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Forced Migration Review Refugee Studies Centre Department of International Development University of Oxford, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB, UK Email: fmr@qeh.ox.ac.uk Tel: +44 (0)1865 280700 Fax: +44 (0)1865 270721 Skype: fmreview 0ufbfqkd'f

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May 2006

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tzGifhtrSmpum; EkdifiHwGif;rSarmif;ESifxkwfjcif;cH&aom jrefrmjynfolrsm; Inge Brees ........................................................................................ 4 tajymif;tvJ ta&;ay:vkdtyfaeonfh jrefrmEkdifiH Douglas Alexander............................................................................ 6 EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif;. umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;wm0ef Kavita Shukla ................................................................................... 7 xGufajy;&jcif;tajumif;&if;ESifh jyefvrf;c&D;twm;tqD;jzpfonfh ajrjrKyfrdkif;rsm; Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan............................................................. 9 jrefrmhòrd‹awmfa[mif;rSt"rR ajymif;a&$‹apckdif;jcif; Donald M Seekins . ........................................................................ 10 xkd;ESufrlatmufub0vrf; David Eubank.................................................................................. 10 a=umufrufzG,f&mjynfe,f tœ&,fusa&mufaeonfh trsKd;orD;rsm; The Karen Women’s Organisation................................................. 12 vlom;csif;pmemonfhvkyfykdifcGifhtm;zJhxkwfjcif; Jean-François Durieux and Sivanka Dhanapala........................... 13

'kuQonfwkdŒ.yg0ifaqmif&Gufrltm; vpfv#L&lcH&jcif; Marie Theres Benner, Aree Muangsookjarouen, Egbert Sondorp and Joy Townsend................................................ 25 pcef;vlŒtokdif;t0kdif;tajcðypDrHcefŒcGJa&; Sally Thompson............................................................................... 26 w&m;r#wrltcGifhtvrf;ESifh w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; Joel Harding, Shane Scanlon, Sean Lees, Carson Beker and Ai Li Lim............................................................ 28 xkdif;EkdifiHwGifrjrif&ol umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; vkdtyfcsufrSwfwrf;wifjcif; Margaret Green, Karen Jacobsen and Sandee Pyne .................. 31 xkdif;EkdifiHwGif; ckdv_HcGifh&&Sda&;&SmazGaeonfhjrefrmvlrsKd;rsm; rnfonfht&yfokhd OD;wnf&rnfrod Chen Chen Lee and Isla Glaister . ................................................. 33 b*Fvm;a'h&Sfa&muf &kd[if*smrsm;ESifh 'kQonftqifhtwef; Pia Prytz Phiri.................................................................................. 34 udk;cdk&mrJh tdd,ESifhrav;&Sm;EkdifiHa&muf csif;'kQonfrsm; Amy Alexander................................................................................. 36

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ‘zdtm;ay;ESifxkwfrl’tm; teufzGifhjcif;.......................................... 16

vlŒtcGifhta&;aqmif&Gufrlrsm;jzpfyGm;aponfh 0ifa&mufaexkdifjcif;ESifhvlukeful;jcif; Nikolas Win Myint .......................................................................... 38

jynfwGif;ppfajy; 'kQonfrsm;twGuf vlom;csif;pmemonfh taxmuftyHh (vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;csufrsm;) Ashley South . ................................................................................. 17

tm&S. opfvGifonfh avSvkdufolrsm; Chris Lewa....................................................................................... 40

jynfwGif;ppfajy; 'kuQonfrsm;.qefŒusif ckcHa&;enf;AsL[mrsm; Poe Shan K Phan and Stephen Hull.............................................. 18 jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ykdif;.emwm&Snfta&;ay:taetxm;tm;wkef@jyefjcif; The Thailand Burma Border Consortium . .................................... 20 jrefrmEkdifiHwGif;rsKd;qufjyefŒyGm;a&; qkdif&musef;rma&; aqmif&Gufa&;OD;pm;ay; John Bercow.................................................................................... 22 ESpf&Snfjynfya&muftaetxm;rS tdrftjzpfcHpm;rl Sandra Dudley................................................................................. 23 enf;ynmESifh e,fpyfajrrSu&ifvlxk Rachel Sharples.............................................................................. 24

jrefrmEkdifiH. arhaysmufxm;jcif;cH&onfh jynfolrsm; Nyi Nyi Kyaw.................................................................................... 41 usefaecJh&efcufcJonfh tpktðyHvkdufa&$hajymif;ae&mcsxm;r_.tusKd;quf Susan Banki and Hazel Lang......................................................... 42 jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;ESifhywfoufonfhtay:u&ifvlxk.toHrsm; The Karen Women’s Organisation, with Sarah Fuller and Eileen Pittaway . ...................................................................... 45 aESmifhaES;=umjrifhaeonfh'kQonftajctaew&yf.ynma&;tajymif;tvJ Marc van der Stouwe and Su-Ann Oh ........................................... 47 arWmjzifh&SufzD;okd@ Patricia Hynes and Yin Mon Thu.................................................... 49 jrefrmEkdifiHESifh em*pfpfqkdifuvkH;rkefwkdif; . ........................................................... 52

issue 27

Sexual violence:

weapon of war, impediment to peace

issue 29

issue 28

January 2007

December 2007

July 2007

Humanitarian reform:

Enhancing Southern capacity: rhetoric and reality

fulfilling its promise?

Also includes articles on: Iraq, Darfur, Colombia, Bulgaria, Bhutanese refugees, accountability, protection, profiling IDP populations, role of the private sector

plus: N Massive displacement in Iraq N Forgotten Kosovo IDPs N Somalis risk death crossing Red Sea

and regular contributors: RSC, NRC, IDMC, Brookings-Bern, RAISE Initiative

N Misrepresenting Sudan’s Lost Boys N Voices of displaced Colombians

Published by the Refugee Studies Centre in association with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

Published by the Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford

Published by the Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford.

FMR_29_English 1

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Free Burma Rangers/Nick Hil nick@nickhildesign. co.uk

Population: 48 million Ethnic groups: Burman (68%), Shan (9%), Karen (7%), Rakhine (4%), Chinese (3%), Indian (2%), Mon (2%), other (5%) Naypyidaw, administrative capital [source: Burma Campaign UK]


FMR

30

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5


6

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR

30

tajymif;tvJ ta&;ay:vkdtyfaeonfh jrefrmEkdifiH a'guf*vyf tvufZENm; vGefcJhonfhpufwifbmvwGif uBmhtm&kHpkdufr_onf jrefrmEkdifiHa&$0ga&mif awmfvSefa&;ESifh tm%modrf;ppftkyfpk. &ufpufpGmESdrfeif;cJhr_rsm;tay:wGif usa&mufcJhonf? qjyyGJrsm;onf qif;&JwGif;usaejcif;/ vlxk. ESpfaygif;rsm; pGmEkdifiHa&;zdESdyfcH&r_ESifh pD;yGm;a&;usqif;r_wkd@a=umifh jzpfvmonfh a'gowkd@u pwifrD;ar$;cJhjcif;yifjzpfonf? ppftkyfpk. &ufpufr_ukd jrefrmjynfrSxGufajy;cJh=uonfh 'kQonfwkd@u ukd,fwkdifoufaocHEkdifayonf? ZM0g&DvwGif rdrdtaeESifh jrefrmEkdifiHrS ig;rkdiftuGmwGifomwnf&Sdonfh xkdif;EkdifiH&Sd r,fv'kQonfpcef;okd@ tvnftywfa&mufcJhpOfu tm%modrf;ppftkyfpka=umihf 'kQcHpm;&ol 'kQonf 'gZifaygif;rsm;pGm. tjzpfwkd@ukd =um;cJh&onf? 1948 ckESpfwGif Tpcef;taeESifh 'kQonf 1100 ukd c_dv_HcGifhay;apmifha&SmufcJh aomfvnf; ,cktcg vlOD;a& 40000 cef@tm; vufcHxm;&ayonf? ,cifESpfu r,fvwGifaexkdifol 7000 tm; tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;okd@ ykd@aqmifae&mcsxm;ay;cJhaomfjim;vnf; 'kQonfta&twGufrSm wkd;wufvmaeayonf? vuf&Sdr,fvwGifusef&Sdaexdkifaom pcef;om;tcsKd@onf rlvtpuwnf;u aexkdifaeolrsm;jzpfonf? tcsKd@rSm r=umrD&ufoWywfrsm;ESifh vrsm;twGif; ajrjrSkyfrSdkif; t=uD; tus,f axmifxm;onfh e,fpyfukdjzwfausmfI 0ifa &mufaexdkifcJhjcif;jzpfonf?

Marc van der Stouwe

trsm;pk taeESifh ppfwyfu ‚wkd@.aus;&Gmrsm;tm; rD;&_d@jymcscJhojzifh jyefp&majrr&Sdjzpfaea=umif; ajymjy=uonf? uav;okH;a,muf&Sdonfh zcifwpfOD;url ppfwyfuol@ tm; ppftokH;taqmifypPnf;rsm; tcrJh o,f,lykd@aqmifay;&ef trdef@ay;apckdif;cJhI xGufajy;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf[k ajymqkdcJhonf? ‚taeESifh &Sif;vif;onfh a&G;p&mvrf;rSm trdef@twkdif;ay:wmtaeESifh vkdufxrf;v#ifvkdufxrf; okd@r[kwf ppfwyftm; vmbfxkd;&efom&Sdonf? okd@ aomfvnf;aiGr&SdonfhtwGuf ol@ taeESifhykef;atmif;aecJhonf? ppfwyfrS ‚ay:wma=u; ta=utvnfay;acsr_r&Sdolwkd@. tdrfrsm;tm; r=umc%pD;eif;&SmazGavh&Sdonf? wcgw&H wpfnwnf;wGif okH;av; }udrf 0ifa&muf&SmazGavh&Sd&m ‚taeESifh tjcm; a&G;cs,fp&mvrf;r&Sdawmhojzifh rdom;pkESifhtwl xkdif;EkdifiHbufokd@ xGufajy;cJh&ayonf? 0rf;enf;p&maumif;onfrSm rdrd.c&D;pOftwGif; tvm;wlt"Rvkyftm;ay;ckdif;apr_ Zwfvrf;rsm;rSm r&kd;edkifonfh tjzpfrsm;yifjzpfayawmhonf?

