food in america our perspectives | our experiences fall 2020 c
contents 4. palenqueras – margaret johnson 5. making roti – lyba tariq 5. contributors 6. food in america – dr catriona standfield 7. in defense of fast food – kayley laflamme 8. perspectives on milk – maximas helms 10. behind the scenes – aeshah nadeem 11. a brief history of pizza – anna gaimari 12. mangoes -steven tu 14. how to be a housewife – riley biron 16. a conversation with my grandmother about identity – eli rivera-hughes 17. the ideal woman – molly cook 18. haitian food – kaylene noel 20. the meaning of food – rany yatim 22. the amazing red sauce – gianna fruci 23. spinach pie – alexa kemmitt 24. the dube family’s spaghetti sauce recipe – lauren dube 25. stuffing – brad baxter 26. nigeria jollof pasta – treasure ayozie 28. cooking spaghetti and meatballs – brad palmer 29. the avenue i took into cooking – jack houlihan
front cover art “palenqueras” margaret johnson
It is more than likely that if you spend any amount of time in Cartagena, Colombia you will see the bright colors and smiles of the Palenquera women. It is also likely that the art and TV characters you have seen of women carrying fruit on their heads wearing bright colors are Palenqueras or took inspiration from them. The Palenquera fruit sellers are a symbol of Cartagena’s rich culture and its slave trade roots. In the days of Spanish colonialism, the New World funneled through Cartagena. Cartagena was, in a sense, the “hub” of the slave trade. At first, the native Colombians were used as slaves but soon after Africans replaced them. After years of inhuman treatment, loss of culture, and profit made off the backs of the slaves, they revolted. Hundreds of enslaved Africans fled their captors and went into the jungles of Colombia where they created communities, raised families, and practiced their African culture there. The Spanish colonizers quickly caught on and went into the jungles where they lived. Many of these communities were destroyed and many Africans were recaptured. One community called “San Basilio de Palenque'' survived and became one of the first declared independent communities in the Americas. Members of this community were able to remain completely independent from the Spanish and embrace their true African heritage while blending it with the Caribbean culture. In order to survive, they understood they had to take advantage of the trade in Cartagena. Women would dress in vibrant clothes and go to the city to sell fruit from the
jungle. These women quickly became known as the Palenquera women, and because of them, their community was able to continue to survive independently. The immersion and explosion of this rich culture even caused them to create language of their own: Palenque. I chose to use this as the basis of my project because the Palenquera women are the most prominent example of so many touched upon topics: slavery, culture, trade, exports, and imports. They are a community of people today that can be admired for their unique culture and practices. Because they are so unique, they became a symbol of Colombia. This is why I chose to paint this Palenquera woman in the bright colors of the Colombian flag. These people remain as one of the few cultures of the New World that did not assimilate into the European culture that came with the colonization of the Americas. In addition, the way in which these women were in the street working rather than being at home dismantles the widely known “role” that women have in society; to be the home makers. It adds on to their very unique culture. The Palenque people are the embodiment of the human spirit. Upon looking at the countless murals, photographs, and paintings of these women you are not just looking at bright colors and the precise balance of the fruit on their head. You are looking at centuries of independence, sustainability, and unbroken spirit.
back cover art “making roti” lyba tariq Like other people, I have the habit of linking food with memories. If I had to choose one that is the most memorable, it would be helping my mom make rotis for dinner when I was a kid. I’ve never had a passion for cooking, but standing in the kitchen alongside my mom while doing my best to help out brought me joy. In the drawing I created, you can see a younger version of me standing beside my mom as the two of us make rotis together. A roti is a type of flatbread that South Asians usually make, and it’s eaten along with curries. The drawing shows me shaping the dough into balls while my mom uses a rolling pin to smooth them out into flat circles.
These are usually cooked over the stove and are served after having a little butter smoothed out over them. Rotis are eaten very often in my household and they’re very healthy too! Over the past semester, I’ve learned a lot more about food than ever before. I’ve also become more interested in cooking since it’s an essential life skill that everyone should know. I don’t cook very often, but I would like to learn more of my mom’s recipes so that I can become better at cooking and be able to help her out more.
contributors The class of PO 193, Food in America, Fall 2020 at Worcester State University
food in america dr catriona standfield
Food is something we all experience, making it an excellent starting point for thinking about politics, history, economics, and identity. Over this semester, our class has explored how the food we take for granted is complex and often fraught with abuse. For instance, we examined the history of sugar slavery in the Southern US, the racialized and gendered hierarchies of banana production in Central America and the Caribbean, and the trafficking of Guatemalan teens for exploitation as laborers on egg farms. At the individual level, diet culture and weight stigma laden our everyday consumption with shame and a desire to discipline unruly bodies into conformity. At the same time, food is a source of power and resistance, a wellspring of connection for groups who are oppressed. We discussed the resilience of Indigenous foodways and cultures amidst ongoing colonization, the Black Panther Party’s free breakfast program, and how Chinese Americans adapted their dishes to become mainstays of contemporary American cuisine. This zine is a way for students to tell their own stories about food. As I compiled the original artworks, essays, and family recipes, I noticed four main themes emerge: first, a close critical attention to food systems and the histories of common ingredients and dishes. Second, an examination of gender and food, particularly when it comes to expectations on women in the home, as well as of how women’s bodies should look. Third, students used food to explore their connections with countries and cultures outside the US. And, finally, many of the pieces underscore how food binds us together, creating shared memories. These
“Sweet Thanks”, copyright Susan Murtagh (2016), shared on Flickr.com under Creative Commons license. memories of time spent together are cherished even more now that we are forced apart by the pandemic. It has been a great pleasure to work with and learn from students as we have compiled this zine over the past weeks. Any graphic design foibles are mine alone. I hope that, within these pages, you will find something that sparks your interest, whether it is an original artwork, an essay, or a delicious new recipe. Bon appétit!
