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Friends of the Earth Scotland’s supporters’ magazine Issue 70 Winter 2016/17


subject on lineEarth 70 What

Friends of the Earth Scotland (FoES) is: • Scotland’s leading environmental campaigning organisation • An independent Scottish charity with a network of thousands of supporters and active local groups across Scotland • Part of the largest grassroots environmental network in the world, uniting over 2 million supporters, 75 national member groups, and some 5,000 local activist groups. Our vision is of a world where everyone can enjoy a healthy environment and a fair share of the earth’s resources. Friends of the Earth Scotland is an independent Scottish charity SC003442.

What on Earth is published by and copyrighted to: Friends of the Earth Scotland 5 Rose Street, Edinburgh EH2 2PR T: 0131 243 2700 E: info@foe-scotland.org.uk W: www.foe-scotland.org.uk

Editor: Connal Hughes Picture Editor: Connal Hughes Design: www.triggerpress.co.uk Cover image and illustrations throughout by Andy Arthur www.magnificentoctopus.com Note: Images used on p20-21 of issue 69 were provided by Lawrence Cheuk of Young Friends of the Earth Europe The views expressed in What on Earth are not necessarily those of Friends of the Earth Scotland. FoES accepts no liability for errors, omissions or incorrect data in advertisements.

If you would prefer to receive a digital version of WoE contact us: info@foe-scotland.org.uk RE-USE AND SPREAD THE WORD When you have finished with this magazine, save it or pass it on to friends, a doctor’s surgery, school, student union, library or café. As a last resort recycle it. Printed on Revive pure white silk 100% recycled paper

Contents 4

News in Brief Trump, Heathrow and Hinkley Point

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Fracking reports published Damning evidence revealed

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People power wins over UCG Risky coal banned

13 Ireland votes to ban fracking Evidence and public pressure succeeds 16 Putting clean air on the agenda Taking local action on environmental injustice


WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

Director’s View

By Dr Richard Dixon, Director

and beyond. This is the kind of good example write this from the UN climate conference the international process needs. in Marrakech, where countries are supposed to be agreeing on the actions We are already on a journey to making that will deliver on the ambition of the Paris Scotland fossil free, with the closure of our Agreement, signed last December. A key last coal-fired power station this March and focus for us at this conference is immediate the very recent decision to ban Underground action. Despite all the back slapping, early Coal Gasification. While fracking companies emissions reduction is something that the in England are gearing Paris meeting We need to make sure up to fight protesters at completely failed to Scotland's climate ambitions drilling sites, in stimulate. really are a world-class Scotland the SNP's example. moratorium research It is clear that no UN damns the technique and Labour is proposing member state is on track to deliver the a bill to ban it forever. promise of limiting temperature rises to 1.5ÂşC. In the worst case some countries, like Japan, The victory over Underground Coal have already met their own targets for 2020 Gasification was a great example of working but refuse to do anything more for now. The with key local campaign groups, behind the election of Trump could slow, but not halt, the scenes engagement with politicians and civil inevitable global transition to clean, green servants, a stream of strong media stories energy. and persistent pressure from FoES activists. Scotland has also met its 2020 target, but we We need to bring that same pressure to bear are promised a new Climate Bill with more over the next six months to finally beat ambitious targets, as well as a new Climate fracking and to make sure Scotland's climate Change Plan to spell out the actions that will ambitions really are a world-class example. deliver more emissions reductions by 2020

RICHARD DIXON

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he world was shocked as Donald Trump was elected US President. His sexist and racist behaviour, coupled with a total lack of political experience, makes him a threat to US citizens and the world in many ways. His ludicrous claims about climate change being a Chinese plot and his desire to tear up the Paris Agreement put him at odds with almost every other nation.

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The words of the FOE US President Erich Pica give us hope though: “We will have to harness our new energy, join together, and use every strategy possible to fight against hate and greed and environmental destruction. While I wish we had a different fight before us, we must fight the one

presented to us. The future of our country and planet depends on it.”

