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pileated woodpecker cavity trees. Habitat conservation strategies that include a continuing supply of trees suitable for future cavity production should be developed to ensure continued production of new pileated woodpecker cavities. LITERATURE CITED BECKINGHAM, J. D., I. G. W. CORNS, AND J. H. ARCHIBALD. 1996. Field guide to ecosites of westcentral Alberta. Special Report 9, Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. BOCK, C. E., A. CRUZ, JR., M. C. GRANT, C. S. AID, AND T. R. STRONG. 1992. Field experimental evidence for diffuse competition among southwestern riparian birds. American Naturalist 140:815-828. BRAWN, J. D., AND R. P. BALDA. 1988. Population biology of cavity nesters in northern Arizona: Do nest sites limit breeding densities? Condor 90:61-71. BRUSH, T. 1983. Cavity use by secondary cavity-nesting birds and response to manipulations. Condor 85:461-466. BULL, E. L. 1983. Longevity of snags and their use by woodpeckers. Pages 64-67 in J.W. Davis, G.A. Goodwin, and R. A. Ockenfels, editors. Snag habitat management: proceedings of the symposium. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-99. _____. 1987. Ecology of the pileated woodpecker in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 51:472-481. _____, S. R. PETERSON, AND J. W. THOMAS. 1986. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. U.S. Forest Service Research Note PNW-444. _____, R. S. HOLTHAUSEN, AND M. G. HENJUM. 1992. Roost trees used by pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:786-793. _____, AND M. SNIDER. 1993. Master carpenter. Wildbird 7(2):41-43. _____, AND J. A. JACKSON. 1995. Pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). The birds of North America; number 148. The American Ornithologist’s Union, Washington, D.C., USA, and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. CAREY, A. B., T. M. WILSON, C. C. MAGUIRE, AND B. L. BISWELL. 1997. Dens of northern flying squirrels in the Pacific northwest. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:684-699. CONNER, R. N., R. G. HOOPER, H. S. CRAWFORD, AND H. S. MOSBY. 1975. Woodpecker nesting habitat in cut and uncut woodlands in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Management 39:144-150. _____, O. K. MILLER, JR., AND C. S. ADKISSON. 1976. Woodpecker dependence on trees infected by fungal heart rots. Wilson Bulletin 88:575-581. _____, D. C. RUDOLPH, D. SAENZ, AND R. R. SCHAEFER. 1997. Species using red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in eastern Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Ornithological Society 30:11-16. DOBKIN, D. S., A. C. RICH, J. A. PRETARE, AND W. H. PYLE. 1995. Nest-site relationships among cavity-nesting birds of riparian and snowpocket aspen woodlands in the northwestern Great Basin. Condor 97:694-707. EHRLICH, P. R., D. S. DOBKIN, AND D. WHEYE. 1988. The birder’s handbook: A field guide to the natural history of North American birds. Simon and Schuster, New York, New York, USA. HARESTAD, A. S., AND D. G. KEISKER. 1989. Nest tree use by primary cavity-nesting birds in south central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:1067-1073. HAYWARD, G. D., P. A. HAYWARD, AND E. O. GARTON. 1993. Ecology of boreal owls in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Wildlife Monographs 124:1-159. HOYT, J. S. 1948. Observations on nesting associates. Auk 65:188-196. HOYT, S. F. 1957. The ecology of the pileated woodpecker. Ecology 38:246-256. LI, P., AND T. E. MARTIN. 1991. Nest-site selection and nesting success of cavity-nesting birds in high elevation forest drainages. Auk 108:405-418. MARTIN, K., AND J. M. EADIE. 1999. Nest webs: a community wide approach to the management and conservation of cavity-nesting forest birds. Forest Ecology and Management 115:243257. MCLAREN, W. D. 1963. A preliminary study of nest-site competition in a group of hole-nesting birds. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 60

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