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FMR

30

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

7

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Free Burma Rangers

xGufajy; ae=uonfh &Gmom;rsm; 2007 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbm


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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk rsm;&Sdonfh &ckdifjynfe,fwGif csKd;azmufr_rsm; av#mhcsr_wpkHw&m&Sdonf? okd@aomf EkdifiHwum vlom;csif;pmema&; taxmuftyhHay;tzGJ@rsm;. yËdyQjzpfyGm;aeonfh jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ykdif; e,fpyfZkefrsm;twGif; ppfajy;'kQonfrsm;ESifh tjcm;csnfheJ@ aeonfhvlxk xHoGm;a&muftultnDay;a&;tm; cGifhðyay;&ef jiif;qefjcif;cH&onf? EkdifiHwum=uufajceDaumfrDwD International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) taeESifh Ta'orsm;twGif; vGwfvyfpGmvkyfaqmifcGifh&onfh wpfckwnf;aomtzGJ@jzpfonf? okd@aomf vuf&Sd EkdifiHawmfat;csr;fom,ma&;ESifh zGH@ òzd;a&;aumifpD (etz) [kvlodrsm;onfh jrefrmtpkd;&. EkdifiHa&;tajymif;tvJ. OD;wnfr_rsm;u 2004 ckESpfwGif ykdI txD;usefapI xkdaumfrDwDtaeESifhvnf; xdpyfvkyfaqmifcGifh&apa&;twGuf csKyfcs,fuef@owfr_topfrsm;ESifh &ifqkdifae&onf? armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfh vlxkxHokd@ e,fpyfjzwfausmfc&D;pOftm; wm0ef,lvkyfaqmifaeonfh xkdif;EkdifiH&Sd tokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. a&muf&Sdr_u Ta'otwGuf tultnDtenf;i,f ay;tyfonf? TtultnDay;r_u EkdifiHawmftcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifr_twGuf vkdufem&efpnf;urf; rsm;tm;azmufzsuf vkyfaqmifr_jzpfaomfvnf; wpfckwnf;aom vlxkxHa&muf&Sdrnfh enf;vrf;yifjzpfonf? uBmay:&SdEkdifiHtenf;i,favmufom ae&yfa'orsm;rSarmif;xkwf&ef zdtm;ay;I xkdokd@aom }uD;us,fonfh twkdif;tq/ xkdokd@ uef@owfxm;onfhwkef@jyefr_wkd@tm; ukvor~tzGJ@0ifEkdifiHrsm;ESifh Xmersm;rS E_duf,lavh&Sdonf? EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif; rsm;pGmtaeESifh xkd=urf;ñuwfr_rsm;twkdif;twmtm; owdrrlrdonfh taetxm;&Sdonf? wuBmvkH;eD;yg; óud;pm;I ‚EkdifiH. EkdifiHa&;ESifh vl@tcGifhta&; jy\ emrsm;tm; ajz&Sif;a&;u t"dutaeESifh ppftm%mykdifrsm;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDvkdvm;onfh wyfrsm;twGif; yËdyQtm; OD;pm;ay;vkyfaqmifjcif;jzpfonf? ArmcsKyfukdifxm;onfh A[kdtpkd;&ESifh Armr[kwfol wkdif;&if;om;rsm;twGif; yËdyQu jrefrmEkdifiHwGif; ae&yfrSarmif;xkwfr_trsm;pktm; cvkwfqGJjzpfay:apI xkdyËdyQtaeESifh t} uD;tus,f0ef;&HjzpfyGm;aeonf? jrefrmtpkd;&ESifh EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif;trsm;pkwkd@u pdwfysufr_jzpfyGm;aomfvnf; etztm; ukefoGk,fzuf tdrfeD;csif;EkdifiHrsm;jzpfonfh w&kyfESifh tdd, wkd@u aemufuG,frS taxGaxGtm;ay;tm;ajrSmufðyaeayonf? jrefrmEkdifiHtaeESifh tzG@J0ifwpfcktjzpfyg0ifonfh a'o[pfwkdifwpfckjzpfonfh ta&S@awmiftm&S E_difiHrsm; tpnf;t&kH; (tmqD,H) uvnf; avmuxkH;wrf;azmufzsufr_rsm;ðyvkyfr_tay: tpkd;&.wm0efcHr_tm; a&Smif=uOfa&;ukdifpGJxm;um EkdifiH. jynfwGif;a&;udPrsm;tm; 0ifa&mufpGufzufr_rðyvkyfa&;tjrifukd tjyif;txefaxmufyHhr_ ðyvkyfaeonf?

tumtuG,fay;a&;wm0ef &0ef'gEkdifiH&Sd owfjzwfrsKd;ðzwfr_rsm;uwnf;u tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdiftpkd;&rsm;u ‚wkd@.vlxktwGuf vkHðcHr_ESifh okccsrf;omay;tyf&ef ysufuGufr_tay: EkdifiHwumt okdif;t0kdif;taeESifh ykdrkdjrifhrm;onfh wm0ef,lr_tm; wdusonfhtajctaersm;twGif; pwifvkyfaqmifcJh=uonf? q,fpkESpfrsm;twGif; 0ifa&mufpGufzufr_ rðya&;pnf;urf;tm; rnfonfhEkdifiH. jynfwGif;a&; w&m;pD&ifykdifcGifh tusKH;0ifonfh udPrsm;tm; tav;teufcsrSwfxm;onfh ukvor~yÉdOmOfpmwrf; yk'fr 2²7 t& EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif;taeESifh usL;vGefolrsm; tjypfay;cH&jcif;r&Sdonfh taetxm;wpfckwGif qkd;&Gm;onfh vl@tcGifhta&;azmufzsufcH&r_rsm;a=umifh vlxktaeESifh cHpm;ae&onfta=umif; ajymqkd&efyif0efav;wGef@qkwfae=uonf? odk@aomf r=umrDESpfrsm;twGif; tcsKyftjcmtm%mtm; tcsKyftjcmtm%m. jynfhpkHonfhtjrifqDokd@ EkdifiHom;rsm;tm; tumtuG,fay;a&;ESifh qkd;0g;onfh usL;vGefr_rsm;ESifh tpktzGJ@vkduf,kwfrm&rf;um;r_wkd@tm; wm;qD;a&; wm0efwpfcktaeESifh ajymif;vnf;wkd;wufr_rsm;jzpfay:vmcJhonf? wm0ef,lumuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;rl (R2P) . pnf;urf;t& tcsKyftjcmtm%m ykdifEkdifiHrsm;wGif ‚wkd@. vlxktay: rsKd;ðzwfowfjzwfjcif;/ ppf&mZ0wfr_rsm;/ wkdif;&if; om;vlrsKd;pkazsmufzsufjcif;ESifh pmemr_uif;rJhonfh &mZ0wfr_wkd@rS tumtuG,fay;&ef tajccHwm0ef,lr_ESifh ‚wkd@taeESifh qr&Sdonfh okd@r[kwf xkdwm0eftm; vkyfaqmif&ef rwwfE_difonfh tcsdefwGif wm0ef,laqmif&Gufr_u us,fjyef@onfh EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif;xHokd@ v$Jajymif;a&muf&SdoGm;onf? R2P . vkdtyfonfh ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_onf v$rf;ðcHonfhumuG,faqmif&Gufr_ESifh EkdifiH.vkyfE_dif pGrf;wnfaxmifa&;/ em=unf;csufrsm;tm;ukpm;jcif;ESifh w&m;Oya'enf;vrf;usrus vkyfaqmifjcif;wkd@yg0ifonf? okd@aomf tu,fI tumtuG,fay;&efysufuGuf ygu R2P taeESifh rnfonfh pD;yGm;a&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ oHwrefqufqHa&;/ w&m;Oya'/ vkHðcHa&;tajctaewGif jzpfap okd@r[kwf aemufqkH;ckdukd;&mtjzpf ppfa&;wkdif;twmtaeESifh vkyfaqmifa&;wkd@rSm tpktzGJ@vkduf ,kwfrm&rf;um;r_ rsm;tm; wm;qD;&ef r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfayonf?