in defense of fast food kayley laflamme Fast food has been around since 1921. It is arguably one of the United States’ most popular attributes. As the automobile grew in popularity so did the fast food industry. Americans became mobile, and frequent traveling required people to look for quick food on the go. This is how the term “Fast Food” was created. Fast food has always been a controversial topic in the food world and it brings an army of negative connotations behind its quickly delivered, fatty, and greasy foods. It is easy to judge those who consume fast food regularly but looking closer into what fast food has to offer is important. Advantages to the fast food industry are abundant. Some advantages of fast food and its industry consists of points such as cost efficiency, saving time, numerous healthy choices, and the variety of option is obvious even to those who do not live in the US (Miller, K). An advantage fast food provides starts within a community. Fast food can help reduce hunger problems within the community. Its cheap prices can allow those with a meager income to be able to put food into their stomachs. From single parents looking for something cheap and quick to feed their children for dinner to the homeless trying to get a hot meal in before a long and cold night. Fast food allows those who can't afford a large meal to fill up before they have to search for the next one. The second advantage of fast food is the increase in personal time efficiency and schedule management (Miller, K). Working with a busy schedule from school, jobs, or taking care of your family may not leave enough time to cook at home. Especially in the US, time is extremely valued and fast past leaves little time for one meal let alone the average three. And a third advantage is taste. There has to be a reason besides quick and easy food, right? Of course, there is! The taste of a McDonald's French fries or a taco from taco bell can subside any craving you desire. With a large variety from a multitude of fast food to choose from, there's enough flavor or keep your taste buds active for any meal.
Besides the health aspect of fast food, fast food can be seen as American culture. McDonald's specifically is comfort food that has expanded its ranges outside of the US. As mentioned in the paragraph above, those in other countries are aware of the fast food staple in the United States. It is not uncommon to find fast food such as McDonald's in other countries or continents. McDonalds has expanded its clientele across the globe! I had the chance to visit Costa Rica this February and I not only witnessed McDonald's in the airports but on the streets and plazas. Incredibly, the success of this company brought cheap and efficient food production across the world and this just adds another positive to the fastfood industry.
Some fun facts about fast food: McDonalds, Chipotle, Taco Bell, Chick-Fil-A and more have become some of the most iconic and most visited fast food chains in the United States. McDonalds is visited by 90% of American children monthly. French fries, not only from McDonalds, are the most popular type of fast food in America. Source: Brooks
I decided to focus on this topic because I just recently began living on my own and realized how much fast food (specifically Chipotle) I was consuming. I wanted to look into fast food to see the advantages and disadvantages. I decided to write about advantages to clean up fast food’s reputation. Of course, there are negatives to fast food such as consuming more calories or risks of health issues if consumed daily. But the average American can avoid these problems when living day to day life. There are ways to make fast food increasingly healthier such as using portion control, grilling instead of frying, and using more proteins 7
and less fat. With 42.4% of the US population being obese the need for healthier options is becoming a necessity. Though there are several healthy options for quality fast food, the number is increasing and will remain growing as the demand rises. It is important to be aware of what you are putting into your body but it is also important not to put others down for making the choice to partake in the fast food consumption.
Works cited: Brooks, S. (2020, August 20). Fast food trivia. Retrieved December 03, 2020, from https://www.sheknows.com/food-andrecipes/articles/996693/10-shocking-fastfood-facts/ Miller, K. (2019, June 17). 19 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fast Food. Retrieved December 02, 2020, from https://futureofworking.com/8advantages-and-disadvantages-of-fast-food/
perspectives on milk maximas helms Milk is an ingredient used to make many meals; and anywhere from a drop to a cup of milk is in many meals we have daily. Milk originally came from farmers and pastoralists in western Europe who lived around domesticated animals like cows. Farmers were the first to try drinking milk. Milk is drunk by many people around the world, but there are alternatives as well. People who are intolerant, allergic, or sensitive to milk usually go with alternatives if they care for milk. The alternatives consist of plant-based milk, like almond milk, which is especially growing popular in America. Milk used to be unheard of, almost outlandish to drink milk because it is a liquid that comes out of cows and the way it is prepared is rather repulsive to watch. Many people find it disgusting, but milk is in all dairy. Things people eat day to day like cheese contain milk. It is in yogurts, cheeses, ice cream, all sorts of things eaten frequently. Milk stores a lot of protein per serving, and many people are sensitive to dairy itself and the calorie intake. Milk drinkers and milk lovers usually use milk beneficially, taking advantage of the protein count in it. It is seen by some to be unhealthy because of all the fats, but milk makes a positive dent in today’s world. It contains calcium, which is great for you; it makes your bones stronger throughout your body as well as the bones in your mouth and jaw.
There are many reasons why we drink milk; however, there are also many reasons that individuals do not drink milk. As babies, we need milk to develop. When we are babies, our bodies make a special enzyme called lactase that allows us to digest the lactose usually in our mother’s milk. As we grow into adults, this lactose stops being produced. For example, I am not lactose intolerant so I can drink milk; but many people I know are sensitive to it and cannot have it, which I personally think is awful and I couldn’t imagine. But many grow out of the production of lactose in their body and can no longer consume it unless they have a lactose pill with them, which even then doesn’t always help. Back when milk was founded in Europe and in North America, the way they went about introducing milk was that it was drunk almost as a test. Many people found out quickly if they were allergic to it due to the side effects that occurred thereafter. Many people got very sick from drinking milk while others maintained their childhood enzymes through adulthood and never became sensitive to it. There is also there is much controversy over how milk is produced. As we know, milk is taken from cows. They are forcefully impregnated in fields to produce more babies so we can keep getting milk. I think that the plant-based milk industries are in many people’s favor only because nothing gets hurt 8
from its production. Real cow lives are taken because of the production; and though there is a large contribution to the world, everyone is benefiting besides cows. The life of animals is something many people preach to protect on a daily basis. Is it easy to stop this? No, and it may never be stopped, but it is something to think about. Cows reproduce, and farmers milk cows every day just to pack shelves in stores for people to survive, but you could survive without milk. So, another question is, why put many cows in danger and take their lives when there is an easy alternative? There is no answer. Most female cows and their offspring are forced through a cycle of cruelty that results in death. Cows are slaughtered, put through much devastation just for the taste of milk daily. Though the milk is very rich, and milk itself is a multimillion-dollar production, cows are branded, cut, beat, worked to their maximum capacity, and then slaughtered every day. Cow industries are something that no sane human could watch farmers and factory workers do, and watching cows suffer daily would make anyone re-evaluate milk and the milking process as a whole. Milk is one of those 50/50 tries where you have no say whether milk goes or stays. Many people drink milk every day without thinking about what they are drinking. I personally drink milk for my own personal benefits, and I enjoy the taste. I think that drinking milk does have many benefits for me as I am trying to gain weight and only keep about 8% body fat. Without milk, I would not be able to gain as much consistent weight as I do because I use milk in my shakes. For others, they have the opinion that milk should be extinct and only want the milk to be produced from plants. There is another portion of the world where milk does not affect them because they are simply allergic or intolerant to it. People who are allergic either do not drink milk or donâ€™t have many things with dairy; and these individuals that cannot tolerate milk may take what is called a Lactaid pill to relieve or eliminate the side effect. Another alternative that these individuals choose to do is substitute certain foods like frozen yogurt for ice cream.
plant-based with almonds but take a portion of milk and mix it with the plant-based almost to make it whole, but not from cows. If there is any way to produce milk to be as rich as it is with a different process than how it is currently done, I am all hands in for that. Without that, if it is not possible and I do not think the way milk is produced would ever be changed, but there should definitely be a limit on the brutality during the production.
