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Editorial Dear Friends, This short report aims to present results of the FORESTA Project in order to help you learn and understand how cooperation policies are being shaped between Europe and Latin America. This information has been prepared due to the fact that the European Commission considers Latin America as a strategic partner for R&D activities. Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico already have an agreement of Science and Technology with the European Union. We want to help pave the way for policy dialogues with other Latin American countries and to shape the research dimension between your countries and the European Union. I hope this information helps you! Sincere regards, Dr. Silvia Bidart General Director ALETI

About FORESTA FORESTA is a project that promotes policy dialogue for ICT research cooperation between Europe and Latin America through activities such as the organization of conferences, policy dialogue forums, networking sessions, and the dissemination of information through the project website.

FORESTA is a project funded by the Information and Communication Technologies Programme of the Seventh Research Framework Programme www.forestaproject.eu │ www.lac-ictgateway.eu


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Cooperation Mechanism with the European Union There are different R+D cooperation mechanisms in the ICT field between Europe and Latin America. The most important bi-regional mechanism is the EU Framework Programme (currently the Seventh Framework Programme -2007/2013). Nevertheless there are other programmes such as Celtic Plus and Eureka, among others.

El Salvador

2

Guatemala

1

Honduras

1

Mexico

45

Nicaragua

0

In the following chart presents participation of the Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico in FP7 cooperation projects in the ICT field:

Panamá

4

Perú

8

Dominican Republic

7

Venezuela

6

Country

Participation in 7FP in ICT

Argentina

7

Brazil

17

Chile

13

Colombia

7

Mexico

13

Table 2: Participation of LAC countries in Iberoeka Innovation projects

The following table show countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico) wich have bilateral S&T agreements with single EU countries:

Table 1: Participation in 7FP in ICT

Country

Argentina

There are also bilateral cooperation R+D Programmes between countries in Latin America and Europe, the most successful one being Iberoeka (between Spain and Latin American countries), and there are also interesting programmes such as STIC-South America (between France and South America).

Belgium

X

X

X

X

France

X

X

X

X

X

Finland

X

X

X

Germany

X

X

X

X

Italy

X

Portugal

X

X

Spain

X

X

X

X

X

4

4

3

The chart below indicates the number of Iberoeka Innovation Projects in which Latin American and the Caribbean countries have participated: Country

Participation in Iberoeka Innovation projects

Argentina

66

Bolivia

3

Brazil

50

Chile

44

Colombia

38

Costa Rica

6

Cuba

24

Ecuador

7

Brazil Chile Colombia

Sweden

X

UK

X

Norway

X

Netherlands

X

Czech Republic

X

Slovenia

X

Hungary

X

Total

12

8

Mexico

Table 3: Bilateral S&T Agreements between single EU countries and LAC

FORESTA is a project funded by the Information and Communication Technologies Programme of the Seventh Research Framework Programme www.forestaproject.eu │ www.lac-ictgateway.eu


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Lessons learned: Principle of Continuity and Principle of Reciprocity The document “Study on FORESTA Project and other projects in support of international ICT research” (D4.1) identifies two main principles in relation to the synergies between initiatives carried out at the national and the European level: the principles of continuity and reciprocity. The analysis carried out in D4.1 highlighted that in some cases there is a lack of continuity of the actions undertaken between Latin American and European countries. An obstacle in the continuity fostered frequently derives from political stability problems and from the fact that initiatives often lack impact assessment and follow up measures. Considering the Principle of Reciprocity, a “partnership” approach, as mutual learning, should be preferred among “cooperation” approach. In addition, the setting up of an integrated database of programmes and projects in the field of ICT will be useful to obtain more synergy and greater visibility.

?

What about your country?

Best practices: National priorities in ICT Policies in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico and Uruguay Argentina ICTs have been

mentioned as a strategic priority for Argentina, but presently no specific priorities have been established within

the sector. It is worth mentioning that there is a specific plan to foster the software sector (FONSOFT). The agent responsible for this instrument is the National Agency for Scientific and Technology promotion, depending upon the Science, Technology and Productive Innovation Ministry. Furthermore, the National E-Government Plan can also be seen as a useful tool aimed to foster the ICT sector. Argentina is endowed with several technological hubs and IT clusters operating in many cities along the country. In this locations, leading multinational firms, domestic SMEs and universities work hand in hand achieving synergies and increasing competitiveness. Forty-nine percent of total firms are currently concentrated in Buenos Aires. In particular, the Polo IT Buenos Aires comprises more than 80 domestic SMEs, 46% of which export to 15 different countries. The cluster Córdoba Technology agglutinates 100 firms. One of the pillars of Córdoba’s economic activity is the dense presence of universities.