UN Climate Conference

eathrow was finally named as the UK Government’s preferred option for airport expansion in South East of England. This is despite London already being the best connected city in the world for air travel. The Scottish Government also backed the Heathrow option despite the growing

contribution of aviation to climate change. It is unclear whether the runway will ever be built though given ferocious local opposition, London’s significant air pollution problem and the fact that experts now say that airports could take up half of the entire UK’s carbon budget for 1.5ºC by 2050.

he contract to build a new nuclear plant at Hinkley Point was finally signed by the UK Government in September. The deal will see French Government-backed EDF paid twice the current energy price for the next 35 years. The project has been hugely criticised for its mammoth cost estimated at £37billion and the toxic legacy it will inevitably leave behind.

However, serious concerns remain though about the viability of the scheme. Reactors of this type have never been completed before, with Finnish and French projects running years late and billions over budget. Secret UK Government papers also show that taxpayers will foot the bill of storing the resulting nuclear waste should the costs soar.

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WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

RICHARD DIXON

News in Brief


2016 Annual Prize Draw Star prize: a two-night stay at Brockloch Treehouse

Brockloch Treehouse www.brockloch.co.uk Other prizes include: £50 Real Foods vouchers www.realfoods.co.uk Filmhouse movie tickets ZZZ¿OPKRXVHFLQHPDFRP CoCoaMountain Chocolates Plus: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Keepersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; photobook from FoE Europe, tickets to the FoE Scotland Spring ceilidh <RX¶OO¿QGDERRNOHWRIWLFNHWVHQFORVHGLQ\RXUFRS\RI :KDWRQ(DUWK7RHQWHUVHQGWLFNHWVDQGSD\PHQWWR FREEPOST RRLR-KAGH-LYBS Friends of the Earth Scotland 5 Rose Street, Edinburgh, EH2 2PR )RUPRUHWLFNHWVSOHDVHFRQWDFW-RKQ)LW]JHUDOG M¿W]JHUDOG#IRHVFRWODQGRUJXNWHO Entries must be received by 17 January 2017 which is the draw date. 5


Fracking Consultation

he Scottish Government has published a long-awaited series of reports into the impacts of the unconventional oil and gas industry, and confirmed that the public consultation on whether or not fracking should go ahead will take place ‘early in the New Year’.

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While most of the reports shy away from making recommendations, our view is that on the whole they paint a pretty poor picture of a future with fracking. In particular, the studies show that fracking is bad for the climate, bad for public health and really won't bring much in the way of economic benefits either. The report on climate change says that developing an unconventional gas industry will make it harder to meet our climate targets, and left unregulated its emissions footprint due to methane leakage could be substantial. Given that we struggle to meet our climate targets as it is, and that in light of last years’ Paris Agreement our targets require strengthening, this is a stark warning indeed. The health impact assessment confirms that there is enough evidence to suggest a 6

WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

number of air and water-borne environmental hazards would be likely to occur as a result of unconventional oil and gas operations. Further, workers’ health could be at risk from the use of silica in fracking operations and the industry could pose other risks to the health of nearby residents. The traffic impacts study found that fracking industry will result in increased traffic for local communities, potentially over many years, and that these traffic increases could result in more noise, emissions, road damage and accidents. Meanwhile, the study on economic impacts demonstrates that far from replicating the US shale boom, it is unclear if the industry is commercially viable at all in Scotland. Report authors KPMG warned that even if the industry were successful, in the scenarios developed with industry stakeholders, fracking would only be expected to contribute on average only 0.1% to GDP, with a total of only £2.2bn direct spend in Scotland up to 2062. The potential 1,400 direct and indirect jobs at peak outlined in this scenario are less than 1.5% of the jobs predicted to be lost in the oil and gas sector by the end of the year. These


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Fracking Consultation

By Mary Church, Head of Campaigns

figures put to bed the Scottish Conservatives argument that a domestic fracking industry is vital in providing jobs for redundant North Sea workers, and emphasises the need for an urgent plan for transition away from the fossil fuel industry that is fair to workers and the communities dependent on it.

and Conservatives voted against, a nonbinding motion to prohibit the industry. So we are hopeful about what such a future vote might result in.

