How to Harvard Reference (SHU STYLE) Plus Citing and Plagiarism
What is the citation?
A citation is the actual note we make in our work of the reference used.
If you are referring to a source in a general way or paraphrasing an author’s work, do this by quoting the author and date of the source using brackets as shown below
There are several methods of referencing one of which is Harvard Referencing. And there are variations on Harvard Referencing! One of these is SHU Style (Sheffield Hallam University Style) which has been adopted by Sheffield College. Why should I reference my work?
It is suggested that …(Adams 1906)
OR Adams (1906) suggests that the electric blanket
If you are directly quoting from an author‟s work, place quote marks around the text and include the page number(s), such as
“ The electric blanket can get very hot” (Adams 1906, p28).
To acknowledge the work of others when you have used it in your own work To avoid plagiarism (copying another‟s work and passing it off as your own) To show that you have read widely about your subject and used a variety of sources (ideally) To allow any reader to find the source again
What constitutes plagiarism?
Short quotes should just flow on from your writing There has been extensive research regarding electric blankets, the main conclusion is “ The electric blanket can get very hot” (Adams 1906, p28). This took years of research.
Indent longer quotes, leaving a line of space above and below. The origin of a nursery rhyme is often disputed “According to the Oxford English Dictionary the term "humpty dumpty" referred to a drink of brandy boiled with ale in the seventeenth century. The riddle probably exploited, for misdirection, the fact that …..” (Wikipedia 2005) There are several different explanations of this particular nursery rhyme.
For multiple authors cite all of them up to a maximum of 3, in the order given in the publication. If there are more than 3 use „et al‟ after the first author‟s name, see below.
If you submit a piece of work that contains work that is not your own, without indicating this to your tutor (acknowledging your sources), you are committing „plagiarism‟ and therefore cheating. This might occur in an assignment when you…
What is referencing?
Powell, D et al (2008 p1)
If you have quoted or paraphrased information then the citation should always be placed with the information from the source. The citation for the source of a quote should be positioned either immediately before or after the quote. Any reader of the text should then be able to use the citation to find the full reference at the end of the piece of work, and from this locate the source of the material. There has been extensive research regarding electric blankets, the main conclusion is “ The electric blanket can get very hot” (Adams 1906, p28). This citation would allow a reader to find the reference ADAMS, A. D. (1906). Ten Benefits of the Electric Blanket. New York, McGraw. in the bibliography or reference at the end of the piece of work.
Here is an example of a bibliography. The references are from a book, a book with an editor, a website and an image taken from a website and a film on DVD. Note that the references are in alphabetical order by author, apart from film which puts the title first. Use the authors first name in full if possible, otherwise use the initials. Bibliography ADAMS, Aaron D. (1906). Ten benefits of the electric blanket. New York, McGraw. BRITTAIN, B. (1980). Eight folk songs arrangements for high voice and beer bottle. Edited by Osain Ellis. London, Faber Music. HAWKING, S. (2000). Strange findings at the end of a rainbow. [online]. Last accessed 2 July 2013 at: http://www.hawking.org.uk/home/hindex.html SELECKY, Sarah (2008). Cat on a washing Line. [online]. Last accessed 30 June 2013 at: http://www.sarahselecky.ca/typewrite_files/type%20writer.png
A reference is a description of the sources (book/article/web page/image etc.) used in your work, such as a book and a journal. The sources are listed together at the end of your assignment in alphabetical order by author last name, using a particular style, dependant on the type of source which has its own formatting and punctuation characteristics - see book and journal examples below ADAMS, A. D. (1906). Ten Benefits of the Electric Blanket. New York, McGraw. POTTER, Amos (2001). „Dangermouse—hero or Villain‟. Cultural Studies, Spring 01, (4), 32-44.
Where to Cite and Reference?
use a choice phrase or sentence that you have come across. copy word-for-word directly from a text. paraphrase the words from a text very closely. borrow assembled facts from another person or source. copy or download figures, or diagrams, without acknowledging the sources. use an experimental method designed by someone else
For multiple authors reference all of them up to a maximum of 3, in the order given in the publication. If there are more than 3 use „et al‟ after the first author‟s name. POWELL, David, et al. (2008). How to Reference. Milton Keynes, OUP.