Brazil ICT policies are a part of the Productive Development Policy (PDP) launched in 2008 and focused on the enhancement of productive s t r u c t u r e

efficiency. It seeks to improve the economic efficiency of Brazilian companies through their capacity for innovation and expansion of exports and the development and dissemination of technologies with higher potential for competing international competitiveness. The current policy (PDP) aims to build confidence in the ability to grow and to promote long-term competitiveness of the Brazilian economy. It focuses on four main challenges: To steadily expand supply capacity to meet the growing demand, avoiding the formation of any bottlenecks or inflationary pressures. To preserve a robust of balance of payments, which in recent years has contributed decisively to strengthening the Brazilian economy.

FORESTA is a project funded by the Information and Communication Technologies Programme of the Seventh Research Framework Programme www.forestaproject.eu │ www.lac-ictgateway.eu


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To increase the capacity for innovation in Brazilian enterprises. To provide spaces for new players, broadening the conditions of market access for micro and small enterprises (SMEs). PDP policy allows for fiscal incentives for companies involved in R&D activities.

Chile

In the past decade, Chilean governments implemented two main national ICT public policies: the Digital Agenda 2 0 0 4 - 2 0 0 6 and the Digital Development Strategy 20072012. Both are focused on national development through access and use of ICTs respectively but cannot be considered as ICT research policies although they aim to reinforce technological innovation at different levels. In early 2007, President Bachelet’s administration created a new institutional framework: the Committee of Ministers for Digital Development made up of the Ministers of Treasury, Education, General Secretariat of the Presidency, Transport, Telecommunications and Economy. The resulting policy, currently in effect, was called Digital Development Strategy 2007-2012 and has four strategic lines: Projects and Programs for Digital Development Technological Policy for Digital Development Development Strategy for the ICT Industry Institutional Framework. These lines include the following specific actions: renewal of the telecommunications regulatory framework, promotion of massive access to broadband, a new phase of digital literacy campaign, use of ICT in the classroom, integrated

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digital government, and development of creative and content industries by promoting the software industry.

Colombia Although there have been several laws, initiatives and guidelines, which have contemplated the use and incorporation of ICT in different areas (e-government, e-business, e-learning, e-health, e-employment, e-environment, e-agriculture and e-science)in Colombia, the country remains in a transition process from the telecommunication sector to ICT. It has been as consequence of market behavior and convergence that the Colombian government has begun to design tools focused on ICT as a whole. The most recent policy in Colombia related to the ICT sector is VIVE DIGITAL Plan which was launched by the new Government Administration in October 2010. The main objective of the VIVE DIGITAL Plan is “to promote mass use of the Internet to achieve a leap forward in Democratic Prosperity”. In order to attain this goal, the Plan will create a digital ecosystem which has four dimensions: infrastructure, services, applications and users, considering supply and demand. The interaction of these dimensions seeks to generate growth of the ICT sector. Furthermore, because ICT are interconnected with all sectors and industries in Colombia, the Plan intends for the Ministry of ICT to work with all other Ministries, defining strategies, projects and programs in order to meet the objectives of the Plan. Through ICT policies, goals, programs and priorities, the national government continues to make efforts to coordinate development of this sector and to provide Colombian people with universal and free access to the Information Society.

Costa Rica The National Plan for Information Technology was launched in 2004. The design process of the proposal was carried out by the Information Technology Chamber of Costa Rica (CAMTIC), the International Economic Policy Centre of

FORESTA is a project funded by the Information and Communication Technologies Programme of the Seventh Research Framework Programme www.forestaproject.eu │ www.lac-ictgateway.eu


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the National University (CINPE), Centre for Technology and Informatics Management (CEGESTI) and experts from the University of Oslo in Norway. The Ministry of Science and Technology, supported by the Innovation Directorate, seeks to consolidate the System of Science, Technology and Innovation (SCTI), with the aim of achieving greater coordination among academia, government and private sector. Finally, there is a long-term development strategy, XXI Century Strategy 2004-2050, which seeks to promote the integral development of Costa Rica through a platform founded on education, science and technology and innovation. The initiative is funded by the Foundation of Cooperation Costa Rica-United States (CR-USA). In 2006, the National Centre for High Technology (CENAT) of the National Council of Rectors (CONARE) agreed to host its implementation.