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2005 ckESpf uBmhxdyfoD;aqG;aEG;yGJwGif uBmhtpkd;&rsm;u R2P pnf;urf;tm; oabmwlnDcJh+yD; EkdifiHtm%mykdifwkd@taeESifh ‚wkd@.vlxktm; ,kwfrm&ufpufonfh &mZ0wfr_rS tumtuG,fay;a&; ysufuGufonfESifh yl;aygif; ta&;,laqmif&Gufa&;tm; vkHðcHa&;aumifpDrSwqifh tajccH ta=umif;w&m; wpfck+yD;wpfck tcsdeftwkdif;twmtwGif;jywfom;onfhvkyf[eftaeESifh vkyfaqmifa&; csxm;owfrSwfcJhonf? EkdifiHaygif; 192 EkdifiHrS xdyfwef;acgif;aqmifrsm;vufrSwf a&;xkd;cJhonfh uBmhxdyfoD;&v'fpmcsKyf World Summit Outcome Document uvnf; ta&;}uD;onfh EkdifiHwum uef@owfcsuftaeESifh ppfajy;'kQonfrsm;tm; tumtuG,fay;a&;ESifh xda&mufonfhtwkdif;twmjzifh ‚wkd@. umuG,f apmifha&Smufa&;t&SdefjrSifhwifa&; qkH;jzwfr_vkyfaqmifa&;wkd@vkyfaqmif&ef vrf;n$efpnf;urf;rsm;tm; todtrSwfðycJh=uonf? 2006 ckESpf {+yDvwGifcsrSwfxm;onfh qkH;jzwfcsuf 1674 rSwqifh vkHðcHa&;aumifpDu EkdifiHom;wkd@ESifh tjcm; umuG,fapmifha&Smufxm;onfh yk~Kdvfwkd@tm; ajymifajymifwif;wif; ypfrSwfxm;I vkyfaqmif&efapckdif;onfh wm0ef/ ºul;vGefr_ESifh ppfa&;yËdyQtwGif; ae&mtESH@jzpfyGm;aeonfh EkdifiHwum vlom;csif;pmemr_ESifh vl@ tcGifhta&;Oya' csKd;azmufr_wkd@taeESifh EkdifiHwum+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vkHðcHa&;wkd@ tm; csdef;ajcmufr_ jzpfyGm;aprnf [ktodtrSwfðyxm;onf? vkHðcHa&;aumifpDu xkduJhokd@tajctaersm;tm; pOf;pm;&ef tqifoifhjzpfaea=umif;ESifh vkdtyfygu oifhawmfonfhaqmif&Gufr_ajcvSrf;rsm;tm; taumiftxnfazmf vkyfaqmifoGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; rSwfcsufðycJhayonf? wm0ef,lumuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;rl Responsibility to Protect (R2P) t&ta&;,ljcif; qkH;jzwfcsuftm; ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_wu,fvkyfaqmifa&;twGuf t"dy`g,fzGifhqkdr_ ðyvkyfxm;jcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; Tpnf;urf;csuftm; rnfokd@tokH;ðyrnfqkdonfhtay: oabmwlnDcsuf tenf;i,fom&Sdonf? vkHðcHa&;aumifpDwGif taemufEkdifiHrsm;. tpktzGJ@vkduf ,kwfrm&rf;um;r_rsm;tm; EkdifiHwum +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vkHðcHa&;wkd@ tm; csdef;ajcmufr_wpfcktjzpf ,lqjcif;ESifh w&kwfESifh &k&Sm;wkd@ uJhokd@aom uBmhxdyfoD;&vm'fpmcsKyftm; vufcHI qkH;jzwfcsuf 1674 tm; axmufcHaomfvnf; tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifqkdifr_ta&; tjiif;yGm;jcif;ukd R2P tay:qufvuf wkd;jrSifhvkyfaqmifaeonfh uGJjym;jcm;em;r_rsm; &Sdaeayonf? 'gzmudPwGif ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_wkd@u umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;wm0ef tokH;tE_H;twGuf wkd;wufabmifcwfcH&onf? qkH;jzwfcsuf 1769 u EkdifiHom; umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;ESifh vlom;jcif; pmemr_tultnDay;vkyfaqmifaeonfh vkyfom;rsm;. ta&;ygr_ukd tav;teufðyvkyfonfhtcgwGif vkHðcHa&;aumifpDqkH;jzwfcsuf 1706 onf yxrqkH;om"utjzpfESifh R2P oabmxm;tm; wdusonfhtajctaewGif tokH;ðy&efjzpfcJhonf? qm[m&vufatmufcH tpkd;&rsm;pGmu 'gzmudPwGif R2P pnf;urf;tm; tjyif;txef twkduftcHðyvkyfcJhonf? okd@aomf vkHðcHa&;aumifpDxJrS XmecGJrsm;taeESifh jyif;xefonfh pkaygif;ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_tm; 'gzmwGif vkyfaqmifa&;tm; [ef@wm;cJh=uonf? jrefrmEkdifiHtajctaeu ‚. acgif;pOftay: rJcGJqkH;jzwfcJhonfh 2006 pufwifbmtxd vkHðcHa&;aumifpD. tm%mpuftwGif; usavmufvmonfh ykHpHr&Sday? TrJcGJqkH;jzwfcsufu taxGaxGnDvmcHqkH;jzwfcsufESifh vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif. trsKd;om;jyefvnf&if=um;apha&; ESifh 'Drkdua&pDðyjyifajymif;vnf;r_aqmif&Gufa&; awmif;qkdcsuftm; jrefrmtpkd;&.vkdufemaqmif&Guf&ef jiif;qefvkyfaqmifaeonfh ESpfrsm;pGm=umrS jzpfay:vmjcif;jzpfonf? 2004 ckESpfuwnf;u tpkd;&u ukvor~t axGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf. jrefrmEkdifiHtxl;oHwrefvma&mufcGifh jiif;y,fcJhonfhjyif 2003 ckESpfuwnf;u jrefrmEkdifiHtpkd;&u jrefrmEkdifiHta&;twGufxdpyf aqmif&GufcGifh&&ef txl;ukd,fpm;vS,fvma&mufa&;tm;vnf; jiif;qefydwfyifxm;cJhonf? vkHðcHa&;aumifpD. jyify&Sd óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_tm;vkH;wkd@ onf ukefqkH; vufyef;usae&onfh taetxm;yifjzpfonf? vkHðcHa&;aumifpD. aqG;aEG;r_acgif;pOftwGif; jrefrmEkdifiHtm; a&muf&Sdapa&; ,kH=unfcsufrSm t+rJwrf;tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpfonfh &k&Sm;ESifh w&kwfEkdifiHwkd@u 2007 ckESpf ZEM0g&DvtwGif; jrefrmEkdifiHtwGuf yxrqkH;qkH;jzwfcsuftay: ADwkdtm%mokH;I y,fcscJhojzifh oufqkd;r&Snf jzpfcJhonf? xkd@a=umifh tjcm;awmif;qkdcsufrsm;twGif; tpkd;&tm; wkdif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;tm; wkdufckdufr_tm;vkH;&yfwef@a&;ESifh vlom;jcif;pmemonfhtultnDay;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; twm;tqD;rJh qufoG,faqmif&Gufr_ay;tyfa&; awmif;qkdr_wkd@ &SdcJhonf? Ty,fcsr_rSm vkHðcHa&;aumifpD. 1989 ckESpfaemufykdif; yxrqkH;pkaygif;aqmif&GufcJhonfh


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ADwkdtm%mokH;r_jzpfonf? ‚wkd@. xkwfjyefcsufwGif w&kwfESifh &k&Sm;wkd@u jrefrmEkdifiH. tajctaerSm a'owGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vkHðcHa&;wkd@tay: csdef;ajcmufr_rjzpfa=umif;ESifh vkHðcHa&;aumifpDrSm EkdifiHwpfck.jynfwGif;a&;udPrsm;tm; aqG;aEG;&efae&mr[kwfa=umif; jiif;qkdcJh=uonf? w&kwfESifh &k&Sm;wkd@u jrefrmEkdifiHtaeESifh jyif;xefonfh vl@ tcGifhta&;ESifh vlom;qkdif&mtajctaersm;ESifh &ifqkdifae&a=umif;ukd todtrSwfðyaomfvnf; ‚wkd@u tm%mrsm;aESmifzGJ@wif;=uyfxm;r_r&Sdonfh vl@ tcGifhta&;aumifpDu jrefrmEkdifiHtay: ta&;,la&;udPrsm; aqmif&Guf&ef taumif;qkH; aqG;aEG;yGJusif;y&efae &mjzpfa=umif; av;eufpGmn$efjycJh=uonf? xkd ADwkdtm%mokH;E_difonfh EkdifiHrsm;u jrefrmjynfolvlxktwGuf rnfonfh umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;rsm; pkaygif;wm0ef,loGm;&rnfqkdonfh n$efjyr_rsKd;ukdr# vkyfaqmifcJhjcif;r&Sdajc? 2007 pufwifbmvwGif q,fpkESpfESpfcktwGif; t}uD;qkH; d'Drkdua&pDa&; v_yf&Sm;qjyr_ jrefrmEkdifiHtm; &kdufcwfcJhI aemufykdif; tpkd;&.òzdcGif;r_u EkdifiHwumtm&kHpkdufr_tm; xyfrHóud;yrf;a&; qkHcsufjzpfapcJhonf? jyif;xefonfh oHwrefzdtm;a=umifh etzu ukvor~twGif;a&;rSL;csKyf. txl;t=uHay;ESifh txl;ukd,fpm;vS,ftm; 2007 ckESpfaESmif;ykdif;wGif 0ifcGifhay;cJhonf? &Snfvsm;&_yfaxG;r_rsm; pGmaemufwGif vkHðcHa&;aumifpDu OuUXxkwfjyefa=ujimcsufjzifh +idrf;csrf;pGmqjyolrsm;tay: &ufpufpGmòzdcGif;r_tm; &_wfcscJhonfhtjyif ppfrSefonfhaqG;aEG;yGJtm; oufqkdif&mygwDtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ wkdif;&if;om;tkyfpkrsm;jzifh trsKd;om;jyefvnf&if=um;apha&;atmifjrifr_&&Sd&eftwGuf vkyfaqmif&ef awmif;qkdcJhonf? q,fpkESpfrsm;pGm t=urf;zuf&ufpufr_ESifh ae&yfrStwif;t"R armif;xkwfcH&jcif;wkd@ukd awG@ñuH&onfhonfhtjyif tvGeftrif; tœ&m,f&Sdjcif;ESifh cufcJ=urf;wrf;r_wkd@tm; qufvuf&ifqkdif&E_difonfh wkdif;&if;om;vlenf;pk0if jynfolvlxk umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; azmfjycsuf vkH;0ryg0ifcJhay? jrefrm'Drkdua&pDa&;wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olwkd@tm; zdESdyfòzdcGif;r_wkd@u avsmhenf;vmykHay:aomfvnf; tpkd;&wyfrsm;u ‚wkd@. wefjyefawmfvSefa&;enf; ¹AlL[mwpfcktaeESifh jrefrmwkdif;&if;om; vlenf;pka'orsm;&Sd jynfolvlxktay: qufvufypfrSwfxm;vkyfaqmifaeonfhjyif tjypfay;ta&;,lr_ r&Sdonfh

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk vltcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;tm; qufvufºul;vGefaeayonf? pkd;&drfr_taeESifh ‘a&$0ga&mifawmfvSefa&;' tm;owd&r_u arS;rSdefoGm;onfhtcsufESifh jrefrmtpkd;&u EkdifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yGJwpfckðyvkyfay;rnfh t&dyfta&mif ay;vmonfhtay: vkHðcHa&;aumifpDtaeESifh aemufw}udrf jrefrmEkdifiHtm; av#mhcsOD;pm;ay;ta etxm;wGifxm;&SdI tjcm;ukvor~tpdwftykdif;wkd@tm; ukdifwG,fajz&Sif;&ef ykdrkdoifhawmfonf[k xm;&SdoGm;rnfh udPyifjzpfonf? vkHðcHa&;aumifpDtaeESifh jrefrmhta&;tm; R2P tem*wfjzpfE_difajcZwfvrf;t& pwifIapmifh=unfh&ef tvGefta&;}uD;onf? tu,fI R2P t,ltqtm; d'gzmudPwGif ,laqmiftokH;csE_difygu ta=umif;jycsufwkdif; jrefrmhta&;ESifh qufpyfjrSifhwifr_rsm; ðyvkyfaqmif&GufE_dif rnfjzpfonf? EkdifiHwum tpdwftykdif;rsm;u vkyfief;pOftm; taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif tcuftcJ&SdE_difaomfvnf; vkHðcHa&;aumifpDtzGJ@0ifrsm;t aeESifh jrefrmEkdifiH. jynfolvlxktm; &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfonfh tpktzGJ@vkduf &mZ0wfr_ rsm;rS umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif;. wm0ef,laqmif&Gufr_tm; qufvufvpfvsL&_xm;ygu ‚wkd@taeESifh tpkd;&tm;vkH; rl0g't&oabmwlxm;onfh wm0ef,lr_twGuf nHhjzif;onfh xkH;wrf;csrSwf vkyfaqmifaejcif;omv#if jzpfayawmhrnf? umADwm &SLuvm (kshuklaus@yahoo.com) onf jrefrm'kQonfrsm;ESifh ppfajy;'kQonfwkd@tay: okawoeðyvkyfaeolwpfOD;jzpfonf? 1 www.brookings.edu/projects/idp/gp_page.aspx 2 ,cifu EkdifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@ (e0w) [kvlodrsm;onf? 3 *&uf tJAefpf . ‘EkdifiHawmftcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifqkdifr_ uef@owfcsufrsm; - 21 &mpkwGif; umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; wm0ef,laqmif&Gufcsuf' eDvrfxkdif&lcs,fAef trSwfw&a[majymykd@cscsuf/ EkdifiHwum wkdif;&if;om;avhvma&;Xme/ ukdvrfbkd/ 2007 ckESpf Zlvkdifv 29 &uf 4 http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N05/487/60/PDF/N0548760. pdf?OpenElement 5 a&mbwWmukd[ef. ‘vlom;qkdif&mta&;}uD;r_rsm;u tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifqkdifr_tm; ajymif;vnf;aponf'/ EkdifiHwumqufqHa&;Xme. taemufajrmuf*sme,f/ 2008 ckESpf aqmif;&moD/ pmrsufESm-6