We are also hopeful that Scottish Labourâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s welcome proposal for a Bill to ban fracking will gain traction and increase pressure on We were glad to hear Energy Minister Paul the Scottish Government to legislate to Wheelhouse emphasise the need to prevent the industry going ahead. The Private remember that the Memberâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bill was The study on economic impacts launched by resources companies demonstrates that far from like INEOS want to Environment and replicating the US shale boom, it frack are located in Climate spokesperson is unclear if the industry is the most densely Claudia Beamish MSP commercially viable at all in populated central on the grounds that Scotland. belt, as well as our climate change means climate obligations, in his statement to we must say no to unconventional oil and gas Parliament on publishing the reports. The resources. Not only has Ms Beamish kickMinister also confirmed that following the started the important process of thinking public consultation, the Scottish Government through the technicalities of how a ban on would make a recommendation as to how to fracking could actually be implemented, but proceed on the issue of fracking and given the delicate maths of the Parliament, Parliament would get to vote on the matter. her Bill could end up being the vehicle that ultimately stops the industry going ahead. You may recall that a ban on fracking is the official will of the Parliament following a vote in June. This saw Labour, Lib Dems and Find out more and take action at Greens joining forces, while SNP abstained, www.stopfracking.scot


UCG Ban

WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

RICHARD DIXON

By Mary Church, Head of Campaigns

n a huge victory for people power, the Scottish Government banned Underground Coal Gasification on 6 October. One year earlier, the Government had announced a moratorium on UCG following a groundswell of opposition to reckless proposals to set coal seams alight under the Firths of Forth and Solway. Simply the prospect of 2,000 people joining hands across the Forth Road Bridge was enough to convince the Government to act, with the moratorium announced a couple of days before the unprecedented protest.

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Twelve months on, having commissioned an independent review into the controversial fossil fuel technique, the Government made the right choice in saying no to UCG. Not only is the history of the industry littered with serious contamination incidents, ground subsidence and industrial accidents, but the climate change consequences of UCG are simply unacceptable. The science is clear that the vast majority of fossil fuels must remain in the ground if we are to avoid the critical limit of 1.5ºC warming as recognised in the Paris Agreement. So called ‘unconventional’ fossil fuels such as UCG and shale gas fracking fall outwith the 80% of known reserves that experts have branded ‘unburnable carbon’, which is why opening up a new frontier like this would be utterly disastrous. This decision on UCG is the first time the Scottish Government has said no to more 8

Celebrating the UCG ban on Portobello Beach.

fossil fuel extraction and therefore marks a hugely important turning point in our fight against climate change. While Energy Minister Paul Wheelhouse didn’t actually use the word ‘ban’, effectively that’s what the decision amounts to. He asked the


WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

UK Government to revoke the six existing UCG licences in Scotland, not to grant any more and confirmed the Government would use planning powers to block the technology. Coal Authority licensing remains reserved to Westminster making it difficult for the Scottish Government to legislate for a ban on UCG, in the same way that reserved energy powers make it difficult to legislate for a ban on nuclear. There has been no challenge to the Scottish Government’s ongoing ‘policy ban’ on new nuclear since it was announced in 2007 despite continued Westminster support for the technology, and there’s no reason it should be any different with UCG. (We'll be pushing for a legislative ban on shale gas and coalbed methane though, given new powers over these are being devolved to Holyrood.) This victory would not have been possible without the support of you, our members. Your generosity allows us to put up the strongest fight against these dangerous plans. We were able to engage thousands of people online urging them to contact their MSPs, we spoke at community events across the country and prepared our in-

