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Management of Innovation 301 Name: Foi Yung En Student ID: 15543794 / 7E1A8553 Lecturer: Dr. Adriel Sim Seminar: Monday 4.30pm

Total file word count (-) direct quotes (-) table of content (-) reference lists (-) hyperlink sentences (-) headings Total net word count

Table of Contents

4045 150 170 495 99 191 2940


Table of Contents.....................................................................................................................................1 1.0 Executive Summary............................................................................................................................1 ................................................................................................................................................................1 2.0 Company Profile and Background......................................................................................................2 3.0 Establishing an Environment for Innovation......................................................................................3 3.1 Intellectual Protection Strategies.......................................................................................................3 3.1.1 Software Copyright.........................................................................................................................3 3.1.2 Patent.............................................................................................................................................3 3.1.3 Trademark.......................................................................................................................................4 3.2 Managing Organization Knowledge and Innovation Strategies.........................................................5 3.2.1 Organization Knowledge and Knowledge Base Creation................................................................5 3.2.2 Core Competencies.........................................................................................................................5 3.2.3 Absorptive Capacity........................................................................................................................6 3.3 Collaboration Strategies....................................................................................................................7 3.3.1 Licensing.........................................................................................................................................7 3.3.2 Outsourcing....................................................................................................................................7 3.3.3 Collaboration (Non-joint venture)..................................................................................................7 3.3.4 Other Collaboration Strategies ......................................................................................................8 4.0 Implementing Innovation..................................................................................................................9 4.1 Managing innovation and operations management..........................................................................9 4.1.1 Pearson's Uncertainty Map.............................................................................................................9 4.1.2 Organizational Characteristics that Facilitate Innovation.............................................................10 4.2New Product Development (NPD) ...................................................................................................11 4.2.1 New product development as a strategy for growth....................................................................11 4.2.2 Network Model of NPD.................................................................................................................11 4.2.3 Generation Business Opportunities..............................................................................................12 4.2.4 Screening of Business Opportunities ...........................................................................................12 5.0 Questions from the CEO......................................................................................................................14 8.0 Appendix..........................................................................................................................................19 Appendix 1: Core competencies, imitability, profit model (Back)..........................................................19 Appendix 2: Alliances Purpose (Back)....................................................................................................19 Appendix 3: Types of Alliance (Back) ....................................................................................................20


Appendix 4: Licensing Process Approach (Back)....................................................................................20 Appendix 5: Pitfalls of Outsourcing (Back).............................................................................................21 Appendix 6: Pearson's Uncertainty Map (Back).....................................................................................21 Appendix 7: Organizational Characteristics (Back).................................................................................22 Appendix 8: Ansoff's Matrix (Back)........................................................................................................22 Appendix 9: Network Model (Back).......................................................................................................23 Appendix 10: Source of business opportunity (Back).............................................................................23 Appendix 11: Screening Process (Back).................................................................................................24 Appendix 12: Screening Evaluation (Back).............................................................................................24


1.0 Executive Summary This report basically outline the process taken by GroupMap to develop, manage, and implement their innovation. In the early stage of GroupMap, they had apply for IP protections which consists of copy right, trademark, patent, domain URL, and trade secret. However, Jeremy is still uncertain whether to apply for full patent. One of the recommendation is to strongly urge Jeremy to apply for full patent. One of the thing made GroupMap unique is their knowledge creation is from resourcebase perspective. GroupMap had exploit what they have in order to achieve their target. Besides, the need of strategic alliance also been outlined in this report. A recommendation are given as well which is beyond the scope of collaboration. Furthermore, the report also describe the strategies require to aid GroupMap to achieve growth. Growth can be achieved not just by introducing new product. This report also discuss about the various sources that contribute in ideas generation, as well as screening those ideas. A simple steps relating to GroupMap are given in this report.

