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_____, AND J. A. JACKSON. 1995. Pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). The birds of North America; number 148. The American Ornithologist’s Union, Washington, D.C., USA, and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. BUSH, P. G. 1999. Influence of landscape-scale forest structure on the presence of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in central Ontario forests. Thesis, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. CAMPBELL, R. W., N. K. DAWE, I. MCTAGGART-COWAN, J. M. COOPER, G. W. KAISER, AND M. C. E. MCNALL. 1990. The birds of British Columbia. Volume II. Nonpasserines. Mitchell Press, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. CANADIAN COUNCIL OF FOREST MINISTERS. 1995. Defining sustainable forest management: A Canadian approach to criteria and indicators. Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. CANNINGS, R. A. 1987. Birds of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. CONNER, R. N. 1979. Seasonal changes in woodpecker foraging methods: strategies for winter survival. Pages 95–105 in J. C. Dickson, R. N. Conner, R. R. Fleet, J. C. Kroll, and J. A. Jackson, editors. The role of insectivorous birds in forest ecosystems. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA. _____. 1980. Foraging habitats of woodpeckers in southwestern Virginia. Journal of Field Ornithology 51:119–127. _____. 1981. Seasonal changes in woodpecker foraging patterns. Auk 98:562–570. _____, AND H. S. CRAWFORD. 1974. Woodpecker foraging in Appalachian clearcuts. Journal of Forestry 72:564–566. _____, R. G. HOOPER, H. S. CRAWFORD, AND H. S. MOSBY. 1975. Woodpecker nesting habitat in cut and uncut woodlands in Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Management 39:144–150. _____, O. K. MILLER, JR., AND C. S. ADKISSON. 1976. Woodpecker dependence on trees infected by fungal heart rots. Wilson Bulletin 88:575–581. DANCE, K. 1987. Pileated woodpecker. Pages 248–249 in: Cadman, M.D., P.F. Eagles, and F. M. Helleiner (compilers). Atlas of the breeding birds of Ontario. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, Ontario, Canada. DATER, E. E. 1953. Casting of a pileated woodpecker. Wilson Bulletin 65:280. DOWNING, G. R. 1940. The winter habits of the northern pileated woodpecker in Iowa. Iowa Bird Life 10:43–46. ENVIRONMENT CANADA. 1995. Canadian biodiversity strategy. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. FLEMMING, S. P., G. L. HOLLOWAY, E. J. WATTS, AND P. S. LAWRANCE. 1999. Characteristics of foraging trees selected by pileated woodpeckers in New Brunswick. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:461–469. GAUTHIER, J., AND Y. AUBRY, EDITORS. 1996. The breeding birds of Quebec. Province of Quebec Society for the Protection of Birds and Canadian Wildlife Service, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. HARESTAD, A. S., AND D. G. KEISKER. 1989. Nest tree use by primary cavity-nesting birds in south central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:1067–1073. HARRIS, R. D. 1983. Decay characteristics of pileated woodpecker nest trees. Pages 125–129 in J.W. Davis, G. A. Goodwin, and R. A. Ockenfels, editors. Snag habitat management: proceedings of the symposium. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-99. HARTWIG, C. L. 1999. Effect of forest age, structural elements, and prey density on the relative abundance of pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus abieticola) on south-eastern Vancouver Island. Thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. HAYWARD, G. D., P. A. HAYWARD, AND E. O. GARTON. 1993. Ecology of boreal owls in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Wildlife Monographs 124. HOYT, J. S. Y. 1948. Observations on nesting associates. Auk 65:188–196. _____. 1950. The feeding technique of the pileated woodpecker. Bulletin of the Massachusetts Audubon Society 34:99–103. _____, AND S. F. HOYT. 1951. Age records of pileated woodpeckers. Bird Banding 22:125. HOYT, S. F. 1952. An additional age record of a pileated woodpecker. Bird Banding 23:29–30. 6

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