills of using Vray and Photoshop seems improved a lot. Furthermore, my skill in combining use of those softwares has also reached a new level, which could be very helpful in future design studios. Second, as an architecture student, I insist on a rule of presenting proposals: Let the diagrams and pictures talk. In our final presentation panels, I reckon the goal was basically achieved. Last but not least, although we've been though several hard periods of cooperation, we still completed a complex physical model and did a wonderful final presentaion in the end. I also learned a lot from my group members and really appreciate their help in all of the design process. In digital modelling, I have learnt the critical thinking towards the whole design process. We can't just generate our 3d model in computer without thinking how to build it in real world. Every step in our digital modelling can be vital to our later physical fabrication. Sometimes, doing several sketch models also would be very helpful in finalizing models as we won't be able to take everything into consideration in digitalization. In physical modelling, as we used laser cutting though the whole semester, as long as we didn't make mistakes in digital model, our physical model should be fine. However, the only tip I can make is about labelling. Never, misplace 6 and 9. Because that would be very annoying if the number of labeled is large. (in our case, we got 200+ timber pieces) All in all, together with my group members, we improved a lot in almost every aspects of

Future Works As an arhitecture student who really interested in digital modelling and rendering, tools we learned from studio air would be quite helpful in future works. Grasshopper as an amazing digitalizing tool, would become my most prefered software in future design works. I hope its handy components in parametric design could be used together with Revit in my future studio design.

Bibliography Antoine Picon (2010), ‘Digital Culture in Architecture: DIAGRAMMING COMPLEXITY’ Burry, Mark (2011), ‘Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming’, Chichester: Wiley Echelman J (2011), ‘1.26: Denver Art Museum’ , accessed on 10th April 2012, from Kolarevic (2003), ‘Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing’, New York; London: Spon Press, 2003 New Scientist, ‘Olympic Sculpture’, accessed on 14th April 2012, from http:// Neil Leach (2009), ‘Digital Morphogenesis’, Architectural Design Patrik Schumacher (2009), ‘Parametricism’, Architectural Design Yehuda E. Kalay (2004), ‘Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design’, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press

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