When referencing corporate authors like the BBC/ NHS etc. or an official body just use the company or organisation name as the author. AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL (2006). Blame the rest. London, Opie Press.
Reference or Bibliography?
These are located on a separate page at the end of your piece of work.
The Bibliography contains a full and accurate reference of all material you have used to produce your assignment. This includes all the sources you have cited and any other material used for background reading even if there has been no need to cite or refer to them.
The Reference should contain a full and accurate reference for each of the sources you have quoted or to which you have referred in the body of your text.
You may have to produce both or just one of these - your tutor will let you know which. Refer to http://libguides.shu.ac.uk/referencing OR use the QR code overleaf for how to reference anything from a text message to a radio broadcast.
Citing and Referencing Harvard SHU Style Some example references and citations. The information is shown in the correct order in the examples - try to follow the order as well as the format (CAPITALS, Italics, bold and be consistent. The punctuation you should include is shown - references should include a full stop at the end unless the last part of a reference is a URL when a full stop is not needed. http://libguides.shu.ac.uk/referencing
Reference: ARMSTRONG, Karen (2004). Buddha. New York, Paperman.
A web page may be a particular type of material such as wiki, blog, e journal, in which case follow the SHU guide for specific types. For non specific material use the following. AUTHOR OF PAGE, (Year). Title of page. [online]. Last accessed date at: URL
Citations for direct quote: (Armstrong 2004, p112) …… as stated by Armstrong (2004, p112) Armstrong (2004, p112) describes …..
Reference: NHS (2008). Radical Autumn shake-up. [online]. Last accessed 1 July 2013 at: http://www.nhsdirect.co.uk/en/news.html Citations no page nos needed (NHS 2008) OR According to the NHS (2008) ……. OR …..
AUTHOR LASTNAME, First Name (Publication Year). Title. Publication Place, Publisher.
Citations for paraphrasing: (no page no.) (Armstrong 2004) …… as stated by Armstrong (2004) Armstrong (2004) describes …..
AUTHOR LASTNAME, First Name (Publication Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume/ Month, (Issue or Number), Page(s). NB Volume/Month in BOLD Reference: POTTER, Amos (2001). ‘Dangermouse—hero or Villain’. Cultural Studies, Spring 01, (4), 32-44. Citations for direct quotes: (Potter 2001, p32) ….. as indicated by Potter (2001, p32) Potter (2001, p32) states …..
Citations for paraphrasing: (no page no.) (Potter 2001) ….. as indicated by Potter (2001) Potter (2001) states …..
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE AUTHOR LASTNAME, First Name (Year). Article Title. Newspaper Title, Day Month, Section Title (if applicable), Page(s). Reference: HARRIS, Craig (2005). ‘Crazed wolves in Mothercare—bad idea’ .The Times, 4 June, Times Extra, 16. Citations for direct quotes: (Harris 2005, p16) Harris (2005, p16) gives details….
Citations for paraphrasing: (no page no.) (Harris 2005) Harris (2005) gives details….
IMAGE, DIAGRAM, FIGURE, TABLE when the CREATOR of the image is the SAME as the AUTHOR of the SOURCE CREATOR LASTNAME, firstname (Publication Year). THEN FOLLOW THE STYLE FOR THE TYPE OF SOURCE eg 1 diagram and web site created by same person Reference: SKELLY, Bob (2001). My Skeleton Picture. [online]. Last accessed 6 July 2005 at: http://www.ratemyskellybob/health/print_image.jpg Citation below Image, Diagram etc: (Skelly 2001)
IMAGE, DIAGRAM, FIGURE, TABLE when the CREATOR of the image is DIFFERENT from the AUTHOR of SOURCE You should include the creator of the image and cite and reference the source eg below a diagram by Stoner from a book by Cole you would write the citation Stoner (Cole 1994, p38)
and the reference would be
COLE, G (1994). Strategic Management. London, DP Publications.