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From our corner to the four corners of the globe FA LL 2016

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“We’ve survived apart, and must learn to live together.” The Reverend Jesse Jackson, at U-M, on “What’s next for us: Hope and reflection”


gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy


he election of an American President is always a momentous event, but this one has been particularly intense.

On the night of the election, we partnered with Michigan Radio to host a standing-room-only electionwatching event with faculty and students representing different sides of the political spectrum. Before a large crowd, our students discussed strongly held views on a variety of policy platforms, demonstrating deep expertise. Many in the audience came up to speak with me afterwards, and I’m proud to say that they were inspired by the future leaders they saw in Ford School students. Then, on the day after the election, our postelection analysis event attracted more than 600 guests (and another 450 online viewers) who turned to the Ford School to parse the outcome. Together, we discussed the polls, voter turnout, the Electoral College, the peaceful transition of power, the President-elect’s controversial rhetoric, and where our country—and key public policies we care about— might be headed under Trump’s administration. That night, many of our students shared deep concerns about what the future would bring. As a person of color, and as an immigrant, those concerns have continued to resonate with me. On November 16, the Ford School was proud to serve as lead organizer for a University of Michigan symposium honoring the Reverend Jesse Jackson’s 50 years of civil rights leadership.

To say that Jackson inspired and energized our community would be an understatement. He met with student leaders throughout the day, then joined nearly 1,000 students on the Diag decrying hate crimes and calling on University administrators to protect underrepresented students. Following the protest, Jackson walked with our students to Rackham Auditorium (our cover photo was taken during that walk) where he delivered a moving address to the nearly 1,000 in attendance. Jackson reflected on the election, and spoke about ways to move forward peacefully, purposefully, and productively. “We must keep a positive vision—of the kind of country we want—before the American people,” he said. “Let nothing break your spirit.” As an optimist, and as dean of one of America’s very best policy schools, I know that Ford School students, faculty, and alumni—the citizens and public servants that our great nation deserves and so desperately needs—will do just that, and will continue to make vitally important contributions in the years ahead. Inside this issue, you’ll find stories that demonstrate that innovative, entrepreneurial spirit and impact. Some describe initiatives in Detroit, Chicago, and other U.S. cities; others are stories about ongoing work in Malawi, in Thailand, and around the world. In sum, well-done social science matters, and will matter more than ever, as we move forward, together, to inform, shape, and advocate for effective public policies; to care for vulnerable communities; and to improve people’s lives.

Susan M. Collins

Joan and Sanford Weill Dean of Public Policy

“2016 Decided,” our post-election analysis event (aka “What happens next?”), filled the Annenberg, the Betty, and three overflow classrooms in Weill Hall. Read more:

FALL 2016


The Magazine of the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy

Inno vation f or the publ ic good Above: “Redline with Bankole Thompson” airs live at the Ford School and Ned Gramlich greets Hillary Rodham Clinton at U-M’s 1993 commencement ceremony. On the cover: The Reverend Jesse Jackson joined a massive student-organized protest against hate crimes, then walked with Ford School students to Rackham Auditorium to deliver a keynote address on hope and reflection.

State & Hill Dean: Susan M. Collins Associate Dean for Academic Affairs: Paula Lantz Associate Dean for Research and Policy Engagement: Elisabeth Gerber Director of Communications/Executive Editor: Laura K. Lee (MPP ’96) Editor and Lead Writer: Erin Spanier Contributors: Afton Branche (MPP ’17), Anthony Cozart (MPP ’18), Elisabeth Johnston, Jacqueline Mullen (MPP ’18), Nicholas Pfost (MPP ’15) Design: Savitski Design Cover photo: Michigan Photography Photographer: Peter Smith Printer: University Lithoprinters, Inc. Tell us what you think:, or Editor, State & Hill, Ford School, University of Michigan, 735 S. State Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-3091 Regents of the University of Michigan Michael J. Behm, Grand Blanc Mark J. Bernstein, Ann Arbor Laurence B. Deitch, Bloomfield Hills Shauna Ryder Diggs, Grosse Pointe Denise Ilitch, Bingham Farms Andrea Fischer Newman, Ann Arbor Andrew C. Richner, Grosse Pointe Park Katherine E. White, Ann Arbor Mark S. Schlissel, ex officio The University of Michigan, as an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer, complies with all applicable federal and state laws regarding nondiscrimination and affirmative action. The University of Michigan is committed to a policy of equal opportunity for all persons and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, marital status, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, disability, religion, height, weight, or veteran status in employment, educational programs and activities, and admissions. Inquiries or complaints may be addressed to the Senior Director for Institutional Equity, and Title IX/Section 504/ADA Coordinator, Office of Institutional Equity, 2072 Administrative Services Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1432, 734-763-0235, TTY 734-647-1388. For other University of Michigan information call 734-764-1817.

Microfinance breakthrough 5 Dean Yang uses fingerprints to boost microlending in Malawi

Hacking for global health 8 Annie Maxwell (MPP ’02) on tackling wicked problems with creativity

Entrepreneurial alumni 10 Winning strategies in social innovation

Engines for growth 12 U-M faculty, students support Detroit entrepreneurs of color

Fulfilling the public good 13 Shobita Parthasarathy on innovation in science and tech

Market vagaries 14 Wolfers on market responses to the ebb and flow of Presidential candidate fortunes

In addition Spoilers to stability, Bob Axelrod on threats to Iranian nuclear deal 15 Complex challenges and viewpoints 16 10 benefits to 10 years in Joan and Sanford Weill Hall 18 More a spectrum than a switch: John Ciorciari talks shared sovereignty 20 Ambassador Ronald Weiser on $1.1M gift for international study, travel 21 25 years on, celebrating the impact of the Ford School Committee 22 Interning near and far 31

Departments Discourse, Ford School Faculty in the News 23 NEW Faculty Findings 24 Faculty News and Awards 26 Class Notes 28 The Last Word 30

after the election

as we sit down to write this, and a new and largely unanticipated future is unfolding in real-time. Big data and data visualization. Political journalism and realtime fact checks. Hourly election forecasts—with signals, with noise. Behavioral nudges. Crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, and citizen science. Fast and free-flowing and sometimes overwhelming information. We’re living in an era of rapid growth and change—in science, in technology, in methodology, in philosophy, in demography. That growth and change is disrupting the status quo and dramatically shifting the field for those active in the realms of service, governance, and policy.


But at the Ford School, an institution long-dedicated to preparing students for careers in public service, our work is more urgent than ever. It is precisely in times when our differences seem most prominent that a focus on shared values and mission is most important. So as we continue to parse the election, we’re buoyed, and always will be, by our students, our faculty, and our alumni. The theme of this issue, “innovation for the public good,” focuses on just a few of the many Fordies who are harnessing our rapidly changing and increasingly complex world. Inside, you’ll find stories about the strategies they’re using, the work they’re doing, and the valuable impact they’re having on the world.

It’s two days

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Fingerprinting for microlending Dean Yang uses fingerprinting to extend the impact of microfinance in Malawi

Dean Yang in a Malawi market

By Erin Spanier




ight years ago, development economist Dean Yang spent a week in Malawi visiting microfinance institutions, the banks and credit unions that provide financial services to some of the world’s most vulnerable citizens. Yang, who works to combat extreme global poverty, was trying to understand the constraints these institutions faced as they sought to extend more loans and services to poor people in rural areas while recovering a reasonable level of profit, and growing their businesses, along the way.




“There’s very little microlending in rural Malawi; it’s just very hard to make it work,” says Yang. “Ninety percent of the people live on smallholder farms in places that basically have no electricity or running water or financial services or government interaction at all.” During one of these visits, Yang asked a manager at the Malawi Rural Finance Corporation, which lends almost exclusively to paprika farmers just north of Lilongwe, if he could think of anything that might improve the bank’s business situation.

Yang photo: Madalitso Chenjerani

The manager’s reply was unexpected: fingerprinting borrowers. Fingerprinting, of course, is increasingly used as identity protection in developed economies. It’s long been used for forensic analysis in the

criminal justice system. And centuries ago, it was used to seal contracts—parties to the contract would press their fingertips into clay. But the idea of fingerprinting for microlending was new, and had real potential, says Yang.

Big work for small loans One of the thorniest problems microfinance institutions face, explains Yang, is asymmetric information. Customers know a great deal about their own creditworthiness, and have a good sense of how creditworthy their friends and family are. But in a region where very few people have government-issued photo IDs, let alone collateral or credit histories, banks know almost nothing about prospective borrowers. To circumvent this issue, officers who wish to extend loans in rural areas—even small loans of just $100 per person—are forced to build extensive personal networks. They travel to a village and get to know its leaders, assemble groups of potential borrowers, get to know each of them by name and face, ask around to assess their reputations—all before making a single loan. “That’s pretty time-consuming for a loan officer,” says Yang. “And then if he or she gets transferred, that knowledge is lost to the institution.”



gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

The thing is, small loans can do big things for poor people in rural areas. They can be used to purchase livestock for farms, fertilizers to increase crop yields, or new equipment to improve productivity. They can allow borrowers to get training that will prepare them for careers, to purchase wholesale items for a market stall, to improve their homes and businesses, and more.

Why fingerprinting? So small loans—even though they’re risky and unprofitable for lenders—really matter. But why fingerprinting? Like a government-issued ID, says Yang, fingerprints are unique to their owners, and can be used to identify borrowers and track their credit history over time. But unlike a government-issued ID, fingerprints require no cumbersome application process, and they can’t really be lost, stolen, or forgotten. To test the concept, Yang and coauthors Xavier Giné (World Bank) and Jessica Goldberg (PhD ’11) ran a randomized trial (similar in structure

“A number of the farmers who were part of this program received loans again the following season. They had proven themselves, established a credit history, and the bank was viewing that favorably.”

to medical trials and a methodology once rare, but increasingly common, in the social sciences). When the Malawi Rural Finance Corporation decided to extend loans to 3,206 paprika farmers in 214 farming groups, Yang’s team, including project manager Santhosh Srinivasan (MPP ’07), conducted a baseline survey of the farmers, then rolled out the experiment. All borrowers were required to attend a presentation on the value of building a good credit history. Then half of the borrowers— those in groups randomly assigned to the treatment—were fingerprinted in the presence of a microfinance loan officer. After their names, demographic information, and fingerprints were collected, a single farmer was chosen at random to have his right thumb rescanned. The entire club watched on as the computer identified him by name, displaying his demographic information. “Most of these borrowers were in really deep, rural areas of Malawi; rich people in their villages perhaps had access to a TV, but nobody had ever seen a fingerprint scanner,” says Srinivasan. “The fact that we could now identify someone based on their thumbprint… was all very alien.” The most interesting part, though, is what came next. For the borrowers with the highest default risk—roughly 20 percent of those who took out loans—fingerprinting significantly increased repayments. Two months after the paprika harvest, highrisk borrowers in the control group had repaid only 67 percent of their loans while those who had been fingerprinted repaid 92 percent. Fingerprinted borrowers, says Yang, seemed to self-regulate. They took out smaller loans, spent more of the money on agricultural inputs like fertilizers and seeds, cultivated more land, and focused more of their farming time on the paprika cash crop. Yang did a cost-benefit analysis, as well. And even with the cost of implementation— including laptops, USB scanners, software, and staff time—the benefits outweighed the costs more than two to one.

