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List of Figures Fig. 2.1. Territory scale forest type and seral stage availability compared to pileated woodpecker use in summer and winter at Hinton, Alberta, 1993–96. The + symbol indicates use significantly greater than abundance and the – symbol indicates use significantly less than abundance, Bailey 95% confidence intervals. ........................................................................ 26 Fig. 2.2. Percent use minus % availability for forest type and seral stage within pileated woodpecker pair territories (n = 14) in summer and winter near Hinton, Alberta, 1993–96. Forest type categories are pine: summer and winter (PlS, PlW); upland spruce: summer and winter (SwS, SwW); mixed: summer and winter (MixS, MixW); lowland spruce: summer and winter (SbS, SbW); deciduous: summer and winter (DecS, DecW); and non-forest (NFS, NFW). Individual territory values are open circles and pooled values for all 14 territories are open squares. ......................................................................................................................... 27 Fig. 2.3. Pileated woodpecker foraging methods and food items at foraging substrates, by month, at Hinton, Alberta, 1993–96. Foraging methods were: (1) excavation into sapwood of hard (living trees, decay classes 1–4) substrates (grey shading); (2) excavation into sapwood of soft (decay classes 5–6) substrates (white shading); and (3) surface gleaning or excavation into bark (black shading). Decay classes were: (1) recently dead, wet inner bark, sap and foliage often present; (2) dry stem and bark, fine branches present, bark present and firmly attached; (3) mostly sound stem, fine branches gone, main branches present, bark variable; (4) few or no branches, softening stem, variable bark; (5) no branches, stem soft, bark mostly gone; and (6) stem shape intact, no branches, bark gone, stem very rotten. Food items at foraging sites were: (1) carpenter ants (grey shading); (2) other ant species (white shading); and (3) no visible food (black shading). .................................................................................. 28 Fig. 2.4. Tree species, tree type, and decay class of foraging substrates used by pileated woodpeckers by month at Hinton, Alberta, 1993–96. Tree species were white spruce (Sw), black spruce (Sb), lodgepole pine (Pl), trembling aspen (Aw), balsam poplar (Pb), and other (Ot: subalpine fir, balsam fir, paper birch, willow, alder). Tree types were healthy live trees (Lh), injured live trees (Li), snag (Sn), stub (Sb), log (Lg), and stump (Sp). Decay classes were: (1) recently dead, wet inner bark, sap and foliage often present; (2) dry stem and bark, fine branches present, bark present and firmly attached; (3) mostly sound stem, fine branches gone, main branches present, bark variable; (4) few or no branches, softening stem, variable bark; (5) no branches, stem soft, bark mostly gone; and (6) stem shape intact, no branches, bark gone, stem very rotten .............................................................................. 29 Fig. 2.5. Percent use - % available by month for major tree species used as foraging substrates by pileated woodpeckers at Hinton, Alberta, 1993–96. Black bars indicate significantly (P < 0.05) higher use than available, grey bars indicate not significantly different use than available, and white bars indicate significantly lower use than available. .............................. 30 Fig. 2.6. Percent use - % available by month for type of foraging substrates used by pileated woodpeckers at Hinton, Alberta, 1993–96. Black bars indicate significantly (P < 0.05) higher use than available, grey bars indicate not significantly different use than available, and white bars indicate significantly lower use than available. ............................................................... 31 Fig. 2.7. Diameter class (cm) and % use - % available for foraging substrates used by pileated woodpeckers at Hinton, Alberta, 1993–96. For the % use figure, black bars indicate significantly (P < 0.05) higher use than available, grey bars indicate not significantly different use than available, and white bars indicate significantly lower use than available. ............... 32 Fig. 2.8. Foraging position of pileated woodpeckers on foraging substrates at Hinton, Alberta, 1993–96. ................................................................................................................................. 33

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