â€œDairy cows outdoorsâ€?, copyright Compassion in World Farming (2003), shared on Flickr.com under Creative Commons license.
I personally do feel that it is sad what cows are put through; and if there is an alternative that could kill as little cows as possible and make milk completely
behind the scenes aeshah nadeem This sketch is about what we learned through the course of Food in America. Many people don’t think about how their food was made, and what are the outcomes of the production of that food. The sketch is illustrating the impact of the food industry on the Earth. Starting from the top right, we can see the farmers who work hard and not get the return, the landlord who treats the workers badly and keeps most of the profit for himself, deforestation and infringement of nature. At the left there is air pollution that is caused by factories’ and cars’ exhausts. In the middle there is plastic and food waste that is overloading the Earth. The top middle is a supermarket, and there is a person in that supermarket who is staring at the cupcake and not realizing the opposite reality behind the production of that cake (or any other type of food).
a brief history of pizza anna gaimari People have been eating pizza, in one form or another, for many years. As far back as antiquity, pieces of flatbread, topped with savories, were served as a simple and tasty meal for those who could not afford plates. The modern pizza was originally invented in Naples, Italy but the word “pizza” is Greek in origin, derived from the Greek word pēktos, meaning solid or clotted. The ancient Greeks covered their bread with herbs, oil, and different types of cheese. The first major innovation that led to flat bread pizza was the use of tomato as a topping. It was common for the poor of Naples to add tomato to their yeasted flat bread, and so the pizza began. While it is difficult to say for sure who invented pizza, it is however believed that modern pizza was first made by the baker Raffaele Esposito. “In fact, a popular urban legend holds that the archetypal pizza, Pizza Margherita, was invented in 1889, when the Royal Palace of Capodimonte commissioned the Neapolitan pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito to create a pizza in honor of the visiting Queen Margherita. Of the three different pizzas he created, the Queen strongly preferred a pie swathed in the colors of the Italian flag, red being tomato, green being basil, and white being mozzarella” (Demetri). This kind of pizza was then supposedly named after the Queen as Pizza Margherita. Pizza was slow to move out of Naples. The initial spur was provided by migration. “From the 1930s onwards, a growing number of Neapolitans moved northwards in search of work, taking their cuisine with them. This trend was accelerated by war. It was tourism that was facilitated by the declining cost of travel in the postwar period, that really consolidated pizza’s position as a truly Italian dish” (Lee 5). As tourists became curious about Italian food, restaurants throughout the country started offering more regional specialties, including pizza. The quality was, at first, variable, as not every
restaurant had a pizza oven. Pizza spread quickly throughout Italy. New ingredients were introduced in response to local tastes and the higher prices that customers were now willing to pay. Pizza eventually found its second home in America. In 1905, the first pizzeria, Lombardi’s, was opened in New York City. Soon after, pizza became an American institution. Spreading across the country with the growing pace of urbanization, it was quickly taken up by enterprising restaurateurs. Pizza is a food that appears everywhere in modern culture. From parties to dinners at home and even at school. It is very hard to find someone that does not like pizza in some sort of way. This type of food has spread all over the world using a variety of ingredients that will appeal to the locals. People enjoy pizza so much that they will have it delivered to their homes, leading to the creation and worldwide expansion of chains such as Domino's, Papa John's, Little Caesar's, and Papa Gino’s. We as a country have developed an entire culture around pizza. Bibliography: Clason, Melissa. “The History of Pizza.” Delishably, 24 June 2019, delishably.com/pizza/The-History-ofPizza. Demetri, Justin. “History of Pizza.” Life in Italy, 11 Nov. 2019, www.lifeinitaly.com/food/history-ofpizza/. Lee, Alexander. A History of Pizza. www.historytoday.com/archive/historianscookbook/history-pizza. Stradley, Linda. “Pizza – History and Legends of Pizza.” What's Cooking America, 31 Oct. 2016, whatscookingamerica.net/History/Pizza/PizzaHistor y.htm.
mangoes steven tu
Mangoes have a big part to play in my household. They remind me of my family because my family would crack open one of the thousand boxes of mangoes they purchased from the Asian market during hot summer days. However, I always wondered where mangoes are grown and how they are harvested and how they ultimately end up in my house. And I also wondered how many mangoes the United States imports per year or which country imports the most mangoes because they are a tropical fruit. Also, there must be an economy to mangoes, and to think solely mangoes provide villages and towns a living is fascinating to me. My family loves the sweetness and juiciness of mangoes, and they always have and always will. That has somewhat rubbed off onto me because I love mangoes, and it just brings me joy and happy memories. Every time I eat a mango, it brings back such delightful memories of my family and the summertime. My favorite part of the summer is when my dad comes stumbling through the door with three boxes of mangoes stacked on top of each other. As a family, we all crack open a box and enjoy. During the summer, mangoes in my house are practically bottomless; they never run out. I was inquisitive about where mangoes originated from, so I found an article by "The Mango Factory" that mentions mangoes originating in Southeast Asia and India. But I found this quote interesting "the mango is considered a sacred fruit in the region because it is said that Buddha himself meditated under a mango tree." Now that makes perfect sense to me now because my mother is Buddhist, and she would always place a mango on a plate next to the picture of Buddha as an offering of some sort. Mangoes are mainly grown and harvested in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Mangoes are grown on trees in mostly tropical regions and humid areas. Mangoes are usually harvested unripe to persevere the fruit. Once harvested, mangoes only have 14-
25 days shelf life in storage before they start to spoil at an accelerated rate. According to the "Transportation information service," Mangoes are sensitive to pressure, so they are packed into padded fruit crates. Scientists have tried using wax to extend its storage time, but nothing has worked. Since mangos are juicy fruit, transporting it is very difficult, so, generally, mangos are transported by air freight. And if it is transported by boat, the crew has to pay special attention to the product, or else the entire batch can get ruined. Mangoes are imported and shipped all over the world. Europe is a large importer purchasing 100 million euros worth of mangoes, but specifically, the Netherlands purchased a large chunk of the processed mangoes that are imported to Europe. According to "Fresh Plaza," more than half of the mangoes harvested stay within the region, and the rest are imported to other countries. Last year Europe imported about 550 tons of mangoes from Latin America and Southeast Asia. Even though mangoes are very delicious, they have problems surrounding them. In an article by "Agriculture monthly" written by Zac Sarian, there is excessive use of chemicals on mango trees; farmers use a chemical to fend off animals and insects from getting to them. However, the insects are slowly starting to build a tolerance to the chemical resulting in farmers using more of the chemical. Another problem is that mangoes have a high transportation cost to keep them fresh and high quality; it takes a lot of care and consideration. So, it costs a pretty penny to maintain the quality and freshness of the product. The price of mangoes was dropping at a steady pace, but farmers were getting affected the most. So desperate farmers would cut down 20-25-year-old trees to drive mangoes' prices back up. In conclusion, mangoes are more than just a delicious tropical fruit that my family enjoys on hot summer days. Mangoes remind me of my family, put me in a good mood, and remind me of the 12
summer. Mangoes have a whole complex economy behind them and even a religious meaning as well. I did not know mangoes had to be maintained a certain way to prepare them to get shipped, or else it could ruin their shelf life. And some cities and towns in Latin America rely on mango farming as their primary source of income. So, mangoes fuel some Latin American economies and Southeast Asia and have an exciting harvesting and shipping process.
