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make use of a single illustration as follows. (2) Three numbers are given— first. (23:3) Tradesmen will at once tell us that they know what is requir given to them arbitrarily without proof by their masters; others construc rth number is self-evident, as in the case of 2, 4, 3, 6; here it is evident th the first, the quotient is 6; when they see that by this process the numbe hat the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportio position ff Spinoza of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are pr the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the sec umbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of Euclid’s propositi hese modes of perception the best may be selected, it is well that we sho an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to kn nces, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. 3. To learn thus exa nature and power of man. (4) We shall thus discern the highest degree o position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. (2) As to ncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thin ng through knowledge of its essence, as will hereafter appear. (3) We may e scientific in its character. (4) For simple hearsay cannot affect anyone mode of perception cannot be said to give us the idea of the proportion o for we shall never discover anything in natural phenomena by its mean e essence of the things in question be known first. (3) Wherefore this m in a manner that it gives us A New Antiqua from FontFont the idea of th t it is not by itself sufficient to put us in possession of the perfection we ut danger of error. (2) This mode, therefore, must be the one which we c rth kind of knowledge with the least delay concerning things previously of the instruments supplied by nature to accomplish very easy pieces of wrought other things more difficult with less labour and greater perfect ools, and from the making of tools to the making of more complex tools anisms which they now possess. (31:2) So, in like manner, the intellect, b es strength for performing other intellectual operations, and from these rther, and thus gradually proceeds till it reaches the summit of wisdom.


a new antiqua

ETHICA Ordine Geometrico demonſtrata, E·T In quinque Partes Diſtincta, in quibus agitur, I. II. III. IV. V.

De Deo. De Naturâ & Origine Mentis. De Origine & Naturâ Affectuum. De Servitute Humanâ, ſeu de Affectuum De Potentia Intellectus, ſeu de Liberta

Baruch Spinoza is widely considered to be one of the forefathers of the Enlightenment.  His Ethics, published in 1677, sought to demonstrate the unity and perfection of reality, and proposed rational understanding as the highest human virtue. To support his philosophical writings, he worked as a lens-grinder. In both of his professions, he aimed for clarity. And so does ff Spinoza. It is an elegant workhorse: crisp, sturdy, economical, and versatile. A classic and highly readable Antiqua, it was inspired by the rigor of mid-century German text faces like Trump Mediaval and the lucidity of Janson revivals like Monotype Ehrhardt. Its x-height and aperture are generous, though not exaggerated. Its proportions are compact and its contrast relatively low. Robust thin strokes and pronounced serifs and terminals make it suitable for setting in small sizes under challenging conditions, both in print and on the Web. Abruptly tapered junctures keep characters sharply defined and, in the heavier weights, create enlivening light traps. Caps are comparatively light and do not interrupt the flow of the line. The italic is narrow, angular, and upright, with a 9.5° slope. ff Spinoza’s intended virtues are firmness, modesty, and, above all, clarity. ff Spinoza’s understated design makes it ideal for books and longer texts, but closer examination reveals distinctive details that suit it for advertising, branding, packaging, and other types of more highly flavored work. Its curves are subtly faceted, with extra corners and unexpectedly straight edges that add interest in display sizes and energy in text sizes.


features

Substantial shoulders join branches and bowls firmly to their stems, which helps avoid the ‘picket-fence’ effect sometimes created by daintier typefaces.

mun

ff Spinoza includes a comprehensive set of diacritics providing support for more than 70 languages, from Afrikaans to Zulu. The Pro version supports more than 130 languages.

ąðəļŋǿþşßűÿƶ Each of the eight fonts includes small caps and eight types of figures: proportional oldstyle, tabular oldstyle, proportional lining, tabular lining, numerator, denominator, superior, and inferior. Tabular figures are uniform in width across all weights to aid in the setting of columnar matter.

$1234567890 $1234567890 $1234567890 $1234567890

£1234567890 £1234567890 £1234567890 £1234567890

In addition to the conventional Euro sign—a makeshift intended to minimize the flaws of the original EU design—ff Spinoza includes a more rational (and compact) alternative: a double-crossbarred uppercase E. It can be accessed through Stylistic Set 1.