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9


10

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR

30

jrefrmhòrd‹awmfa[mif;rSt"Rajymif;a&$‹apckdif;jcif; &efukefòrd@vlxktaeESifh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;. EkdifxufpD;eif;ðyjcif;atmufwGif tvkH;t&if;jzifh ae&yfrSajymif;a&$@aexkdifapjcif;rsm;tm; =uHKawG@ae=u&onf? 2005 ckESpf EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;oma&;aumifpD (etz) rS tm%mtajcðyr_udk aejynfawmfokd@a&$@ajymif;cJhonfhtcsdefxd / 1958 rS 1960 ckESpfrsm;twGif; jrefrmEkdifiH. t}uD;qkH; òrd@awmfjzpfcJhonfh &efukefòrd@tm; AkdvfcsKyfae0if;. tdrfapmifhtpkd;&u (w&m;0ifa&G;aumufwifajrSmufcH&onfh ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tpm;) jrefrmhvufeufukdifwyfrsm;. wm0ef,ltkyfcsKyfr_atmufwGif xm;&SdapcJhonf? tpkd;&u &efukefteD;wGif òrd@e,f 3 ck wnfaxmifcJhI òrd@aevlxkwpfoef;. ajcmufykHwpfykHjzpfonfh vlOD;a& 167000 wkd@rSm ‚wkd@. qrygyJajymif;a&$@ ae&mcsxm;r_cHcJh=u&onf?1 te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS axmifaomif;csDIxGufajy;vmonfh qlyltkHºuGolrsm;onf òrd@awmfwGif usL;ausmfaexkdifolrsm;jzpfI vlxkusef;rma&;ESifh +idrf0yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;aqmif&Gufa&;twGuf pkd;&drfzG,f&m +cdrf;ajcmufr_wpfckjzpfvmjcif;a=umifh vkdtyfcsufwpfcktaejzifh Tokd@ vkyfaqmif&jcif;jzpfonf[k tpkd;&u qifajcay;cJhonf? tdrfa[mif;rsm;qkH;&_H;&onfh tay:tvGefra=ureyfjzpfae=uonfh òrd@opfrsm;wGifaexkdifolrsm;u 1988 ckESpf. aEG&moD'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_wGif ae0if;ppftkyfpktm; tvkH;t&if;tiftm;jyI qef@ usifcJh=uonf? xkd 1988 ck aEG&moD qjyawmif;qkdr_rsm;tm; wkef@jyefonfhtaejzifh EkdifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@u (e0w/ 1997 wGif etz[ktrnfajymif;cJh) tm%modrf;cJhonf? wpfESpftwGif; twif;t=uyf jyefvnfae&mcsxm;jcif;cH&olrsm; / vlOD;a& oef;wpf0ufeD;yg;ESifh òrd@opf 10 òrd@tm;wnfaxmifcJhonf? vltrsm;tjym;rSm usL;ausmfaexkdifolrsm; jzpfaomfvnf; tjcm;olrsm;rSm tdrfykdif,mykdif&SdI 1988 ckESpf vlxkqjyyGJrsm;tm; wufºuGpGmaxmufcHcJhonfh e0w. tjypfay;cH&olrsm;jzpf=uonf? xkdolwkd@rSm tdrf,ma[mif;rsm;qkH;&_H;&kHr#ru tpGeftzsm;ae&mrsm;wGif tdrfopfaqmufvkyf&ef ajrESifhtdrfopfrsm;aqmufvkyfa&;twGuf vkdtyfonfhypPnfrsm; twif;t=uyf aiGawmif;cHjcif;cH=u&onf? xkdae&mrsm;onf v#yfppftvkHtavmufr&Sdjcif;/ a&tvkHtavmufr&Sdjcif;tjyif tjcm;tqifajyr_rsm;rSmvnf;enf;yg;onfh

a':e,f trf qDuifpf a'ojzpfonf? xkdòrd@opfrsm;wGif tvkyftukdif&&Sda&;tcGifhta&;teJ i,fom&Sd+yD; &efukefòrd@tcsuftjcmae&mrsm;&Sd omrefpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;vkyf ukdif&efvkdvm;=uonfh ajymif;a&$@cH&onfhjynfolrsm;taeESifh c&D;a0;vGef;I oGm;vma&;tukeftusrsm;onfh tajctaejzpfaponf? 2 ,ae@tcg a&$@ajymif;tajccsaexkdifolrsm;onf 0g;ESifhoufu,fjzifhaqmufxm;onfh omreftdrfrsm;wGif twlwuG ¹yGwfodyfaexkdif&I &efukef.qif;&Jwumhtqif;&JqkH; taetxm;wGif&Sdae=uonf? 2007 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGifjzpfyGm;cJhonfh avmifpmqDaps;rsm;jrifhwufr_u ‚wkd@tm; tjyif;xefqkH;xkd;ESufcJh+yD; pm;aomufukefaps;E_ef;ESifh vlxko,f,lykd@aqmifa&;pm;&dwfrsm; rkd;xdatmifjrifhwufvmonfrSpI aemufvwGif EkdifiHw0Srf; tpkd;&qef@usifa&;qjy v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; jzpfay:vmap&ef tpòyd;cJhonf? ‘wJrSwkdufcef;rsm;qDokd@’ [lonfh‚. tpDtpOft& usL;ausmfaexkdifolrsm;pGmtm; txyfrsm;pGmygonfhtdrf,m okd@r[kwf ‚wkd@.,cifaetdrfrsm;teD;ae&mrsm;wGif ae&mcsxm;a&;vkyfaqmifay;rnf[k qkdcJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; ,ae@tcg &efukef/ rœav;ESifh tjcm;òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif twif;t"Raetdrfrsm;rSajymif;a&$@aer_rsm; qufvufvkyfaqmifaeqJjzpfonf? Oyrm - rD;avmifonf@ae&mwGifaexkdif=uolrsm;tm; ae&ma[mif;wGif jyefvnfaqmufvkyfcGifhrðyawmhbJ xkdae&yfrsm;ukd&Sif;vif;I vrf;opfrsm;azmufjcif;/ wkdufcef;rsm;ESifh ukefwkdufrsm;jyefvnfwnfaqmufcJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif rnfonfhwkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rqkd ‚wkd@. EkdifiHom;qkdif&m ajr,mykdifqkdifr_ tcGifhta&;tm;vkH; rsufuG,fðyxm;jcif;cHae=u&ayonf? a':e,f qDuifpf (kenchan@ii-okinawa.ne.jp) onf *syefEkdifiH tkduDem0gjynfe,f/ em*kdòrd@&Sd rD,kdwuUokdvf /EkdifiHwumavhvma&;aumvdyf ta&S@awmiftm&Savhvma&;Xme ygarmuQjzpfonf? 1 Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE), Burma: displacement and Dispossession, Forced Migration and Land Rights. November 2007, pp95-98. 2 ‘Interviews in Satellite Villages', Dawn News Bulletin, Vol.2, no 14 (July 1990), pp3-9.

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FMR

30

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

11

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Free Burma Rangers

awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifwpfOD;uajymjycJhonfrSm/ “vGefcJhwJhvtenf;i,fu jrefrmhwyfrawmftaeeJ@ xkd;ppfrsm;pGmvkyfcJhwJhtwGuf ykef;atmif;aexkdifwJhae &mtawmfrsm;rsm; tpD;eif;cHcJh&w,f? ,cktcsdefrSm wyfrawmftaeESifh olwkd@&Jhpcef;opfawG aqmufvkyfa&;eJ@ tvkyfrsm;aewJhtwGuf awmfao;w,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'Dpcef;awG+yD;wJhtcg olwkd@jyefvmOD;rSmbJ? tJ'gu|efawmfwkd@tm;vkH;twGuf tvGefqkd;&Gm;wJh xkd;ppfjzpf+yD; b,fvkdtpDtpOfvkyf&r,f rodao;bl;? 'gayr,fh u|efawmfwkd@ u|efawmfwkd@tdrfawGukd csefrxm;cJh&bkd@ óud;pm;&rSmbJ”//

xkdtwkdufckdufcH&onfh&Gmom;tcsKd@onf rlvt&yfa'orsm;okd@jyefoGm;I ‚wkd@. aetdrfrsm;tm; jyefvnfaqmufvkyf=uonf? trsm;pkrSm qufvufajy;v$m;ykef; a&Smifaexkdifjcif; okd@r[kwf EkdifiHtwGif;rSxGufajy;jcif; =uHpnfvkyfaqmif=uonf? tcsKd@u vlaetdrfajcESifha0;uGmI qufpyf&efcufcJonfht&yfrsm;wGif pcef;wnfaxmifI &Sdor#ESifh jcpfðcwf&yfwnf=u&onf? Oyrm -u&ifjynfe,f taemufajrmufjcrf;&Sd armfwl'g&Gmukd 2004 ckESpfwGif jrefrmhwyfrawmfu rD;&_d@jymcscJhonf? xkdtcsdefrSpIaemufykdif; &Gmom;rsm;taeESifh awmxJwGif awmufav#mufykef;atmif;ae=u&onf? ‚wkd@taeESifh oGm;vma&;cufcJ ap&efwrifxm;&Sdonfh awmvrf;i,fteD; opfyifaygif;yifrsm;jzifh ydwfqkd@ aeonfhae&mwGif ykef;atmif;aexkdif&ef wJrsm;tm; jzpfovkdaqmufvkyf=uonf? ‚wkd@wGif tpptqufjywfaeonfhtwGuf vkHðcHa&;ykHpHtcsKd@xm;&Sdonfhtjyif a'ocHawmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;. tultnD (trsm;tm;jzifh ppfwyf.v_yf&Sm;r_ rsm;tay: óudwifowday;jcif;) &&Sdonf? okd@aomf pm;eyf&dQm xkwfvkyfr_u xkd;usoGm;onfhtwGuf t0wftpm;/ apmif/ rD;zkdacsmiftokH;taqmifrsm; ESifh v,f,mokH; u&d,mrsm; 0,f,l&ef aiGtenf;i,fom&Sd=uonf? pm;p&mtenf;tusOf;om&Sdjcif;/ tumtuG,fuif;rJhjcif;ESifh rvkHavmufonfh a&ukdr#wokH;pGJ&jcif;wkd@a=umifh usef;rma&;qkd;&Gm;onfh'%f ukdvnf; ododomomcH=u&onf? teD;ywf0ef;usifwGif aq;cef;r&Sdonfhtjyif wyfrawmfvSnfhuif;rsm;u ykHrSef0ifa&muf&SmazGonfhtwGuf aq;0g;tzGJ@wkd@ vnf;oGm;a&muf&ef cufcJonf? jrefrmjynfvGwfajrmufa&;&def;*sm;tzGJ@ ,ckppfajy;'kQonfjzpfaeonfh u&ifeDtrsKd;om; apmElEl u|efawmfwkd@ tem;ywf0ef;usifuaus;&Gmq,fckpk+yD; qkawmif;yGJvkyfwJhtcsdef jrefrmppfwyf ay:vm+yD; u|efawmfwkd@xJu wpfcsKd@ukdzrf;w,f? u|efawmfwkd@ ukdóud;wkwfxm;+yD; &kdufESufxkd;}udwfwmawGvkyfw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh u|efawmfwkd@&Jhukd,fukd usOfpufeJ@wkd@w,f? u|efawmholi,fcsif; apmuG,ftowfcH&w,f? u|efawmfxGufajy;bkd@=uHw,f? jrefrmppfwyfu u|efawmfwkd@ukd olykefawGvkd@pGyfpGJw,f 'g ayr,fh u|efawmfwkd@rS olykefr[kwfwm? u|efawmfwkd@uv,form;awG? u|efawmfwkd@ tck 'DrSmaevkd@rjzpfE_difawmhbl; tJ'Dawmh 'kQonfpcef;wpfckckukdoGm;r,f? u&ifeDoif;tkyfq&m bmjzpfvkd@jrefrmppfwyfu u|efawmfwkd@&GmawGukd vm+yD;rD;&_d@&wmvJ? u|efawmfwkd@u olwkd@&GmawGukdrD;&_d@wm rvkyfbl;? bmjzpfvkd@olwkd@ u|efawmfwkd@ ukd 'kQay;jcif&wmvJ? u|efawmfwkd@u u|efawmfwkd@&Jh v,f,mawGukd vkdcsifw,f/ ukd,fhtvkyfukd,fvkyfukdifpm;r,f/ aemuf +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;aecsifw,f 'gavmufygbJ? u|efawmfwkd@&Jh awmifay:b0ue*kdxJucufcJ+yD;om;? bmjzpfvkd@ olwkd@u ykd+yD;cufoxufcufatmif vkyfcsif=uwmvJrodbl;?