“Record Number of Mangoes Exported Worldwide.” FreshPlaza, 21 Dec. 2017, www.freshplaza.com/article/2186986/recordnumber-of-mangoes-exported-worldwide/.
The Mango Factory. “Mango History.” The Mango Factory, 13 Sept. 2020, www.themangofactory.com/history/mango-history2/.
Mangoes – Transport Information Service, www.tisgdv.de/tis_e/ware/obst/mango/mango-htm/.
Sarian, Zac. “Problems and Prospects of the Mango Industry.” Agriculture Monthly, 21 Sept. 2020, www.agriculture.com.ph/2018/06/22/problems-andprospects-of-the-mango-industry/.
“Blackberries”, copyright Ann Mead (2009), shared on Flickr.com under Creative Commons license.
how to be a housewife riley biron For my contribution I decided to take a look at 1950s advertisements that were focused around housewives. I thought it tied in well to two discussions we had this semester. The first one being the week we discussed the 50s/60s where we talked about the role of the housewife. My biggest inspiration was the article we read called “The most Important Meal: Women’s Home Cooking, Domestic Ideology, and Cook Books” (Neuhaus). I thought it was interesting to look into that time and how gender roles had an effect on cooking and the home life. I also took inspiration from our class's latest discussion about the tyranny of the ideal woman. I felt these two weeks were the most interesting to read and talk about, especially because you could see the progression of how this ideology changed or evolved, even if it didn’t change very much. It was also interesting doing my own research. I found an ad I was drawn to because it didn’t make my sense to me. The ad was a drawing of a woman serving a man and the heading said “show her it’s a man’s world” which I found strange because it's an ad for ties. I feel like this said a lot about the time and the message women were getting. The idea of a stereotypical housewife who lives to cook and serve her husband was reinforced at every chance it could (Neuhaus). This was also a common theme I saw in most of the ads. I think looking at these ads now shows how problematic and toxic these ads were and it's crazy to think this was a normal thing at the time. This also makes me think social media might have the same effect.
push this on young women (Tolentino). I feel like this could potentially become our 1950s ads, as it just continuously reinforces this idea of how a woman should be, just like in the ads I saw. With this toxic process basically always being part of our society there would really be no change. I took these ads to an extreme in my drawing (next page) to demonstrate this idea. I feel we should be embracing every kind of woman and what they choose to do. Whether it's working and not wanting a family or conforming to society, or even being a stereotypical housewife. The idea of the perfect woman always changing is keeping a toxic cycle of showing women how they should be and act. As well as showing the extremes I really wanted to bring awareness to how this housewife mentality was more prevalent than people think. While everyone knows about the stereotype I don't think people know the extent, as most people don’t necessarily look at 60-year-old ads for fun so it goes mainly unnoticed. Works cited: Neuhaus, Jessamyn. 2012. Manly Meals and Mom’s Home Cooking: Cookbooks and Gender in Modern America. Johns Hopkins University Press. Tolentino, Jia. “Athleisure, Barre and Kale: The Tyranny of the Ideal Woman.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 2 Aug. 2019, www.theguardian.com/news/2019/aug/02/athleisur e-barre-kale-tyranny-ideal-woman-labour.
I vividly remember a class discussion where we talked about social media influencers using photoshop and diets that don’t work and basically
a conversation with my grandmother about identity eli rivera-hughes This is an interview I recorded over Facetime with my grandmother who is currently in Florida. I chose to interview my grandmother to see what someone born in the mid-20th century thought about a couple of topics we have touched on in class. Q: What is your name? A: My name is Liz Hughes Q: When were you born? A: I was born in 1952, in Orange, Massachusetts. I wasn't born in a hospital, I was born at home. Q: Where is your family from? A: My Father was born in Yugoslavia and my Mother was born in Poland. They migrated to the United States from Germany after WWII
we each had to share if we had a bicycle we all shared it. We all got jobs when we could when we were 13 so we could buy our own school clothes and essentials. I worked in the tobacco fields from then until I graduated from high school then I got my first real job. Q: What cultural influences affected your cooking and as you have grown did they change? A: I do a lot of my mom’s cooking, we were raised on mostly Polish food, not Americanized food. I learned to cook at a very young age and it changed when I became an adult and got married and had children. I made more Americanized food but I still maintained the cultural food I was raised on, but you don’t like a lot of it! (Referring to me.)