Scaling it up across the nation While the short term benefits of fingerprinting were significant, Yang believes that the long-term benefits could be even better as borrowers build credit, secure lower interest rates, and perhaps even increase their incomes and capital.

A study enumerator fingerprints a borrower.

Srinivasan, who stayed in Malawi for an additional six months beyond the survey and remained in contact with some of the villagers and loan officers, saw some of this first hand.

Study photos: Dean Yang


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Breaking new ground Yang’s study is not only addressing a massive challenge in microfinance and international development, it’s also providing rigorous empirical evidence of the importance of personal identification for credit market efficiency.

“A number of the farmers who were part of this program received loans again the following season,” he says. “They had proven themselves, established a credit history, and the bank was viewing that favorably.” With a $1 million scale up grant from Development Innovation Ventures at USAID, Yang and his colleagues at Innovations for Poverty Action and the World Bank are in the process of testing whether these results hold true in a much larger sample. In collaboration with three of Malawi’s biggest microfinance institutions—together, these institutions serve 75 percent of Malawi’s borrowers—they are rolling out a nationwide scale up. They’re giving training and technology to half the loan officers at these institutions, and those loan officers will fingerprint and register all of their borrowers. Along the way, Yang and his colleagues will monitor their registrations and data collection. “We want to show that the technology can work,” says Yang, “but we also want to see how the technology changes things.” Does it continue to raise repayment rates? Does it make the participating loan officers’ portfolios more profitable? Does it allow them to expand their portfolios—to attract new customers, and riskier customers? Those customers, says Yang, might be more vulnerable, more likely to be living in poverty.

Carly Farver (MPP ’14), director of the Malawi field office of Innovations for Poverty Action, says that the United Nations Development Program recently used Yang’s study to argue for the inclusion of biometrics in Malawi’s firstever national ID registration.

Using fingerprinting technology to address microfinance challenges was definitely something of a breakthrough, says Yang, who credits field work, and the Malawi Rural Finance Corporation, for the insight and opportunity. “It’s hard to come up with these things just sitting at your desk in Ann Arbor, or in any U.S. university, and figure out what kind of development initiative might work,” he says. “I probably get my best ideas being out in the field and talking with real people on the ground.” ■

Ford School Spotlight The Ford School is delighted to welcome Towsley Foundation Policymaker in Residence James Kvaal . Kvaal is former deputy director of the White House Domestic Policy Council and is teaching two courses—one on policy issues and controversies in the U.S. higher education system and another on the policymaking process with a focus on health care reform.

White house photo: pete Souza

“Even though, in general, poorer clients aren’t a good business risk for the microfinance institution, maybe now that there’s less risk of default, they can bring them into the system and give them credit,” says Yang. Yang is also interested in what happens with the borrowers. He wants to see if the results from his pilot study still hold true—that borrowers self-regulate, taking smaller loans, investing more time and resources in their cash crops. But he also wants to see if their incomes rise. “At first blush, you would think, well why would fingerprinting somebody raise their income?” he says. “It seems kind of crazy to imagine that, but if they really are more disciplined about their use of the loans, it might lead to higher income.” James Kvaal with President Obama


Tackling wicked problems, like avian influenza, with creativity The prereqs? Technology and diversity

IRD researchers capture birds to track avian influenza in Thailand (2004).

By Erin Spanier


hiang Mai wasn’t Annie Maxwell ’s (MPP ’02) first introduction to the EpiHack. As president of the Skoll Global Threats Fund, which pioneered the “epidemiology hackathon” in 2013, Maxwell had heard a good deal about them. They were multi-day events that brought together diverse stakeholders and tasked them with designing a digital tool. The goal? To allow communities to detect, report, and verify disease outbreaks in real time.

And in Thailand, where almost half of all residents rely on backyard animal production for their livelihoods and very few have knowledge of the symptoms, and threat, of zoonotic diseases, that possibility is even more troubling. So when researchers at Chiang Mai University expressed an interest in preparing for the next possible outbreak, the Skoll Global Threats Fund got involved.


ince its founding in 2009, says Maxwell, the Skoll Global Threats Fund has tried to identify leverage points where a moderate philanthropic investment can make a big impact on complex challenges like climate change, water security, nuclear proliferation, and pandemics.

But what happened in Chiang Mai, an historic city in northern Thailand, was special, says Maxwell. “It was a big, late-night conversation. We walked into the room with one view of the world, and we came out completely different, and totally for the better.”


n December of 2003, avian influenza broke out in Thailand.

Birds, like people, often get the flu, which can result in large avian losses and, sometimes, spill over to infect the humans who care for them. The most common of such flu strains, and one of the deadliest, is H5N1, with a human mortality rate of 60 percent. That’s the strain that hit Thailand in ’03, ’04, and ’05—resulting in the deaths of tens of millions of birds, as well as 17 of the 25 humans who were diagnosed. To date, the H5N1 strain of avian influenza has been largely contained to the humans who come into close contact with sick birds. But there’s always the concern that, like other influenza strains, it will adapt, enabling human-to-human infections of a disease so new, so deadly, that it will launch a global pandemic.

With pandemics in particular, the fund believes there’s a crucial point—after the outbreak of a disease, but before it becomes an epidemic—when quick intervention can actually head off disaster. Maxwell

So in 2014, the Skoll Global Threats Fund assembled key stakeholders—physicians, environmental health specialists, veterinarians, economists, anthropologists, engineers, local government officials, foundation representatives, and computer programmers— for a three-day EpiHack at Chiang Mai University. Their task: To build a participatory reporting tool that would allow local citizens to inform government agencies of their symptoms as soon as they became ill.

Maxwell photo: Michigan Photography


gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

Avian influenza photo: Patrick Aventurier


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Prominent U-M alumni at the Skoll Global Threats Fund include Dr. Larry Brilliant (MPH ’77), chairman of the board of directors, and Dr. Mark Smolinski (BS ’84, MD ’89), chief medical officer and director of global health.

Maxwell says she walked into the event expecting that the tool that emerged would report human health concerns. “It wasn’t until working with the teams for a few days that we thought, no, we need to get at this sooner,” she says. “We need to be thinking about this from the animal health side.”


he new app, Participatory One Health Disease Detection (PODD), refers to a growing international “one health” movement focused on addressing human, animal, and environmental health in concert since all are interrelated. In 2014, the app was rolled out to 300 volunteers, more than half of whom had never owned a cell phone before, including farmers, teachers, and government officials. They were shown how to take a photo of a sick animal, to answer a series of questions, and to hit a button to submit their findings to local government agencies.

“Within the first few months, volunteers were reporting more animal disease cases in Chiang Mai than Thailand had [reported] for the entire year.” Since then, the number of local users has grown to 4,600 and collectively they have reported 36 incidents of dangerous pathogens, zoonotic in nature, including multiple cases of rabies and avian influenza. “Within the first few months, volunteers were reporting more animal disease cases in Chiang Mai than Thailand had [reported] for the entire year,” says Maxwell.

creativity to address wicked problems, and Maxwell sees two key ingredients. The first is technology, which Maxwell believes “allows us to iterate solutions at a speed unheard of before…and to scale at a fraction of the cost.” Shortening that timeframe is vital when responding to an infectious disease outbreak in a world where trade and travel have dramatically sped transmission rates. But it’s important too, she believes, because it encourages more creative thinking as people begin to expand their understanding of the possible. Still, at the end of the day, Maxwell says, “information technology is just a product, or it’s a platform, and those things are agnostic to the process.” The second ingredient, engaging diverse people and perspectives in that process, is critical, she says, “to make sure that we’re engaging our collective imagination, creativity, and ultimately intelligence, [because] the end product will only be as good as those engaged in the process.” “I want the ability to be able to detect disease and respond to it in the far corners of the world. And I want a way to manage and plan around risk in our ever-changing climate. And I want it not just for the wealthiest, but for the world’s most vulnerable, as well,” says Maxwell. That can’t happen, she says, without tapping into the intelligence and experience of diverse communities who know, and can speak to, these issues. ■

PODD team photo: PODD CM One Health

Brilliant/Smolinski photos: Jason Madara Studio

One farmer, she says, reported foot-and-mouth disease in one of his cows, launching an immediate community response that is estimated to have helped save his region $4 million in revenue. The app, she says, is innovative, but what makes it useful and relevant is that it engages community members as disease detectives while producing a quick, credible response from government agencies.


axwell recently returned to the Ford School to deliver the 2016 Josh Rosenthal Education Fund Lecture. Her topic: “Wicked Problems: The Role of Imagination and Creativity.” Skoll Global Threats, Maxwell said, has spent a good deal of time looking for systemic ways to foster and encourage

The Participatory One Health Disease Detection (PODD) team uses geospatial information systems (GIS) to map an outbreak of blackleg disease in southern Chiang Mai.

Ford School (@fordschool) • Nov 20 “We are one country, we are the United States of America, and we want to do the best for our country.” – Joe Schwarz




gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

Social entrepreneurs talk innovation Share lessons learned along the way By Afton Branche (MPP ’17)

“Make sure that you’re curating people in your life that will have your back and want you to succeed. Being an entrepreneur is the loneliest task, but also the most rewarding.” Erin Zaikis (BA ’10), founder, Sundara — While working in rural Thailand, Erin Zaikis noticed that migrant children were attending schools without soap. After further research, she found that the problem wasn’t lack of supply, but lack of distribution. In 2013, Zaikis founded Sundara, a social enterprise that trains women in Myanmar, India, and Uganda to source and recycle used soap from hotels, then distributes their soap to schools and clinics. Sundara’s model is both ecologically and financially sustainable, and uses creative means like street plays to teach about hygiene.