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glyph set

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The following glyphs are included in all weights of ff Spinoza Pro:

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ àáâãäåāăąǻæǽçćĉċčďđèéêëēĕėęěəĝğġģ ĥħìíîïĩīĭįİĵķĺļŀľłńņňñŋòóôõöøǿōŏőœþŕŗř śŝşšșţťŧțùúûüũūŭůűųŵẃẁẅẋŷÿýỳźżžƶ

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz fiffiflfflff àáâãäåāăąǻæǽçćĉċčďđðèéêëēĕėęěəĝğġģĥħì í î ï ĩ ī ĭ į ı ĵȷ ķĺļŀľłńņňʼnñŋòóôõöøǿōŏőœþŕŗřśŝşšșſßţťŧțùúûüũūŭůűų ŵẃẁẅẋŷÿýỳźżžƶ

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regular

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italic

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz & fiflðþß!? abcdefghIjklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890$£¥€€ & 1234567890$£¥€€

8/10 when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional. Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of Euclid’s proposition, but intuitively,

8/10 when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional. Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of Euclid’s proposition, but intuitively, without going through any process. In order that from these modes of

9/11 without going through any process. In order that from these modes of perception the best may be selected, it is well that we should briefly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. To have an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to know as much as is needful of nature in general. To collect in this way the differences, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. To learn thus exactly how far they can or cannot be modified. To compare this result with the nature and power of man. We shall thus discern the highest degree of perfection to

9/11 perception the best may be selected, it is well that we should briefly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. To have an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to know as much as is needful of nature in general. To collect in this way the differences, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. To learn thus exactly how far they can or cannot be modified. To compare this result with the nature and power of man. We shall thus discern the highest degree of perfection to which man is capable of attaining. We shall then be in a position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. As to the

10/12 which man is capable of attaining. We shall then be in a position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. As to the first mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be uncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thing, as is manifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a thing through knowledge of its essence, as will hereafter appear. We may therefore clearly conclude that the certainty arising from hearsay cannot be scientific

10/12 first mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be uncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thing, as is manifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a thing through knowledge of its essence, as will hereafter appear. We may therefore clearly conclude that the certainty arising from hearsay cannot be scientific in its character. For simple hearsay cannot affect anyone whose understanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. The second mode of perception cannot be said to give us the

11/13 in its character. For simple hearsay cannot affect anyone whose understanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. The second mode of perception cannot be said to give us the idea of the proportion of which we are in search. Moreover its results are very uncertain and indefinite, for we shall never discover anything in natural phenomena by its means, except accidental properties, which are never clearly understood, unless the essence of the things in question be known

11/13 idea of the proportion of which we are in search. Moreover its results are very uncertain and indefinite, for we shall never discover anything in natural phenomena by its means, except accidental properties, which are never clearly understood, unless the essence of the things in question be known first. Wherefore this mode also must be rejected. Of the third mode of per­­ception we may say in a manner that it gives us the idea of the thing sought, and that it enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error; yet it

12/14.5 first. wherefore this mode also must be rejected. Of the third mode of perception we may say in a manner that it gives us the idea of the thing sought, and that it enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error; yet it is not by itself sufficient to put us in possession of the perfection we aim at. The fourth mode alone apprehends the adequate essence of a thing without danger of error. This mode, therefore, must be the

12/14.5 is not by itself sufficient to put us in possession of the perfection we aim at. The fourth mode alone apprehends the adequate essence of a thing without danger of error. This mode, therefore, must be the one which we chiefly employ. How, then, should we avail ourselves of it so as to gain the fourth kind of knowledge with the least delay concerning things previously unknown? I will proceed to explain. But as men at first made use of the instruments supplied by nature to

14/17 one which we chiefly employ. How, then, should we avail ourselves of it so as to gain the fourth kind of knowledge with the least delay concerning things previously unknown? I will proceed to explain. But as men at first made use of the instruments supplied by nature to accomplish very easy pieces of workmanship, laboriously and imperfectly, and then, when these

14/17 accomplish very easy pieces of workmanship, laboriously and imperfectly, and then, when these were finished, wrought other things more difficult with less labour and greater perfection; and so gradually mounted from the simplest operations to the making of tools, and from the making of tools to the making of more complex tools, and fresh feats of workmanship, till they arrived at devising