UCG Ban

We are hopeful that this decision spells a clear direction of travel from the Scottish Government as it prepares its new energy strategy and a new Climate Bill. Climate science demands that we move away from fossil fuels, we have abundant renewable resources to rely on, and people power will make it happen! depth report ‘Fuelling the Fire’, which highlighted the threat posed by UCG. Thank you for playing a part in this important victory that will protect Scotland’s local environment and our climate. You can read our report 'Fuelling the Fire' at: http://foes.do/UCG_rep 9


WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

INEOS & Fracking

By Flick Monk, Unconventional Oil & Gas Campaigner

neos has begun importing ethane from fracked shale gas in the US to Scotland. But we spoiled their party when the first shipment arrived. We highlighted the damaging impacts of this gas extraction on communities in Pennsylvania and challenged Ineos’ grand claims in the media.

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The petrochemical giant and owner of fracking licences has been making a song and dance all summer about their plans to import ethane from the US to its plant at Grangemouth. In late September, Ineos organised a flashy welcome party for the first shipment – complete with a lone bagpiper and champagne reception. Not having received an invitation to the PR party ourselves, we instead decided to find out exactly where the ethane gas was coming from and what its true impact was on the surrounding communities. Back in 2012, Ineos signed a 15-year contract with US fracking company Range Resources who have around 1 million acres of licences in Pennsylvania, a state that has suffered considerably from a massive fracking boom in 10

the past few years. Range Resources is one of a number of firms who now supply Ineos with gas that comes to Europe. The company has a pretty dodgy track record from its fracking activities, with lowlights including: • being fined millions of dollars for environmental violations • being implicated in a gagging order involving two children • being involved in a lawsuit for allegedly doctoring test results for water • suggesting that it doesn’t target rich neighbourhoods when choosing where to frack With this in mind, we contacted people living around fracking sites to ask them about their experiences. Ron Gulla, a former resident of Hickory, PA who signed a lease for fracking on his land in 2002, said, “I have witnessed first hand how the fracking industry has brought permanent damage across the Pennsylvania region, polluted our air, land and water and is destroying our livelihoods. Those living near drilling, infrastructure or waste sites have suffered water contamination, spills, wastewater dumping


INEOS & Fracking

ANDREW SHIELDS

WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

Communities fighting fracking here in Scotland have so far been unimpressed by these attempts to win good publicity, responding with a clear 'Not Here, Not This was echoed by Karen Feridun, founding Anywhere' message. Some interesting member of Pennsylvanians Against Fracking alternative slogans on the ships also who said, “By the time the industry has appeared on social media (see pictures). But finished, the state will be unrecognisable. Ineos’ efforts highlight how seriously the Much of what we are losing is irreplaceable, company is about fracking in the UK, and how but even that which can be replaced will be much time and the taxpayer’s money it is prepared burden to bear." “I have witnessed first hand how to use to win over the fracking industry has brought both the public and Not that you would permanent damage across the Pennsylvania region, polluted our politicians. know any of this air, land and water and is from Ineos’ PR. destroying our livelihoods.” As the public They are silent consultation draws about the misery felt nearer – our key opportunity to tell the by communities across the US from the Scottish Government to ban fracking and put fracking onslaught that is now feeding their Scotland down the path to a fossil free petrochemical plant. future – we must be prepared to fight industry Instead, Ineos are focusing on what they think propaganda and spin. Communities and campaigners must stand united against they do best – glitzy public relations. Each corporate interests and send a clear message side of their gigantic ‘dragon class’ tanker to our leaders that fracking is as unwelcome ships are emblazoned with a nauseating prohere in Scotland as the fracked ethane gas shale gas message, from ‘Shale gas for coming all the way from Pennsylvania. chemicals’ to ‘Shale gas for progress’. and gas leaks, as well as multiple health impacts.”