“It’s never too early to get feedback from users. If you have product-market fit—which comes from a strong understanding of what users want— everything else is easier.” Rose Afriyie (MPP ’11), co-founder, mRelief — Born in Harlem and raised in public housing, Rose Afriyie “carries the memory of what it’s like to navigate the social services system,” as well as the belief that safety net programs are integral to improving economic security for lowincome families. mRelief, an easy to-use web and text system, helps low-income Americans quickly find out if they qualify for food stamps, then connects them to the easiest application method.

“Entrepreneurs rarely get it right the first time. It is important to be adaptive. Also, being coachable and knowing how to effectively engage with mentors is key.” Kelly Ramirez (MPP/MUP ’98), CEO, Social Enterprise Greenhouse — Kelly Ramirez is passionate about supporting social enterprises with the tools—including technical assistance, low-interest loans, financial management services, and more—they need to grow. For entrepreneurs seeking to start a new venture, she says, “It’s important to follow your passion, because getting a new venture off the ground requires a crazy level of commitment.” Based in Providence, Rhode Island, Social Enterprise (SE) Greenhouse supports for-profit and not-for-profit enterprises tackling pressing social challenges such as food access, affordable housing, and education.

Ford School Spotlight

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U-M athletes in all sports are wearing Gerald Ford era ‘4’s on their new Nike uniforms as a nod to diversity and inclusion. The style of the ‘4’ pays homage to Ford’s 1934 jersey. That year, Ford (48) threatened to quit the football team when Georgia Tech demanded (and U-M agreed) that African American teammate Willis Ward (61) sit out the game.

“Learn about as many big and wicked problems as you can and challenge your views by making diverse, interdisciplinary, and motivated friends. After you spot the problem that moves you, the rest are details.”

football Team photo: Bentley Historical Library

Uniform photo: Courtesy of Jordan Brand


Adithya Dahagama (MPP/MS ’16), co-founder, Cheruvu — With support from U-M’s Dow Sustainability program, Adithya Dahagama co-founded Cheruvu to provide data-driven decision-making support for small farmers in India. Last year, Cheruvu worked with 250 farmers in two villages; this year, Cheruvu is working with 3,600 farmers in 54. Cheruvu provides  site-specific nutrient management advice and weekly weather forecasts to each participating farmer. The goal: to build resilient and sustainable villages by informing the decisions of small farmers.

“Building a strong team is essential. New organizations are fundamentally risky, and funders will respond to founders who have assembled a solid team.” Andrew Schroeder (MPP ’07), co-founder, WeRobotics — By day, Andrew Schroeder is the director of research and analysis for the NGO Direct Relief. But he is also the co-founder of WeRobotics, a non-profit social enterprise that uses robotics for social good. WeRobotics helps local partners use robots— including drones, unmanned terrestrial vehicles, and more— to implement humanitarian aid, global health, and environmental protection projects in developing economies. After a natural disaster or conflict, drones can distribute medicine or collect information from places that are more challenging or dangerous for humans to reach.

“Whether you’re a for-profit or non-profit, don’t treat corporate partners like ATMs. Make sure it’s structured as a win-win for all sides.” Bulbul Gupta (MPP ’04), social innovation advisor — Bulbul Gupta is a consultant who helps social enterprises and investors design strategies for growth. As an advisor to the Clinton campaign, she also focused on ways the campaign could infuse social innovation, innovative finance, and entrepreneurship into its business agenda. To succeed as an independent consultant, Gupta says, “Be putting things together that no one else is, bring innovative and fresh ideas, and network constantly.”




gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

Entrepreneurs of Color Fund U-M faculty, students partner with Detroit organizations to spur business growth By Afton Branche (MPP ’17)


hile small businesses have always been a critical engine of growth for urban economies, new business startups have slowed nationwide in the wake of the Great Recession. In the city of Detroit, expanding small businesses means confronting the particular obstacles faced by black, Hispanic, immigrant, and female entrepreneurs.

House of Pure Vin, Detroit

Enter the Entrepreneurs of Color Fund, a collaboration of the Detroit Development Fund, JPMorgan Chase, and the Kellogg Foundation. Launched in 2015, the fund provides loan capital to Detroit’s entrepreneurs of color and to small business leaders who primarily hire local residents. Michael Barr ,


faculty director of the Center on Finance, Law, and Policy and one of the main architects of the fund—with U-M alumni James Wahls (BA ’03, JD ’06) and Paul Brown (BA ’96, MBA ’08)— notes that many minority-owned businesses launch with less capital than their counterparts, since they have to rely more on personal wealth and usually have less of it.

In Minority and Women Entrepreneurs: Building Capital, Networks and Skills, a 2015 report for the Brookings Institution, Barr writes that minority-owned businesses are three times as likely to be rejected for a business loan than their counterparts. “The capital gap certainly comes [in part] from discrimination,” he says, “but a second problem is lack of internal wealth. The less wealth you have, the harder it is to get access to credit,” he says. Because the fund has a built-in loss reserve, which enables lenders to cover potential losses, it can provide capital to small businesses that might not typically qualify for loans. To date, the Entrepreneurs of Color Fund, run by Ray Waters, president of the Detroit Development Fund, has disbursed loans ranging from $50,000 to $150,000 to a growing number of Detroit entrepreneurs including House of Pure Vin, a wine shop and tasting room, and Love Live Swagger, a lifestyle streetwear brand. Yet, access to capital is just one critical component needed to launch a successful small business, says Barr. Entrepreneurs also need access to business networks and specialized technical skills.

To help minority-owned businesses access these resources, Barr has partnered with colleagues from U-M’s Community and Economic Development Clinic, Ross School of Business, Stamps School of Art and Design, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science to create the Detroit Neighborhood Entrepreneurs Project. This fall, four clinic law students, under the leadership of clinical fellow Dustin Marlan, will help Detroit business leaders with incorporation, intellectual property concerns, purchasing and leasing facilities, and more. The other schools and departments will begin folding in faculty and student support over time. While Barr notes that the Entrepreneurs of Color Fund comes at an exciting time for Southeast Michigan, he believes there’s more work to do to create a productive environment for small businesses in Detroit and other cities. At the local level, Barr says the city needs to streamline the small business permitting and licensing process; at the federal level, he hopes that the New Markets Tax Credit, which makes funding available to small businesses in low-income areas, will be reauthorized and expanded. Ultimately, he says, the goal of the Entrepreneurs of Color Fund is to give local leaders the tools they need to grow. Although start-up ventures are inherently risky, successful small businesses ground a strong local economy, he says. “If it works, you’ll see more business formation, more sales, more employment—and that’s going to benefit the community.” ■

How can science and technology fulfill the public good? It seems like a straightforward

of government to ensure that

India, which foster low-tech,

question. If we produce more

citizens have access to technology?

low-cost, and small-scale solutions

innovation, and quickly, then

Can governments do a better job

built by poor and rural individuals

society will benefit. Our economy

of ensuring that their science and

who lack much formal education.

will grow because there will be

technology policies produce

Scholars and some policymakers

markets for new technologies,

benefits for the public?

suggest that these institutionalized

and citizens will also benefit

from access to the technologies themselves. Our science and technology policies, focused

primarily on research funding and rewarding innovation through

patents, reflect these goals. But

in recent decades, while we have continued to enjoy the many

benefits of science and technology,

citizens have begun to raise difficult questions about the relationships

between science, technology, and the public good. Do scientific

priorities reflect public priorities? Is all scientific and technological development beneficial to the

public, even in morally controversial areas? What is the responsibility


My research explores these questions. In my previous work, I demonstrated how the social and ethical consequences of technologies are embedded in their very design, and urged policymakers to think carefully and critically about these implications as they develop policy for emerging science and technology. In my forthcoming book, Patent Politics, I argue that our patent systems are extremely important—but usually ignored—sites that influence the ethical, social, economic, and political consequences of new science and technology. And my current research turns towards grassroots innovation systems in

Parthasarathy’s latest book, Patent Politics, will be published by the University of Chicago Press in February.

efforts to promote innovation among the “knowledge rich and resource poor” could lead to more accessible, acceptable, and sustainable technological development in the developing world, and even provide the developed world with ideas about how to better ensure that science and technology serve the public good. My new research aims to find out. — Shobita Parthasarathy



gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

Market vagaries Wolfers on market responses to the ebb and flow of Presidential candidate fortunes By Anthony Cozart (MPP ’18)


s Trump gained strength on election night, the prices of Clinton securities on political betting markets fell sharply. By midnight, stock market futures for the Dow Jones Industrial Index had fallen by 4 percent. Both movements reflected what traders had previously expressed in markets—their belief that a Trump presidency would be a drag on the economy. Yet after the opening bell the following morning, stocks began to rebound.

noted “parallels in Australia.” And citations and media mentions have continued to pour in. How did it start? On September 26th, before the 9 p.m. (ET) start of the first presidential debate between Clinton and Trump, most commentators felt Clinton had a slight edge. National polls had Clinton leading by several percentage points. “Data nerds” and “quants” agreed as well: Nate Silver of FiveThirtyEight calculated Clinton had a 55 percent chance of winning. Traders on one betting market, BetFair, gave Clinton a 63 percent chance of winning the election.

Pundits and economists were generally puzzled by this. Many Ford School students, and Justin Wolfers himself, were visibly shaken.

Wolfers had long been an observer of political prediction markets, where bet-like securities for each candidate are bought and sold. These securities pay out either $1 or nothing after the election, depending on the winner. Prices reflect the expected payout, meaning if the likelihood of a Clinton presidency is thought to be 63 percent, Clinton securities trade for 63 cents each.

On October 20th, the Brookings Institution had released what would quickly become a widely discussed paper. Written by Wolfers of the Ford School and Wolfers Eric Zitzewitz (of Dartmouth), it showed how financial traders reacted to changes in the perceived likelihood of a Clinton presidency during what seemed like the critical turning point in the election— the first Presidential debate.

