FOLGER CONSORT 2017/18 season of early music
Il Lauro Verde The Blossoming of the Italian Baroque February 23-25, 2018
FOLGER SHAKESPEARE LIBRARY BOARD OF GOVERNORS Louis R. Cohen, Chair Susan Sachs Goldman, Vice-Chair Roger Millay, Vice-Chair Andy Altman D. Jarrett Arp Simon Russell Beale The Lord Browne of Madingley Rebecca Bushnell Vinton Cerf Florence Cohen Lady Darroch Philip Deutch Wyatt R. Haskell Deneen C. Howell Maxine Isaacs May Liang Carol L. Ludwig Ken Ludwig Gail Kern Paster Stuart Rose Loren Rothschild Paul M. Smith Laura J. Yerkovich Ex Officio Michael Witmore
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THESE PERFORMANCES ARE GENEROUSLY SPONSORED BY ANDI H. KASARSKY
FOLGER CONSORT Robert Eisenstein Christopher Kendall Artistic Directors
Il Lauro Verde with Risa Browder, Jolle Greenleaf, Marcello Mazzetti, and Livio Ticli Bianchi cigni from Il Lauro Verde Luca Marenzio Three dances: Francesco Bendusi Fusta – Animoso – Cortesa padoana instruments Da i puri loro e limpidi cristalli Giovanni Maria Nanino from Il Lauro Verde From Rappresentatione di Anima e di Corpo Emilio de’ Cavalieri Act I, scene 1: Monologo del tempo Act I, scene 2: Questa vita mortale, Veloce il giorno Act II, scene 4: Piacere con doi compagni Sinfonia per fine de le Primo Atto instruments Act II, scene 5: Non so s’è stato ben, Vo’ dimandarne al cielo O primavera Luzzasco Luzzaschi Aura soave Luzzaschi Three dances: Bendusi La mala vecchie – Il stocco – Doistanchi instruments A un giro sol de’ begl’occhi Claudio Monteverdi Schiera d’aspri martiri Pietro Maria Marsolo INTERMISSION
Sonata sopra la bergamasca instruments Su le penne de’ venti Lamento della ninfa Bel pastor Sonata sopra l’aria di Ruggiero instruments Voglio di vita uscir Sonino, scherzino Ritornello instruments O notte amata La cornera instruments Deh vien da me pastorella Al canto, al ballo from Euridice
Salamone Rossi Monteverdi Monteverdi Monteverdi Rossi
Monteverdi Giovanni Girolamo Kapsberger Biagio Marini Giovanni Battista da Gagliano Marini Girolamo Frescobaldi Giulio Caccini
Please hold applause until the end of sets and refrain from using cell phones, cameras, and other recording devices during the performance. 3
Engaging Washington-area audiences since 1977, Folger Consort is the early music ensemble-in-residence at the Folger Shakespeare Library. Founding Artistic Directors Robert Eisenstein and Christopher Kendall create programs that offer opportunities to discover and enjoy music from the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque periods. Whether presenting concerts in the ensemble’s intimate home, the Folger’s Elizabethan-styled theater, or in the splendid reaches of Washington National Cathedral, the Folger Consort continues its tradition of bringing renowned guest artists to Washington, DC to join in its “early music chamber society.” Beyond its concert series, Folger Consort strives to deepen audiences’ understanding and appreciation of early music through seminars, discussions, recordings, radio programs, and unique collaborations with other programs of the Folger Shakespeare Library. Folger Consort has received five awards for Best Classical Chamber Ensemble by the Washington Area Music Awards. For more information, visit folger.edu/consort. Robert Eisenstein—violin, viola da gamba—is a founding member and program director of the Folger Consort. In addition to his work with the Consort, he is the director of the Five College Early Music Program in Massachusetts, where he teaches music history, performs regularly on viola da gamba, violin, and medieval fiddle, and coordinates and directs student performances of medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque music. He is an active participant in Five College Medieval Studies and served as Music Director for the Five College Opera Project production of Francesca Caccini’s La Liberazione di Ruggiero. He has a particular interest in the use of computer technology in the service of music and enjoys teaching a course called Fun with Music and Technology at Mount Holyoke College. Eisenstein is the recipient of Early Music America's Thomas Binkley Award for outstanding achievement in performance and scholarship by the director of a college early music ensemble. Christopher Kendall—lute, theorbo—is founder of the Folger Consort. He served from 2005-2015 as dean of the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance, where he was responsible for establishing the University of Michigan Gershwin Initiative, for re-instituting international touring, for the funding and design of a $30M expansion/renovation of the music building, and for launching the interdisciplinary enterprise ArtsEngine and its national initiative a2ru (Alliance for the Arts at Research Universities). In Washington, DC, in addition to his work with Folger Consort, since 1975 he has been Artistic Director and conductor of the 21st Century Consort, new music ensemble-in-residence at the Smithsonian Institution. Kendall served as Director of the University of Maryland School of Music from 1996 to 2005, 4
and was Director of the Music Division and Tanglewood Institute of the Boston University School for the Arts from 1993 to 1996. Associate Conductor of the Seattle Symphony from 1987 to 1992, Kendall has guest conducted many orchestras and ensembles in repertoire from the 18th to the 21st centuries. His recordings can be heard on the Arabesque, ASV, Bard, Centaur, Delos, Innova, Nonesuch, and Smithsonian Collection labels.