18/21 were finished, wrought other things more difficult with less labour and greater perfection; and so gradually mounted from the simplest operations to the making of tools, and from the making of tools to the making of more complex tools, and fresh feats of workmanship, till they arrived

18/21 complicated mechanisms which they now possess. So, in like manner, the intellect, by its native strength, makes for itself intellectual instruments, whereby it acquires strength for performing other intellectual operations, and from these operations again fresh instruments, or the power of pushing its

Idea of the idea

Hence it is plain


nowy system 009 2006 Spike River sonoma

Sauvignon Blanc

In the summer of 1951, Larry and Miriam Colson bought eight acres beside the swift, narrow stream where Larry had fished for steelheads as a boy, raised two Army surplus Quonset huts, and planted their first vines. Today, Spike River is one of the oldest family-run wineries in the Mayacamas foothills. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re especially proud of our Sauvignon Blanc: a big, rich, well-oaked wine, with bright citrus notes giving way to a satiny finish, it has a crisp minerality that springs from our chalky volcanic soil.

Alc. 14.1% by Vol.

stodoĹ&#x201A;a remix


medium

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz & fiflðþß!? abcdefghIjklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890$£¥€€ & 1234567890$£¥€€

medium italic

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz & fiflðþß!? abcdefghIjklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890$£¥€€ & 1234567890$£¥€€

8/10 when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional. Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of Euclid’s proposition,

8/10 when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional. Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of Euclid’s proposition, but intuitively, without going through any

9/11 but intuitively, without going through any process. In order that from these modes of perception the best may be selected, it is well that we should briefly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. To have an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to know as much as is needful of nature in general. To collect in this way the differences, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. To learn thus exactly how far they can or cannot be modified. To compare this result with the nature and power of man. We shall thus discern

9/11 process. in order that from these modes of perception the best may be selected, it is well that we should briefly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. To have an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to know as much as is needful of nature in general. To collect in this way the differences, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. To learn thus exactly how far they can or cannot be modified. To compare this result with the nature and power of man. We shall thus discern the highest degree of perfection to which man is capable of attaining.

10/12 the highest degree of perfection to which man is capable of attaining. We shall then be in a position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. As to the first mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be uncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thing, as is manifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a thing through knowledge of its essence, as will hereafter appear. We may therefore clearly conclude that

10/12 we shall then be in a position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. As to the first mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be uncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thing, as is manifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a thing through knowledge of its essence, as will hereafter appear. We may therefore clearly conclude that the certainty arising from hearsay cannot be scientific in its character. For simple hearsay cannot affect

11/13 the certainty arising from hearsay cannot be scientific in its character. For simple hearsay cannot affect anyone whose understanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. The second mode of perception cannot be said to give us the idea of the proportion of which we are in search. Moreover its results are very uncertain and indefinite, for we shall never discover anything in natural phenomena by its means, except accidental properties, which

11/13 anyone whose understanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. The second mode of perception cannot be said to give us the idea of the proportion of which we are in search. Moreover its results are very uncertain and indefinite, for we shall never discover anything in natural phenomena by its means, except accidental properties, which are never clearly understood, unless the essence of the things in question be known first. Wherefore this mode also must be rejected.

12/14.5 are never clearly understood, unless the essence of the things in question be known first. Wherefore this mode also must be rejected. Of the third mode of per­­ception we may say in a manner that it gives us the idea of the thing sought, and that it enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error; yet it is not by itself sufficient to put us in possession of the perfection we aim at. The fourth mode alone

12/14.5 of the third mode of per­­ception we may say in a manner that it gives us the idea of the thing sought, and that it enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error; yet it is not by itself sufficient to put us in possession of the perfection we aim at. The fourth mode alone apprehends the adequate essence of a thing without danger of error. This mode, therefore, must be the one which we chiefly employ. How, then, should we

14/17 apprehends the adequate essence of a thing without danger of error. This mode, therefore, must be the one which we chiefly employ. How, then, should we avail ourselves of it so as to gain the fourth kind of knowledge with the least delay concerning things previously unknown? I will proceed to explain. But as men at first made use of the instruments

14/17 avail ourselves of it so as to gain the fourth kind of knowledge with the least delay concerning things previously unknown? I will proceed to explain. But as men at first made use of the instruments supplied by nature to accomplish easy pieces of workmanship, laboriously and imperfectly, and then, when these were finished, wrought other things more difficult with less