Free Burma Rangers ESifh u&ifvltcGifhta&;tzGJ@ Karen Human Rights Group wkd@ESpfzGJ@pvkH;ESifh ausmykd;tdyfusef;rma&;vkyf om;rsm;toif; Back Pack Health Worker Team wkd@u jrefrmhwyfrawmf. zdESdyfa&;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;ESifh vlxk.qkd;&Gm;onfhusef;rma&;wkd@ wkduf&kdufygwfoufr_ tm; us,fjyef@pGm rSwfwrf;wifvkyfaqmifae=uonf? Tvkyfaqmifr_onf awmfvSefa&;tkyfpkrsm; (owif;/ qufoG,fa&;/ o,f,lykd@aqmifa&;/ axmufyhHykd@ aqmifa&;ESifh vkHðcHa&;taxmuftyHhay;aeonfh) óud;yrf;r_wpfckwnf;rSwqifh vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;r_jzifhay;tyfonfhtultnDwkd@onf xkdxkd;ESufwkdufckdufr_ cH&olrsm;xHa&muf&SdE_difjcif;jzpfonf? ‚xkd;ppfwGif u&ifjynfe,fajrmufykdif; c&kdifokH;ck&Sd &Gmom; 3&0 ausmfaoqkH;I okH;aomif;ausmf ppfajy;'kQonfb0a&mufcJhonf? xkdppfajy;'kQonfrsm;pGmwkd@ onf ,cktcgykef;atmif;aexkdif=u&onf? jrefrmhwyfrawmf pcef;opf 60 ausmfESifh vrf;opf 3 ck wkd@tm; wnfaqmufazmufvkyfcJh=uonf? wwdwdESifhyif/ okd@aomf tawmrowfonfh xkd;ESufwkdufckdufr_rsm;jzpfI pcef;opfrsm;ESifh vrf;rsm;aqmufvkyfjcif;onf ‚wkd@}uD;pkd;a&;ESifh a'owGif;&Sdu&ifwkdif;&if;om; rsm;tm; &SmazGajcr_ef;a&; pDrHudef;wpfck ðyvkyfaeykHay:onf? 1997 ckESpfrSpI u&ifqef@usifa&;twGufðyvkyfcJhonfh Txkd;ppfonf tjyif;xefqkH;jzpfonf? tdrf,mpGef@cGmxGufajy;&olESifh zsufqD;r_ tvGefrsm;jym;}uD;rm;I taotaysmufESifh tpm;xkd;r&onfh qkH;&_H;r_rsm; twkdif;twmjrifhrm;vSonf? tpma&pmxkwfvkyfr_tm;aESmuf,Sufjcif;/ tdrfrsm;tm;rD;&_d@jcif;ESifh jrefrmhwyfrawmf. jrif&mypftrdef@rsm;u axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom u&ifxktm; ‚wkd@arG;zGm;}uD;jyif;&majrwGif ckcHumuG,f&ef rpGrf;E_difonfhtajctaejzifh aexkdif&onfhb0okd@a&mufaponf? vlokH;aomif;xufykdI ae&yfrSarmif;xkwfcH&onfh 'kQonfjzpfvm=uI vl 7000 ausmfwkd@rSm tdrfypf,mypfESifh xkdif;EkdifiHe,fpyfokd@ xGufcGmcJh=u&onf? TvlxktaeESifh tpm;taomuf/ aq;0g;/ ckdv_H&mESifh ‚wkd@ tdrfrsm;/ ausmif;rsm;ESifh b0rsm;tm; jyefvnfaqmuf&ef tultnDvkdtyfonf? ‚wkd@ taeESifh ta&;ay:umuG,fapmifha&Smufr_ESifh vGwfvyfpGm ‚wkd@tdrfrsm;okd@ jyefoGm;E_dif &efvnf; vkdtyfaeayonf? a';Apf ,lbef@cf (eubank@pobox.com; info@freeburmarangers. org) onf jrefrmEkdifiH. yËdyQe,fajrrsm;wGif ta&;ay:tultnDay;tyfjcif;ESifh vl@ tcGifhta&;rSwfwrf;rsm; azmfxkwfr_rsm;vkyfaqmifaeonfh jrefrmjynfvGwfajrmufa&; &def;*sm;rsm;tzGJ@. n$ef=um;a&;rSL;jzpfonf? (www.freeburmarangers.org) 1 www.khrg.org 2 www.geocities.com/maesothtml/bphwt/ 3 ae&yfrStwif;t"Ra&$@ajymif;cH&jcif;pmapmif trSwf (28)wGif [,foma&;om;xm;onfh ‘jrefrmjynfta&S@zsm;&Sd jynfwGif;ae&yfrSarmif;xkwfr_’ aqmif;yg; www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR28/25.pdf ESifh ausmykd;tdyfusef;r ma&;vkyfom;rsm;toif;. ‘emwm&Snf ta&;ay: - jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ykdif;&Sd usef;rma&;ESifh vl@tcGifhta&;’ 2006 tpD&ifcHpm www. geocities.com/maesothtml/bphwt wGif awG@E_difonf?

jrefrmh wyfrawmf. twif;t=uyf ckdif;apjcif;a=umifh ypPnf;rsm; o,fae=u &onfh &Gmom;rsm; 2007 ckESpf/ ZGefv


12

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR

30

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trsK;d orD;tm;vk;H tm; ‚wk@d . oufaocHxu G q f cdk surf sm;tm; cGiðhf yay;tyfjcif;/ tcsed af y;jcif;ESihf Taqmif;yg;wGif tok;H ðya&;twGuf tpD&ifco H wif;ay;cJo h nfh cGet f m;pku d x f w k cf rhJ _ wk@d tay: u&iftrsK;d orD;tzG@J tpnf;taeESihf a=u;Zl;wif&ydS gonf? UNSW 'ko Q nfoak woeA[kXd mecsKyfrS vif'g bmwkv d rdk idk /f tkid ;f vif; ypfwma0; ESihf aumvif; bmwkv d rdk idk w f @dk tm; txl;a=u;Zl;wif&ydS ga=umif;? 1949 ckEpS w f iG f pwifwnfaxmifcI hJ tzG@J 0iftrsK;d orD; ok;H aomif;ausm&f o dS nfh u&iftrsK;d orD;tzG@J tpnf; (www.karenwomen.org) onf vlxt k okid ;f t0kid ;f tajcðytzG@J tpnf;jzpfI xkid ;f e,fpyf&dS 'ko Q nfpcef;rsm;ESihf jrefrmjynfwiG ;f ppfajy;'ko Q nfrsm;/ trsK;d orD;rsm; zG@H òzd;wk;d wufa&;ESihf axmufyahH &;tultnDrsm;tm; ay;tyfvyk af qmifv#u&f o dS nf? u&iftrsK;d orD;tzG@J tpnf;u trsK;d orD;tcGit hf a&;tm; od&edS m;vnfap&efEiS hf tokid ;f t0kid ;f twGi;f vlxq k ;Hk jzwfcsurf sm;ESihf Ekid if aH &;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;wGif trsK;d orD;rsm;yl;aygi;f yg0ifapa&;tm;vnf; tm;ay;vkyaf qmifaeayonf? 1 www.karenwomen.org


FMR

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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