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2.0 Company Profile and Background GroupMap is founded in the year of 2012 by Jeremy Lu and also Brad Ward. Jeremy Lu was a full-time lecturer teaching in Curtin University and Brad was an agile software designer in Microsoft before GrouMap was introduced. Currently, GroupMap have 10 personnel working on running and improving the business and have a vision saying that "A simple, effective tool for great teams to think, share, talk and decide based on quality insights, focused conversations and collaborative outcomes" (iLecture 2014). Generally, GroupMap work as a collaborative web tool, which help groups and teams to enhance brainstorming session, share ideas, and form consensus (Learn More 2013). In the end, best ideas or feedbacks are given. GroupMap had participated in OzAPP awards 2012 and was ranked 3rdin national competition. GroupMap focused on 2 channels to market their product,

Subscription

as

a

Service (SaaS) model and license model (iLecture 2014). Besides, before GroupMap where officially released, the software was not named as GroupMap instead, it was My2Sense. However, due to different countries' culture and individual perception towards the name, Jeremy Lu and his team had to brainstorm and rename their product. This is where the name GroupMap had been identified. Furthermore, GroupMap's software had been used in events such as Public Sector Innovation Conference and Deans of Science Plenary session at their AGM (GroupMap 2014).

GroupMap's Timeline

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3.0 Establishing an Environment for Innovation 3.1 Intellectual Protection Strategies What is IP Strategies? "Click Here" The IP strategies that had been adopted by GroupMap are, software copyright, provision patent, trademark, domain URL and trade secrets. There are arguments build regarding these methods. However, this report only focus on 3 methods, which are patent, copyright and trademark.

3.1.1 Software Copyright One of the supporting arguments for copyright is, it encourages the development of software. According to Oz (1998, 163), software are no different than literary, music, and other form of artistic. Software inventors are being granted with the right to make copies. Thus, other companies could not use the software created by GroupMap. However, critiques says that due to software copyright, it brings disadvantages to the consumers. Referring to Oz (1998, 164) statement, in order for a company to have a greater protection, a higher price are being charged. Hence, to cover the cost, company transfer the cost to the end-product, which made consumer to pay at higher price. Besides, the presence of copyright would reduce the number of competitions in the market. As mention by Oz (1998,164), the presences of competition best serves the public. Thus, without competitions, customers do not have alternatives to choose from. This will indirectly influence consumers to build bad reputation on GroupMap. Consumers emphasize on price when it comes to goods, thus, no alternatives for them to choose will force them to purchase from GroupMap. When the presence of alternative software which are cheaper than GroupMap, the customers might shift to the new company.

3.1.2 Patent Patent Law is applied to new or improved products, manufacturing process and composition of matter (Trott 2012, 160). GroupMap had applied for provision patent and able to apply for full patent in the future. The benefit for applying patent is that GroupMap able to monopolize the market, pioneering advantage. Competitors could not imitate GroupMap's product, thus, they are able to harvest maximum rents (benefits) throughout the patent period. The downside of patent law is that it will lead to slow-down technological progress. Since patent

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law forbid others to access the knowledge embedded in the invention, people have to take longer time to invent something new (Encaoua, Guellec and Martinez 2006, 1425). Other inventors could not know the flaws of GroupMap and invent something better.

3.1.3 Trademark Trademark protects a distinctive name, logo, symbol, or mark which use to identify a company's products (Trott 2012, 173). One of the advantages of trademark is, it helps to distinguish a firm from its competitors (Block et al. 2013, 3). In this case, after GroupMap had trademarked their logo and name, competitors could not use the same name. Thus, consumers are more easy to recognize their brand. As for the downside of trademark is, it does not grant monopoly market. According to Nam and Barnett (2011, 1474), trademark alone do not protect one's invention. Trademark rely on other IP methods as well. Thus, GroupMap require more financial support and time to apply for other IP strategies. Click "I-Want-More (Prezi)" to view more arguments on each IP strategies.

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3.2 Managing Organization Knowledge and Innovation Strategies 3.2.1 Organization Knowledge and Knowledge Base Creation Organizational knowledge is "individually shared knowledge that individuals come to understand and interpret in a particular organizational context" (Yang 2009, 1725). GroupMap knowledge base creation is create accordance with resource-based perspective. It can be defined as firm's unique resources are being exploit, combine, and diversify through organizational routines to achieve its target (Spanos and Lioukas 2001, 909). According to Bharadwaj (2000, 171), resources include of tangible, intangible, and personnel-based resources and are seen as valuable, rare, inimitable, and non-substitutable. GroupMap has an organizational routine whereby identifying and introduce templates or providing interface which are simple to use for end users, facilitators, businesses and also themselves. Therefore, frequent discussion and brainstorming need to be held in order to improve customers' experience.