18/21 supplied by nature to accomplish very easy pieces of workmanship, laboriously and imperfectly, and then, when these were finished, wrought other things more difficult with less labour and greater perfection; and so gradually mounted from the simplest operations to the

18/21 labour and greater perfection; and so gradually mounted from the simplest operations to the making of tools, and from the making of tools to the making of more complex tools, and to fresh feats of workmanship, till they finally arrived at making complicated mechanisms which

They see it not

But intuitively


Orario SFSM Circumv A Napoli Sorrento S. Agnello Vico C/Mare Pompeii Ercolano Napoli

5.01 5.03 5.12 5.21 5.31 5.49 6.08

5.37 5.39 5.48 5.57 6.07 6.25 6.44

6.07f 6.09 6.18 6.27 6.37 6.55 7.14

6.25 6.27 6.36 6.45 6.55 7.13 7.32

6.55d 7.22 6.57 7.24 7.06 7.31 7.14 7.39 7.21 7.48 7.36 8.07 7.46 8.27

7.38 7.40 7.48 7.57 8.07 8.26 8.44

A Sorrento Napoli Ercolano Pompeii C/Mare Vico

5.09f 5.28 5.47 5.57 6.06

5.39 5.58 6.17 6.27 6.36

6.09f 6.28 6.47 6.57 7.06

6.40d 7.09 6.53 7.28 7.07 7.47 7.16 7.57 7.24 8.06

7.39 7.58 8.17 8.27 8.36

8.11 8.23 8.37 8.46 8.54

such, that I shrunk almost from the thought of going away, even to travel, w is generally so much desired by young men. He roused me by manly and spi conversation. He advised me, when settled in any place abroad, to study wi eagerness after knowledge, and to apply to Greek an hour every day; and wh moving about, to read diligently the great book of mankind. On Wednesday, August 3, we had our last social meeting at the Turk’s He house, before my setting out for foreign parts. I had the misfortune, before w irritate him unintentionally. I mentioned to him how common it was in the w absurd stories of him, and to ascribe to him very strange sayings. Johnson they make me say, Sir?’ Boswell. ‘Why, Sir, as an instance very strange in (laughing heartily as I spoke,) David Hume told me, you said that you woul before a battery of cannon, to restore the Convocation to its full powers.’ Li apprehend that he had actually said this: but I was soon convinced of my er with a determined look he thundered out, ‘And would I not, Sir? Shall the Presb Kirk of Scotland have its General Assembly, and the Church of England be denied vocation?’ He was walking up and down the room while I told him the anecd when he uttered this explosion of high-church zeal, he had come close to m his eyes flashed with indignation. I bowed to the storm, and diverted the for leading him to expatiate on the influence which religion derived from maint church with great external respectability.⁵ On Friday, August 5, we set out early in the morning in the Harwich stag A fat elderly gentlewoman, and a young Dutchman, seemed the most inclin us to conversation. At the inn where we dined, the gentlewoman said that s her best to educate her children; and particularly, that she had never suffere be a moment idle. Johnson. ‘I wish, madam, you would educate me too; fo been an idle fellow all my life.’ ‘I am certain, Sir, (said she) you have not bee Johnson. ‘Nay, Madam, it is very true; and that gentleman there (pointing has been idle. He was idle at Edinburgh. His father sent him to Glasgow, wh {132}


bold

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bold italic

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz & fiflðþß!? abcdefghIjklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890$£¥€€ & 1234567890$£¥€€

8/10 when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional. Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of

8/10 when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional. Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of Euclid’s proposition, but

9/11 euclid’s proposition, but intuitively, without going through any process. In order that from these modes of perception the best may be selected, it is well that we should briefly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. To have an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to know as much as is needful of nature in general. To collect in this way the differences, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. To learn thus exactly how far they can or cannot be modified. To compare this result with the nature

9/11 intuitively, without going through any process. In order that from these modes of perception the best may be selected, it is well that we should briefly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. To have an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to know as much as is needful of nature in general. To collect in this way the differences, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. To learn thus exactly how far they can or cannot be modified. To compare this result with the nature and power of man. We shall thus discern the