As the debate progressed, Wolfers watched for changes in prediction market securities prices. At first, they held steady. But after an opening appeal that drew mixedremarks from pundits, Clinton rallied, responding with increasingly persuasive points and rebuttals. Wolfers, with an iPad tab on the political betting markets, watched prices for a Clinton presidency move sharply higher, reflecting increasing belief in the likelihood of a Clinton presidency.

Almost immediately, newspapers, magazines, and television outlets across the world covered the research.

Pecentage Change in Dow Jones Industrial Average

Stateside, FiveThirtyEight asked if investors were “#withher?” The Atlantic argued debates still matter. And the Wall Street Journal suggested “a great trading opportunity.” Overseas, London’s Financial Times discussed prediction markets as a window into the economic effects of politics. The Sydney Morning Herald

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Sept 26

Sept 27 Day after first presidential debate

Oct 3

Oct 10

Interestingly, betting markets weren’t the only financial markets to react… ■


Continued online at marketvagaries

Oct 17

Oct 10 Monday following release of “Access Hollywood” video

Oct 24

Oct 31

Nov 7

Nov 7 Day following FBI announcement of no charges filed against Clinton

Oct 28 FBI announces more Clinton emails

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Nov 9 Market rebounds the morning after the election


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Spoiler alert Bob Axelrod on threats to the Iranian nuclear deal


his April, Bob Axelrod was invited to attend a closed-door workshop at Oxford University’s Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflict. The focus: The 2015 nuclear deal with Iran. One year ago, the U.S. and other powerful nations forged an innovative accord with Iran. Fearing the nation had acquired nearly enough enriched uranium to make a bomb, they agreed to support the lifting of United Nations sanctions if Iranian leaders acted quickly to surrender their enriched uranium, to dismantle their centrifuges, to decommission their heavy water reactor, and to open their nuclear energy facilities to international inspectors. Twelve months later, Iran has met its obligations, and the United Nations has lifted economic sanctions. Axelrod and others who are knowledgeable about the Middle East see the accord as an inventive, peaceful solution. “The Iranian nuclear deal made it possible for Iran to continue its peaceful nuclear program while at the same time assuring others that Iran was not capable of making a nuclear weapon, or that if it did so, that it would be spotted in time,” says Axelrod.

Axelrod Photo: Jennifer Heffner Photography

But the Iranian nuclear deal remains fragile and contentious. Some Middle East observers believe that Iran remains a threat, and that sanctions should be reinstated. President-elect Donald Trump has threatened to dismantle the deal when he takes office. The accord, Axelrod says, is under threat. At the April workshop, which attracted a number of scholars, policymakers, and activists from Iran, Israel, and Saudi Arabia (abiding by Oxford’s Chatham House Rules, Axelrod can’t share their names or affiliations), Axelrod spoke about “spoilers”—those parties who might wish to undermine the deal by spreading misinformation. “In any deal,” says Axelrod, “there will be people who would like it to not work.” For an analogy, he points to the Oslo peace accords. A landmark agreement between Israel and the


Palestinian Authority, the accords fell apart, he says, when Hamas began conducting terror attacks that frightened the Israelis. In the case of the Iranian nuclear deal, Axelrod warns that mutual distrust creates and perpetuates an atmosphere of fear, which makes it easier for anyone seeking to derail a fragile agreement. His advice to both sides? Be wary of potential spoilers; be transparent, which builds trust; and avoid provocation. Economic conditions are a problem, too, he says. Conditions for Iranian citizens—who have suffered high rates of unemployment and poverty in recent years—need to improve visibly. If they don’t, public support for the deal will erode.

“Hopefully, President-elect Trump will rethink his opposition to the treaty once he takes into account that it’s the only way to prevent Iran from getting nuclear weapons.” Unfortunately, says Axelrod, European banks and firms have been hesitant to invest because they’re “uncertain about what would constitute a violation of the remaining U.S. sanctions against state-sponsored terrorism and the Iranian ballistic missile program.” “The apparent lack of enthusiasm from many financial institutions to invest and trade with Iran may be due to understandable caution about running afoul of the remaining U.S. sanctions,” he continues, “but the Iranians themselves may attribute the caution to deliberate foot-dragging by leading foreign powers that offered the promise of economic growth.” ■


gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

When something hangs in the balance

Engaged learning in Ford School classrooms this fall

By Jacqueline Mullen (MPP ‘18) and Anthony Cozart (MPP ‘18)


he Ford School has a long history of emphasizing engaged learning. Many of the big-ticket experiences, like the Integrated Policy Exercise (IPE), Applied Policy Seminar (APS), International Economic Development Program (IEDP), and required summer internships for graduate students, stand out as well-known examples. However, engaged learning is also woven into the day-to-day curriculum in core courses and electives alike. According to Elisabeth Gerber , associate dean for research and policy engagement, activities like simulations and roundtables engage students differently than lectures and readings. When something hangs in the balance, she says, “students are just more motivated.” Being able to take on the identity of different stakeholders—to empathize with their priorities and concerns—is also powerful. “The magic of that is that students have to put aside their assumptions,” Gerber says. “Helping them better understand and appreciate those diverse interests—that’s really important.” Courses with engaged learning span a broad range of policy areas—from state politics to drug policy to public sector economics. Here are just a few of the activities taking place in classrooms this fall.

Ford School (@fordschool) • Nov 21 Celebrate a century of trailblazing women in U.S. government (1916 - 2016).

The Politics of Public Policy (PubPol 510) Instructors of “The Politics of Public Policy,” a core course at the Ford School, regularly incorporate roundtable exercises into the curriculum. Students are divided into groups according to their interests and asked to assume the identity of a major stakeholder related to their chosen policy topic. Group members research, write memos, and eventually participate in a roundtable debate from their stakeholder’s perspective. In Susan Waltz ’s section, students are engaging with international issues and agreements. Group topics include the Trans-Pacific Partnership, marine biodiversity and conservation, UN peace operations, responsible supply chains of minerals in high conflict areas, and the Global Compact on Refugees. In Valenta Kabo ’s section, students are focusing on domestic policy topics, including immigration, health, education, economic development, housing, and poverty. Students in Shobita Parthasarathy ’s section adopt a comparative lens, with sets of groups tackling topics and students roleplaying stakeholders in each group. This semester, for example, three groups are focused on mining—one in the U.S. context, one in Canada, and one in El Salvador.


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» Have a memorable engaged learning experience of your own? Share it by emailing

Economics of the Public Sector (PubPol 744) In Betsey Stevenson ’s course, students participated in “The Fiscal Ship,” a simulation exercise developed by the Brookings Institution and the Wilson Center to explore ways to balance the federal budget. As is characteristic of effective engaged learning simulations, the exercise challenged student perceptions—about which budget items are important, and which values are attached to them—and allowed students to experience how difficult it is for policymakers to juggle competing interests and priorities. “I found that there were certain policy actions that would help one of my priorities but hurt my other priorities,” says Emily Pramik (MPP ’17), a student in the course. “I sort of knew that, but seeing it happen in front of you underlined the point.”

Michigan Politics & Policy (PubPol 475) Debra Horner , a program manager with the Ford School’s Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy (CLOSUP), is teaching the first CLOSUP in the Classroom course this fall. The new initiative, supported by a grant from the provost’s office, aims to have students work directly with data in the classroom. Undergraduate students in Horner’s course are empirically examining a state or local policy challenge—topics include education, criminal justice, economic development, and others— by analyzing data from CLOSUP’s biannual Michigan Public Policy Survey (MPPS). Horner is excited about the opportunity to move from theory to practice: “Most courses in state and local government are very general,” she says. In contrast, “we’ll be looking at practical policy applications in a particular context.”

Apology, Reconciliation, Reparations, and Public Policy (PubPol 495) Students in Yazier Henry ’s undergraduate seminar on apology, reconciliation, and reparations are working in groups to gain expert understandings of how specific countries with legacies of conflict and oppression manage their national, systemic, membership and human rights responsibilities after conflict. Students critically evaluate how official apologies, processes of reconciliation and frameworks for reparation contribute to the longer term prerogatives of peace building. At the end of the semester, groups will draft an executive memo, designed to advise government officials and the president or prime minister on a particular issue related to sustaining the peace process. The simulation, Henry says, allows students to develop depth of knowledge, and to understand the complexity and integral relationship of human rights to democratic consolidation and nation building.

Drugs, Crime, and Terrorism (PubPol 763) Simulations and group exercises have long been mainstays of professor and former ambassador Melvyn Levitsky ’s popular course on drugs, crime, and terrorism. Students participate in a bioterrorism simulation across two classes, briefing Levitsky and responding to each other as if they were members of the national security establishment. “The idea is to hone skills and group work,” says Levitsky. The exercises, modeled after the many White House meetings Levitsky attended during his diplomatic career, bring the situation room to campus. In addition, students participate in a group exercise on drug policy, briefing and critiquing the positions of local, state, and international organizations. “We’ve infused these sorts of real-world examples throughout our curriculum,” says Susan M. Collins, “because engaged learning prepares our students to tackle critical, complex challenges in the years ahead.” ■

Ford School Spotlight The Ford School believes that diversity, equity, and inclusion are integral to the study and practice of public policy. Our Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Strategic Plan — the culmination of a robust data-gathering process involving surveys, town halls, suggestion boxes, and one-on-one conversations—moves into the first of several phases of implementation this fall. Read more at Photo: The Ford School’s 2016 Public Policy and International Affairs (PPIA) Fellows visit Michigan Stadium. For more than 30 years, the Ford School has offered a PPIA summer training program in an ongoing effort to increase diversity among public policy professionals.



gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

10 benefits of 10 years in Joan and Sanford Weill Hall I

n honor of that anniversary, here are ten things—some serious, some fun—that the building has made possible.


