FLEMMING, S. P., G. L. HOLLOWAY, E. J. WATTS, AND P. S. LAWRANCE. 1999. Characteristics of foraging trees selected by pileated woodpeckers in New Brunswick. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:461–469. GAMLIN, L. 1988. Sweden’s factory forest. New Scientist 117:41–47. JOHNSSON, K. 1993. The black woodpecker Dryocopus martius as a keystone species in forest. Dissertation, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. KIRK, D. A., AND B. J. NAYLOR. 1996. Habitat requirements of the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) with special reference to Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, South Central Science and Technology Technical Report 46, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. LANDRES, P. B., J. VERNER, AND J. W. THOMAS. 1988. Ecological use of indicator species: a critique. Conservation Biology 2:316–328. LEE, P. C., S. CRITES, M. NIETFELD, H. V. NGUYEN, AND J. B. STELFOX. 1995. Changes in snags and down woody material characteristics in a chronosequence of aspen mixedwood forests in Alberta. Pages 49–61 in J. B. Stelfox, editor. Relationships between stand age, stand structure, and biodiversity in aspen mixedwood forests in Alberta. Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, Alberta, Canada, and Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. LINDENMAYER, D. B. 1999. Future directions for biodiversity conservation in managed forests: indicator species, impact studies, and monitoring programs. Forest Ecology and Management 115:277–287. MCCLELLAND, B. R. 1979. The pileated woodpecker in forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. Pages 283-299 in J.G. Dickson, R.N. Conner, R.R. Fleet, J.C. Kroll, and J. A. Jackson, editors. The role of insectivorous birds in forest ecosystems. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA. _____, S. S. FRISSELL, W. C. FISCHER, AND C. H. HALVORSEN. 1979. Habitat management for hole-nesting birds in forests of western larch and Douglas-fir. Journal of Forestry 77:480– 483. _____, AND P. T. MCCLELLAND. 1999. Pileated woodpecker nest and roost trees in Montana: links with old-growth and forest “health”. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:846–857. MILLAR, B. R. 1992. An ecological assessment of the use of hydro utility poles for nesting by pileated woodpeckers in southeastern Manitoba. Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. MELLEN, T. K. 1987. Home range and habitat use of pileated woodpeckers, western Oregon. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. _____, C. E. MESLOW, AND R. W. MANNAN. 1992. Summertime home range and habitat use of pileated woodpeckers in western Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:96–103. PECK, G. K., AND R. D. JAMES. 1983. Breeding birds of Ontario: nidiology and distribution. Volume 1, non-passerines. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. RAPHAEL, M.G. AND M. WHITE. 1984. Use of snags by cavity-nesting birds in the Sierra Nevada. Wildlife Monographs 86. RENKEN, R. B., AND E. P. WIGGERS. 1989. Forest characteristics related to pileated woodpecker territory size in Missouri. Condor 91:642–652. REYNOLDS, R. T., R. T. GRAHAM, M. H. REISER, R. L. BASSET, P. L. KENNEDY, D. A. BOYCE, G. GOODWIN, R. SMITH, AND E. L. FISHER. 1992. Management recommendations for the northern goshawk in the southwestern United States. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report GTR-RM-217. ROBBINS, C. S., D. K. DAWSON, AND B. A. DOWELL. 1989. Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the middle Atlantic States. Wildlife Monographs 103. ROLSTAD, J., P. MAJEWSKI, AND R. ERLEND. 1998. Black woodpecker use of habitats and feeding substrates in a managed Scandinavian forest. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:11–23. ROLSTAD, J., E. ROLSTAD, AND O. SAETEREN. In review. Black woodpecker nest-sites in boreal Scandinavia: characteristics, selection, and reproductive success. SANDERS, C. J., 1964. The biology of carpenter ants in New Brunswick. Canadian Entomologist 96:894–909. _____, 1970. The distribution of carpenter ant colonies in the spruce-fir forests of north-western Ontario. Ecology 51:865–873.
Published on Feb 9, 2014