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NRCan


Acknowledgements Funding Partners: * Provinces of AB, SK, MB, and ON athrough SERG-International and Forest Protection Limited * Foothills Research Institute Mountain Pine Beetle Ecology Program * Canadian Forest Service/Natural Resources Canada Other Contributions: * C. Leverett, R. Kowbel, D. Wertman, P. Borrett, G. Thandi, B. Tomm, J. Weber, K. Hogg, G. Roke for field or lab assistance * L. Safranyik for helpful discussions and advice * D. Thomas, J. McCormick, L. McLauchlan and A. Hundsdoerfer for assistance with locating field sites or permission to conduct research in operating areas


The impact of temperature on mountain pine beetle success The story But, now it is here:

It has “always” been here: and here (˜60° latitude)

Cumulative Distribution of Infestations recorded 1961-2000

Cumulative Distribution of Infestations recorded 1961-2012

Invading a new ecosystem


What now? Abundance and spread in AB and east

New Habitat!


Temperature Climate – determines potential distribution Weather – impacts annual abundance

Winter temperatures AND Summer temperatures


Life cycle - Temperature driven 3 roads lead to one-year cycle (see all in southern. BC)


Grande Prairie/Fox Creek

Overwintering

June

July

August

Sept.

Overwintering

**Up to 50% more degree days than needed for 1 yr life cycle


“Normal” Cumulative DD >5.6oC (1981-2010) 1600 Terrace

Cumulative DD > 5.6ºC

1400 Grande Prairie (town)

1200

Fox Creek Grande Prairie Fort St. John Princeton (low elev.) Smithers Princeton (high elev.)

1000 800

600 400

“adj. elev.” Adpt. Seasonality/Pup. threshold

Dec-

Nov-

Oct-

Aug-

Jul-

Jun-

May-

Mar-

Feb-

0

Jan-

200

} *


How is the one-year life cycle maintained? (Seasonality)


Lower developmental temperature thresholds (Régnière et al. 2013) Table 5. MPB [lower] development and oviposition parameter estimates [°C]  Parameter

L1

L2

L3

L4

Tb

3.6

7.0

6.8

16.2

Pupa 5.6

* Strong evidence threshold varies by population ** Critical for MPB success in n. AB, we should figure it out!

Teneral Oviposit. 4.2

4.6


Threshold Temperature for Pupation Experiments Long stories short Experiment 1

Experiment 2 Experiment 3

(

)


Pupation of MPB larvae after cold exposure ** Note: Results as of Jan. 14, 2014; experiment is on-going Day 0, no winter = Sept. 28, 2013 Day 0, lab winter = Nov. 1, 2013

Pupated (%)

?


Implications


Cold Tolerance Objectives around: 1) Lethal cold temperature thresholds for life stages 2) Cold acclimation requirements 3) Severity and duration of exposure to sub-threshold temperatures 4) Winter survival in the field


Exp. 1 – Lower lethal temperature threshold for late instar larvae Cut infested trees Lab

3 Acclimation Trts. 3.5°C

23°C

Step-down

Variable

No/limited

(15 to -6°C)

(15 to -6°C)

(23 to -6°C)

25 20 Variable Step

Temperature (oC)

15

Assessment 26,685 larvae live/dead/slugs

2 Cold Trts. -13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 31, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45°C

3.5, 22°C

24 hr

10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time of acclimation (days)

8

9

10 11 12

Incremental -9 to -45°C (2°/d)

24 hr 48 hr

Shock -6 to -X°C

-6°C


COLD SHOCK


Next on cold tolerance: •Lower lethal temperature thresholds for other life stages •Severity/duration of exposure to sub-threshold temperatures on survival •Winter survival in the field


Thank-you for your attention


Emergence density of female beetles (nos. females/m2) Site

2011 Emergence (Attacked 2010)

2012 Emergence (Attacked 2011)

FSJ1

555

--

FSJ2

891

--

FSJ3

432

--

G. Prairie (close to town)

239

30

Musreau L

389

443

Hwy40-4

315

374

Teddy Lane

469

2 (-43C)

Fox Crk –Smoke Lk

86

cut

Fox Crk –Hwy947

94

Fox Crk –Eagle Tower

57

Princeton5

315

Princeton7 (high)

89

Smithers2

64

Smithers3

31

144


Life cycle - Temperature driven 3 roads lead to one-year cycle (see all in southern. BC)

09kathybleiker  

https://foothillsri.ca/sites/default/files/09KathyBleiker.pdf

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