GUEST ARTISTS Risa Browder—violin, viola—grew up in Princeton, New Jersey and received her Bachelor of Music degree from Oberlin Conservatory, after which she studied at the Royal College of Music in London and the Schola Cantorum in Basel, Switzerland. She played with many notable period instrument orchestras and chamber ensembles in Europe before moving back to the US. With her husband, cellist John Moran, she co-directs Modern Musick, in residence at Georgetown University, and plays regularly with REBEL, Folger Consort, Bach Sinfonia, Washington Bach Consort, and the National Cathedral Baroque Orchestra. She is passionate about her teaching at Peabody Conservatory, where she inspires her students to delve into the historical context of the music and learn new ways of approaching old music. She is co-director of Peabody’s Baroque orchestra, the Baltimore Baroque Band, and she also directs the orchestras at H-B Woodlawn Secondary Program in Arlington, Virginia. Jolle Greenleaf—soprano—is one of today’s foremost figures in the field of early music. She is a celebrated interpreter of the music of Bach, Buxtehude, Handel, Purcell, and, most notably, Claudio Monteverdi. She has performed as a soloist in venues throughout the US, Scandinavia, Europe, and Central America for important presenters including Vancouver Early Music Festival, Denmark’s Vendsyssel Festival, Costa Rica International Music Festival, Puerto Rico’s Festival Casals, and Utrecht Festival. Performance venues include Panama’s National Theater and San Cristobal, the Cathedral in Havana, Cuba. Marcello Mazzetti—alto and tenor, lute, viola da gamba— co-founded the research group and early music ensemble Palma Choralis in 2006, specializing as a lute and viola da gamba player and also as a vocalist. After his early studies in classical guitar, composition, and conducting at the University of Pavia, he continued his studies with research into the performance practice of Italian Renaissance polyphony. His research interests also include Byzantine and Gregorian chant. Since 2010, Mazzetti has served as director of the Brescia International Early Music Summer School and Festival in Brescia, Italy, which gathers students from across the globe to work with leading European early music ensembles, scholars, and experts in historicallyinformed performance practice. In addition to completing his doctoral research at the University of Southampton on the Renaissance polymath and composer Floriano Canale, Mazzetti is currently the co-head of the Early Music Department at the School of Music in Brescia. He has twice been invited as a visiting fellow at the Arthur F. Kinney Center of Interdisciplinary Renaissance Studies at the University of Massachusetts. Livio Ticli—tenor, harpsichord—is co-founder with Marcello Mazzetti of the research group and early music ensemble Palma Choralis. In addition to being a vocalist and multiinstrumentalist (historical keyboards, percussion, recorder, and Renaissance double harp), he also specializes in period gesture, Renaissance dance, and historically informed acting. His early studies in classical piano, choral singing, and recorder soon led to an interest in early music, culminating in a Master’s in Renaissance Polyphony from the 5
International Music Academy in Milan, Italy. His current research at the University of Southampton explores the synergy of the arts through selfaccompaniment and performance as a multi-instrumentalist. Ticli is codirector of the Brescia International Early Music Summer School and Festival in Brescia, Italy, and he also co-heads the Early Music Department of the Brescia School of Music, where he teaches Renaissance and Baroque singing. In addition to performing, Ticli has designed and directed numerous Renaissance “spectacles” that recreate Renaissance banquet scenes in cooperation with several historical dance companies and experts in early modern cookery. He has twice been invited as a visiting fellow at the Arthur F. Kinney Center of Interdisciplinary Renaissance Studies at the University of Massachusetts.
NOTES The Italian Renaissance Virtuoso How many living classical musicians can you name who can sing, act, and play multiple instruments? Such an eclectic performer is as rare in today’s early music scene as it was common in Renaissance Italy. Individuals with such eclectic talents were known as virtuosi and were particularly active at the most important courts of the Italian Renaissance. In his work Il Cortegiano (The Book of the Courtier), the 16th-century humanist Baldassare Castiglione put forth the first explanation as to what skills a courtier should be expected to pursue. Together with the Renaissance humanist impulses—tending toward a celebration of classical antiquity and the unity of the liberal arts—we can describe the virtuoso as a “complete artist.” Drawing inspiration from classical myths, they assimilated the virtuoso to figures such as Orpheus, who could sing poetry and play music to charm not only people, but also gods, animals, even plants and rocks! The most prominent courts, such as the court of Ferrara, also had the most talented virtuosi. Tarquinia Molza, a musician and poetess at the court of Duke Alfonso II, is one of the best known examples. From the historical accounts of the time, we know that she could sing while accompanying herself on the lute or harpsichord. She could play the bass line of a madrigal on a gamba while singing the soprano line and sing trilli, passaggi, and other improvised vocal ornamentation. Alfonso II’s court in Ferrara also saw the rise of the concerto segreto—a “secret” concert for only the most honorable guests of the court where the talents of a virtuoso such as Tarquinia Molza would be on display. These concerts set the standard across Europe for the practice of performing madrigals, and in order to participate in these concerts, performers had to undertake special training. Many of these virtuosi were in fact women, and perhaps the brightest star among them was Laura Peperara, a pupil of the great madrigal composer Giaches de Wert who studied harp and dance with the leading teachers of Northern Italy. She was particularly appreciated for her gestures and dramatic facial expression as integral parts of her performances. These ladies studied for hours each day, committing to memory several patterns and ornaments, in order to master the art of improvisation. In the court of Ferrara, the concerto segreto was overseen by the composer Luzzasco Luzzaschi. At performances, Luzzaschi or one of his colleagues accompanied the ladies and other distinguished court musicians.