Growth In 2006, 72 students graduated from the Ford School. In 2016, 174 students—

director of graduate career services and alumni relations, remembers “the annex exile” at Huron well. “Becky [Blank] referred to it as the Ford School physical fitness program,” she says.

including MPA, MPP, PhD, and BA students—

Later, Niggemeier’s office was moved to the Oakland Annex— a bit closer than the Huron Annex, but a site she continues to refer to as “a pit of despair.” [When they tore down the building, the construction crew allowed faculty and staff to pitch rocks through the windows. Niggemeier keeps a brick as a memento.]

more than 100 students play

Jennifer Niggemeier ,

But when the school was renamed in honor of President Gerald R. Ford, more than five-dozen donors—many of them friends of President and Mrs. Ford—contributed close to $15 million toward construction of a new home for policy studies. The lead gift? From Joan and Sanford Weill . “There isn’t a day that goes by when we don’t think about President and Mrs. Ford and the wonderful relationship we had with them,” says Sanford. “They epitomized hard work, humility, and leadership in every Joan and Sanford Weill greet President and Mrs. Ford facet of their lives. President Ford was never afraid of making a tough decision, even if it was unpopular at the time, and the courage and strength Mrs. Ford displayed openly to the world as she battled addiction was unprecedented and positively changed countless lives forever.” “It’s been ten years since Weill Hall was completed putting us, quite literally, on the map,” says Susan M. Collins, the Joan and Sanford Weill Dean of Public Policy. “It’s a beautiful facility, and a home, that’s become an irreplaceable asset to our community.”

walked the stage.

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Practice In our annual

Integrated Policy Exercise,

stakeholders while tackling a

time-limited policy challenge.

Alumni in residence

Close to two-

dozen Ford School alumni visited last year, offering career guidance to students in search of internships, jobs, and advice.

Job interviews When recruiters call, or increasingly Skype, there’s a quiet space for student interviews.

Talks Last year alone, we hosted 93 events in the building, including 19 Policy Talks @ the Ford School that attracted more than 2,658 guests.

Weill photo: Courtesy of the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library


irst there was Angell Hall, then the Law Building, Haven Hall, Rackham, and Lorch. And for the faculty and staff who couldn’t be shoehorned into those facilities, there was the Gunn Building, then the “annexes” at Huron and Oakland.

Ford School Spotlight More than 215 Fordies gathered in 17 cities around the globe on July 14 to celebrate the school’s sixth annual Worldwide Ford School Spirit Day. Pete Fritz (MPP/MBA ’10) and Ian Swedish (MPP/MBA ’10), pictured here, showed their spirit at a Guns N’ Roses concert in Philadelphia.


And rest We don’t have any cots (yet), but every now and then you’ll catch a student napping on one of the building’s comfy couches.


And pics Students love to pose for photos in the Great Hall.

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And puppies in residence

Ben Bernanke , former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve, was the featured speaker at the 29th annual Economic Club of Grand Rapids dinner on Tuesday, May 31. Dean Susan M. Collins interviewed Dr. Bernanke for the event, which drew 1,600 registered guests.

We admit it. We love to haul out the carpets and host puppy play therapy during finals.

And paper cranes Our students made cranes to advertise last year’s class gift campaign,

Paper crane photo:

Courant photo: Michigan Photography

which created an emergency fund for students facing financial hardship.

And more talks Our facilities manager, Bill Kelly,


reports receiving 2,336 room requests for small group meetings in our conference and class rooms. That’s in addition to the 147 courses held in those classrooms for our 395 bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral students.

We could go on and on, about the art, the views, the visibility, and the magazine title (our location at the southwest gateway to campus—the corner of State & Hill Streets—seemed just right), but we’ll end with a simple “thank you” to the donors who helped build this home, and to the faculty, staff, and students who have brought it to life.

Presidential Bicentennial Professor Paul Courant says he’s ‘looking pretty good for 200.’ We couldn’t agree more. In recognition of the university’s 200th anniversary, Courant is organizing a June 2017 bicentennial colloquium on “The future of the social compact with universities.”

gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

More like a spectrum than a switch Sharing sovereignty for long-term capacity building and lasting peace


ohn Ciorciari ’s

office is neat as a pin, but a towering stack of books looms by his keyboard.

Ciorciari has just earned tenure. He’s just been appointed director of the Ford School’s International Policy Center. He’s just returned from a week-long sojourn in China, where he accompanied Ford School students on their annual comparative policy exploration. And he’s just won a spot on the Ford School’s teaching honor roll—as he’s done every semester he’s taught. But today, Ciorciari is poring through books, transcribing his latest interview notes, and thinking, quite seriously, about his next big project: a book about sovereignty. In an increasingly interconnected world—a world in which international trade, treaties, conventions, and collaborations Ciorciari have chipped away at traditional views of sovereignty—he says sovereignty, or the rights of nations to govern their affairs without outside interference, is more like a spectrum than a light switch. At any given moment, countries might ask the question, “How much sovereignty am I exercising, and how much am I sharing with others?,” says Ciorciari. At infrared, countries that need it might invite limited financial or technical assistance—like when a national police agency brings in foreign police advisors to train local counterparts. At ultraviolet, countries or territories might host full-on international governance—like when the United Nations stepped in to govern Kosovo, until a new government could be established, in the wake of war. Sovereignty-sharing, says Ciorciari, is somewhere in the middle of that spectrum. It allows countries to tap into the considerable functional capacities that international partners can provide, while strongly engaging local leaders in the process. This kind of sovereignty-sharing can be particularly helpful to countries that are emerging from conflict. In these nations, ensuring basic security, a sense of justice,

“No host country wants to admit that it’s sharing sovereignty, and no international actor wants to acknowledge that it’s taking sovereignty.” and peaceful transitions of power can be challenging, and the risk of falling back into conflict can be high. “Sovereignty-sharing is supposed to have the benefit of short-term assistance, but also long-term capacity building,” says Ciorciari. “And it’s supposed to be seen as legitimate both at home and abroad because both sides are deeply involved.” But sovereignty-sharing is difficult, and even the phrase is something of a dirty word in the international community. “This term is almost never used in official dialogue because no host country wants to admit that it’s sharing sovereignty, and no international actor wants to acknowledge that it’s taking sovereignty,” says Ciorciari. For those who care not just about addressing conflicts and enforcing the peace, but also about building a climate for sustainable peace in all nations, that mutual denial is problematic. If you don’t talk about something, says Ciorciari, it’s hard to improve it. And improving these arrangements—for host countries, and their citizens—is a worthwhile goal. Somewhere, in his looming towers of books, and in his copious interview notes (Ciorciari expects to complete well over one hundred interviews with current and former diplomats, foreign service officers, and staff at think tanks, NGOs, and multilateral organizations before his work is done), Ciorciari hopes to find the recipe for successful sovereignty-sharing arrangements, particularly those that focus on key government functions like ensuring security, just courts, and fair elections. If properly done, this type of sovereignty-sharing, he believes, can enfranchise host countries while also building a foundation for lasting peace. ■ John Ciorciari’s research is made possible through support from an Andrew Carnegie Fellowship.

Ford School (@fordschool) “We can do so much more than hope... We can become the citizens & public servants that our great nation needs,” says Collins. #Election2016

Spectrum illustration: Hull1987


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Ambassador Ronald Weiser on the many merits of international study and travel


mbassador Ronald N. Weiser (BBA ’66), founder of the Ann Arbor real estate firm McKinley, talks about the $1.1 million gift that he and his wife, Eileen L. Weiser (MMus ’75), have allocated to the Ford School. The gift will fund international study and travel experiences for undergraduate and graduate students alike.

Eileen and Ronald Weiser

Did you ever meet President Ford? Yes. It’s been a long time, so I don’t remember the specifics, but what I respect a great deal was Ford’s integrity and willingness to essentially sacrifice his own future for the benefit of the country. The decision he made to pardon Nixon—he knew it would cost him the election, and he made it anyhow because he felt the country had to heal. It wasn’t until Ford joined the Navy in WWII that he traveled abroad, and the experience inspired his career in politics. Do you remember your first trip overseas? I went in 1967. I traveled by Eurail and saw Europe the way the Europeans did. I was in France, and then I think I went to Italy and up through Germany to Scandinavia. It was an incredible trip, but it was seven weeks long and it was a really shoestring budget. I traveled at night because I could get a berth on the train, which was pretty cheap compared to a hotel room. You and Eileen recently made a very generous gift to the Ford School for international study and travel. What inspired you? I think that all young people should have the opportunity to study or travel abroad. It broadens their experience and gives them an opportunity to show America as it really is. Seeing real people and talking to them really gives you much more knowledge than you can learn in any course. It also leaves impressions that are long lasting. Did you see the impact of that “soft diplomacy” while serving as U.S. Ambassador to Slovakia? One of the things that I found in Slovakia—I had young people there from the Peace Corps when I first arrived—is that the relationships that those young Americans built in the community helped to create what was an absolutely positive image of the United States inside Slovakia. Having young people from the University of Michigan and the Ford School—students who are interested in public service—go out and start to establish those relationships in whatever countries they go to is really important for the future of our nation.

Talk to us about your real estate business, McKinley. You were young when you founded it? I took a U-M real estate course where they brought in business leaders to talk to us, and I got really enthused about it. I approached the professor and asked if I could work for him part-time while I was in school, and he got me a job as resident manager of a building on Main Street. So I was still a student when I started my business in 1968, and I ran it while I was in law school. I skipped a lot of classes; don’t tell that part (laughs). The key to your success in business? Positive attitude I think is part of it. And being able to take risks. And building relationships. There’s no such thing as a relationship between countries; there are relationships between people in countries. Any advice for Ford School students? Yes, believe in what you do. And your satisfaction should come from the people whose lives you’re benefitting. ■ This $1.1 million contribution is part of a $50 million leadership gift Ambassador Ronald N. Weiser (BBA ’66) and Eileen L. Weiser (MMus ’75) made to the University of Michigan in 2014. The Weisers, both alumni of the University of Michigan, are vice chairs of the Victors for Michigan Campaign Leadership Board. Ronald Weiser is a newly elected member of the University of Michigan’s Board of Regents.



Hudak and Hackett


Sinai and Trehan


A quarter-century on, celebrating the impact of the Ford School Committee Leaders who care about good government

First gathering. The Ford School Committee began to meet regularly in 1991. Known then as the Committee for IPPS (the Institute for Public Policy Studies, or IPPS, was predecessor to the Ford School), the goal was to promote, and increase private support for, the school’s students, research, and policy engagement.

