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Table 1.1. Habitat selection scale hierarchy example - reproduction. Scale Description Size Territory Area occupied by a mated pair >1000 ha Stand Area of similar vegetation 2-100 ha Site Local area within stand <0.5 ha Element Individual tree or other substrate Tree Sub-element Location on substrate Position

Selection Contains suitable nest trees Area containing nest tree Immediate area of nest tree Tree containing nest cavity Location of nest cavity

In this study I investigated relationships between habitat quality and fitness-related response of pileated woodpeckers in Alberta foothills forests. Habitat quality aspects of the study were trees used for nesting and roosting and the type, density and interspersion of foraging substrates. Fitness response aspects were habitat selection, territory size, reproductive success, and adult survival. Habitat selection was defined as the scale-dependent use of habitat by pileated woodpeckers compared to the availability of habitat, expressed as a ratio of use/availability. I also studied the ecological role of the pileated woodpecker as a producer of large tree cavities by investigating the availability of pileated woodpecker cavities and their use by other species. LITERATURE CITED ALBERTA NATURAL RESOURCES SERVICE. 1996. The status of Alberta wildlife. Alberta Natural Resources Service, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS’ UNION. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds, seventh edition. American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, District of Columbia, USA. AUBRY, K. B., AND C. M. RALEY. 1992. Landscape-level responses of pileated woodpeckers to forest management and fragmentation: a pilot study. Progress Report: 1990 and 1991. U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Olympia, Washington, USA. _____. 1995. Ecology of pileated woodpeckers in managed landscapes on the Olympic Peninsula: Progress Report. Pages 61–64 in Wildlife Ecology Team. 1995 Annual Report: ecology management and conservation of sensitive wildlife species. U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Olympia, Washington, USA. BEAL, F. E. L. 1911. Food of the woodpeckers of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Biological Survey Bulletin 37:1–64. BECKWITH, R. C., AND E. L. BULL. 1985. Scat analysis of the arthropod component of pileated woodpecker diet. Murrelet 66:90–92. BENT, A. C. 1939. Life histories of North American woodpeckers. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 174. BONAR, R., R. QUINLAN, T. SIKORA, D. WALKER, AND J. BECK. 1990. Integrated management of timber and wildlife resources on the Weldwood Hinton Forest Management Agreement area. Weldwood of Canada Ltd. and Alberta Forestry, Lands, and Wildlife, Hinton, Alberta, Canada. BULL, E. L. 1980. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. Dissertation, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA. _____. 1987. Ecology of the pileated woodpecker in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 51:472–48l. _____, S. R. PETERSON, AND J. W. THOMAS. 1986. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. U.S. Forest Service Research Note PNW-444. _____, AND E. C. MESLOW. 1988. Breeding biology of the pileated woodpecker – management implications. U.S. Forest Service Research Note PNW-474. _____, R. S. HOLTHAUSEN, AND M. G. HENJUM. 1990. Techniques for monitoring pileated woodpeckers. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-269. _____, R. S. HOLTHAUSEN, AND M. G. HENJUM. 1992. Roost trees used by pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 56:786–793. _____, AND R. S. HOLTHAUSEN. 1993. Habitat use and management of pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 57:335–345. _____, AND M. SNIDER. 1993. Master carpenter. Wildbird 7(2):41–43. 5

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