Another figure whose work tells us much about performance practice of the time is Giulio Caccini. In 1601, Caccini published Le nuove musiche (The New Musics). The preface to this music collection is a sort of manifesto, presenting Caccini’s view on performance and outlining the style rules for interpreting the new musical style. One highlight from his text is the significance of the passaggio, an extended vocal ornament that should reflect the emotion of the sung text and not simply be an opportunity for exhibition. Until the early 16th century, written music in Italy was rarely performed, and even in the late 16th century it was still strongly related to oral tradition. Thus, Caccini focuses on ornaments because it was understood at the time that a composer was providing a framework, and it was up to the singer to realize it fully by adding personal flourishes. Another concept Caccini presents us with is sprezzatura (literally “nonchalance”), applying it to recitar cantando. Sprezzatura as studied carelessness is also connected with Castiglione’s idea that performers should be able to hide their artistry—true art is that which does not appear as art. Performances should appear effortless. Perfect opportunities for putting into practice these ideas were opera and spectacles, such as Emilio de’ Cavalieri’s Rappresentatione di Anima et di Corpo and the bucolic scene Al canto, al ballo from Caccini’s Euridice. In our program, you will indeed have the opportunity to experience such all-around mastery, where singing, playing, and acting will be as one. —Livio Ticli
Il Lauro Verde and Cultural Circles in Northern Italy and Rome Early in 1583, the Ferrarese publisher Lorenzo Baldini printed Il Lauro Verde (The Green Laurel), a madrigal collection dedicated to Laura Peperara, the envy of all of Europe’s courts and the trendsetter for music of the time. This was not the first time music had been composed in her honor; we know of another manuscript from 1580 and also the 1582 printed collection Il Lauro Secco (The Dried Laurel). The two Lauro volumes were conceived by the greatest poets of the time, including Torquato Tasso, Giovanni Battista Guarini, and other lyricists whose texts were set to music by Monteverdi, Marenzio, Luzzaschi, and many others. In 1582, Monteverdi was not as celebrated as he later was, but the Brescian composer Luca Marenzio was already known as il più bel cigno d’Italia (“the most beautiful swan of Italy”). Marenzio’s madrigals appeared in both Lauro volumes. Our program features the six-voice madrigal, Bianchi cigni, which is the opening madrigal from Il Lauro Verde. This madrigal is conceived as a “wreath” of madrigals (corona di madrigali) and sets the poetry of Torquato Tasso. Tasso’s text is full of such devices as repetition, metaphor, and allusion, all describing the virtues of Laura Peperara. This madrigal is also an invitation to composers and poets: the talents of Renaissance virtuosi could lead to a new, more complex style of madrigal. After the Lauro madrigal books, nothing was the same, as composers and performers all across Europe were inspired by the court of Ferrara in the time bridging the Renaissance and early Baroque. We cannot forget that the patron of Marenzio was the cardinal Luigi d’Este, Alfonso II’s brother, who hired the Brescian composer until the end of his life. Marenzio had the chance to visit Ferrara many times as well as other important courts such as those of Florence, Mantua, and the King of France. Considering Marenzio’s fame and the popularity of Il Lauro Verde, it is fitting that our program includes repertoire from other notable cultural circles across the Italian peninsula at the turn of the century. Following an instrumental interlude of dances by Francesco Bendusi, we continue with another Lauro Verde madrigal, Da i puri loro e limpidi cristalli, 7
composed by Giovanni Maria Nanino while he was employed as a tenor at the papal chapel in Rome. It is a celebration of the joy of Laura Peperara’s singing. These madrigals also display one of the most significant musical aspects of the Lauro Verde collection, and that is the use of counterpoint that combines richly ornamented lines, imitative melodic writing, and extended diminutions. Nanino’s madrigal is also an early example of the concertato style, in which the highest voice provides the most embellishments while the lower voices are simpler accompaniment. This new tendency to distinguish the upper part against the lower ones, along with the frequent practice of replacing or doubling lower voices with instruments, is a key point to understanding the transition from the old contrapuntal style to the new monodic one. We continue with excerpts from Cavalieri’s opera Rappresentatione di Anima et di Corpo and Luzzaschi’s collection Madrigali per cantare et sonare. We know that the composers held each other in high esteem, and Cavalieri encouraged Luzzaschi to publish his volume in Rome in 1601. Only two copies remain in existence today, one of which is here in Washington, DC, at the Library of Congress. Aura Soave is a one-voice “overture” madrigal from Luzzaschi’s collection. The text is by Guarini and shows the influence of Petrarch in the metaphors that appear: Laura Peperara is the aura (breeze) and the secreti accenti refer to the “secret ornaments” from the concerti segreti of Ferrara. Cavalieri’s opera, first performed in Rome in 1600 at the Oratorio dei Filippini, takes us to the complex world of moral and allegorical representation of the early Baroque. The early opera composer Jacopo Peri acknowledged a debt to Cavalieri, saying that “before any other so far, Cavalieri enabled us through marvellous invention to hear our kind of music upon the stage.” Like the musical pastorals of Caccini and Peri, the music of Rappresentatione includes speech-like recitative sections, tuneful madrigals, songs set to dance rhythms, and strophic text settings. Following the death of Duke Alfonso, the music legacy of his Ferrarese court was continued by two composers: the highly celebrated and studied Claudio Monteverdi and the forgotten Pietro Maria Marsolo. Monteverdi’s fourth book of madrigals (written in 1603) is dedicated to the Accademia degli Intrepidi of Ferrara, a cultural society founded in 1601 by noble men of letters committed to patronizing magisterial spectacles, tournaments, jousts, and operas. For their diverse events they founded one of the first fixed theaters in Italy. In 1601 Monteverdi was appointed maestro della musica at the court of the Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga in Mantua. According to the title page of the fourth book, Monteverdi had originally conceived of these madrigals for the patronage of the now-deceased Alfonso II, meaning that some of these madrigals date from the 1590s. Monteverdi’s madrigals show the influence of not only Luzzaschi, but also of the notorious Gesualdo. One critic objected to this flourishing new style and the “new rules and modes which produce harsh and not very enjoyable music.” Monteverdi defends these “new rules and modes” by saying that the new poetry calls for new effects and new harmonies to capture the sea, the sound of the wind, and other natural phenomena. This “second practice” (seconda prattica) is well exemplified in the madrigal A un giro sol de’ begl’occhi. We also see new techniques in the four-voice madrigal with basso continuo Schiera d’aspri martiri by Pietro Maria Marsolo. In the preface of his second book of madrigals (1614), Marsolo claims that he based his four-part madrigals on separate solo vocal madrigals. Schiera is indeed based on a madrigal by the composer and singer Francesco Rasi (the same Rasi who 8