3.2.2 Core Competencies Core competencies defined as achieving competitive advantage through a product's attributes or features which are valuable, rare, inimitable, and non-substitutable that create value to the customers (Trott 2012, 202). The core competencies of GroupMap is the templates they offered in their product. Click "Here" to view the types of chart, table and maps offered by GroupMap. Referring to the "Core competencies, imitability and profit model", GroupMap is allocated at "Long-term profits" quadrant. This model shows a company expected profit through identifying their coreness and imitability (Trott 2012, 202). In this case, GroupMap coreness is considered high. The reason is, there is no other software developers that introduce such templates which improve discussions and decision making. As for the degree of imitability, GroupMapis low. As mention by Jeremy, to form these templates, it requires complex algorithm. Besides, GroupMap also acquire patent law, which protect their process in creating those templates and also the designs.

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3.2.3 Absorptive Capacity Absorptive capacity defined as the ability to recognize information or knowledge that are valuable through prior knowledge, and taking opportunity to assimilate and apply it to commercial gain (Wales et al. 2012, 622). For Jeremy, he have few absorptive capacity that are identifiable. Jeremy have the prior knowledge from his previous occupation regarding how to set up a company which includes, types of IP protections, source of funding and the process to establish a SME. Besides, Jeremy's previous occupation are most likely to work in a group. For instance, he was a business consultant, business manager, financial accountant, and a lecturer. For a person who engage with people every day, he knows what are the issues faced during meetings, consultancy and other aspects. Through these, he identify a solution to solve the issues, which is GroupMap. On the other hand, Brad, as his partner, brings in the knowledge of IT which Jeremy does not possess.

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3.3 Collaboration Strategies According to Masrurul (2012, 23), strategic alliance is defined as the agreement between companies to work together to achieve a set of consensus goals and to retain competitive advantages. Click "here" to find out the reasons for companies to form alliances, and "here" for types of alliances.

3.3.1 Licensing Licensing is whereby the originator grant permission for others to use the intellectual property (inventions) (Trott 2012, 239). According to Todeva and Knoke (2005, 128), through licensing, companies able to achieve a large scale of market share in short run. Since GroupMap is considered as a new entrant, they can adopt licensing to gain more market share. Not only for the purpose of revenue, they are able to build reputation on their corporate trademark (Meyer, Tinney, and Tinney 1985, 196). However, licensing have its pitfalls as well. One of it would be image protection. Licensee mischief will directly damage the image of GroupMap. For example, undesirable products, low quality products or poor marketing Click "here" to view the licensing process approach.

3.3.2 Outsourcing Outsourcing is where a company or an individual obtain products or services from another company rather than producing themselves (Trott 2012, 240). One of the example is Curtin Sarawak procures Security force from third party. As for GroupMap, they can procures services from third party which are more expertise on that field. One of the services GroupMap needed is marketing field, to help them to improve their marketing strategies. With the help from outside, GroupMap able to focus more on their expertise field. At the meantime, their marketing able to be enhance as well. Click "Here" to see the pitfalls of Outsourcing.

3.3.3 Collaboration (Non-joint venture) GroupMap is currently collaborating with Curtin University. However, they wish to collaborate with more universities in the future. As mentioned by Jeremy, Curtin Universities currently using GroupMap's software to conduct their flipped classroom model. The benefits of collaboration is firms able to gain market share quicker. Through collaborations, their products

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are promoted via other firms. In this case, Curtin University is helping GroupMap to introduce their newly found software to the students. The downside of collaboration is the partner can use this as an opportunity to test market. There is always the risk of being imitated. The partner helping out GroupMap might see the opportunity of this software and tries to introduce one by themselves.