13

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Free Burma Rangers

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14

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FMR

30

azmfjyaeonf? xdk@a=umifhESpfOD;ESpfzufrS ppftiftm;rsm; wzefxdyfwdkufawG@ qHk&eftwGuf jyifqifr_rsm; jyKvkyfvmonf? 2005ckESpf/ ESpfukefydkif;wGif yJcl;wkdif;a&S@ydkif;&Sd awmifay:a'orsm;wGif ppfrD;rsm;jzpfay:vsuf&Sdonf? ‚a=umifh ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmt=um rjrifcJh&aom a&GS@ajymif;aexdkifolrsm; axmifESifhcsDI jzpfyGm;cJh&onf? ukvor~ESifh EdkifiHwum=uufajceDaumfrwD (ICRC) wdk@onfxdkedkifiHa&; rjidrfroufjzpfaeaom a'orsm;odk@ oGm;a&mufcGifh r&&SdcJh=uay? xdk@tjyif 2006ckESpf ZlvdkifvwGif 'kQonfrsm;qdkif&m r[mrif;}uD;&Hk; (UNHCR)rS 0ef}uD;csKyfxHodk@ jynfwGif;ppf'kQa=umifh vlom;csif;pmemaom vdktyfr_rsm;udk oGm;a&mufulnDr_cGifhay;&ef toem;cHavsSmufxm;cJhaomfvnf; ‚wkd@ rSy,fcscJhonf? wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyif tpdk;&rS jynfolrsm;ESifhqufqHa&;tm;xkwfr_ udkekdifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;odk@ oabmayguf&efESifh u&ifhtrsdK;om;tpnff;t&Hk; (KNU) wdk@. jynfolwkd@tay:vGSrf;rdk;aer_udk wdkufcdkuf&ef txl;wvnfae &m,ljyifqifvsuf&Sdonf? xkdenf;wlpGm t&yfom;jynfolrsm;. xdckdufcHpm;r_ rsm;onf u&ifhtrsdK;om;tpnff;t&Hk;wdk@. xºuGykefuefr_a=umifhjzpfa=umif; tjypfwifvsuf&Sdonf? jynfolrsm;. twif;t"Ra&GS@ajymif;jcif;cHae&r_/ u&ifhtrsdK;om;tpnff;t&Hk;wdk@. tkyfcsKyfe,fajrtwGif;odk@ aus;&Gmrsm;a&G@ajymif;&r_ (xdkif;edkifiHt wGif;&Sd 'kQonfpcef;rsm;tygt0if) wdk@onf u&ifhtrsdK;om;tpnff;t&Hk;a =umifh[kpGyfpGJjyefygonf? xdk@tjyifawmifydkif;a'orsm;wGif 2005aemufydkif;ESifh 2006ESpfOD;ydkif;u tprf;oabmjzifh jyKvkyfaom taxmuftulrsm;ESihf aESmihfaES;r_rsm;u oufaojyaeonf? EdkifiHwum=uufajceDaumfrwD (ICRC) u ‚. pH&yfwnfr_ a=umifh vkyfief;rsm;qufvufaqmif&Guf&eftcGifhtvrf; enf;yg;vmjcif;onfvnf; oufaojyaeonfomru 2006ESpfukefydkif;wGif uGif;qif;aqmif&Gufolrsm;om vkyfief;udkvnfywfapvsuf ‚wdk@. tpDtpOfonf twkta,mif jyefvnfxlaxmifolrsm;ESifh omywfoufaeI tusdK;tjrwfcHpm;&olrsm;rSm jrefrmppftpdk;&ESifh t&yfom;rsm;om jzpfaeonf? ukvor~vkyfief;udk,fp m;vS,frSvnf; ‚wdk@. 2005 ckESpf tao;pm;vkyfief;udk +yD;jynfhpHk&ef pDrHcef@ cGJvsuf&Sdonf? tcsKd@taetxm;rsm;rSmrl ‚wdk@. vkyfief;&yfwnfr_twGufomjzpf+yD; a'ocH0efxrf;rsm;rSwqifh vkyfaqmifvsuf&Sdonf? aemufqHk;wGif 'kQonfrsm;qdkif&mukvor~r[mrif;=uD;&Hk;onf ‚.w&m;0ifvHkðcHr_ twGuf 2006ckESpf {+yDvwGif e,fpyfa'oESifh wdkif;&if;om;rsm;zGH@+zdK;wdk; wuf a&;0ef}uD;Xme (ewv) ESifh em;vnfr_pmcsKyfvufrSwfa&;xdk;cJh=uonf? pmwrf;ygoufwrf;t& aemufxyf 2ESpftwGuf 2007 ckESpf ESpfv,fydkif;wGif xyfrHoufwrf;wdk;cJh=uonf? ‚tpDtpOf. OD;wnfcsufrSm ta&S@awmifykdif; a'orsm;wGif a&GS@ajymif;aexdkifr_rsm;a=umifh wpfajrwnf;aexdkifolrsm;tm; &dkufcwfvmr_wkd@tm; ulnDaqmif&Guf&efESihf vkyfief;cGifa'oodk@ vSHk+cHKr_OD;xdyfxm;vsuf aESmifhaES;r_r&Sdap&ef 0efxrf;rsm;tm; 0ifxGufcGihfjyK&ef wdk@jzpfonf?ukvor~ cav;rsm;&HyHkaiGtzGJ@ (UNICEF) rSvnf; ‚wdk@.&Hk;cGJudk rGefjynfe,f.òrd@awmf armfvòrdifwGif zGifhvSpfcJhonf? odk@aomf edkifiHjcm;om;rsm;tm; twnfwus ae&mcs cef@ xm;edkifjcif;r&SdcJhay? ewvonf tzGJ@tpnf;topfwpfcktaejzifh EkSdif;,Snf=unfhaomf jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ awmifwGif wpfOD;wnf; Áa¹EN&Sd&Sd qufvufwnf&Sdae+rJ jzpfonf?ukvor~ (UN) ESifh edkifiHwum tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wkd@ESifh yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifaomtzGJ@0if trsm;qHk;tzGJ@tpnf;rSm usef;rma&;0ef}uD;Xmeyifjzpfonf? usef;rma&;ESifhqdkifaom vlom;csif;pmemonfh taxmuftul jzpfonfh tm;avsmfpGm ta&S@awmifa'owGif zGH@+zdk;wdk;wufcJhaomfvnf; jynfoljynfom;rsm;twGuf tvkyftudkifvdktyfr_udk jznfhpGrf;edkifjcif;r&SdcJhay?

nSdEd_if;aqmif&Gufr_ 2004 ck ESpfukefydkif;tcsdefrSpI nSdekdif;r_jyKedkifaom vkyfief;vnfywfwnf&Sdr_ onf ta&S@awmifa'oY tzGJ@0iftm;vHk;udk twlwuG ta=umif;t&mtcsuftvufzvS,f&mwGif vnf;aumif;/ vkyfief;vkyfaqmifolrsm;ESifh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;. tpDtpOfudkvnf;aumif; pwifedkifcJh onf? ‚tcsuftvufrsm;onf vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_aqmif&Gufa&;tzGJ@ (PMWG) twGuf vkyfief;aqmif&Guf&mwGif trSDo[JðycJhonf?‚ (PMWG) udk (UNCT) rS 2004 ckESpfukefydkif;wGif wnfaxmifcJhjcif;jzpfonf? vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_aqmif&Gufa&;tzGJ@ (PMWG) onf jynfol@vSkyf&Sm;r_ yHkpHrsm;udk avhvm&mY taxmuftulðyonfh jynfwGif;a&Gajymif;aexkdifr_ESifh 0ifxGufoGm;vmr_udk t"duavhvm&mwGifvnf;aumif;/ aocsmonfh axmufcHcsufaomfvnf;aumif;/ (UNCT) . udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf aqmif&GuftpD&ifcHay;vsuf&Sdonf? ‚tpD&ifcHcsufonf vl@todkif; t0dkif;tajccHtzGJ@


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tpnf;rsm; (CBOs) ESifh ESD;aESm&mwGifvnf;aumif;/ oD;jcm;ty,fcH vl@todkif;t0dkif;rsm;odk@ rnfonfutaumif;qHk;ae&meSifh rnfuJhodk@ vdktyfcsufudkjznfh pGuf&ef paom qHk;jzwfcsufcs&mY axmufyhHay;onfh wGef;tm;wpfckjzpfonf?

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jrefrmedkifiHwGif vlom;csif;pmemaom vkyfief; nSdEd_if;r_vkyfief;aqmifwmudk ukvor~ (UN) zGJ@ pnf;yHk tajccHrl twGif;wGif wnfaxmifzGJ@pnf;jcif;u vkyfief;udk,fpm;vS,f&yfwnfr_aumfrwD zGJ@pnf;&efvH_@ aqmfay;cJhonf? ‚onf vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;aom vkyfief;AsL[mrsm; pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;&mY ta&;ygaom xifjrif,lqcsufay;onfhae&mwGif tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzGJhtpnf;rsm; (NGOs) rsm;udk xnfhoGif;yg0ifcGifhjyKcJhonf? tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzGJhtpnf;rsm; (NGOs) ESifh tajccHvlh@todkfif;t0dkif;tzGJ@ tpnf;rsm; (CBOs) tm;vHk;yGifhvif;pGmyg0if v_ yf&Sm;r_ rðyEkdifcJhaomfjim;vnf; enf;vrf;opfjzifh ‚wdk@ ESifh ESD;aESmzvS,fjcif;tm;jzifh ta=umif;t&m tvHk;pHkudk =um;odcGifh&jcif;wkd@udk twdtus azmfaqmifaponf? vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_aqmif&Gufa&;tzGJ@ (PMWG) ESifh (TBBC) wdk@. jynfwGif;ppfajy;'kQonfrsm;tay: tpD&ifcHpm wdk@onf t,ltqcsif;wlnD=uonf? ‚tpD&ifcHpmonf befaumuf+rdk@Y jyKvkyfaom jrefrmESifh ukvor~EdkifiHtoif; (UNCT) t=um;eSifh xdkif;edkifiHodk@ e,fpyfjzwfausmf tvkyfvkyfolrsm;. yxrt}udrf tjrifzvS,fyGJtay: jyXmef;cJhjcif;jzpfonf?‚zvS,fr_ rsm;onf qufvufwnf&Sdrnfjzpf+yD; r=umc%qdkovdk tcsdefESifhtr# ydkrdkwdk;wuf&efjzpfonf? 2007 ckESpftwGif; ‚wdk@.awG@qHkr_tpnf;ta0;rS ta=umif;t&mvkduf zJG@pnf;cJh=uonfh usef;rma&;/ ynma&;/ toufarG;0rf;a=umif;ESifh tcGifhta&;umuG,fr_ ponfwdk@ a=umifh todtrSwfjyKjcif;cHcJh&onf? tjyifvlESifh twGif;vlrsm;t=um; ,SOf+ydKifvkyfaqmifjcif;xuf av;pm;csD;usL;&onfh ae@pOfjzpfay:r_udk jrifap&ef ‚u azmfaqmifcJhonf? tenf;i,faom jrefrmtajcpdkuf tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzGJhtpnf; (NGOs) udk xdkif;edkifiHtajcpdkuf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u tjyeftvSeftusKd;twGuf }udKqdkcJh=uaomfvnf; rouFmr_ wdk@u w&pf0J0J &Sdae+rJjzpfonf? ydkIta&;=uD;onfrSm ukvor~rS jynfwGif;ppfajy;'kQonf rsm;ESifh vHk+cHKr_r&Sdaom jynfolrsm;/ rjrif&onfh xdcdkufapaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;tm;azmfxkwf&ef vrf;rsm;&SmazGae&qJ jzpfonf? xdkt a=umif;t&mrsm;aqG;aEG;r_ESifhywfoufI ppftm%mydkiftpdk;&rsm;taejzifh ‚wdk@*wdrwnfjcif; odk@r[kwf r&Sdjcif; ponfwdk@ omjzpfonf?

*sif;z&efudktdpf d'l;&pf jean-francois.durieux@qeh.ox.ac.uk onf arv/ 2005 ckESpf rS pufwifbmv/ 2007 ckESpftxd jrefrmEdkifiHwGif 'kQonfrsm; qdkif&mukvor~r[mrif;=uD;&Hk;. tvkyfr_aqmifudk,fpm;vS,fjzpfonf? ‚onf ,ckcsdefY 'kQonfavhvma&;XmerS tjynfjynfqdkif&mvlhtcGifhta&; ESifh 'kQonfOya'a=umif;qkdif&m uxduwOD;jzpfonf? pDAifcg d'gemzvm dhanapal@unhcr.org onf tzfume,fpwm / umbl; rS 'kQonfrsm;qdkif&m ukvor~r[mrif;=uD;&Hk;. a'oqdkif&m wm&Snfajz&Sif;a&;wm0efcHt&m&SdwpfOD; jzpfonf?