debuted the role of Orfeo in Monteverdi’s opera). Here, Marsolo alternates between two tempi (fast and slow) to mimic the mood of the text. The effect is inventive and charming, not unlike Monteverdi’s Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda. —Marcello Mazzetti Salamone Rossi, Later Music by Monteverdi, and Other Composers We continue with the “new” compositional techniques mentioned above in the second half or our program. The Mantuan Jewish composer Salamone Rossi (c. 1570-1628) was a string player and composer whose entire career was centered in Mantua. His earliest pieces are dedicated to Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga, and Rossi had strong connections to the Gonzaga court, appearing from time to time on various salary rolls. He also had connections to the Jewish theatrical troupes in Mantua, which were active not only in the ghetto but also in the community at large and at court. Rossi and his sister Europa, a well-known singer, were unusually favored by Duke Vincenzo. Vincenzo decreed that Rossi did not have to wear the compulsory yellow badge imposed on the Jewish community. He is best known today for his 1622 publication Hashirim Asher Lishlomo (or Songs of Solomon, pun probably intended) which contains settings in Hebrew of psalms, hymns, and other prayers for synagogue use. Rossi was responsible for the first printed continuo madrigals, although we now know that early printed continuo parts merely reflect a common unwritten practice, and some of the earliest violin sonatas as well. The Sonata sopra l’aria di Ruggiero and the Sonata sopra la bergamasca are composed on popular chord patterns in use for instrumental and vocal improvisation during the 16th century. Between the Rossi sonatas we present three very different works by Monteverdi. Su le penne de’ venti represents a nice connection to Rossi, because it is the prologue to La Maddalena, a sacred drama jointly composed by Monteverdi, Rossi, and other composers. The libretto is by the Mantuan actor and poet Giovanni Battista Andreini. Andreini’s wife, Virginia, who went by the stage name of “La Florinda,” was a famous singer and commedia del’arte actress. She created the title role in Monteverdi’s lost opera Arianna and performed in several of his other dramatic works. Su le penne de’ venti is the only surviving part of La Maddalena composed by Monteverdi. It is the prologue, sung by the character Divine Grace. We follow this short song with the justly famous Lamento della ninfa from Monteverdi’s Eighth Book, subtitled Madrigals of Love and War. This collection was published in 1638 and is a collection of pieces composed over at least the previous 30 years. By this time a madrigal, for Monteverdi and other composers, is no longer necessarily a polyphonic song for multiple singers like the madrigals by Marenzio and Nanino at the start of the program. The style of these pieces is more modern, featuring expressive singing accompanied by continuo. In the Lamento, an agonized nymph laments bitterly about a lost love, with sympathetic commentary and a frame provided by male voices. The nymph’s accompaniment, a descending minor tetrachord that repeats over and over, is the very emblem of tragedy and despair. The charming dramatic dialogue Bel pastor is from the posthumous Ninth Book of Madrigals, 1651. The witty text is Ottavio Rinuccini’s adaptation of an earlier French poem. Our next group begins with Voglio di vita uscir, our final piece by Monteverdi, which is based on the most engaging of the ground bass patterns, the chaconne. Imported from Latin America, we first see chaconas as festive and light-hearted dance songs in 16th-century Spain, but they become a favorite way to organize a song or instrumental piece well into the 18th century. 9
The next song is by Giovanni Girolamo Kapsberger (c.1580-1651) from his Fourth Book of Villanelle of 1619. Kapsberger, the son of an Austrian Imperial officer who may have settled in Venice, was born in that city, but his career primarily flourished in Rome. He was there by about 1605, and by virtue of his noble status and his reputation as a virtuoso, he was able to secure the patronage of powerful and important families. Kapsberger organized academies, described as among “the wonders of Rome,” in his own house, and in 1624 he entered into the service of Pope Urban VIII’s nephew Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Kapsberger is known primarily today for his contributions to the solo repertory for theorbo, and his theorbo pieces are indeed tremendously original and varied. His vocal music is no less striking and covers a wide range of styles. Here we perform a villanella from one of his seven books of these simple rustic songs with lively rhythms and simple but catchy tunes. Biagio Marini (1594-1663) was from Brescia, although he traveled widely in the course of his career. He was employed as a violinist at St. Marco in Venice from 1615 to 1620 and worked under Monteverdi for a time. Marini wrote a good bit of vocal music and especially later in his career focused on the larger concertato forms combining instruments and voices. But he is best known as a composer of violin music. Marini’s sonatas are skillfully composed and always musically interesting, and he developed violin technique considerably. He is represented here by a short ritornello which we have separated from its song and a sinfonia for two violins and continuo. Giovanni Battista da Gagliano (1594-1651), the composer of O notte amata, was the younger brother of the better-known Marco da Gagliano, both Florentine composers. Marco was maestro di cappella at the Cathedral, but because of poor health it was actually Giovanni Battista who carried out most of his duties and was given the title after 19 years. Gagliano was active as a composer of music for many churches and lay religious confraternities in Florence, and he composed an oratorio in collaboration with Francesca Caccini, the daughter of Giulio Caccini. Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) was a native of Ferrara. He was a well-known organist by the time he was 14, and he described himself as a pupil of Luzzaschi. He was likely in Rome by 1608 and after that date spent some time in Mantua and Florence as well, returning to Rome in 1634 and remaining there until his death. His playing was highly prized, and his instrumental works, especially the keyboard toccatas and canzoni, can be as dramatic and engaging as any of the time. He is best known for his keyboard works today, and he is one of the first composers to focus primarily on instrumental music. But Frescobaldi is responsible for some ravishing vocal music as well. Two volumes of his secular songs were published in 1630, when Frescobaldi was in the service of the Medicis in Florence. The songs for solo voice and combinations of voices include wonderful examples of many different genres. Our song Deh vien da me pastorella is called Ceccona (Chaconne) a due tenori’ in the print. Our final song, a chorus from the first act of Giulio Caccini’s opera Euridice, was also included in his rival Jacopo Peri’s version of the opera on the same libretto by Rinuccini. Caccini was associated with the humanist poets, scholars, and musicians of the Florentine Camerata, under the patronage of Count Giovanni de’ Bardi, who became Caccini’s lifelong mentor. Caccini said that he learned more from the Camerata and Bardi than he did from “30 years of counterpoint.” Caccini claimed, along with Peri, to have been the inventor of recitative, or, as Caccini put it, to “introduce a kind of music in which one could almost speak in tones.” Whether it was Caccini or Peri, the idea of a new style of composition was certainly in the air in Florence around 1600. —Robert Eisenstein
WHAT’S ON AT THE FOLGER
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TEXTS Texts are provided for your enjoyment; occasionally verses are omitted in performance.
Bianchi cigni Bianchi cigni e canori, Che de la secca fronde Cantaste i falsi pregi e i finti honori, Quì, dove in riva à l’onde Del Rè de’ fiumi altero Piangono il caso fero Del mal cauto Fetonte le sorelle, Alzate il novo Lauro oltra le stelle.
White and sweet-singing swans, who of the dried-up laurel sang the false virtues and the pretended honors— here, where beside the waves of the proud King of rivers the sisters of incautious Phaeton lament his cruel fate, exalt the new Laurel beyond the stars.
Alzate il novo Lauro oltra le stelle, Vaghe e leggiadre Ninfe, E in queste parte e in quelle Di mormoranti linfe E di garruli augei le piagge, i monti, E le profonde valli Rimbombin si che l’aura il verde Lauro Porti da l’Indo al Mauro. E voi, di fiumi e fonti Naiadi, al suon de’ liquidi cristalli Guidate dolci ed amorosi balli.
Exalt the new Laurel beyond the stars, lovely and gracious Nymphs; and, in this part of the countryside in that, with murmuring clear waters and with chattering birds let the river banks and the mountains and the deep valleys resound, such that the breezes carry [the name of] the green Laurel to the extremes of the earth. And you, naiads of the rivers and springs, to the sound of crystalline liquids perform lovely and amorous dances.
