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1991_ARISTIDE During the 1990 elections, In the face of mounting violence and possible return to power of the Duvalierists, Jean-Bertrand Aristide won the elections by an astounding 75 percent of the vote. A former Salesian order pastor of the Roman Catholic Church, coming from a poor Haitian family, Aristide was the greatest threat to Haiti‛s elite that was controlling the country and persecuting opponents of the regime. He embodied the ideals of Haiti‛s disenfranchised, was outspoken and charismatic, and an active member of Haiti‛s grass roots group called Ti Legliz. The ideology was promoted as a leverage to move the proletariat aginst the system of corruption. Aristide survived an attempted coup before his inauguration, and in the first seven months as a president, he cut corruption, drug trafficking, human rights violations, and managed to balance Haiti‛s federal budget for the first time in decades. Following the election victory, his civil community found itself in power without any political preparations. And yet Aristide moved swiftly into reformations as he promised his voters. Wanting to reduce poverty, Aristide soon passed minimum wage laws to protect his grassroots supporters including field laborers and factory workers.


After seven months into presidency, a military coup succeeded in removing Aristide from power. In September of 1991, a military council led by General Raoul Cedras took over power in Haiti. The military coup lasted until July 1994, when UN forces and United States formed a multinational force to provide military intervention to restore Haiti to constitutional rule. After touching down in Haiti with 21,000 international armed forces, General Raoul Cedras agreed to hand power to a constitutional government. In October 1994, Aristide came back from exile and became the first president to be reinstated and complete his term unitl 1996 and from 2001 to 2004. Aristide eventually faced another coup d‛etat in 2004 and was ousted from Haiti. However, the arrangements made by the U.S. Government in 1994 under the presidency of Bill Clinton as he delivered his election promise to return Aristide to Haiti, were under the condition that Haiti will need to open it‛s markets to the global stage. Under the name of Neoliberal economic model of deregulation and non-intervention, the foreign interest group immediate preyed on Haiti's economy.


In 1989 on December, just a few weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall, U.S. President George H. W. Bush and U.S.S.R. leader Mikhail Gorbachev, met on board the Soviet cruise ship Maxim Gorky. The event marked the lessening of tensions from the Cold War. In 1991 without much premonition to the outside world, Soviet President Gorbachev resigned. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was formally dissolved on December 26 1991. The Nuclear Scare. The Red Scare. The Cold War. Officially Ended.

Arms Export

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Jean-Bertrand Aristide A former Salesian order pastor of the Catholic church. Ousted by the Salesian order in 1988 because of his ideals in liberation theology. Ran for Haiti‛s first democratic presidential election in 1990.


Liberation Theology gives us the leverage to move the young against the system of corruption. Against a mentality in the church and this society, where corruption is seen as a virtue and admired. - poor people deserve more attention than the rich people.


It was a major milestone. Fostered under many good samaritans. One amongst many, was Jimmy Carter.

Wanna bet that I can still lift this at 87?

Jimmy Carter

39th President of the United States, 1977~1981


Jimmy Carter, known for his humanistic endeavors, was in Port-au-Prince polling station in Haiti during the 1990 Presidential election, making observations of the election.

At the age of 87, he still marches on as a human rights long time promoter.

The former president and former first lady actively support Habitat for Humanity. Here they are in Leogane, Haiti 2012.


On the election day...

Aristide ran against the former official of World Bank, Marc Bazin. It was a David V.S. Goliath Story.

I was at that spot 7 hours ago...


I traveled for two days into town just to vote for Aristide.

Marc Bazin was backed by U.S. interest groups and the U.S. government under the presidency of George H.W. Bush. With political and economic backing and through the power of media. On the other hand.

Aristide was born into poverty. Raised by a widowed mother. He was one of the rare few in Haiti, who had a chance to be educated. Endured through the misery of Haiti‛s poverty himself. He was outspoken against the Duvaliers and for the grassroots. His sermons often disseminate ideologies about class struggles. Discontented and pressured, the Salesian officials ousted him from the order.


Aristide moved swiftly into reform as he promised his voters. Wanting to reduce poverty, he soon passed minimum wage laws to protect his grassroots supporters including field laborers and factory workers.

But down he went, by yet another coup d'ĂŠtat and went in exile.

Large number of Aristide supporters fled the country and surfaced along the shores of Miami, Florida. Hundreds drowned, murdered, disappeared...


.

A conflict of interest with the corporations... including Disney. including Walmart. including Kmart.


An arranged return was planned in 1994.

Under the presidency of Bill Clinton.

Let‛s shake on it.

Aristide was a man of the people. His return was warmly embraced.

We still love you man~!


Let‛s shake on it.

In 1994, October 15th

With an escort of 21,000 US troops.

Aristide returned upon a condition.

that he would adapt an open market.

Titid~!


An open market. that put Haiti onto the world stage. before it was even ready.

The deregulation policy. HOUSEHOLD INCOME SHARES

A 1995 IMF Press Release on March 8th titled "IMF Approves Stand-by Credit for Haiti".

0.2% 6.9% 9.7%

83.2%

PERCENT OF CARIBBEAN FORESTS UNDER PROTECTION: Source: 2.504-Encyclopedia of the Earth, 2011

66% MARTINIQUE 40% TURK & CAICOS 22% DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 14% CUBA 9% BAHAMAS 8% JAMAICA HAITI

HAITI

0.3%

WEALTHY HH MIDDLE INCOME HH GAP INCOME HH

LOW INCOME HH


area

HAITI LAND OWNERSHIP 27,750 sq. km

population

28%

9,719,932

350 ppl/sq. km. $738 per capita

Lower the tariff of imported rice in Haiti from 50% to merely 3%. While on the other side of the world. Japan.