3.3.4 Other Collaboration Strategies One of the strategies that is beyond the normal scope is forming partnership with social networking site, Facebook. According to a blogger, Protalinski (2014), stated that Facebook had approximately 1.23 billion users every month. People nowadays do everything online. Not just online but facebook-ing. Students use social media as a communication tool. For example, discussing homework or assignment. Businesses use it to held meetings. Therefore, instead of just having their own website to run the GroupMap's application, they can form partner to allow social media to have this application. This brings convenience to the users. Besides, by introducing this application of GroupMap in social media, it is much easier for them to gain market share.

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4.0 Implementing Innovation 4.1 Managing innovation and operations management 4.1.1 Pearson's Uncertainty Map According to Trott (2012, 88), Pearson's uncertainty map is a model which allow firms to study and comprehend their uncertainty and innovation process. Further explanation are given "here" For GroupMap, they classify under quadrant 4, which is combining market opportunities with technical capabilities. Under this quadrant, both uncertainty about output and uncertainty about process are low. The reason said is because GroupMap had identify the opportunity in the market, and implement this idea by using their capabilities, which are resources, knowledge, know-how, available technologies, and others. In this case, GroupMap's identified market opportunity is a software (discussion tool), which improves discussion, creativity, and ideas generation. Since Jeremy's previous occupations are mostly work in a group, thus, he knows what are the flaws in a group discussion, and what aspects need to consider to improve a group discussion. Besides, he have prior knowledge regarding on how to manage and implement innovations. As for the creation of this tool, Jeremy's partner, Brad is responsible for creating it. To achieve this opportunity, the process are digitizing templates, IP protection, and so forth. Since the opportunity is already there, and GroupMap have the capability to achieve it, therefore, GroupMap need to expose this product as soon as possible. One of the reason is because the demand is already there. To help expose, GroupMap require a team of expert marketers to help to get the product into the market.

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4.1.2 Organizational Characteristics that Facilitate Innovation GroupMap have the characteristics of being growth-oriented and receptivity (Trott 2012, 93). GroupMap have the intention to focus on other market instead of just business and education sectors. Besides, GroupMap are more emphasize on user-base which is beneficial in future. One of the example is Facebook. At the early stage, Facebook

target

market

is

educational

institution. They emphasize in increasing their user-base rather than earning profits from them and through sponsors. Now, their target market transition into public. In addition, GroupMap sees the opportunity and the need for using external capabilities in order to facilitate their innovation. One of the reason is because GroupMap is a new venture, and the available resources are limited. Therefore, GroupMap require external resources through licensing, collaborations, outsourcing, and so forth. GroupMap but also the other parties, mutual benefit.

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Strategic alliance not only benefiting


4.2New Product Development (NPD) 4.2.1 New product development as a strategy for growth NPD is considered as one of strategies for a firm to achieve growth. However, new product does mean will lead to growth. According to Trott (2012, 422), businesses rely on different strategies to meet growth. Therefore, GroupMap need to refer to Ansoff's matrix to identify which strategy suit best. Referring to the matrix, GroupMap is classify on quadrant 1. In order to achieve growth, they require to implement market penetration strategy. Besides offering new product to achieve growth, GroupMap have to start with something smaller. It is because when they introduced this discussion tool (software), they identify the market for this invention. The problem now is the demand. Thus, GroupMap should think of strategies to help penetrate the product into the market. Based on Riley (2012), strategies like advertising, sales promotion, pricing strategies, as well as personal selling are able to increase market share, hence achieving growth. The main objective is to dominate the existing market, whereby increase the usage of the current and unexposed customers (Riley 2012).

4.2.2 Network Model of NPD Network model describes that in order to successfully develop a product, it rely both internal activities and external linkages (Trott 2012, 442). External linkages helps to enhance product development process because it facilitates additional knowledge flow into the organization. External linkages are inputs from a wide array of resources which consist of finance, R&D, marketing, and manufacturing. Referring to the model, GroupMap is still lacking in resources which prevent them to invent new products. However, GroupMap is on the right track whereby they are trying to gather external inputs to contribute to their overall knowledge. In future, they will have sufficient knowledge to help them in their new product development