Guidata dolci ed amorosi balli, Saltanti Capri e snellì Fauni e Silvani uniti, A gara hor questi, hor quelli, Co’ pie’ vaghi e spediti Premete i duri e non segnati calli. Et voi pastori usciti De le vostre capanne, Con le incerate canne Del verde Lauro ergete al Ciel gli honori,
Perform lovely and amorous dances, leaping mountain goats and slender fauns and sylvan creatures together; in competition, now you, now you others, with graceful and flashing feet tread the firm unmarked pathways. And you, shepherds, who have emerged from your huts, with your shepherd’s pipes raise to the heavens the honors of the green Laurel,
Bianchi cigni e canori.
Oh white and sweet-singing swans.
Da i puri loro e limpidi cristalli Da i puri loro e limpidi cristalli Escon le Ninfe fori, Ornate d’herbe e fiori E dal mar le Sirene, E da Cinto e Pirene Le Muse; e a l’ombra del mio verde Alloro, Tra i fior bianchi, vermigli, azurri e gialli Guidano dolci amorosetti balli. 12
From their pure and limpid waters the nymphs emerge, decorated with leaves and flowers, and from the seas [emerge] the Sirens, and from Cynthus and Pirene the Muses: and in the shadow of my green Laurel, amid the white, red, blue, and yellow flowers, all perform sweet, amorous dances;
E l’aura fra di loro Soave ventilando Gli aita; e gareggiando Ogni vago augellin da i rami santi Accordano co ‘l ballo i dolci canti.
and the breeze, in their midst Gently stirring, helps them; and competing from the sacred branches all the lovely birds tune their sweet songs to the dance.
Rappresentatione di Anima et di Corpo ATTO I, SCENA I – MONOLOGO DEL TEMPO Il tempo, il tempo fugge, la vita si distrugge; già mi par sentire l’ultima tromba, e dire: uscite da la fossa ceneri sparse ed ossa; sorgete anime ancora, prendete i corpi or ora; venite a dir il vero, se fu miglior pensiero servire al mondo vano, o al re del ciel soprano? Sì che ciascun intenda, apra gli occhi e comprenda, che questa vita è un vento, che vola in un momento; oggi vien fore, – doman si more; oggi n’appare, – doman dispare; faccia dunque ognun prova, mentre il tempo le giova, lasciar quant’è nel mondo, quantunque in sé giocondo; ed apri con la mano, apri col core, perché del ben oprar frutto è l’onore.
Time, time flies, life is going to pieces; I can hear already the last trumpet sound, and say: “Get out from the pit, Oh scattered ashes and bones! Do rise again, souls, take the bodies right now! Come say truthfully whether it was better to serve the vain world or the king of heavens above?” Therefore, everyone shall understand, open their eyes and see that this life is wind which flies away in an instance; today, one is born – tomorrow, one is gone; today one appears – tomorrow one disappears; hence, everyone shall try while there is still time, to leave whatever is in the world, however worthy it seems; open your hand, open your heart, because honor comes with integrity of your actions.
ATTO I, SCENA II Questa vita mortale, per fuggir, presto ha l’ale: e con lei tal fretta passa, ch’a dietro i venti, e le saette lassa.
This mortal life, as it has wings it flies; and with it, this haste will pass as it leaves behind winds and flashing lightning.
Veloce il giorno, e ratto corre a la notte: e a un tratto dispar la state, e ‘l verno, tal che da un punto sol vassi a l’eterno.
The swift day rapidly runs towards the night: and suddenly summer and winter are gone so that from only one point one goes towards the eternal.
ATTO II, SCENA IV – PIACERE CON DOI COMPAGNI Chi gioia vuol, chi brama gustar spassi e piacere mentre il tempo lo chiama. Venga, venga a godere, getti gli affanni suoi. Corra a gioir con noi.
Those who want joy and desire to enjoy amusement and pleasure while time calls them, shall come and enjoy; they shall cast aside their troubles; they shall come rejoice with us.
Gli augelli pargoletti, cantan su gli arbuscelli: i pesci semplicetti guizzano pei ruscelli, e invitano al piacere con numerose schiere.
The little birds sing on the little trees: the simple fishes dart through the streams, and invite to pleasure with many things.
Ridono i prati erbosi, c’han coloriti i manti; le selve e i boschi ombrosi son lieti e festeggianti: ogni piaggia fiorita a l’allegrezza invita.
The grassy meadows laugh with their colored mantles; the woods and shady groves are merry and celebrating: every flowered hill invites to merriment.
O canti, o risi, o graziosi amori. Fresch’acque, prati molli, aure serene, grate armonie, che rallegrate i cori, conviti, paste e saporite cene, vesti leggiadre, e dilettosi odori, trionfi e feste d’allegrezza piene, diletto, gusto, giubilo e piacere, beata l’alma, che vi può godere.
Oh songs, Oh laughter, Oh pleasant loves, fresh waters, soft meadows, serene breezes, pleasing harmonies, which delight hearts, banquets, suppers, and tasty dinners, fair clothing and delightful scents, triumphs and feasts full of merriment, delight, taste, joy, and pleasure, blessed be the soul which can enjoy them.
Cacciate via i pensieri torbidi, tristi e neri. Aprite, aprite il petto al piacer e al diletto, aprite, aprite al core a la gioia e a l’amore, dolce diletto. Ch’allegra il petto, soave ardore. Gioia del core.
Chase away the thoughts that are so shady, sad, and black. Open, open your breast to pleasure and to delight. Open, open your heart to joy and to love, sweet delight which makes glad the breast, pleasing ardor Joy of the heart.
ATTO II, SCENA V CORPO: Non so s’è stato ben lasciar tanto piacer, ch’il mondo tiene.
BODY: I do not know whether it was good to leave aside such pleasure which the World holds.
ANIMA: Vo’ dimandarne al cielo ch’il ver mai non nasconde. Vediam quel che risponde: Ama il mondan piacer l’uom saggio, o fugge?
SOUL: I will ask Heaven which never hides the truth. We shall see how it responds. Does the wise man love worldly pleasure, or flee?
CIELO (in eco): Fugge.
HEAVEN (in echo): Flee.
ANIMA: SOUL: Che cosa è l’uom, che ‘l cerca e cerca How is the man who seeks and seeks invano? in vain? CIELO (in eco): Vano.