Q: Do you have any siblings A: I have five sisters, three were born in Germany and three of us were born in the United States Q: Where did you grow up? A: I grew up in Orange, Massachusetts, I was born and raised in Orange my entire childhood. Until in 1971 I moved out of Orange and went to Athol and got my own apartment. It was after I graduated in 1970, in 1971 I got my own apartment, I was 19. I tried college but I didn't finish. At that point, I’d rather get a job and go then finish college. Times were different back then my parents didn’t help me pay for school. But it's definitely a lot more expensive than it was when I went. I remember a gallon of bleach was 10 cents. I remember I could get a donut for 2 cents. Those were the good ole days. Now how much is a donut? 89 to 99 cents apiece! Q: What was your childhood like? A: Both my parents were blue-collar workers, they had six daughters. It was a normal childhood, it was like we each didn't get what we wanted sometimes 16
Q: When you were still a child during an upcoming housewife movement striking middle-class homes across the country, what is your view of the “ideal” American Housewife, and have you witnessed any instances of it? A: I really don't believe in the housewife movement. I believe it's a team effort, I believe we both work and share the household chores and everything. I never considered myself a housewife, I’ve only ever considered myself a wife and a mother. By the time I graduated high school it was 1970 so it was a little different, you know what I mean. As women got more independent it was less prevalent, I had friends that were housewives but it was a choice to me, it was a choice whether I wanted to be one but I never agreed with the movement or the mentality of it. What I believe and how I was raised was to be independent and to be self-sufficient. I never thought of being a housewife and I don't think that would work for me. I worked always and shared responsibility in the household ever since I was married.
*** After the interview, I just wanted to give more context on how the last two questions connect back to class. Even though we can all be Americans, we can belong to different cultures and have different cultural influences in our lives. For the question about cultural influences, I wanted to see what my grandmother saw as cultural influences in her way of cooking and where they come from. Then, I wanted to see if she saw any change in them over the years. The other question related to the class is the question about the housewife movement. We spent some time discussing the housewife movement and its boom in the post-WWII era. Knowing my grandmother is a first-generation American, I wanted to know her thoughts on the idea of being a housewife and instances she witnessed in her life since she was raised during this era.
the ideal woman molly cook This is an image of a salad. To me, it is a symbol of how, in today’s society, women are often told what they should and shouldn't eat. What they should and shouldn't wear. How they should act and what workouts they should do. Women are held to such high expectations like they always have been. In some of the readings we had this semester we learned about women needing to know how to cook to please their families. If they didn’t know how to cook then people claimed their family would fall apart. In another article we read this semester we discussed diet culture and body image. I am someone that has always struggled with my weight and body image. For as long as I could remember I was always told to eat healthier and to eat less. As a child I never really cared about what I ate or what I looked like because I didn’t think it 17
mattered. The ideal woman is seen as someone that looks like an Instagram model. “Wow she’s so big, she should eat a salad” is the constant remark towards bigger women. For smaller women it’s, “I can see her bones, someone should give her a burger”. These terms are insanely degrading, and what people don’t understand is that it’s not always food that causes someone to be over or underweight. Weight is affected by medication, mental illness, and a variety of diseases and illnesses. Women are also sexualized by their weight, when they have some “meat” on their bones they’re considered a “piece of meat”. Imagine being objectified as a “piece of meat” and thinking you are nothing more than that? Imagine being told you’re “too fat” and not worthy of love? Or that you’re a bag of bones and nobody wants that. Imagine thinking that you need to eat this or walk like that or talk like this just to be “worthy” of love. This is not what should define a woman. The number on the scale, does not, and will never
represent a woman's worth. Women are warriors, who deserve to be treated as such. Women create and nourish life, go through monthly uncomfortable cycles, raise children, and many more tiring tasks. Yet what they do, and who they are is constantly going unnoticed. All society cares about is what they look like, and what they eat. Frequently on social media, bigger women get shamed more than skinnier women. On a popular media platform, TikTok, skinny women can dance sexually all they want, but the second a bigger woman shows some skin, we see an “unwanted” body image, therefore it is more likely to be taken down. As well as when a bigger woman posts what she eats, she's immediately attacked for it, but if a skinnier woman eats bad, no one cares. After all, she’s skinny, and that’s all that matters, right? As a society, this is not how we should act towards women. Under no circumstances do they deserve this. Body image, what you eat, and the number on the scale, will not and never will define a woman's worth.
haitian food kaylene noel I grew up in a Haitian household in Cambridge, Massachusetts. I was surrounded by culture and art. I learned how to be creative and I learned more about different cultures. Growing up, my mom wanted to make sure that my sister and I knew everything about our culture and made sure we knew Haiti’s history. My mom would cook Haitian food and try to teach us Haitian Creole. Haitian food is amazing, we love it so much. Learning Haitian Creole was the hardest part because we were also learning Spanish at school, so learning two different languages at the same time was hard for us. I would start to understand Creole instead of speaking it, it's kind of made my family upset since I couldn’t speak it fluently, but I know that understanding it is still as good as speaking it.
Haitian Creole is just a mix of French and it’s pretty hard to learn. Some of the words we use are close to Spanish words so the times I would try to speak in Haitian Creole I would say some Spanish words too. I have a big family and growing up I've even come to realize that some of the kids I was friends with were my relatives. That is when I started to even notice how big my family is, I never thought that some of my friends at school would be related to me. I love being able to talk and connect with my friends about stuff our parents do and being able to relate to everything. Now I know that I have family everywhere and that they are not that far away from me whenever I need them. Another thing my mom would do is make us listen to Haitian music. We didn’t really like it because we 18
didn’t understand what they were saying plus my mom would blast the music so that the whole block could hear it. My mom would tell me how in Haiti there would be crazy parities and they would last for days. It was one of her favorite things she missed about Haiti besides it being really hot over there. My mom is a big part of my culture without her I wouldn’t really know anything about myself. The only thing I would know about Haiti's history would be the Haitian revolution and that’s because I learned it in 8th grade. I'm glad that my mom taught me everything because now I know more about my culture and I will be able to teach others about what we do and what we eat. Haitian food has the biggest role in my life. It’s something that I can’t live without, being in college far from home kept me from eating the food I love. My mom will make my beet salad. Beet salad is what we usually make during Thanksgiving or Christmas time. I loved this dish ever since I was a kid and people don't usually hear that kids love beets. A lot of people in my house don't like it but since I do my mom will always make a little bowl just for me.
my mom would add shrimp to it and it’s spicy. It’s something I always look forward to when we go to parties because that’s when they usually make it. I always wanted to learn how to cook my favorite Haitian food so I can make it myself in the future but whenever my mom would cook, I would be either at school or work so it was hard to ever find the time to learn from her. Being Haitian American means so much to me, I am so proud to be part of an amazing culture. I am glad that my mom taught me everything I know about Haiti and I’m glad that I will be able to tell everyone else about what it’s like. I think that it’s important for people to learn more about people’s cultures and try their foods instead of relearning the same stuff over and over again. Being able to teach my friends more about my culture and what my family does is the best thing ever. I get to introduce new stuff to them and they are always excited to learn about it. They always say they would want to go to Haiti because of what I tell them about it. I am so grateful that my mom taught me everything I know about my culture and that I can teach everyone else about it too. If she didn’t teach me, I would be a whole different person. Culture is part of everyone's life. It makes us who we are today.