The charge. “The last decade has brought a dramatic decrease in state support for higher education. IPPS must replace state revenues with private funds,” wrote Director Ned Gramlich in IPPS News. “The Committee for IPPS, a distinguished group of people who value what IPPS does, will provide volunteer leadership for the first intensive fundraising ever undertaken by IPPS.” The evolution. In addition to providing philanthropic leadership, Ford School Committee members also work to raise the visibility of the school among public and private sector leaders. Committee members—who now include Ford School alumni, leaders in the realm of politics and policy, parents of our bachelor’s students, and friends and family of President Gerald R. Ford—serve as school ambassadors, helping us build valuable new connections. Supporting the school. From the start, Ford School Committee members have been extraordinarily generous in

Ford School Committee

their support of school priorities. They have given to internship funds, scholarship funds, the building campaign, funds to attract visiting policymakers, and more. Throughout the current campaign, Ford School Committee members have worked to dramatically expand resources for student support. They have launched several new endowed funds including, for example, the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Fellowship. Through leadership gifts from the families of current and former Committee members Martin Allen , Hank Meijer (BA ’73), Paul O’Neill , and campaign co-chairs Jim Hackett (BA ’77) and Jim Hudak (MPP ’71), the Ford School was able to award the inaugural Presidential Fellowship last fall. Fundraising efforts continue as the school seeks the resources required to award this prestigious fellowship annually. “Importantly, Ford School Committee members are also making planned gifts to support students in the years ahead,” says Susan Johnson , the Ford School’s director of development.

Bequests from Doug Brook (MPA ’67), Michael Costa (MPP ’82), David Fauri (BA ’62, MPA ‘64), Jim Hudak (MPP ’71), Ranny Riecker (HLLD ’05), and Founding Ford School Committee Chair Mike Staebler (JD ‘69) will provide resources for scholarships, fellowships, and internship partnerships far into the future.

“Ford School Committee members have been vital partners for a quarter-century,” says Susan M. Collins, Joan and Sanford Weill Dean of Public Policy. “They were instrumental in our building campaign (p. 18). They have supported important faculty and staff initiatives— including professorships, career development activities, and public lectures—that will benefit our community far into the future. And they’ve dramatically expanded our resources for student internships, scholarships, and fellowships, even as state support for higher education has continued to decline in Michigan and across the U.S.”


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Ford School faculty in the news

“[T]he risks of moving too quickly are quite a bit higher than the risks of waiting a little bit. If it turns out that the inflation rates are rising, the Fed is well-positioned to address that promptly.” Susan M. Collins, live @ Jackson Hole, on the Fed rate hike debate. CNBC, Aug. 26, 2016.

“Normally, they would be a little wary of someone who seems erratic. They like predictability in the same way they like conservatives.... But Putin is a very calculating guy.” Melvyn Levitsky on how Vladimir Putin won the U.S. election. U.S. News & World Report, Nov. 9, 2016.

“The future strength of the middle class depends on our ability to help more young people earn college degrees without starting life neck-deep in unaffordable student loans.” James Kvaal on why we need rules to ensure that colleges only profit by helping students succeed. USA Today, Sept. 1, 2016.

“Legislating paid family leave would help bring U.S. government policy more in line with a changing society—and with other developed nations.” Betsey Stevenson on the 45th anniversary of Women’s Equality Day. Bloomberg View, Aug. 26, 2016.

“Broken Windows frames trivial misbehavior as the beginning of something much more serious. And I worry that that encourages the police to see a broader and broader swath of the people they’re policing as bad guys.” David Thacher on the problem with ‘broken windows’ policing. PBS Frontline, Jun. 28, 2016.

“He has talked about doing things that would cause a trade war. Absolutely — the possibility has been heightened.” Alan Deardorff on Trump’s pledge to bring jobs back to America’s Rust Belt by getting tough on Mexico and China. CNN Money, Nov. 11, 2016.


gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

F acu l t y findin g s

Elisabeth Gerber on the dangers of extrinsic motivation

Barry Rabe on the best mitigating circumstances

Organizations around the world hope to prove that natural resource conservation and economic development can go hand in hand—that we can preserve our forests, fish, and waterways while creating pathways out of poverty for our most vulnerable citizens. To do this, institutions often combine educational campaigns with material benefits for communities in the conservation region. But some researchers are concerned that financial motivations will displace environmental ones.

Between 2001 and 2008, 23 U.S. states adopted cap-and-trade policies in an effort to mitigate climate change. But within five years, more than half of these states had abandoned their initiatives. Barry Rabe has long wondered why some of these cap-andtrade systems endured while others failed. In Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, Rabe explores the traits shared by the most resilient cap-andtrade policies. The key ingredients? Broad-based political support, flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances, Read “The durability and sensible revenue-sharing. of carbon cap-and-trade policy” in Governance.

In a quasi-experimental study of a massive eco-development initiative in the Indian Himalaya, Elisabeth Gerber and co-authors (Arun Agrawal and Ashwini Chhatre) found that individuals who received personal rewards for proenvironmental behaviors (job training and agricultural supplies, for example) were more likely to abandon previously held environmental motivations in favor of economic ones. Communal rewards, however—including community infrastructure upgrades and commonly Read held forest plantations—had no such effect. “Motivational crowding in sustainable development interventions” in the American Political Science Review.



Ford School Spotlight For half a century, the Rev. Jesse Jackson has courageously advanced civil rights in the United States and around the world. The Ford School was proud to serve as lead host and organizer of the U-M’s November 16 symposium, “50 years of Civil Rights leadership.” In a powerful keynote delivered days after the Presidential election, Jackson reflected on the campaign, and on the future of the struggle for economic, political, and social justice in the United States. To watch full video from the symposium and view photos, visit

Cap-and-trade photo: Nabaum Jackson photo: Michigan Photography

In energy and environmental policy

Himalaya photo:


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Kaitlin Raimi on the backfiring “behavioral wedge” In the absence of large-scale action on climate change, many have pushed for a “behavioral wedge,” in which individuals are nudged to reduce emissions at the household level by reusing and recycling, switching to LED lights, installing programmable thermostats, and more. “Although the concept of the behavioral wedge is intuitively appealing,” writes Kaitlin Raimi (with coauthors), “some have suggested that individual behavior change campaigns can actually backfire and lead to less support for [proenvironmental] policy.” The team conducted an experiment with 283 U.S. university students who were randomly assigned to one of three groups. One group was asked to recycle a water

bottle, one group was asked to throw it in the trash, and another group was the control. Following this scenario, students completed surveys assessing environmental identity, guilt, anxiety, and levels of support for a proenvironmental campus green fund. Interestingly, only the Democrats showed the feared backfire effects. Democrats who recycled the water bottle (a small, pro-environmental behavior) were less supportive of the campus green fund (a larger policy solution) than those in the control group. Read “From plastic bottle recycling to policy support: An experimental test of pro-environmental spillover” in the Journal of Environmental Psychology.


Catherine Hausman on the surprising merits of nuclear

songs photo:

In the U.S., about 20 percent of electricity has historically been provided by nuclear power plants. Once highly profitable, these nuclear facilities are aging, facing stricter safety regulations, and confronting increasing operation and maintenance costs. Several large nuclear facilities have closed in recent years, and others are expected to follow. To understand the economic and social impact of such closures, Catherine Hausman and co-author Lucas Davis examined the abrupt 2012 closure of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS), which once supplied 8 percent of California’s electricity market. While immediate savings were a wash—the operation and maintenance costs saved by closing SONGS were roughly equal to the increased costs of electricity in the


wake of the closure—the long-term environmental costs were greater. Virtually all of the electricity lost by the SONGS closure was replaced with natural gas, which increased carbon dioxide emissions by 9 million metric tons in the first year alone. “Current policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions tend to focus on wind, solar, and other renewables,” write the authors, “but keeping existing nuclear plants open longer could means hundreds of Read “Market millions of tons of carbon abatement.” impacts of a nuclear power plant closure” in the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics.


Read more about these “faculty findings,” and many others, at

A community screening of Gerald R. Ford: A Test of Character, which aired on the National Geographic channel earlier this summer, offered an opportunity to mark the start of a new academic year while celebrating our school’s namesake. The documentary, narrated by Michigan’s own Jeff Daniels, features in-depth interviews with major figures from the era including Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, Dick Cheney, Henry Kissinger, Donald Rumsfeld, and more. President Ford’s friend and colleague Ambassador Peter Secchia , who produced the documentary, attended the screening and took questions from the crowd. Ambassador Secchia (left) and U-M’s Jerry May



gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

Faculty News Dominguez

Bob Axelrod ’s latest paper, published

in Psychological Science, explores increasing attention to causality in western society. John Ayanian is serving on a National Academies committee focused on accounting for socioeconomic status in Medicare payment programs. Recent articles by Ayanian have been published by the Journal of the American Medical Association and the New England Journal of Medicine.

Please join us in congratulating John Ciorciari , who was promoted to associate professor of public policy with tenure at the May 19 meeting of the Board of Regents. In May, Susan Collins interviewed Ben Bernanke at the Economic Club of Grand Rapids’ annual black-tie dinner, which drew 1,600 registered guests. Collins has been tapped to serve as an evaluating judge for 100&Change, a MacArthur Foundation competition that will award a $100 million grant to a single proposal designed to help solve a critical problem. Alan Deardorff racked up the frequent flyer miles during his sabbatical with trips to Australia, China, Germany, Japan and, closer to home, New Haven, and Evanston. Largely, he’s been talking about multilateral trade negotiations, but in New Haven, he also took the opportunity to visit with Jim Levinsohn, and in Evanston, he offered the Presidential Address at the annual meeting of the Midwest Economics Association. Kathryn Dominguez , who is due for a sabbatical, stepped down from her role as associate dean for academic programs this fall. The Ford School is deeply appreciative of her leadership and service.

In June, Susan Dynarski organized a Capitol Hill conference on “Restructuring student loans: Lessons from abroad.” Dynarski was voted president-elect of the Association for Education Finance and Policy this spring. She has penned a number of pieces—for Brookings and the New York Times—on student loan policies, tax credits to increase college attendance, why talented black and Hispanic students can go undiscovered, and more. This fall, Elisabeth Gerber begins a two-year term as associate dean for research and policy engagement at the Ford School. She is also chairing the Provost-appointed advisory committee to search for a new dean as Susan M. Collins completes her second and final term in the summer of 2017. Neel Hajra , president of the Ann

Arbor Community Foundation, reports that the foundation recently received HUD’s “Public-Philanthropic Partnerships” award for its active role in the Washtenaw Coordinated Funders partnership. Catherine Hausman ’s “Market impacts of a nuclear power plant closure,” was published by the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics in April. She has a new NBER working paper, “Price regulation and environmental externalities: Evidence from methane leaks.” Joshua Hausman ’s article, “What was bad for GM was bad for America: The automobile industry and the 1937–38 recession,” appears in the June 2016 Journal of Economic History. Rusty Hills attended the Republican

National Convention in July (it was his 8th since his first service as a delegate in 1976). Hills also co-chaired this year’s Republican State Convention in Grand Rapids.