HEAVEN (in echo): Vain.
ANIMA: Chi dà la morte al cor con dispiacere?
SOUL: Who gives death to the heart with displeasure?
CIELO (in eco): Piacere.
HEAVEN (in echo): Pleasure.
ANIMA: Come la vita ottien chi vita brama?
SOUL: How does he obtain life, who life loves?
CIELO (in eco): Ama.
HEAVEN (in echo): Loves.
ANIMA: Ama del mondo le bellezze, o Dio?
SOUL: Does he love the beauties of the world, or of God?
CIELO (in eco): Dio.
HEAVEN (in echo): God
ANIMA: Dunque morrà, chi ‘l piacer brama: è vero?
SOUL: Therefore, he shall die, who desires pleasure, is it true?
CIELO (in eco): Vero.
HEAVEN (in echo): True.
ANIMA: Or quel, ch’il ciel t’ha detto ecco io raccolgo intero: fuggi vano piacer, ama Dio vero.
SOUL: Thus, what Heaven has spoken, see, I embrace it entirely: flee vain pleasure, love true God. —Translation by L.Ticli
O primavera O primavera, gioventù dell’anno, Bella madre de’ fiori, D’erbe novelle e di novelli amori! Tu torni ben, ma teco Non tornano i sereni E fortunati dì delle mie gioie. Tu torni ben, tu torni, Ma teco altro non torna, Che del perduto mio caro tesoro La rimembranza misera e dolente. Tu quella sei, pur quella Ch’eri pur dianzi sì vezzosa e bella, Ma non son io quel, che già un tempo fui, Sì caro agli occhi altrui.
Oh springtime, youth of the year, Beautiful mother of flowers, Of new plants and of new loves, You return indeed, but with you Are not returning the bright And lucky days of my joys. You return indeed, you return, But with you, otherwise, is returning Only my dear lost treasure’s Memory, sad and sorrowful. You are that one, indeed that one That you were not long ago, so lovely and beautiful, But I am not that one that once I was, So valued in the eyes of others.
Aura soave Aura soave di segreti accenti che penetrando per l’orecchie al core svegliasti là dove dormiva Amore. Per te respiro e vivo da che nel petto mio spirasti tu d’Amor vital desio. Vissi di vita privo mentre amorosa cura in me fu spenta. Hor vien che l’alma senta virtù di quel tuo spirito gentile felice vita oltre l’usato stile.
Gentle breeze of sweet accents, which, penetrating the heart through the ears, awoke Love, there where it was sleeping. For you I breathe and live, since into my heart you breathed the living desire of Love. I lived deprived of life while loving care was extinguished within me. Now it happens that my soul feels a happy life, virtue of your gentle spirit, and enjoy a happy life beyond its accustomed style.
A un giro sol de’ begl’occhi A un giro sol de’ begl’occhi lucenti ride l’aria d’intorno, e ‘l mar s’acqueta e i venti, e si fa il ciel d’un altro lume adorno, sol io le luci ho lagrimose e meste. Certo quando nasceste cosí crudel e ria, nacque la morte mia.
At a single glance of those beautiful bright eyes, the air around smiles, the sea and winds grow calm, And the sky is adorned with a new light; Only I have eyes with tears and sadness. Certainly, when you were born, so cruel and stony-hearted. So was born my death.
Schiera d’aspri martiri Schiera d’aspri martiri dà battaglia di morte a la mia vita: lume di duo begl’occhi aita! Mille amorosi arcieri hanno si il fianco mio per segno eletto e sempre acerbi e fieri ivi di saettar piglian diletto! Ahi, che dentro del petto è già tutto il mio cor una ferita!
An array of harsh agonies give a battle of death to my life: light of those two eyes, help! A thousand archers of love have chosen my flank as a target and they, pungent and haughty, take pleasure in shooting there! Alas, inside my breast, my heart is all wounds already! —Translation by L.Ticli
Su le penne de’ venti Su le penne de’ venti il Ciel varcando Faretrato fanciullo a voi ne vegno Son tutto luce, di gloria il segno, Ad eccelsa Armonia voce accordando
On feathers – cutting through the sky of winds, I come to you as a young boy with a quiver; I am all light – token of glory, tuning my voice to the sublime Harmony.
Ben à l’ali dipinte, à l’arco aurato Già’l vulgo sciocco mi dichiara Amore; Son Amor; ma non cieco: un’alma, un core Saetto sì; ma colpo io fò beato.
With well-painted wings and a golden quiver, foolish people call me Love; Yes, I am Love, yet not blind: a soul, a heart I shoot, but my shot is holy. —Translation by L.Ticli
Lamento della ninfa Non havea Febo ancora recato al mondo il dí, ch’una donzella fuora del proprio albergo uscí.
The Sun had not brought The day to the world yet, When a maiden Went out of her dwelling.
Sul pallidetto volto scorgeasi il suo dolor, spesso gli venia sciolto un gran sospir dal cor.
On her pale face Grief could be seen, Often from her heart A deep sigh was drawn.
Sí calpestando fiori errava hor qua, hor là, i suoi perduti amori cosí piangendo va:
Thus, treading upon flowers, She wandered, now here, now there, And lamented her lost loves Like this:
“Amor,” dicea, il ciel mirando, il piè fermo, “dove, dov’è la fè ch’el traditor giurò?”
“Oh Love,” she said, Gazing at the sky, as she stood. “Where’s the fidelity That the deceiver promised?”
“Fa’ che ritorni il mio amor com’ei pur fu, o tu m’ancidi, ch’io non mi tormenti più.”
“Make my love come back As he used to be Or kill me, so that I will not suffer anymore.”
Miserella, ah più no, no, tanto gel soffrir non può.
Poor her! She cannot bear All this coldness!
“Non vo’ più ch’ei sospiri se non lontan da me, no, no che i suoi martiri più non dirammi affè.
“I don’t want him to sigh any longer But if he’s far from me. No! He will not make me suffer Anymore, I swear!
Perché di lui mi struggo, tutt’orgoglioso sta, che si, che si se’l fuggo ancor mi pregherà?
He’s proud Because I languish for him. Perhaps if I fly away from him He will come to pray to me again.
Se ciglio ha più sereno colei, che’l mio non è, già non rinchiude in seno, Amor, sí bella fè.
If her eyes are more serene Than mine, Oh Love, she does not hold in her heart A fidelity so pure as mine.