Another thing that I love is diri djon djon. That is black mushroom rice, it's my favorite rice because
the meaning of food rany yatim
Every day, we crave food as the human body needs to be fueled throughout the day. Think of your favorite foods and how it makes you feel to eat them, savor the moment. Food is not just meant to be eaten, as you can be happy when you eat a certain dish or meal. In short, you can be emotionally connected to food more than you think. For example, is there a certain food that has any sentimental value to you? Thank about a time where you made a meal with your family or a tradition you do with your loved ones. How did you feel during that time? Food opens up a whole new world for anyone to explore and experience many moments and even create a bond with them. For me, I value food not only for its taste but for the memories and happiness it brings me when savoring every bite after all of the hard work I put in to make it. Firstly, the idea of food made me want to learn and experience as much as I can about it and the different cultures that exist. Although I am very cultural and lean towards Mediterranean cuisine, I also love different kinds of foods from various countries. It is my dream to travel the world and explore all the diversity I can. I believe that food has opened up a door to make me feel inspired to tour many countries solely based on their food habits and cultural uniqueness. Everyone dreams of eating a croissant in France, or a fresh pizza from Italy and even Japan's sushi. This is what I want to experience and savor those moments forever. There is a thrill that I cannot explain when trying new things in life and I always get that feeling when eating a food that is exotic and new to me and, even if I did not like it, I still tried it. Food has taught me to appreciate the little things too. For example, eating a piece of chocolate that melts in your mouth is arguably the best feeling in the moment as your taste buds get to experience a very happy moment. On top of this, food has shown me how to treasure the times when making a certain meal or dish with
my family. Food to me symbolizes family and love. I still live with my mother who makes me all sorts of dishes and I am very grateful for that opportunity, as I still get to see the person who raised me every day and that is something I will not take for granted as life is time. The ability to sit with my family to enjoy dinner with their company is something that cannot be replaced. This can all be credited to food because, without food, there would be no reason to sit at the dinner table every day and enjoy delicious meals. While I was growing up, I always liked to try new foods and give it a chance. My grandparents would fuel my brother and I until we could no longer eat and even after that, they would still ask us if we were hungry even after devouring the whole dinner table. I will never forget these times because it was so genuine and something that will stick with me forever. Although one can say that â€œit's just food and it is not a big dealâ€?, I can argue that itâ€™s the meaning behind the food, the care and love they put into making the meals, and the effort they take to present it to you. It is not easy to whip something out in a matter of minutes and expect it to taste amazing. That all takes time in the kitchen and one must be devoted and really give it their all. I appreciate my mother and my family for all of the time they take to make my favorite meals just to see the look on my face when they tell me that it is ready to eat. I believe that people take food for granted sometimes and do not take in the moments to enjoy every bite, as some people are starving worldwide and would love to experience the lovely food that we have in front of us. This is what I express and enjoy the privilege to have such an amazing family who will always value food and the time it takes to prepare everything, even if it is the smallest thing in the world. Lastly, I love to make food with my family, and I have taken some pictures of the meals that I have made recently. I will describe some of the foods and what they include. The first picture includes my 20
take on a Chinese-type dish as it includes spring rolls, soy sauce rice, and pasta with a sweet and sour sauce with vegetables. This meal tastes amazing as it has a mixture of savory and sweet. The second picture is really easy to make, and I like to call it an arugula pizza. This meal includes naan bread with marinara sauce and cheese and topped off with diced onions and arugula and is put into an oven toaster. The third picture includes a quesadilla that I made with various vegetables and chicken with a side of homemade General Tso cauliflower. These are some of my favorite dishes that I have made recently, and they are delicious. Without food, I am not sure how I could make a closer bond with my family and experience all the delicious foods I have tasted.
Clockwise from top right: cauliflower with quesadillas, arugula pizza, and Chinese-style noodles, rice and spring rolls.
the amazing red sauce gianna fruci This red tomato sauce has been in my family for four generations but in many variations of it. I originally got this recipe from my mom and she taught me how to make it but she got it from her grandmother and then my dad's mom. Even though it isn’t the exact same recipe my mom just took both of them and made it into her own. But in both recipes, they use the same brand of tomato sauce and garlic but the only difference is the spices and one adds butter and the other doesn't. So, my mom just tweaked it a little bit to our preferences in taste, but you could say that my mom passed it onto her sisters and my dad’s brothers and their families. So, she has shown me her ways and how to make it and the exact measurements and what brands tomato sauce to buy. When I am cooking this for myself, family, or friends I will want to make a little change and maybe make it a little better or alter it to my liking and the people who are around me.
how she would normally cook. And how she got a version of this recipe from her mom and cooked it on Sunday and have all of her family sit around the table. So, it has been passed down from generation to generation so I like how I can be a part of that and continue the legacy down to my kids or grandkids. And now that I’m at college when I come home sometimes and my mom has been cheffing away all day and I walk in I immediately get hit with all the goodness that sauce brings and it just tastes like home and it is very comforting to have. To be able to be a part of this legacy of multiple generations being passed down and make it into my own and then one day be able to pass it down myself is very important and I can’t wait for that day.
But what I like about this sauce is what makes it so special is all of the memories I have behind this sauce. My earliest memory is my great grandmother and I when I was 5 and me and her were in her kitchen and I was standing on a stool and beside her mixing up the sauce and she was telling me her stories and memories from this sauce. I love how it brings people together because when you hear we are having this for dinner plus some pasta and meatballs everyone is so excited and loves this. I also feel like this is special because it’s not made every single week, so when we do have it for some holidays, a birthday or even Sunday night dinner it's that more special because we haven't had it in a while. This sauce brings everyone together and that's what I love about it because we can all sit around the table and enjoy it while also making memories and having a great time together. It's so unique because my mom also adopted my Italian great grandmother cooking skills into her own cooking, so it is kind of special since after she passed it can also taste just like her cooking and 22
spinach pie alexa kemmitt
My mom's side of the family being from Albania, we grew up making a lot of Albanian dishes. My favorite dish is called “lakror” which means “pie” in English. We made two kinds of lakror, one spinach and one with leeks. I know it doesn’t sound very appetizing but there is something about it that no one that has tried it can resist.