10/12 and power of man. We shall thus discern the highest degree of perfection to which man is capable of attaining. We shall then be in a position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. As to the first mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be uncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thing, as is manifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a thing through knowledge of its essence, as will

10/12 highest degree of perfection to which man is capable of attaining. We shall then be in a position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. As to the first mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be uncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thing, as is manifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a thing through knowledge of its essence, as will hereafter appear. We may therefore clearly conclude that the certainty

11/13 hereafter appear. We may therefore clearly conclude that the certainty arising from hearsay cannot be scientific in its character. For simple hearsay cannot affect anyone whose understanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. The second mode of perception cannot be said to give us the idea of the proportion of which we are in search. Moreover its results are very uncertain and indefinite, for we shall never discover anything in

11/13 arising from hearsay cannot be scientific in its character. For simple hearsay cannot affect anyone whose understanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. The second mode of perception cannot be said to give us the idea of the proportion of which we are in search. Moreover its results are very uncertain and indefinite, for we shall never discover anything in natural phenomena by its means, except accidental properties, which are never clearly

12/14.5 natural phenomena by its means, except accidental properties, which are never clearly understood, unless the essence of the things in question be known first. Wherefore this mode also must be rejected. Of the third mode of per­­ception we may say in a manner that it gives us the idea of the thing sought, and that it enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error; yet it is not by itself sufficient

12/14.5 understood, unless the essence of the things in question be known first. Wherefore this mode also must be rejected. Of the third mode of per­­ception we may say in a manner that it gives us the idea of the thing sought, and that it enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error; yet it is not by itself sufficient to put us in possession of the perfection we aim at. The fourth mode alone apprehends the adequate essence of

14/17 to put us in possession of the perfection we aim at. The fourth mode alone apprehends the adequate essence of a thing without danger of error. This mode, therefore, must be the one which we chiefly employ. How, then, should we avail ourselves of it so as to gain the fourth kind of knowledge with the least delay concerning things

14/17 a thing without danger of error. This mode, therefore, must be the one which we chiefly employ. How, then, should we avail ourselves of it so as to gain the fourth kind of knowledge with the least delay concerning things previously unknown? I will proceed to explain. But as men at first made use of the instruments supplied by nature to accomplish very easy

18/21 previously unknown? I will proceed to explain. But as men at first made use of the instruments supplied by nature to accomplish very easy pieces of workmanship, laboriously and imperfectly, and then, when these were done, wrought other things more difficult

18/21 pieces of workmanship, laboriously and imperfectly, and then, when these were completed, wrought other things more difficult with less labour and greater perfection; and so gradually mounted from the simplest operations to the making of tools, and from the making

For we possess

Circumference


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black italic

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8/10 when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional. Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it

8/10 when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional. Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of

9/11 not by virtue of Euclid’s proposition, but intuitively, without going through any process. In order that from these modes of perception the best may be selected, it is well that we should briefly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. To have an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to know as much as is needful of nature in general. To collect in this way the differences, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. To learn thus exactly how far they can or cannot be modified.

9/11 euclid’s proposition, but intuitively, without going through any process. In order that from these modes of perception the best may be selected, it is well that we should briefly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. To have an exact knowledge of our nature which we desire to perfect, and to know as much as is needful of nature in general. To collect in this way the differences, the agreements, and the oppositions of things. To learn thus exactly how far they can or cannot be modified. To compare this result with

10/12 to compare this result with the nature and power of man. We shall thus discern the highest degree of perfection to which man is capable of attaining. We shall then be in a position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. As to the first mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be uncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thing, as is manifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a

10/12 the nature and power of man. We shall thus discern the highest degree of perfection to which man is capable of attaining. We shall then be in a position to see which mode of perception we ought to choose. As to the first mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be uncertain, and, moreover, can give us no insight into the essence of a thing, as is manifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a thing through knowledge of its

11/13 thing through knowledge of its essence, as will hereafter appear. We may therefore clearly conclude that the certainty arising from hearsay cannot be scientific in its character. For simple hearsay cannot affect anyone whose understanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. The second mode of perception cannot be said to give us the idea of the proportion of which we are in search. Moreover its results are very

11/13 essence, as will hereafter appear. We may therefore clearly conclude that the certainty arising from hearsay cannot be scientific in its character. For simple hearsay cannot affect anyone whose understanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. The second mode of perception cannot be said to give us the idea of the proportion of which we are in search. Moreover its results are very uncertain and indefinite, for we shall never