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YFoES

WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

By Alan Munro, YFoES

etween the 24th to 29th October, people all over the UK took part in almost 100 actions against Barclays Bank for its financing of the fracking industry. Young Friends of the Earth Scotland (YFoES) joined forces with Frackwatch Glasgow and organised a creative action at the Barclays branch on Argyle Street.

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YFoES – a newly emerging youth network of individuals and organisations – decided to return the favour by taking fracking to Barclays. Equipped with signs, cardboard pneumatic drills and a set of speakers, a small ‘fracking team’ entered the branch to begin drilling inside. The awful sound of the fracking operation certainly caught people’s attention! Meanwhile, members of Frackwatch Glasgow gave out flyers and engaged with the public out on the streets. Even though there is currently a moratorium (temporary ban) on fracking in Scotland, looking for new fossil fuels anywhere is disastrous for the climate. Globally, we already have far more fossil fuels than is safe to burn. Going after even more is reckless and will make meeting the Paris climate targets almost impossible. 12

ALAN MUNRO

Barclays Bank owns 97% of Third Energy, the company that has just been granted approval to frack in Ryedale, North Yorkshire, despite massive community opposition. Ryedale has now become the frontline of fracking in the UK. This is bad news for local democracy and the planet.

YFoES at Barclays Bank in Glasgow

If you interested in taking part in actions such as this, you can sign up to the YFoES announcement list by sending an email to Alan at amunro@foe-scotland.org.uk You can also find us on Facebook (Young Friends of the Earth Scotland) and Twitter (@YFoES).


WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

he principle of a Bill to ban fracking was unanimously agreed by the Irish Parliament on October 27th, on the same day they ratified the Paris Agreement. If passed into law, this Bill would prohibit the extraction of oil and gas from areas in Ireland where it would need to be fracked to be taken out of the ground, such as the shale deposits across the west of the country.

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Fracking had been subject to a de facto moratorium since 2013, as the Government conducted research into the potential impacts of the industry. Huge community opposition had arisen since licences were handed out in 2011. The anti-fracking movement included farmers concerned about the impact on the land and their livelihoods, communities worried about environmental damage and climate campaigners opposed to more fossil fuels. The Private Members Bill was proposed by Tony McLoughlin – a Government back bencher – on the basis of the unacceptable environmental, climate and public health risks posed by fracking. It is presented in the context of the precautionary principle to ensure the rights of future generations to healthy and safe environments.

Aweg River, Co Limerick

SUSTAINABLE WATER NETWORK

By Kate Ruddock, Policy & Campaigns Manager FoE Ireland

Fracking

However, in light of the ever-changing nature of fracking and the complexities in defining unconventional extraction techniques, the Bill does not simply ban the technique of fracking, but rather the act of taking shale oil or gas out of the ground, recognising that this resource is better left undisturbed. A recent report by the Sustainable Water Network also highlighted the many threats posed to Ireland’s waters by the fracking process, wastewater discharges and leaking or abandoned wells. In the run up to the debate, the Bill received significant support from the public and thousands of people contacted their local elected representative urging them to ‘Back the Bill’. The Government had proposed an amendment to effectively delay the Bill by a year or more, but they withdrew that motion in the face of a unified support for the Bill from all political parties. The bill has now been referred to the next stage of the lawmaking process for detailed scrutiny without delay. It has been hailed as an historic first step to a fossil free Ireland by environmental groups and local anti-fracking campaigners. 13


Divest / Reinvest

WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

By Ric Lander, Finance Campaigner

n the lead-up to the 2017 elections we've launched a new joint campaign to call for fossil free local councils.