DRINKING WATER ACCESS

AFFECTED HEALTH

CHOLERA DEATH COUNT

People are diagnosed with cholera

People have cholera

520,000

4,251,991

People do not have access to proper drinking water

7,000

died

from

42% 12% 1% >

of the total population

of population w/o access to drinking water

Chance of death after exposure to cholera

Imposes a high tariff on imported rice to protect its local farmers.


Farmers rely on the rich soils of Artibonite River Valley, Haiti. That once fostered the self-sustaining rice industry of Haiti.

Now replaced by the U.S. rice export at $275 per ton at a cost of $415, with differences directly subsidized by the American taxpayers. From 1985 to 2002 Haiti's import of rice from the U.S. increased from

The Neoliberal approach. An open market approach. Crushed Haiti‛s local rice industry immediately...


The sharecropping system of Haiti was disrupted by the U.S. export of rice, originated from Clinton's home state, Arkansas.


Arkansas. Arkansas ranks 1st among the 6 major rice-producing states, accounting for approximately 48 percent of the U.S. rice production.


A 1995 IMF Press Release on March 8th titled "IMF Approves Stand-by Credit for Haiti" The deregulation policy lower the tariff of imported rice in Haiti from 50% to merely

3%!

while on the other side of the world. Japan.

Protected its local farmers from foreign import rice by imposing a tariff of

777.7%!


Literally, millions of Haitians were left behind in the rush to globalization and in the name of the so-called "Free Market".


Fertile farmland left barren.

Haiti once again enslaved.


In Gonaives, a few young kids were killed during an anti-Aristide march on January 7th, 2004.

NATIONAL BUDGET 7% NGOS 16%

FAMILY 61% SOURCE OF FUNDING

DONORS 16%


One of them was Maxime Deselmours. A social sciences student. One of the few privileged. To have gone on to higher education. Innocent young blood. Spilled.

MAIN OBSTACLES TO ATTENDANCE ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES ILLNESS

78%

52%

DISTANCE FROM SCHOOL

38%

ABSENCE OF CANTEEN

33% Enraged. Citizens started to mobilize protests across the country. From Gonaives to Jeremie, to Cap Haitien, to Croix-desbouquests, to Port-au-Prince.


Although Aristide and his Lavalas Party had denounced all accusations of any affiliation with the notorious armed gangs Chimere from the slums of Cite Soleil, demonstrators blamed the president for Deselmours' death, saying the gunman was commissioned by Aristide to terrorize his critics.


Firing warning shots and tear gas, police stopped mourners later on Friday from approaching the presidential palace with the coffin of the recent college graduate shot to death during a demonstration against President JeanBertrand Aristide on Jan 16th, 2004.


V.S.

Gonaives Cannibals Army

Cite Soleil Chimeres Gangs

Gonaives. Base of the notorious “Cannibal Army�. Found their leader Amiot Metayer murdered. Many of whom are closely affiliated with former soldiers disbanded by Aristide and are heavily armed. They started their anti-Aristide protests from Gonaives towards Port-au-Prince.


Let me take the M16.

You had the Uzi last time.

We are going to see Big Boss tonight.

I fight for Titid~ !! Cite Soleil Coined by UN in 2004. As the “most dangerous place on earth.� The Chimeres Gang was known to have worked for Aristide and long time Lavala supporters.


Aristide murdered my brother ~

Aristide was a man of the people. Claimed by some, but others would beg to defer.


Aristide and his Lavalas party is known to use the Chimere gangs. Yes, used them to do his dirty work.

The most notorious gangs in Cite Soleil. Outlaws, but also victims to the systems of corruption.


No prairie fire can eliminate the grass-roots. It shoots up again and again as the winds of politics swings from one end to the other.


Young and brash.

Enraged. Grass-roots, lid on fire.


“Where the development of the machine has become that of the machinery of control, so that technical and social tendencies, always intertwined, converge in the total encompassing of human beings, those who have lagged behind represent not only untruth. Adaptation to the power of progress furthers the progress of power, constantly renewing the degendegenerations which prove successful progress, not failed progress, to be its own antithesis. The curse of irreirre sistible progress is irresistible regression.� T.W. Adorno.


Head on. Grass-roots, lid on fire.

Slammed into.

The face of the oppressors.


No governments in the world will ever allow it‛s authority to be openly challenged.

Zip, Zero, Natta.


Certainly not ever in any raucuous ways. Never, ever. Such an unprudent approach has never been tolerated over the face of earth.

Resorting to violent protests perhaps have never been anyone‛s intention, but often times people find it to be their only option.


The clash was unavoidable.


Feeling betrayed by Aristide, the people took to the street.

Cowards, disgusting creatures. Shamelessly abusing their power at the powerless. Not known to either sides, they are both victims of failed systems.


What they faced, instead. Are the claws and teeth of apparatuses and systems. Gnarling.

Bullying them.


Spokes person for the people.

Are almost never, ever

People resort to extreme measure when they can‛t wait for God to strike their oppressors down. They want to take things into their own hands, even when the time is not right. But they don‛t have a choice.


Scoundrels usurped the power from the people, citizens had no choice but to pick up arms to express their resentment.

r, FOR the people.

Everyone, eventually falls short.

We are all victims. We are all sinners.


Poverty and desperation fuelled the exodus from Haiti. In the Anti-Aristide demonstrations alone, couple thousands were killed and countless lives effected. In 2003, the US Coast Guard picked up over 2,000 Haitian refugees seeking out political asylum.

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Haiti_Modern_Governance_Aristide  

The Crisis of Modern Governance