12/14.5 uncertain and indefinite, for we shall never discover anything in natural phenomena by its means, except accidental properties, which are never clearly understood, unless the essence of the things in question be known first. Wherefore this mode also must be rejected. Of the third mode of per­­ception we may say in a manner that it does give us the idea of the thing sought, and that it

12/14.5 discover anything in natural phenomena by its means, except accidental properties, which are never clearly understood, unless the essence of the things in question be known first. Wherefore this mode also must be rejected. Of the third mode of per­­ception we may say in a manner that it does give us the idea of the thing sought, and that it enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error;

14/17 enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error; yet it is not by itself sufficient to put us in possession of the perfection we aim at. The fourth mode alone apprehends the adequate essence of a thing without danger of error. This mode, therefore, must be the one which we chiefly employ. How, then, should we avail ourselves

14/17 yet it is not by itself sufficient to put us in possession of the perfection we aim at. The fourth mode alone apprehends the adequate essence of a thing without danger of error. This mode, therefore, must be the one which we chiefly employ. How, then, should we avail ourselves of it so as to gain the fourth kind of knowledge with the least

18/21 of it so as to gain the fourth kind of knowledge with the least delay concerning things previously unknown? I will proceed to explain. But as men at first made use of the instruments supplied by nature to accomplish very easy pieces of workmanship,

18/21 delay concerning things previously unknown? I will proceed to explain. But as men at first made use of the instruments supplied by nature to accomplish very easy pieces of workmanship, laboriously and imperfectly, and then, when these were finished, wrought

Investigation

Mechanisms


colophon

ff Spinoza was designed over the course of eleven years by Max Phillips, a New York­– based art director, illustrator, toy designer, and novelist. He is the former creative director of FAO Schwarz and a co-founder of the pulp revival imprint Hard Case Crime, for which he wrote the Shamus Award– winning mystery Fade to Blonde. For Kirsten. Specimen written and designed by Max Phillips. www.maxphillips.net Thanks to Stephen Coles, Andreas Frohloff, Ivo Gabrowitsch, Frank Grießhammer, Jonathan Hoefler, Christoph Koeberlin, & Ugla Marekowa. Excerpts from Benedictus de Spinoza’s ‘On the Improvement of the Understanding,’ translated by R. H. M. Elwes, are drawn from wikisource.org and appear under a Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The text has been edited to make it suitable for sample setting. Other text has been excerpted from James Boswell’s ‘The Life of Samuel Johnson.’

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3] (1) In order that the whole matter may be put in a clearer light, I will m uired to find a fourth, which shall be to the third as the second is to the d the fourth number, for they have not yet forgotten the rule which was g versal axiom from their experience with simple numbers, where the four second number be multiplied by the third, and the product divided by t duced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer th (1) Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth prop nals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that t d third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given nu uitively, without going through any process. [25] (1) In order that from th efly enumerate the means necessary for attaining our end. 1. (2) To have ch as is needful of nature in general. 2. To collect in this way the diďŹ&#x20AC;eren w far they can or cannot be modified. 4. To compare this result with the tion to which man is capable of attaining. [26] (1) We shall then be in a p t mode, it is evident that from hearsay our knowledge must always be un nifest in our illustration; now one can only arrive at knowledge of a thin refore clearly conclude that the certainty arising from hearsay cannot be derstanding does not, so to speak, meet it halfway. [27] (1) The second m are in search. (2) Moreover its results are very uncertain and indefinite, ept accidental properties, which are never clearly understood, unless the o must be rejected. [28] (1) Of the third mode of perception we may say i ght, and that it enables us to draw conclusions without risk of error; yet e fourth mode alone apprehends the adequate essence of a thing withou ploy. (3) How, then, should we avail ourselves of it so as to gain the four own? (4) I will proceed to explain. [31] (1) But as men at first made use o nship, laboriously and imperfectly, and then, when these were finished, d so gradually mounted from the simplest operations to the making of to sh feats of workmanship, till they arrived at making, complicated mecha ive strength, makes for itself intellectual instruments, whereby it acquire ns again fresh instruments, or the power of pushing its investigations fur


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