2007/ atmufwdkbm/ ukvor~ESpfywfvnfae@. trSmpum;tay: rkefwdkif;xefxefwHk@jyefjcif;Y rvdk vm;tyfaom axhvHk;aighvHk;rsm; yg0ifonf? ta=umif;&if;rsm;rSm ta&;w}uD;vdktyfr_twGufjrefrmESihf ukvor~ axmufyHhr_ tzGJ@wdk@ yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef tm&Hkpdkufaecsdef/ vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;r_ qdkif&m tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;r_rsm; &&dS&ef}udK;yrf;aecsdefY vlrqefonfh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfu wHcg;ydwfvdkufjcif;/ rdrd.oufwrf;wpfav#muf tm;wufoa&m wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhaom a'ocH vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;r_qdkif&m tvkyftr_ aqmiftjzpfrS jyif;xefpGmpGyfpGJI jzKwfypfjcif; ponfwdk@ jzpfonf?

1 ukvor~edkifiHtoif;wGif FAO, ILO, IOM, UNDP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNODC, UNOPS, WFP , WHO wdk@ yg0ifonf?

xkdtpdk;&. &GH&SmzG,ftkyfcsKyfr_pepfu jynfolwkd@twGuf wpfpHkwpf&mr#topftqef; jyKvkyfekdifjcif; r&Sdao;ay? Tonfum; jrefrmekdifiHwGif vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;r_ qdkif&m Oya'udk qef;opfwDxGifaomenf;jzifh usifhoHk;Irjzpfekdif[k qkdvkdjcif;r[kwfay? xdk@a=umifh vlom;csif; pmemr_qdkif&m vdktyfr_onf ukvor~ ESifh ‚.jrefrmedkifiHtwGif; vkyfazmfukdifbufrsm; twGuf ta&;}uD; qHk;wm0eftjzpfqufvufwnf&Sd aernfom jzpfayawmhonf?

5 Wherever there is a Humanitarian Coordinator, OCHA requires that there should also be an inter-agency coordination committee modelled on the IASC (www. humanitarianinfo.org/iasc), which includes, in addition to UNCT members, the Red Cross movement and large NGOs.

Taqmif;yg;onf pma&;ol.yk~Kdvfa&;qkdif&mtjrifomjzpf+yD; uBmhukvor~.tjriftm; ukd,fpm;rðyyg?

2 EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef=uD;Xmeonf atmfwdkbm 31&uf 2007 ckESpf wGif jrefrmEdkifiHY ukvor~edkifiHtoif;. xkwfjyefpmudk jyef=um;cJhonf? 3 / tuf&Sav apmufof ‘Burma: The Changing Nature of Displacement Crises', RSC Working Paper 39, Feb 2007: www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/WP39%20Burma%20AS.pdf 4 Wherever there is a Humanitarian Coordinator, OCHA requires that there should also be an inter-agency coordination committee modelled on the IASC (www. humanitarianinfo.org/iasc), which includes, in addition to UNCT members, the Red Cross movement and large NGOs.

6 ‘Internal Displacement and Protection in Eastern Burma', 2005: www.tbbc.org/idps/ report-2005-idp-english.pdf

15


16

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FMR

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18

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awmifil c&kdiftwGif; etzxHrS xGufajy; =uonfh armif;xkwf cH&onfh &Gmom;rsm;


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jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ykdif;. emwm&Snfta&;ay:taetxm;tm;wkef@jyefjcif; xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf,m,Dpkpnf;ulnDa&;tzGJ@ vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;a&;tultnDay;vkyfief;Xmersm; ESifh tokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm; twlwGJI jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ykdif; ppfrufòydifqkdifr_jzpfyGm;r_trsm;qkH;jzpfaom a0;vHacgifzsm;onfha'orsm;rS vl@ tokdif;t0kdif;rsm;tm; ulnDaxmufyHha&;vkyfaqmif=uonf? T emwm&Snfta&;ay:tajctaetwGuf vlom;csif;pmemr_jzifh wkef@ jyefaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;onf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif;tajcðyXmersm;ESifh tdrfeD;csif;EkdifiHrsm;wGif tajcðyI EkdifiHe,fpyftm; rodromtultnDay;aeonfh Xmersm;tm;vkH;wkd@ rSvmonf? 2006 ckESpfwGif tpkd;&. tultnDay;pDrHcsufrsm;ESifh a0;vHacgifzsm;onfha'orsm;okd@ EkdifiHwum0efxrf;wkd@. c&D;oGm;vma&; uef@ owfr_rsm;tm; vkdufemaqmif&Guf&ef vrf;n$eftjzpf vlom;csif;pmemonfhtultnD ay;tyfaeonfh XmeESifh tzGJ@tpnf;wkd@tay: w&m;0ifcsrSwfxm;cJhonf? xkdtpkd;&pnf;rsOf;rsm;u txl;ojzifh jynfajy;0efxrf;rsm;jzifh uGif;qif;umuG,fapmifha&Smufr_enf;AsL[mcsxm; vkyfaqmifaeonfh vkyfief;rsm;tm; wif;=uyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf? jzpfcsifawmh usOf;ajrmif;onfh vlom;csif;pmemr_vkyfykdifcGifhonf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif; vkyfief;Xmersm;tm; EkdifiH0efxrf;rsm;wkd;wufa&; ESifh vlxktokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; ykdrkdt"duxm;onfh enf;AsL[mrsm;jzifh ukdifwG,fajz&Sif;&eftm;ay;onfh tcGifhta&;rsm;&Sdoifhonf? e,fpyfjzwfausmf tultnDay;a&;pDrHcsufrsm; wGif q,fpkESpfausmftwGif; yxrtqifhtaeESifh vlxktokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u pwiftaumiftxnfazmf vkyfukdifr_ rsm;aqmif&GufcJhouJhokd@ jynfwGif;tajcðyvkyfief;Xmersm;rS yËdyQ'%fcHpm;ae&onfh a'orsm;twGif; vlom;csif;pmemr_jzifh wkef@jyefaqmif&Gufr_rsm;onfvnf; ,cktcg a'ocHvkyf E_difpGrf;wkd@tay: ykdrkdtm;xm;vm&ayonf? EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif;onf ,cktcg rSDckdae&onfukdawG@&onf? Oyrm - ppfrufòydifqkdifr_ jzpfyGm;aeonfha'orsm;wGif ajrpmyifjzpfae&onfh csdKKheJ@r_taetxm;tm; wkdif;wma&;tm; vlxktokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u vlxktwGif; oabmxm;aumufcHcJh=uonf? jrefrmjynfta&S@ykdif; qufwkdufyËdyQjzpfyGm;aeonfh a'orsm;wGif rnfokd@ vlom;csif; pmemonfhvkyfykdifcGifh wkd;jrSifhvkyfaqmifa&;vkyfaqmif&rnf[lo nfhtcsuftay: pdefac:r_wpf&yf&Sdonf? vkyfief;Xmersm;ESifh tpkd;&rsm;tm; ppftkyfpkESifh aqG;aEG;a&;twGuf a'oE W&tcGifhtvrf;jrSifhwifa&;ESifh apmifh=uyfppfaq;wif;usyfr_tm; wpfpkHw&mav#mhaygha&;tjyif pepfwusðyvkyfaeonfh &ufpufr_ESifh aESmifh,Sufapmfum;r_wkd@rS jynfolvlxktm;umuG,fa&;twGuf rl0g'ykdif;qkdif&maqG;aEG;r_wkd@vnf; vkdtyfaeayonf? ,if;okd@vkdufavsmr_ rsm;tm; vkHðcHr_jzpfapE_difonfhwkdif jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ykdif;&Sd tiftm;csdeJ@r_tjzpfqkH; ajrpmyifvlxktokdif;t0kdif;tm; vufvSrf;rDaprnfht"duvrf;a=umif;rSm e,fpyfjzwf ausmf0ifa&muf&rnfhtajctaewGifyif&SdaeOD;rnfjzpfonf?

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enf;AsL[mykdif;qkdif&mpdefac:r_rsm; jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ykdif;twGif; e,fpyfjzwfausmfay;tyfrnfh tultnDay;pDrHcsufrsm;u xkdtultnDwkd@taeESifh rawmfwqtaeESifh t=urf;zufr_/ aESmuf,Sufapmfum;r_wkd@ a=umifh =uef@=umr_ rjzpfapa&;twGuf enf;vrf;okH;oG,f&Sdonf? yxrtcsuftaeESifh ykdrkd}uD;us,fonfh pDrHcsufrsm;onf tajccH vlom;csif;pmema&;pnf;urf;rsm; ESifh av;pm;&rnhf wm0ef,laqmif&Gufr_rsm;&Sif;vif;pGmyg0ifonfh w&m;0ifoabm wlnDcsufrsm;tay:tajccHonf? xkdoabmwlnDcsufwkd@u oifhav#mfonfh


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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People (CIDKP)