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4.2.3 Generation Business Opportunities The next activity comes after new product development is generation of business opportunities. According to Trott (2012, 561), in order to identify new opportunities, firms have to identify and scan various sources. Click "here" for sources that influence opportunity identification. In this case, customers is one of the sources that facilitate GroupMap to identify opportunities. Basically, ideas and opportunities are form when there is demand. Therefore, customers' feedback and complaints are vital for GroupMap in order for them to identify new opportunities. Besides, another source would be brainstorming. Through brainstorming, GroupMap able to come out with new creative and innovative ideas. Besides, their primary product is to facilitate discussion. Therefore, this would bring a big impact in their discussions. To successfully identify new opportunities, GroupMap are suggested to look into every sources (Trott 2012, 561)

4.2.4 Screening of Business Opportunities Screening is a vital process whereby it helps businesses to retain "good ideas" and drop "bad ideas" (Hamilton 1974, 16). Before approaching to the first step, GroupMap have to analyze whether their ideas are realistic or a mere fantasy. Click "here" to see the screening stages and "here" to see the evaluation of screening. The first thing is to perform initial screen. This process is for identify whether their current technology able to achieve this idea and also perform a simple marketing test. Secondly, GroupMap require to perform customer screen. This is by building a prototype of the idea and get feedback from their potential customers. Thirdly, GroupMap require to proceed to technical screen, whereby they need to undergo R&D or consult third party experts to analyze the requirement to construct each of the ideas. Basically to find out the resources needed, types of technologies required and so forth. Fourthly, GroupMap required to perform final screening. This step is to score each of the ideas by using computer software. Through scores and comments, GroupMap able to weight which idea are the best and which are the weakest. The final step would be business analysis. GroupMap require to form preliminary marketing plans,

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cash-flow statement, budgeting, and so forth before proceeding to mass production. This is to identify previous unforeseen problems and mistakes.

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5.0 Questions from the CEO New Product Development

One of the new development is people able to brainstorm for events. Instead of sharing your written ideas, people able to post music, theme, portraits, and so forth to brainstorm for a particular event. Another new development is provide notification. When there is new post, people who joined the discussion are being notified. New Business/Market Development

Instead of focusing on businesses and education sectors, GroupMap can try to target public. To penetrate faster, GroupMap should allow free access for publics. However, when public register for an account, they should stat the purpose of their usage. Besides, GroupMap can put advertisements for free access users. This can be one of the way to earn profit as well. Marketing (online/offline)

One of the online marketing is putting adverts on YouTube or Facebook. The reason is because the number users are high which means there are more potential customers. Besides, offline marketing is through personal selling. Through this, sales person able to explain the product in detail. Other Commercialization Activities Other form of commercialization could be having workshops in Curtin Universities. In Curtin, Miri, workshops regarding presentations are given to student to teach them the proper manner to present. This goes to GroupMap as well, they can ask for permission from Curtin to hold workshops as well to teach students how to brainstorm and discussion.

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6.0 Conclusion and Recommendation In conclusion, GroupMap had discover a unique and innovative idea which able to bring an impact to the society, in terms of discussion, meeting and brainstorming. GroupMap should take IP protection seriously, instead of going provision patent, they should apply for full patent to secure their innovation. Besides, GroupMap have a strong knowledge management whereby they encourages individual to share their knowledge with one and another according to their organizational routine. Furthermore, GroupMap are recommended to build a strong external linkages(strategic alliance and external sources).This able to build competitive advantage for GroupMap. External linkages not just aid day-to-day operation, but it contributes in GroupMap's knowledge accumulation. Lastly, before going through production phase, GroupMap are recommended to undergo screening stage in detail to identify the weak point of each ideas. The reason is because if the risks or problems have not been identified, difficulties may arise during production.

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8.0 Appendix Appendix 1: Core competencies, imitability, profit model (Back)

Appendix 2: Alliances Purpose (Back)

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Appendix 3: Types of Alliance (Back)

Appendix 4: Licensing Process Approach (Back)

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Appendix 5: Pitfalls of Outsourcing (Back)

Appendix 6: Pearson's Uncertainty Map (Back)

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Appendix 7: Organizational Characteristics (Back)

Appendix 8: Ansoff's Matrix (Back)

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Appendix 9: Network Model (Back)

Appendix 10: Source of business opportunity (Back)

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Appendix 11: Screening Process (Back)

Appendix 12: Screening Evaluation (Back)

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Foi, 2014 moi