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Common Weal, the progressive policy hub and network of local groups, and UNISON, the main trade union representing local council workers, are teaming up with Friends of the Earth Scotland to get councils to invest their pension funds sustainably.

right that we plan for an alternative – these companies’ value will fall as soon as investors realise that their business model (and not the planet) is doomed. Half a million Scots are members of council pension schemes. By continuing to invest in fossil fuels, councils are gambling on an industry whose days are numbered. This may help pay pensions in the very short-term. But in the long run funds need to divest from fossil fuels to protect themselves from risk and to promote the wider action on climate change that’s needed to protect the future health of our economy.

‘Reinvest Scotland’ is bringing this challenge to councils: that now more than ever, in a period of council cuts and straining public services, there is no excuse for risking public By continuing to invest in fossil fuels, councils are Some councils have funds and at the same gambling on an industry shown that this money time passing up whose days are numbered. could be invested in a significant investment better way. Falkirk that could be helping Council’s pension fund has invested in social local communities prosper. housing, funding 300 new homes in the Forth Valley. Scotland’s largest pension fund in Our research found councils’ pensions Strathclyde has invested in renewable energy invested £1.7 billion in fossil fuel companies. schemes. With jobs being lost in the North This money could instead be put to use to Sea, £1.7 billion would go a long way to drive deliver benefits to the local community. more renewable innovation and ensure that pension holders are getting some of the Climate science tells us that to honour income from our unprecedented shift to clean international agreements and keep global power. temperature rises under 1.5 degrees the vast majority of fossil fuel reserves cannot be Globally, over 600 institutions valued at burned. US$3.4 trillion have made a commitment to divest from fossil fuels. This includes the That means fossil fuel companies can only Church of Scotland, University of Glasgow, keep their value if they burn all the fuel the City of Seattle and the Rockefeller Fund. they’ve got on their books, creating A handful of UK council pension funds, catastrophic temperature rises. It is therefore 14


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Divest / Reinvest

KARL WALLENDSZUS

Scottish campaigners joined the UK Divestment Gathering near London in October 2016.

including South Yorkshire and London’s Waltham Forest are already following suit. These investors are all securing their future by going fossil free and reinvesting in useful, local infrastructure: Scottish councils need to catch up. Up to the May elections the Reinvest Scotland campaign will be contacting Councillors and council candidates, holding training events and debates, and getting sustainable investment into the press locally and nationally.

We need you – and everyone – to take part to make this change. To join the campaign and change the way councils invest visit www.reinvest.scot/join. 15


Air Pollution

WHAT ON EARTH WINTER 2016/17

By Emilia Hanna, Air Pollution Campaigner

hilst people may be focused on world events or some of the huge political upheaval we’ve seen in this rollercoaster of a year, it is important to remember what local, practical actions we can take close to home. More than ever, we must do what we can to try to heal some of the social and environmental injustices that surround us, and that we can change.

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We know we live in a deeply unequal society and the damage caused by air pollution exemplifies that unfairness. You cannot pick the air you breathe, and if you are poor, you are more likely to live close to a heavily polluted road. You are also more likely to have pre-existing health problems, which air pollution will exacerbate. It’s a similar story for babies: at the roadside, babies in pushchairs are exposed to higher concentrations of air pollution than adults, who often have the advantage of height. And due to their lungs and brains developing, babies are especially vulnerable. 16

It is the poor, the disabled, the elderly, our children, and even unborn babies who are hit the hardest by a problem which they have no control over and often have not caused. If we can act on air pollution, we can act to tackle environmental injustice. Real change on transport could also deliver big benefits in the battle to cut carbon emissions. And luckily, we have some good momentum around our Air Pollution campaign right now: At the Local Council level: By the time this issue hits your doorsteps, we will have had “Clean Air Neighbourhoods” campaigning days in both Glasgow and Dundee. These events, organised with our local groups, will prepare people to make strong asks of councillors in the run up to next year’s local council elections. We are planning our next steps which involve meeting with manifesto writers, Councillors and organising bike rides on some of Scotland’s most polluted streets


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Air Pollution

In October, we teamed up with FoE Glasgow to plan local campaigning for Clean Air Neighbourhoods

in 2017 in collaboration with other walking and cycling groups.

through the ClientEarth case. The Scottish Government is also feeling the pressure to drive down carbon emissions from the transport sector more than ever following recommendations from the Committee on Climate Change to the Scottish Parliament this autumn.