Ne mai sí dolci baci da quella bocca havrai, ne più soavi, ah taci, taci, che troppo il sai.”
And you will not receive from those lips Kisses as sweet as mine, Nor softer. Oh, don’t speak! Don’t speak! you know better than that!”
Bel pastor CLORI: Bel pastor dal cui bel guardo spiro foco ond’io tutt’ardo, m’ami tu? Com’io desio?
CLORI: Fairest shepherd, from whose fond lance I breathe a flame that sets me everywhere afire, do you love me the way I wish it?
AMINTA: Sì, cor mio.
AMINTA: Yes, my heart. 17
CLORI: Dimmi quanto.
CLORI: How much then? Tell me!
AMINTA: Tanto, tanto.
AMINTA: Very much.
CLORI: Come, che?
CLORI: How do you love me?
AMINTA: Come te, pastorella tutta bella.
AMINTA: Just as you do, fairest shepherdess.
CLORI: Questi vezzi, e questo dire non fan pago il mio desire. Se tu m’ami, o mio bel foco, dimmi ancor, ma fuor di gioco. Come, che?
CLORI: These caresses, these words, are not enough for me. If you love me, oh my fair fire, tell me so again, but not in jest. How do you love me?
AMINTA: Come te, pastorella tutta bella.
AMINTA: Just as you do, fairest shepherdess.
CLORI: Vie più lieta udito avrei: “T’amo al par degl’occhi miei.”
CLORI: I would much rather hear you say: “I love you as much as my own eyes.”
AMINTA: Come rei del mio cordoglio, questi lumi amar non voglio, di mirar non sazi ancora la beltà che sì m’accora.
AMINTA: Since they are guilty of my pain, I don’t wish to love my eyes that can never gaze enough on that beauty which so afflicts me.
CLORI: Come, che?
CLORI: How do you love me?
AMINTA: Come te, pastorella tutta bella.
AMINTA: Just as you do, fairest shepherdess.
CLORI: Fa sentirmi altre parole se pur vuoi ch’io mi console. M’ami tu come la vita?
CLORI: Let me hear other words if you want to comfort me. Do you love me as much as life itself?
AMINTA: No, ch’afflitta e sbigottita d’odio e sdegno, e non d’amore, fatta albergo di dolore per due luci, anzi due stelle troppo crude, e troppo belle.
AMINTA: No, for my life is troubled and afflicted by scorn and disdain and not by love. I am made the harbor of gref by two eyes, or rather two stars, too cruel, too beautiful.
CLORI: Come, che?
CLORI: How do you love me?
AMINTA: Come te, pastorella tutta bella.
AMINTA: Just as you do, fairest shepherdess.
CLORI: Non mi dir più: “Come te.” Dimmi: “Io t’amo come me.”
CLORI: Don’t keep saying “Just as you do.” Say “I love you as I love myself.”
AMINTA: No, ch’io stesso, odio me stesso.
AMINTA: No, for I hate myself.
CLORI: Ma se m’ami, dimmi espresso.
CLORI: But if you love me, so so expressly.
AMINTA: Sì, cor mio.
AMINTA: Yes, my heart.
CLORI: Com’io desio?
CLORI: As I wish it?
AMINTA: Sì, cor mio.
AMINTA: Yes, my heart.
CLORI: Dimmi quanto.
CLORI: How much then? Tell me!
AMINTA: Tanto, tanto.
AMINTA: Very much.
CLORI: Come, che?
CLORI: How do you love me?
AMINTA: Come te, pastorella tutta bella.
AMINTA: Just as you do, fairest shepherdess.
Voglio di vita uscir Voglio di vita uscir, voglio che cadano Quest’ossa in polve e queste membra in cenere E che i singulti miei tra l’ombre mi vadano
I want to leave this life; I want these bones to fall into dust and these limbs to turn to ashes, and my sobs to disappear into the shadows,
Gia che quel pie ch’ingemma l’herbe tenere Sempre fugge da me ne lo tra tengono I lacci hoime del bel fanciul di Venere
now that foot which adorns the grass always flees from me, and cannot be restrained by the bonds of Cupid.
Vo che gl’abissi il mio cordoglio vedano E l’aspro mio martir le furie piangano E che dannati al mio tormento cedano.
I want those in the abyss to see my anguish, and the furies to weep over my bitter suffering, and the damned to yield to my torments.
A Dio crudel! gl’orgogli tuoi rimangano A incrudelir con gl’altri a te rinunzio Ne vo piu che mie speme in te si frangano
Ah cruel God! use your pride to make others wretched. I renounce you, and do not want my hopes in you to be crushed anymore.
S’apre la tomba il mio morir t’annuntio Una lacrima spargi, et alfin donami Di tua tarda pietade un solo nuntio E s’anando t’offesi homai perdonami.
The tomb opens—I proclaim my death to you! Spare a tear, and at the end, give me a single messenger out of belated pity. And, if by loving you, I have offended you—Forgive me at last.
Sonino, scherzino Sonino, scherzino, e l’aure sferzino a suon di cetera, Pastori!
Let them play, let them sport, beating the air to the sound of their lyres, the shepherds!
Dican sonando, scherzando, cantando. L’Aurora sorge dal monte su ricco carro ingemmato al bel sussurro del vento accolte in perle su’l prato. Giù brine versa d’argento e con man ricca d’avori rende a Natura i colori. Al campo al bosco a la fonte Che l’alba sorge dal monte.
Let them say playing, laughing and singing, The Dawn is rising from the mount on a rich chariot with gemstones, to the beautiful whisper of the wind; like pearls gathered on meadows she pours silver dewdrops with her hand rich in ivory she gives to Nature all colors. Let us go to the meadow, to the grove, to the spring, as the Dawn is rising from the mount.
Saltino, scotino, e ‘l suol percotino, Con piè leggiadro, danzatori.
Let them jump, let them move, treading the ground with their graceful feet, the dancers! —Translation by L.Ticli
O notte amata O notte amata Del dì più bella Già rinovella L’età beata
O lovely night more beautiful than the day you already renew the blessed age.
Il Figlio eterno Nasce mortale Dal ciel superno Spiegando l’ale
The eternal Son is born mortal from the sky above spreading his wings.
L’antica piaga omai divien sanabile O notte luminosa e ammirabile
The original plague already becomes healable, Oh bright and admirable night.