It's an entire day thing now that involves our whole family. Now it is one thing that still brings our family together. On my mom's side of the family everyone knows how to make it. At family gatherings someone brings lakror and the whole family loves it. I can sort of make it from scratch but I definitely need to perfect it so we can keep the tradition going.
We always have made it homemade. We first make the dough homemade and roll it all out. Then we make the filling and then put the filling in the dough.
the dube family’s spaghetti sauce recipe lauren dube
For my contribution to the zine, I chose to include a recipe that has been passed down through my family for a couple of generations. This recipe was actually created by my grandmother. She used to make this spaghetti sauce for my dad when he was younger, now he makes it for my siblings and me all the time. Whenever we would go over to my grandma’s house to visit, she would always have the sauce ready when we got there. My Memere always thought that the best pasta to have the meat sauce with was angel hair. She never said why but she always thought it made the sauce taste the best. When my dad was old enough to try to make the sauce himself, he asked for the recipe. As it turns out, she never wrote down the recipe. She always made the sauce by memory. For years he tried to watch her and figure out the recipe on his own but it never worked. Sooner or later he decided to try to make the sauce on his own. He used what he had seen her do and just make little changes to the sauce in order to find the right combination of the ingredients. Eventually, he got a sauce that was very close to her recipe. It wasn’t exact but it was the closest he was going to get. My grandmother has come up with a lot of recipes that have been passed down to my dad that will eventually be passed down to my sister and me. I think the meat sauce recipe is the one that my family thinks of when we think of my Memere because it was the recipe she made the most. I decided to include a family recipe and share the history of it because food is a big part of my family. The family gatherings we have always involved a bunch of different foods that different households always bring. Each family always brings one or two specific foods every time. This year has been especially hard for my family. Not being able to see each other as we would have liked is pretty difficult. The pandemic caused my extended family to have their own Thanksgiving dinners at their own homes. In order to be able to have a piece of each family at
Thanksgiving, we decided to make small servings for family members and drop them off at the doors. This way, we could still celebrate with everyone. I think this really shows how food really brings my family together. My family has also improved my relationship with food. As a kid, I was always on the heavier side. This really started to bother me when I made it to high school. I was the biggest kid on the softball team. After that season I worked extremely hard to lose weight. I would go to the gym sometimes six days a week and do the workouts my softball coach had given me. After a couple of months, I saw no results. In fact, sometimes I would think I was gaining weight. After a while of little to no results, I started limiting my food intake. I went from three meals a day to two and some snacks. Junior year I went down to two small meals a day and finally my senior year, I was down to one meal a day or just some snacks. In April of 2020, my dad had mentioned that I looked like I had lost weight. Turns out, I had lost 15lbs. I continued to work out and eventually had lost a total of 20lbs. This was a really low time in my life. I had hated myself and I wasn’t happy with the way I looked. My family and friends were able to bring me out of this. They helped me start eating again and they helped me learn how to love myself and the way I looked like I always should have. Over the summer, I was able to start eating two meals a day again while still maintaining the same weight I was in April. I still continue to go to the gym and help improve myself but now it’s not because I want to change the way I look. I decided to share this story to really show how food has impacted my life recently and how my family and our relationship with food has helped shape who I am today.
The Dube Family’s Spaghetti Sauce Ingredients: 1 ½ to 2 lbs. of ground beef 3 cans of Hunt’s 29oz tomato sauce 1 can of Hunt’s 6oz tomato paste ¾ cups of Italian seasoning 3 small bay leaves 1 tsp of garlic powder 1 tsp of onion powder 1 tsp of sugar Salt and pepper to taste Preparation: Brown the ground beef in a large saucepan. Salt and pepper the ground beef while cooking. Drain the liquid from the ground beef once cooked and then add in all 3 cans of tomato sauce, the can of tomato paste, Italian seasoning, bay leaves, garlic powder, onion powder, and sugar. Let the sauce simmer for approximately 1 ½ to 2 hours, stirring constantly. Once the sauce is done simmering, remove the bay leaves. Add additional salt and pepper to taste.
stuffing brad baxter In my family we have a pork stuffing/pie recipe that we pass down from generation to generation. This comes from the French side of my family history. My great-grandmother used to make this pie for my Pepere and father every Thanksgiving and on special occasions. When she died when I was very
young. My dad and his uncle got passed the recipe. Now on every Thanksgiving my dad will make the stuffing to go with the mashed potatoes and turkey. When our family gets together from all over for the few times a year like Christmas, my dad's uncle will make multiple pork pies for everyone. This is 25
everyone in my family’s, even my favorite meal. The seasoning on the meat mixed with potatoes is my favorite. A few years ago, I started to become interested in my family history. Learning where I came from and learning about my ancestors. My great Granpy was in the navy during WW2 and I always loved listening to his stories. So, I've always been interested in stories from my family and how we are today. My Dad's uncle was even able to track our ancestors back to the 1400s and to find out that we are related to the Saint Joan of Arc. So, I believe this stuffing that our family makes represents our history. We are able to connect to our past and remembering our ancestry. That’s why I feel like it’s so important and why on this Thanksgiving I was proud to be the one who made it for my family.
Brad’s stuffing, before and after.