At the Scottish Government level: The SNP has promised Scotlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first Low Emission Zone by 2018 and we are now turning our efforts to It is the poor, the disabled, the ensure that the Government delivers a elderly and our children who are 2017 looks set to be an hit the hardest. If we can act on exciting year packed strong, effective, and air pollution, we can act to with potential. We will fully funded zone. A tackle environmental injustice. have a new Climate recent legal victory by Bill, which will need to ClientEarth in the UK include strong visionary measures on Courts will help us with this push. In that transport, and the local council elections, case, the judge specifically noted that the UK where we are working to ensure that clean air Government could not use the financial cost becomes a key issue. I hope that you can of taking action as an excuse for a lack of stay involved in some key campaigning progress. All of this helps to push the Scottish opportunities in the Spring, so do stay in Government to fund air pollution touch with me on interventions. Whilst the judgment was made ehanna@foe-scotland.org.uk in an English court, it should be highly persuasive to the Scottish Government, because Scotland too is bound by the same European law which was being interpreted 17


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Energy

By Dr Anne Schiffer, Community Energy Campaigner

ccording to the International Energy Agency nearly one in five people globally does not have access to electricity, and many more suffer from intermittent, poor quality access. The vast majority of those without electricity or clean cooking fuel access live in Africa and developing Asia. Alongside these issues of energy exclusion and energy poverty there are massive inequalities in global energy consumption, which is highly skewed towards industrialised countries.

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So while industrialised countries need to decrease overall energy consumption (with the exception of those living in fuel poverty), many people in the developing world actually need to increase consumption to live dignified and healthy lives. Somewhere between the extremes of excessive energy use and energy poverty lies what can be referred to as ‘energy sufficiency’. We would argue that sufficient energy is “a human right and must be affordable for poor people.” Importantly, energy sufficiency is not simply about providing light bulbs (so children in poor families can study at night, for example). Energy sufficiency needs to challenge 18

romantic, arguably Northern notions that all people in developing countries like to live off the land with no desire to consume more. We must also be mindful of the environmental limits to consumption and consider how we distribute these resources in a just way. Many indigenous communities do live comfortably and sustainably without access to modern energy services. Yet for very large numbers of people around the world, lack of energy to meet their needs is a central problem, and one which directly correlates with the major elements of poverty, including inadequate healthcare, low education levels and limited employment opportunities. Together with Friends of the Earth International and Action Aid USA, we have been exploring the concept of energy sufficiency and the role of decentralised renewable energy transitions in developing countries. You can learn more at http://foes.do/action_aid_energy http://foes.do/energy_suff


 



 





 

   





 













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SAVE THE DATE! FoE Scotland x the planet ceilidh 18 February 2017 Stockbridge Life Centre

Includes music from Hud Yer Wheesht

Tickets & info: www.ceilidhcollective.org 19


“We take so much from the planet during our lives, and it gives us so much pleasure, it seemed like the right thing to do to give something back for future generations.”

With the support of thousands of people like you we’ve secured safer food and water, defended wildlife and natural habitats, defeated coal-burning power stations and delivered a worldleading climate act for Scotland.

We need to keep campaigning on these issues today. And we need to be Scotland’s voice for the planet tomorrow and in the years to come.

With your support, we can continue making life better for people by inspiring effective solutions to environmental problems.

You don’t have to be wealthy to leave a gift in your will. A gift of any amount can help protect the environment for years to come.

You can call John on 0131 243 2717 for more information about leaving a gift in your will to Friends of the Earth Scotland or email jfitzgerald@foe-scotland.org.uk

You are vital to the future – for everyone.


What on Earth 70