Betsey Stevenson (@BetseyStevenson) • Nov 9 I got up, put on my pantsuit, and went to work today. Hold your head high and do the same. #pantsuitnation



Brian Jacob recently worked with

Detroit and U-M leaders to launch the Detroit Data Fellowship program, a twoyear, full-time postgraduate fellowship that places U-M alumni in Detroit agencies to provide real-time data support and analysis. With Robin Jacob and Susan Dynarski , Brian received a $2.6 million grant from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation to establish a new Youth Policy Lab that will provide pro-bono analytic support to public sector organizations that serve Michigan youth. Jacob has several new NBER working papers on modern student assessment systems, teacher hiring and performance, and the Michigan Merit Curriculum. This fall, Paula Lantz began a twoyear term as associate dean for academic programs at the Ford School. Lantz is serving as an invited member of a National Academy of Social Insurance panel on “Medicaid as a critical lever in building a culture of health.” She gave a presentation on “Social impact bonds in the U.S. context” at an international conference this June, and her paper on clinical prevention services was published by the Millbank Quarterly. Stephanie Leiser ’s (MPP ’05)

“The diffusion of state film incentives: A mixed-methods case study,” has been accepted for publication by Economic Development Quarterly. As former U.S. Ambassador to Brazil, Melvyn Levitsky has been quoted in

a number of articles this year on the country’s Olympic activities and political and economic challenges. These pieces have appeared in the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, and more. Levitsky also served as U.S. Ambassador to Bulgaria and was interviewed by Bulgarian National Radio for a story on the attempted assassination of the pope in 1981.




Sarah Mills won an $80,000

grant from the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation to investigate community attitudes toward wind energy in Michigan. Kary Moss , executive director of the ACLU of Michigan, was recognized by Crain’s Detroit as one of the 100 most influential women in the city. Shobita Parthasarathy , who founded U-M’s Science, Technology, and Public Policy program in 2006 with former U-M President Jim Duderstadt , returned to the helm as director this fall. Her latest book, Patent Politics: Life Forms, Markets, and the Public Interest in the United States and Europe (University of Chicago Press) will be released in February. Natasha Pilkauskas contributed two chapters to Children of the Great Recession (Russell Sage Foundation). Her recent papers include, “Understanding grandfamilies” in the Journal of Marriage and Family, and “Maternal labor force participation” in Demographic Research. Barry Rabe continues to serve as co-

chair of the EPA’s Assumable Waters Advisory Committee. He is also working on a presidential transition project for the National Academy of Public Administration. Rabe’s paper, “The durability of carbon cap-and-trade policy,” appears in the January 2016 edition of Governance. Lecturer Daniel Raimi has accepted a position as a senior research associate with Resources for the Future, a Washington, DC think tank. Raimi’s NBER working paper, “Global energy outlook 2015,” was released this spring. Craig Ruff (MPP ’73), a longtime

lecturer at the Ford School, returned to his position as Governor Snyder’s senior adviser for education in May; he last held the post from 2013-14. Dynarski photo: Jennifer Heffner Photography

Former Congressman J.H. John “Joe” Schwarz is the subject of a nine-part

oral history, produced by the Michigan Political History Society and available online. This October, at a ceremony in Detroit, Schwarz received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Michigan League of Conservation Voters.





Kristin Seefeldt ’s (MPP ’96, PhD ’10) new book, Abandoned Families: Social Isolation in the 21st Century, is set to release this December. Published by the Russell Sage Foundation, the book is described as “a timely, on-theground assessment of hardship in contemporary America.” Luke Shaefer was appointed director

of Poverty Solutions at the University of Michigan, a new interdisciplinary initiative that aims to inform, identify, and test new strategies for the prevention and alleviation of poverty in Michigan, the nation, and the world. Shaefer’s book (with Kathryn Edin), $2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America, won the 2016 Hillman Prize for “book journalism in the service of the common good.” Carl Simon , who has served as

director of U-M’s Science, Technology, and Public Policy program for the last several years, stepped down at the end of his term last winter. We thank him for his leadership and ongoing engagement. Kevin Stange and Caroline Hoxby organized a two-day National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) conference on Productivity in Higher Education; the proceedings will be distributed in an edited volume. Stange has a new NBER working paper, “Labor supply effects of occupational regulation: Evidence from the Nurse Licensure Compact.” Megan TompkinsStange ’s new

book Policy Patrons: Philanthropy, Education Reform, and the Politics of Influence (Harvard Education Press 2016), has been the subject of a number of articles and radio shows since its publication in March (Inside Higher Education, Marketplace Morning Report, Michigan Radio’s “Stateside,” and more).


Kaitlin Toner Raimi ’s paper, “From

plastic bottle recycling to policy support: An experimental test of pro-environmental spillover,” was published by the Journal of Environmental Psychology this June. Maris Vinovskis continues to teach

“K-12 Education History and Policymaking,” and to visit and work with education scholars in his native Latvia. He is completing his second volume on the history of Head Start. Susan Waltz was pleased to be an

invited participant in the U.S. Army War College’s 62nd annual National Security Seminar, during which students and civilian guests critically examined a series of national security issues.

Ford School Spotlight Susan Dynarski , co-director of the

Ford School’s Education Policy Initiative, organized the Capitol Hill conference, “Restructuring student loans: Lessons from abroad,” on June 13. The goal: To lessen student loan distress and default in the U.S. by understanding strategies that have proven effective in other nations.


gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

Class Notes Gowland

Marc Holzer (MPA ’68), who went on to earn his PhD in political science at U-M in 1971, has been appointed University Professor at Rutgers, where he served as founding dean of the School of Public Affairs and Administration (2006-16). He is author or editor of more than 50 books and 200 articles and other manuscripts. Mike McGee (MPP ’83), CEO of Miller

Canfield, was recently interviewed by Cynthia Canty, host of Michigan Radio’s “Stateside,” about solutions for municipalities struggling with finances. Diana Maurer (MPP ’90) graduated from IPPS as Dave Maurer and recently transitioned gender. Diana is the first transgender member of the Senior Executive Service at the U.S. Government Accountability Office and is responsible for GAO’s work on justice and law enforcement issues. Stacy Dean (MPP ’92), who heads

up the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities’ work on federal food assistance programs, testified twice this year on SNAP—once before the House Oversight Committee and once before the House Agriculture Committee. Kathleen Mantila (MPP ’94) joined

the U.S. Department of Justice in November 2015. As deputy director of the office of audit, assessment, and management, Kathleen reviews the

efficiency and effectiveness of grant programs, processes, and initiatives in a number of areas. Richard McManus (MPP/MSW ’00)

is a senior consultant with The Lewin Group, a health and human service consulting firm. Rick lives in Charlton, Massachusetts, with his husband, Michael, and their four kids. Ferzana Havewala (MPP ’03) received her PhD in public policy and political economy from the University of Texas at Dallas this May. This fall, she joined the faculty of the University of Baltimore’s School of Public and International Affairs as a tenure-track assistant professor. She will initially teach analytical techniques courses and will then create and teach courses on food policy and social inequality.

This September, Airea D. Matthews (MPA ’03)

was honored with a Rona Jaffe Foundation Writer’s Award, which recognizes women writers who demonstrate excellence and promise in the early stages of their careers. Airea’s first collection of poems, simulacra, received the 2016 Yale Series of Younger Poets Award. Karishma Shah Page (MPP ’03) was

recently named partner at the global law firm K&L Gates. In the firm’s DC office, Karishma focuses on federal policies

Class of 20??


related to tax, financial services, retirement security, and healthcare issues. Lloyd Grieger (MPP ’04, PhD ’10), assistant professor of sociology at Yale University, received the Lex Hixon ’63 Prize for Teaching Excellence in Social Sciences. He currently teaches courses in applied quantitative analysis and poverty and social welfare policy. Daniel Rothschild (MPP ’05) and

Jennie Rothschild welcomed their second child, Harriet Ruth Rothschild, on July 7. Adrienne Fernandes Alcantara

(MPP ’06) and her husband Jason Alcantara, along with big sister Aurora, welcomed daughter Lucia Grace in November 2015. Aurora and Lucia are cousins of Xavier Arbuckle, son of Adrienne’s twin sister (and fellow Fordie) Nicole Fernandes (MPP/MS ‘08). Sarah (Haradon) Engle (MPP/MUP

’07) and Nate Engle (MPP/MS ’07), along with big sisters Ellery (6) and Teddy (3), welcomed Faye Arbor to the world on July 13. Andrew Schroeder ’s (MPP ’07) recently formed NGO,, has received seed funding from the Rockefeller Foundation. He published an article on humanitarian robotics for the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), collaborated with UNDP in the Maldives on drone mapping for disaster resilience, and is speaking at several

Left to right: Harriet Ruth; Lucia Grace with cousin, Xavier; Teddy and Ellery with little sister, Faye; Yahra Temima, ready to “lead like Gerald.”




international forums on the use of robotics for social good. Nicole Fernandes (MPP/MS ’08) and Peter Arbuckle (MS ’07) welcomed future Wolverine, Xavier Arbuckle, in September 2015. Xavier is already best friends with baby cousin Lucia Alcantara, daughter of Nicole’s twin (and fellow Fordie) Adrienne Fernandes Alcantara (MPP ’06). William Rich (MPP ’09) was named

U.S. Treasury attaché to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Sultanate of Oman. Based at the U.S. Embassy in Abu Dhabi, he represents the Treasury’s finance, macroeconomic, tax, and national security interests in the region. Ari Parritz (BA ’10) graduated with an MBA from Northwestern’s Kellogg School of Management this June. He joined Vermilion Development in Chicago as a real estate development associate. Daniela Pineda (PhD ’10) recently

became vice president of integration and learning at First 5 LA, a leading grantmaking and child advocacy organization. Nathan Cole (BA ’11)

released his second book, Cycle Breakers, this fall. It seeks to inspire readers “to interrupt the status quo, break destructive cyclical patterns, and live with unprecedented purpose.” This year Kim Dunham (MPP ’11) and her former Microeconomics GSI, Pete Fritz (MPP/MBA ‘10), spent six months helping to build Deloitte Consulting’s higher education practice. They traveled from Boston and Philadelphia, respectively, to Baltimore each week to help a well-known private university transform student administrative experiences. They also did the Ford School proud by dominating bar trivia on Wednesday nights. Lelia Gowland (MPP ’11) was profiled

by Cosmopolitan and Marie Claire magazines in the article, “You’re better at negotiating than you think you are.” In the piece, Lelia shares four tips for women seeking to improve their workplace negotiation skills.