nigeria jollof pasta treasure ayozie This is the Nigeria Jollof pasta, it’s a popular pasta recipe in my country. Its aroma and tangy taste bring a feeling of nostalgia as memories of my childhood and home floods back, reinvigorating me and causing happiness that often comes from eating a delicacy. Hopefully, the exquisite taste that comes from the recipe below will bring feelings of
joy and excitement during this pandemic where the steep number of casualties keeps causing despair. I hope it will bring comfort to those familiar with this recipe while erasing the boredom and keeping food fanatics busy trying to recreate the recipe to perfection, imagining if the taste they got is right or wrong. 26
Nigeria Jollof Pasta Ingredients: Tomatoes Seasoning cubes Spinach Egg Salt Pepper Onions Spices Olive oil Method: Parboil the pasta for a duration of 10 to 15 minutes. Fresh tomatoes or paste can be used, cut or blend the fresh tomatoes according to the cookâ€™s preference. Olive oil should be used to fry the pepper, onions, and tomatoes. After 2 to 3 minutes the sauce should be spiced. Mix the sauce and the parboiled pasta, let it boil till the pasta is ready. Chicken or meat can also be added while cooking the pasta, however, according to the picture above egg was used. Vegetables could be added according to the preference of the cook 27
cooking spaghetti and meatballs brad palmer For my zine contribution I decided to make spaghetti and meatballs. This decision stemmed from another project I did which was my food autobiography. In my food autobiography I talked about various foods and restaurants that meant something to me and one of the foods I chose was spaghetti and meatballs. Spaghetti and meatballs mean a lot to me because my family has had a special recipe for them for many generations. When my grandfather lived in Massachusetts, he would always make his famous spaghetti and meatballs, mainly because my sister and I would beg him to make it once a week. However, this was about ten years ago and I’ve only had the chance to taste the recipe one time since then, when my grandfather traveled up to Massachusetts from Florida. This inspired me to want to make spaghetti and meatballs as my zine contribution. It wasn’t my grandfather’s recipe because he hasn’t even passed it down to my dad
yet, but I used my mother’s recipe which still tastes pretty good. The first thing I did when making spaghetti and meatballs was read the recipe card. I needed a pound of beef, a pound of pork, 1½ cups of breadcrumbs, ⅔ cups of parmesan cheese, 4 tablespoons of parsley, 3 cloves of minced garlic, 2 eggs, 2 teaspoons of salt, ½ teaspoon of pepper and flour to coat the meatballs before they cook. I grabbed all of my ingredients and supplies and mixed the ingredients in a bowl and made them into ball shapes. Then I rolled them in flour and fried them. After that, I boiled water and cooked the spaghetti and I simmered the canned tomato sauce. I served my family and they all told me I did a great job. While it wasn’t nearly as good as my grandfather's spaghetti and meatballs, it tasted very good and I was proud that I made it in honor of him. Cooking spaghetti and meatballs was super fun and a great learning experience. I can’t wait until my grandfather passes down the recipe to my dad so he can eventually pass it down to me.
the avenue i took into cooking jack houlihan Cooking has been something that has fascinated me for as long as I can remember but for many years it seemed kind of daunting to make a lot of the meals I loved. I recall one time when I was ten, my mom jokingly asked me if I wanted to cook our Thanksgiving dinner. After looking at the amount of ingredients I was pretty quickly overwhelmed with how much goes into it and just kind of laughed it off, opting to help with the side dishes instead. That being said, I really did want to have the ability to make meals like that. It would be awesome if I could whip up a delicious meal from scratch, however it seemed a bit too much at ten years old. I needed an avenue that would help me understand the basics of cooking. While it took a few years, I found that avenue through YouTube cooking videos. As someone who grew up with the internet, I found YouTube to be a much more engaging platform than television ever was. With regards to food, the TV shows I was surrounded by mainly focused on professional chefs and the restaurant industry which made me feel like cooking was a bit out of my reach, considering my lack of culinary skills. Unlike the rigid programming on television, YouTube presented itself as an exciting platform where anyone can upload or watch content they find interesting, no matter how niche. I found the website extremely engaging and it helped get me interested in a lot of things like video games and politics but, around 2018, I started watching a channel called Binging with Babish. The premise of Andrew Rea’s channel is very simple, he tries to recreate food from television and movies to the best of his ability. After seeing his video on recreating the Krabby Patty from Spongebob I started binging a ton of his videos as I found them super entertaining. The fact that he learned how to cook from YouTube, as well as presenting the recipes in a super easy to follow way, made cooking seem way more approachable than I previously realized and this is where my enjoyment of cooking truly began.
Burgers and fries is one of my favorite meals so his video on that seemed like a good place to start. I had made burgers in the past but I was really interested in making French fries from scratch. We used to get frozen ones but they just weren’t the same as the ones I’ve had at really good restaurants. I mentioned to my mom how I really wanted to make these fries and to support my newfound interest in cooking, she surprised me with a deep fryer. An unorthodox Christmas present for sure, but I appreciated it a ton and got to work on making some fries. They were cooked in two steps in the video. First you cut the potatoes into long sticks and then throw them in 350-degree oil until they barely start to change color. After this, you freeze them for around four hours, then immediately throw them back in 375-degree oil until they’re golden brown. This seemed a bit strange at first since I never heard of double frying but it actually makes a lot of sense as explained in the video. By cooking at a lower temperature, it helps cook the potato through. When you freeze it, the cooked interior is preserved and then you can crisp up the outside at the higher temperature. They were absolutely delicious and super easy to make. Since making the fries, I’ve tried quite a number of other recipes from YouTube that have helped me make some really great food. But one that sticks out in my mind the most was the chocolate cake that Adam Ragusea explained on his channel. His videos were getting recommended to me a lot and his recipes seemed super straightforward. Because the cake looked super good as well I thought it would be worth a shot. It was my first time baking a cake so, given all the ingredients required, I was a bit anxious. The batter seemed to come out pretty close to the one in the video, so I threw it in the oven in two baking dishes. After around forty minutes of baking, my mom walked on me taking them out of the oven and she offered to make some vanilla buttercream frosting to layer on. It was probably one of the best cakes I’ve ever had and it all started by seeing the recipe on YouTube. 29
I have quite a few friends and family who have also gotten into cooking, and one thing I’ve noticed about all of them is that they have taken very different avenues to arrive at the same hobby. For instance, my grandma started cooking after coming across her mother’s extensive recipe book. My brother was inspired by grandma’s apple pies to take up baking and my mom’s recently taken up breadmaking after seeing her friends doing it during the pandemic. Another road was taken by my friend Joe, who got interested in cooking after watching Food Network shows. As for me, I feel like the reason YouTube videos were a great primer for preparing food is because they worked both as
entertainment as well as helpful instructions. While this certainly isn’t everyone’s perspective, I always saw written recipes as concise but boring to follow. That might say more about my low attention span when it comes to reading but nevertheless with videos, it was fun to actually see how the ingredients get turned into the meal in real time. With all of this being said, I feel like everyone can find some enjoyment in cooking. While YouTube videos were essential in helping me give it a shot, I think everyone can find their own avenue into this incredibly enjoyable activity.
“Burger Time”, copyright Surian Soosay (2007), shared on Flickr.com under Creative Commons license
A zine of perspectives and experiences on food. By the class of PO 193 Food in America, Worcester State University, Fall 2020.