Mexico The Mexican Government declred ICT development as a national priority issue in the National Development Plan (20072 0 1 2 ) . Four main development areas were identified: 1) development of the software Industry, 2) development of a digital supply chain, 3) e-Government , and 4) strategic development and implementation of information and communication systems based on the state of art technologies to combat organized crime. However, federal spending on science and technology as a percentage of GDP was 0.45% (32,487 million pesos), still below the global average. Mexico also has a Special

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Science, Technology and Innovation Program (20082012), which aims to strengthen the social appropriation of knowledge and innovation, as well as to ensure effective coordination of all involved parties, but research and innovation policy for the ICT sector is still lacking clarity and strength. ICT research is mainly conducted in public and private universities and public research centers. The National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) is the leading national funding agency for research and innovation. The instruments used to support the previous and present ICT policy mainly have the intention to strengthening the ICT industry through the elimination of import tariffs on raw material or other inputs used in the ICT industry, stimulating investment in the electronic industry in Mexico, or the creation of clusters of new ICT companies. Recently, new instruments were created to foster innovation and collaboration between industry and research centers, including the ICT sector among others. Industry clusters in Mexico are located in areas characterized by strong economic activity, operating under demand. Because barriers to entry in the software industry are relatively low, the creation of new businesses to serve local clients has been relatively fast over the past decade. However, in some cases the process growth has been sustained mainly by strong involvement of transnational corporations (Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, SAP) and ICT Clusters. At present, there are 21 ICT Clusters distributed throughout Mexico. A National Digital Agenda has been development since June 2010, with the participation of all stakeholders in the ICT sector

Uruguay Uruguay has had a Science, Technology and Innovation National Strategic Plan (PENCTI) since February 25, 2010. PENCTI is part of the socalled “Uruguay Innovator”,a

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proposed reform of public policies aimed at developing the capabilities of the National Innovation System in Uruguay. This is part of the new institutional design that began in April 2005 with the creation of the Ministerial Office of Innovation (GMI). Subsequently, since December 2006, the GMI has had a central role in setting policy and strategy guidelines in science, technology and innovation. There are also two other relevant actors: the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), an operational arm of government policies and priorities of the Executive branch, and the National Innovation Council of Science and Technology (CONICYT), which was expanded and revitalized as a consultative and advisory body. The Digital Agenda is one of the instruments in force for ICT development. Its main objectives are the identification, prioritization, organization, dissemination and monitoring of programs and strategic projects to advance the development of ICT.

European Union in the following way: “The public policy issue is a matter of tradition and history, and the countries of the EU have tradition and history. Consequently, what countries from the EU can provide is their experience, their pros and cons, their positive results and their negative results. This can help and can have the benefit of avoiding repetition of the same mistakes that at some point the countries from the EU have made.”

“The dialogue is also an opportunity to disclose local concerns and to find patterns of behavior in which joint interest actions can be started.” Héctor Cancela, Dean of the Engineering School from the University of the Republic, Uruguay, in interview with ALETI.

The interest of the main stakeholders in the ICT field in having a policy dialogue between Latin America and Europe is a key factor to succeess in enhancing cooperation in R+D.

Why have a policy dialogue? Uruguay gives its testimony!

In an interview by ALETI, a FORESTA project partner, to Jorge Vidart (CEO at TILSOR, Honorary full professor of the University of the Republic, and member of CUTI, Uruguay), Mr. Vidart explained the reason for interest in having a policy dialogue with the

The interest of key stakeholders is essential because stakeholders are the real actors of cooperation.

Contact us:

For general information about FORESTA project please visit our web site www.forestaproject.eu or contact the project coordinator Mr. Mauro Bianchi. e-mail: mbianchi@teseo.be TESEO Sprl. Avenue de Tervuren 32-341040 Brussels, Belgium +32(0)2 2301090

FORESTA is a project funded by the Information and Communication Technologies Programme of the Seventh Research Framework Programme www.forestaproject.eu │ www.lac-ictgateway.eu


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