Saetang and Yates

Tommy Held (BA ’11) is a new member of the class of 2018 at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS); he plans to concentrate in international economics and China studies.

organization in southeast Wisconsin. The forum also recognized the MKE Plays program, which Sarah created, with one of its private-public partnership awards.

Kunal Malik (BA ’11) and Bina Malik

Caroline Andridge (BA ’14), a Princeton in Africa Fellow, is working as an HIV prevention analyst with the Clinton Health Access Initiative in Pretoria, South Africa.

were married on June 25 in lovely La Jolla, San Diego, surrounded by family and friends. Kunal is a second-year medical student at Temple University; Bina is completing her master’s in social work at Bryn Mawr College. They met while Kunal was volunteering in South India. Stephanie Rose (BBA ’06, MPP ’11),

hired as director of strategy at Teach for America in 2013, was promoted to managing director of impact reviews this June. Stephanie reports that her program evaluation training is serving her well, for which she thanks the Ross and Ford Schools. Joseph Sutkowi (BA ’11) married

Katie Lynn Mitchell, LMSW, in Detroit this July. They recently moved to New York City, where he has enrolled in a master’s program at New York University. Andrew Beilein (BA ’12) was

promoted to director of government relations for Business Roundtable. Kate Saetang (MPP ’12) and Michael Yates (MPP/MBA ’13) exchanged

wedding vows in a small, stateside ceremony this February and will share in a Thai water ceremony in Pattaya, Thailand next February. Based in DC, Kate and Michael are both public sector management consultants. Rohan Dharan (BA ’13) was hired as

the coordinator of secondary schools for the Washington, DC public school system; he assists with a wide range of logistical and policy-related tasks associated with running the district’s middle and high schools. DJ McKerr (BA ’13) is working as a

consultant at The Advisory Board and recently began his MBA at the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business. Sarah Zarate (MPP ’13) was recently recognized with a Leader of the Future award from the Public Policy Forum, the largest nonpartisan research

Rachel Jacobson (MPP/MS ’14), her husband Joel Goldstein, and their dog, Caleb, welcomed daughter and sister, Yahra Temima Goldstein, on August 3. The happy family lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts where Rachel works for NOAA and the Corporation for National and Community Service and Joel is studying to become a Rabbi. Rachel Potter ’s (PhD ’14) dissertation, “Writing the rules of the game: The strategic logic of agency rulemaking,” was honored with the George C. Edwards III Dissertation Award (from Presidential Studies Quarterly) and the Olson Prize for Best Dissertation in Political Economy and E.E. Schattschneider Award for Best Dissertation in American Politics (from the American Political Science Association). Kelsey Rhodes (BA ’14) was hired as the leadership training academy communications associate at Physicians for Reproductive Health. She brings the stories of abortion providers to life in the media and loves being an advocate for women’s health. Layne Scherer (MPP ’14) accepted a

program officer position at the National Academies of Science Board on Higher Education and Workforce, where she will continue to conduct research on STEM education policy. Juliana Pino (MPP/MS ’15) and Erin Tinnon were married in September 2015, “salsa dancing into the future with friends and family in Chicago.” That December, Juliana was promoted to policy director of the Little Village Environmental Justice Organization, where she works to strengthen equity in environmental policies and wields her Fordie knowledge against structural oppression.



gerald r. Ford School of Public Policy

The Last Word Former U.S. Congressman Dr. John J.H. “Joe” Schwarz is celebrating his 10th year of teaching at the Ford School as he scales back to a slightly less frenetic pace. In this column, he reflects on partisan politics, local governance, and his time at the Ford School. How about this Presidential election? I’m embarrassed that it is so bad— and it’s bad on both sides. I do not know Donald Trump. I know Hillary Clinton a little bit; I traveled with her a couple of times when I was in the Congress. I thought she would win, but that was not to be. Now it is our duty as Americans to do everything we can to see that the Trump administration is both productive and stable—to support policies that we feel help the general good, and to respectfully, but firmly, oppose policies that we feel are counterproductive. I’ve always felt that, irrespective of party allegiance, partisanship stops at the water’s edge. That was an Arthur Vandenberg saying. Arthur Vandenberg, the Republican senator and U-M alum? In my generation, he was the senator—we all kind of grew up with him. That’s where the term, “bipartisan foreign policy” started. If [Democrat] Truman and [Republican] Vandenberg were able to put together policy positions— especially at the onset of the postWWII era—and win ongoing support for the United Nations, that was a big thing. You were a doctor, an otolaryngologist, then decided to run for city commission, then mayor, then state senator. Why? I made a conscious decision, when I finished my [medical] residency at Harvard, to go back to my home town, Battle Creek, Mich. Then it just fell into place. The roads have to be paved. The sewage system has to work. The water system has to work.

The bridges have got to be okay. The police and fire have got to be top notch. These are exclusively the function of local government. Cities like Battle Creek, and Jackson, and Kalamazoo, and Midland, and Bay City, and Saginaw, and Flint need local leadership. And people have got to step forward. Michigan’s local government leaders have talked a lot lately about revenue shortfalls… We have become obsessed with this idea that you just keep lowering taxes, lowering taxes, lowering taxes, even though the upkeep continues and becomes more expensive. [Those rising costs] reflect inflation and sometimes they reflect the superannuation, the wearing out, of certain things that have to be fixed— like roads, like the water system. The truth of the matter is, there are a hundred Flints out there…. because those lead pipes have been in the ground for over a hundred years. Later, you served in the U.S. House of Representatives, but not for long. The amount of time people in Congress, especially junior members, spend fundraising is outrageous….I wouldn’t do it. I wouldn’t drink the Kool-Aid. I said that’s not what I’m here for. I want to study issues so I can make intelligent votes the next day. Loyalty has switched over to the party. Your loyalty as an elected official should be to your constituents, to your state, to the United States of America, period. Center right Republicans like myself

have no more place in Congress. There are only a few of us left. Then you joined the Ford School? I had lost my seat in Congress, and [Becky Blank] said, ‘well, do you want to come and teach?’ And I thought about it for about 30 seconds and said, ‘sure, I’d love to.’ This is my tenth year, and I’ve loved it. I love the students. I think people either radical right or radical left would have a difficult time here because this is a group of thinkers. And that’s what you want. You want people to look at an issue and try to parse it in a way that’s geometric. [The students] in the Ford School want to learn about government, in all its phases, warts and all. They’re committed to learning about government and they are committed to, in one way or the other, doing public service. What’s next for you? I’ll still practice medicine, and I’ll do that ’til the day I die. I’m at Grace Health, a federally qualified health center. I went over there 20plus years ago now. I see patients who have insurance, I see patients on Medicare, I see patients on Medicaid, I see people who have nothing. I’ll continue to perform a service in my community. ■ Schwarz is the subject of a nine-part oral history, recently released by the Michigan Political History Society. Watch the videos online to hear about what he calls his “invisible, invincible, and bulletproof” youth, including his service in Vietnam (for the Navy), in Jakarta (for the CIA), and more.


3 4

Interning Ford School student internships in 2016


near and far

5 6

1 Farah Mandich (MPP ‘17) at the European Bank for Reconstruction

and Development in London, UK. With thanks to the Ford School’s International Policy Center. 2 Kate Reinertson (BA ‘18) at The Advance Group in New York City

and the Office of U.S. Senator Patty Murray in Seattle, WA. With support from the Ford School’s BA Internship Fund. 3 Nadia Vandergriff (MPP/MS ‘17) at the World Bank in Washington, DC. With thanks to the Ford School Alumni Board. 4 Tarlie Townsend (MPP ‘17) at the United Nations Population Fund

in Hanoi, Vietnam. With thanks to the Annenberg Fund for International Policy Education, the International Institute, and the Center for the Education of Women.


5 Afton Branche (MPP ‘17) at the International Organization for Migration in Pretoria, South Africa (pictured with Meg Blair (MPP ‘16) in Capetown). With thanks to Mitch (MPP ’78) and Johanna Vernick. 6 Lina Grant (MPP ‘17), Maureen Lackner (MPP ’17), Michael Budros (MPP ’17), and Ginelle Sanchez (MPP ’17) at the U.S.

Government Accountability Office in Washington, DC.

8 9

7 Michelle Rubin (MPP/MUP ‘17) at Global Detroit. With thanks to the Trehan Family Fund. 8 Daniel Rebhan (BA ‘17) at the American Wind Energy

Association in Washington, DC. With support from the Ford School’s BA Internship Fund. 9 Michael Manansala (MPP ‘17) at the Pearson Affordable Learning Fund in Manilla, Philippines. With thanks to the William Davidson Institute.


10 Therese Empie (MPP ‘17) at Governor Snyder’s Strategic Policy Office in Lansing, MI. With thanks to the Ford School’s Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy (CLOSUP). 11 Maha Arshad (MPP ‘17) at the National Consortium for the Study

of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) in College Park, MD. With thanks to the Annenberg Fund for International Policy Education. 12 Talha Mirza (BA ‘18) with the Honorable Andrew Scheer,

Canadian Parliament, in Ottowa, Canada (pictured with Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau). With support from the Ford School’s BA Internship Fund. Read more about these and other policy-relevant internships at



Joan and Sanford Weill Hall

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage P AI D Ann Arbor MI Permit No. 144

735 S. State Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-3091

Printed on paper made from 100% post-consumer waste using biogas energy. Larry Mohr and Pat Crecine (seated left) review data with IPA faculty, including Jack L. Walker (standing, top right)

Applied Policy Seminar students discuss research with Elisabeth Gerber, the Jack L. Walker Professor of Public Policy (standing, top right)

Always Engaging Forever Valiant

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2016 Fall State & Hill: Innovation for the public good  

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