Vedrem sul fieno Sott’umil tetto Starsi ristretto Un ciel sereno
We will see him on the hay Under a humble roof, gathered in a narrow space as if he were a serene sky.
Gran redentore Del basso mondo Deh sveglia ardore Dal cor profondo
Oh great redemeer of the low world Please awaken ardor from deep in my heart.
Deh scorgi al sacro ostello il piede instabile O notte luminosa e ammirabile.
Come on, look at his frail foot in the holy shelter Oh bright and admirable night. —Translation by L.Ticli
Deh vien da me pastorella Deh vien da me pastorella, Vien qui tra i fior, ch’io t’invito, Muov’il bel piè, sovra ’l lido, Senti ch’ Amor ti rappella, In gioventù cosi bella, In sul fiorir dell’etade.
Come, come to me little shepherdess, come here to the flowers as I invite you, move your beautiful feet on the meadow, hear that Love is calling to you in such a beautiful youth, at a blossoming age.
Deh, non celar la beltade, Ch’amor e ‘l Ciel ti concede.
Come, do not hide the beauty which Love and Heaven grant you.
Deh, vien da me muov’il piede, Deh non fuggir ritrosetta, Torna, torna a posar tra le frondi Deh perché a me ti nascondi: Torna a gioir su l’erbetta.
Come, come to me, move your feet, Come, do not flee, oh bashful one, Turn back to the groves Come, why do you hide from me? Come back and rejoice on the grass.
Godi da te pur soletta, Ch’io vo tacer e penare, Col mio morir vo parlare, E parlerà la mia fede.
You may enjoy your own company, while I want to stop talking and suffer, I will speak through my death and my faith will speak.
Deh non fuggir, muov’il piede.
Come, do not flee, move your feet. —Translation by L.Ticli
Euridice ATTO UNICO, SCENA I CORO: Al canto, al ballo, all’ombra, al prato adorno Alle bell’onde liete Tutti o pastor correte Dolce cantando in sì beato giorno.
CORO: To sing, to dance, to the shade, to the festive meadow To the happy streams, O shepherds, all of you, hasten, Singing sweetly on such a blessed day.
NINFA O PASTORE: Selvaggia Diva e boscherecce ninfe, Satiri e voi Silvani Reti lasciate e cani Venite al suon delle correnti linfe
NINFA O PASTORE: Goddess of the woods, and woodland nymphs, Satyrs and you, Sylvans, leave your snares and dogs, And come to the sound of the running streams.
Al canto, al ballo…
To sing, to dance…
NINFA O PASTORE: Bella madre d’amor, da l’alto coro Scendi ai nostri diletti E coi bei pargoletti Fendi le nubi e il ciel con l’ali d’oro
NINFA O PASTORE: Beautiful Mother of Love, from your heights Descend to our festive delights And with your cupids rend the clouds and heavens with your golden wing.
Al canto, al ballo…
To sing, to dance…
NINFA O PASTORE: Corrin di puro latte e rivi, e fiumi Di mel distilli e manna Ogni selvaggia canna Versate ambrosia e voi celesti numi.
NINFA O PASTORE: Let rivers and streams flow with pure milk And every woodland reed distill honey and manna; Pour ambrosia, you celestial Gods.
Al canto, al ballo…
To sing, to dance… 21
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The First Folio Society The list below includes all friends who have included the Folger Shakespeare Library in their estate plans through a will commitment, a life income gift, or a beneficiary designation in a life insurance policy or retirement plan.
Anonymous (2) Professor Judith H. Anderson Ms. Doris E. Austin Dr. Carol Barton Professor Jackson Campbell Boswell William J Camarinos Professor Carmen A. Casís Ms. Mary Cole The Honorable Esther Coopersmith Drs. John W. Cox & Lo-An T. Nguyen-Cox Dr. James R. & Mrs. Rachel B. Dankert Mr. Douglas Evans Susan Fawcett & Richard Donovan Christine M. Feinthel Wendy Frieman & David Johnson Dr. Elise Goodman (bequest will be in memory of Elise Goodman & Rolf Soellner) Mrs. Karen Gundersheimer
Dr. Werner L. Gundersheimer Dr. Elizabeth H. Hageman Dr. Jay L. Halio Catherine Held Eric H. Hertting Mr. Michael J. Hirrel Dr. Dee Ann Holisky Ms. Deidre Holmes DuBois & Mr. Christopher E. DuBois William L. Hopkins Ms. Elizabeth J. Hunt Lizabeth Staursky Hurst Maxine Isaacs Bruce Janacek Mrs. Robert J.T. Joy Andi H. Kasarsky Paul & Margaret Kaufman Dr. Elizabeth T. Kennan Karl K. & Carrol Benner Kindel Professor John N. King Pauline G. King Merwin Kliman Professor Barbara Kreps Dr. Carole Levin Lilly S. Lievsay Dr. Nancy Klein Maguire Pam McFarland & Brian Hagenbuch Roger & Robin Millay Dr. Barbara A. Mowat* Ms. Sheila A. Murphy Jennifer Newton Gail Kern Paster Linda Levy Peck Dr. Sylvia Holton Peterson Professor Kristen Poole Professor Anne Lake Prescott Dr. Mark Rankin Dr. Markley Roberts Dr. Richard Schoch Mrs. S. Schoenbaum Lisa Schroeter Dr. Lois Green Schwoerer Mr. Theodore Sedgwick Albert H. Small Robin Swope Ednajane Truax Neal T. Turtell Scott & Liz Vance Drs. Alden & Virginia Vaughan Barbara Wainscott Dr. Barbara A. Wanchisen Dr. Richard M. Waugaman, M.D. & Elisabeth P. Waugaman, Ph.D. Professor R L Widmann George W. Williams The Honorable Karen Hastie Williams Dr. Georgianna Ziegler *deceased Every effort has been made to ensure that this list of donors is correct. If your name is misspelled or omitted, please accept our sincere apologies and inform the Development Office at 202.675.0321.
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For more information, call 202.675.0359 or visit folger.edu/members Folger SHAKESPEARE LIBRARY 27
CONSORT 2017/18 season
Join us for our season finale in April.
Vineyard Music of the French Baroque With soprano Rosa Lamoreaux
April 27-29 Cantatas by Monteclair and Rameau based on Ovid are performed, along with delightful instrumental works by Marais, Couperin, Telemann, and others.
Lamoreaux brought “a subtle, delicately calibrated sense of drama, and her singing, as always, was riveting.” – The Washington Post