FMR

wkdif;&if;om;twkduftcHygwDtm; a'ocHvlom;jcif;pmemonfhtultnDay;Xme. vGwfvyfonfhykdifeuftm; tultnDay;ykd@a&;qkH;jzwfcsufcsrSwfpOfwGif w&m;0ifvkHðcHpGm vufcH&&SdE_difapa&; todtrSwfðyxm;+yD;jzpfonf? Xmersm;taeESifhvnf; EkdifiHwum vlom;jcif;pmema&;Oya'atmufwGif tpkd;&r[kwfonfh vufeufukdifwkd@ twGif; ‚wkd@rjzpfraevkyf&rnfh wm0eftjzpf *&kxm;tm&kHpkdufa&;ykdrkd jrSifhwif&ef qwufxrf;ykd; tm;xkwfvkyfaqmif&efvkdtyfonf? 'kwd,tcsuftaeESifh tultnDay;tyfr_u vufeufukdiftkyfpkwpfckck. aoG;xkd;r_jzifh &Gmom;wkd@ twGuf tysufoabmaqmifonfh *,uf&kdufr_jzpfrjzpf apmifh=uyfxdrf;odrf;&efESifh aemufykdif; tœ&m,fOD;pm;ay;owfrSwf jcif;ESifh yËdyQoufa&mufr_owfrSwfjcif;? wwd,tcsufrSm pDrHcsuft& tusKd;cHpm;&&Sdolrsm;ESifh tusKd;cHpm;cGifhr,lolrsm;t m;vkH;tay: e,fpyfjzwfausmf ay;tyfonfhtultnDwkd@. tusKd;oufa&mufr_. ykdrkd&Sif;vif;onfhykH&dyftm; &&Sdap&eftwGuf uGif;qif;ppfwrf;aumuf,lcsuf csrSwfaqmif&Gufjcif;jzpfonf? xkdppfwrf;rsm;u xda&mufI tðyoabmaqmifonfh yËdyQavsmhyg;apjcif;ESifh a'owGif; vkyfaqmifE_difpGrf;tjyif +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf tcsdwftqufrsm;tm; wkd;jrSifhay;onfh tusKd;oufa&mufr_rsm;tm; cGJjcm;ay;cJhonf? tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;twGif; pdefac:r_rsm;u owif;tay;t,lESifh jynfwGif;ESifh e,fpyfjzwfausmfaxmufyHha&; tultnDay;aeonfh yËdyQjzpfonfhESpfbufpvkH; vlom;csif;pmema&;Xmersm;. wkd;wufjcif;jzpfonf? vuf&Sdumv wnf&Sdaeonfh aqmif&Gufa&;Xmersm; tenf;qkH;wxyfwnf;jzpfaecsdefwGif vufvSrf;rDapa&;ESifh xda&mufonfh nSdE_dif;aqmif&Gufr_wkd@twGuf axmufyhHaiGtm; wif;usyfr_rsm;t& ykdrkdIeD;pyfvmonf? ,kH=unfr_twkdif;twmESifh EkdifiHe,fpyfjzwfausmfvkyfukdif aeonfh vlom;csif;pmema&;tultnDay;Xmersm;taeESifh vGefcJhonfh ESpftenf;i,ftwGif; xif&Sm;pGmwkd;yGm;vmcJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; óud;yrf;r_rsm;taeESifh axmufyhHykd@ aqmifa&;tcuftcJrsm; (jynf0ifcGifhADZmrsm;ESifh qifqmjzwfawmufr_tygt0if)/ EkdifiHa&;tœ&m,frsm; (‘tpkd;&owif;ay;olrsm;’ okd@r[kwf ‘olykefaxmufcHtm;ay; olrsm;’ESifh qufqHjcif;jzifh)ESifh bwf*suftokH;aiGqkdif&mpkd;&drfr_rsm; (&HykHaiGrsm;twGuf ‘t+ydKif’ taetxm;jzifh wnf&Sdaer_)wkd@uJhokd@ qufvufvkyfaqmifaeonfh zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_wkd@tm;ajz&Sif;&ef ykdrkdtm;&Sd&efvkdtyfonf? tvSL&Sifrsm;twGuf enf;AsL[mpdrfac:r_wpfcku EkdifiHw0Srf;qif;&JiwfrGwfr_ avsmhyg;apa&; pDrHcsufrsm;ESifh jrefrmjynfta&S@ykdif;&Sd ta&;ay: emwm&SnftDav;qGJaeonfh yËdyQwkd@twGuf &HykHaiGvkdtyfcsuf rnfokd@

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ykef;atmif; aeonfh ppfajy; 'kuQonf rsm; jrefrmjynf ta&S@ykdif; a'o/ 2007 ckESpf

aphpyfaqmif&Gufr_vkdtyfonf[lonfh wnf&SdqJjy\emyifjzpfonf? vlOD;a&. trsm;pktm; c|wfðcHusaponfh q,fpkESpfrsm;pGm nHhjzif;onfhtkyfcsKyfa&;tae ESifh vlom;csif;pmemonfhta&;ygr_tm; trSefwu,fcsdeJ@aeonfhtkyfpkrsm;twGuf OD;pm;ay;I xdrf;nSdvkyfaqmif&ef vkdtyfae+yDjzpfonf? EkdifiHa&;ajz&Sif;r_tm; tcsdefqGJxm;jcif;u e,fpyfjzwfausmfay;tyfaeonfh tultnDay;Xmersm;tm; ta&;ay:wkef@jyefaqmif&Gufr_rsm;vkyfaqmif&ef uef@owfxm;onfh a&&Snfr=unfhonfhvkyfaqmifr_yifjzpfonf? xkdtpm; u,fq,fa&;rS ckdifrmonfh toufarG;r_zG@Hòzd;a&;tultnDtxd rnfonfhtem*wf tull;tajymif; tvm;tvmu yËdyQ. ESpfbufpvkH;&Sd wkef@jyefvmrnfh vkyfE_difpGrf;. oWmefyifjzpfonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm; tultnDjzifh EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif;taeESifh csdeJ@r_tjzpfqkH;tkyfpkrsm;tm; jrefrmEkdifiHta&S@ykdif;wGif qufpyfulnDa&;vkyfaqmifae+yD; tvSL&Sifrsm;ESifh ukvor~Xmersm;u e,fpyfjzwfausmfay;tyfonfhtultnD twGuf xkda'owGif; vkyfEd_ifpGrf;wkd@tm; todtrSwfðyr_/ axmufyHhr_ r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfonf? xkdenf;wl yËdyQcHpm;ae&onfha'orsm;wGif vlom;csif;pmema&;vkyfykdifcGifhtm;csJ@xGifa&; t&SdefjrSifhI oHwrefa&;zdtm;ay;vkyfaqmif&efrSm tvGefta&;ygaeayonf? Taqmif;yg;ukd xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf,m,Dpkpnf;ulnDa&;tzGJ@ (www.tbbc.

org) . ae&yfrSarmif;ESifxkwfr_ okawoetzGJ@ (tbbcbkk@tbbc.org) t aeESifha&;om;ðypkcJhjcif;jzpfonf? xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf,m,Dpkpnf;ulnDa&;tzGJ@ wGif jrefrmEkdifiHrS 'kQonfrsm;ESifh ae&yfrSarmif;ESifxkwfcH&olrsm;twGuf pm;a&&dQm/ ckdv_Hp&mae&mESifh pm;p&mr[kwfonfhtjcm;ypPnf;rsm;tm; ay;tyfulnDaeonfh tpkd;&r[kwfonfhEkdifiHwum tzGJ@tpnf; 11 ckwkd@yg0ifonf? ‚pkpnf;ulnDa&;tzGJ@u ae&yfrSarmif;ESifxkwfjcif;§xGufcGmvm&jcif;ESifh 'kQonf,kdpdrfhxGufvm&jcif;. tajccHta=umif;&if;rsm;tm; okawoeðyvkyfa&;wGifvnf;yg0ifvkyfaqmifv#uf&Sdonf?

1 ukvor~ EkdifiH (aus;vuf) tzGJ@cGJ/ 2005 ckESpf {+yDv 22 &ufae@ ‘jrefrmEkdifiHwGif; ukvor~Xmersm;tay: enf;AsL[mykdif;qkdif&muef@ owfr_/ &efukef' www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Myanmar_UNDAF.pdf 2 UN OCHA/ 2001 ckESpf pufwifbmv 14 &ufae@ ‘vlom;csif;pmemonfhtultnDay;,Ofwef;twGuf ppfwyf okd@r[kwf vufeufukdiftapmifhta&SmuftokH;ðyjcif; - aqG;aEG;csufESifh taESmiftzGJ@uif;onfh vrf;n$efcsufrsm;?' www.who.int/hac/network/interagency/GuidelinesonArmedEscorts_Sept2001.pdf


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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR

30

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif;rsKd;qufjyefŒyGm;a&; qkdif&musef;rma&; aqmif&Gufa&;OD;pm;ay; *|efbmaumif; jrefrmjynfwGif vlwpfOD;csif;pDtwGuf usef;rma&;ESpfpOftokH;pm;&dyfrSm ysrf;r# qifhig;q,f (a':vm0uf) atmufwGif&Sdonf? a'owGif;&Sd tjcm;ae&mrsm;xuf jrefrmEkdifiH.usef;rma&;tajctaeuedrfhusaeonfrSm tqef;r[kwfay? Taqmif;yg;onf rsKd;qufjyef@yGm;a&;qkdif&musef;rma&;. tajctaerSefukd txl;ðyazmfjyxm;onf? jrefrmEkdfifiHwGif wkd;wufonhfrsKd;qufjyef@yGm;a&;qkdif&musef;rma&; apmifha&Smufr_ vkyfief;rsm; ta&;ay:vkdtyfaeayonf? vlwpfaomif;wGif rdcif 360 [lonfh arG;zGm;&mwGif cef@rSef;acs rdciftaotaysmufpm&if;u tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;xuf enf;aeaomfvnf; Tt&nftwGufrSm EkdifiHwGif;&Sd rdcifaoqkH;r_tay:ukd,fpm;ðyonfh pm&if;rSefr[kwfa=umif; ae&mtESH@tjym;wGif,kH=unfae=uonf? yËdoawm;tumtuG,ftokH;ðyr_onfvnf; tenf;i,fom&Sd+yD; rsm;pGmaoma'orsm;twGif; yËdyQjzpfyGm;aeonfha'owGif; aexkdif=uonfh trsKd;orD;rsm;u acwfrDyËdoawm;qD;umuG,fr_tm; jynfwGif;ajrjyef@a'orsm;wGif aexkdifonfhtrsKd;orD;rsm;avmuf tokH;ðyjcif;r&Sdonfh taetxm;jzpfykHay:onf? vltrsm;taeESifh ‚wkd@ae&yfrsm;rSarmif;xkwfcH&jcif; okd@r[kwf b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiH'kQonf pcef;rsm;rSjyefvmjcif;jzpfyGm;aeonfh &ckdifjynfe,fwGif tdrfaxmif&SdtrsKd;orD;rsm;twG if; yËdoawm;qD;r_vkyfaqmifjcif;rSm txl;ojzifh enf;yg;vSonf? jrefrmtpkd;&u ‚wkd@.uwdtwkdif; 2015aemufqkH;xm;I rDvDeD,rfzG@Hòzd; wkd;wufa&;yef;wkdif Millennium Deveolopment Goals (MDGs) twkdif;vkyfaqmifaeonfjzpfI rdcifaoqkH;r_ 75 &mckdifE_ef;av#mhcsa&; (MDG5) onf 2008 ckESpf. OD;pm;ay;vkyfief;jzpfonf? okd@aomf jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd rsKd;qufjyefyGm;a&;qkdif&musef;rma&;vkyfief;rsm;u yk~Kdvfa&;axmufyHhr_ tay:wnfrSDaeonfhtwGuf aiGay;E_difolrsm;twGufom &&SdE_difonfhapmifha&Smufa&;y ifjzpfonf? aus;vufa'orsm;wGif uef@owfxm;onfh vkyfief;tcsKd@&SdI txl;ojzifh e,fpyfa'orsm;wGif nHhjzif;onfhapmifha&Smufr_avmufom &&SdE_difonf? tpkd;&u MDG5 tm;tav;xm;vkyfaqmifrnf[krlt&qkdaomfvnf; t"duyËdoawm;aq;tokH;ðyr_tm; t[ef@twm;jzpfaponfu tpkd;&. arG;zGm;E_ ef;wkd;jrSifha&; pwef@xGiftm;ay;r_jzpfonf? r=umrDu EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGH@òzd;wkd;wufa&;aumifpDOuUX. rdef@cGef;wGif ‚. qjzpfonfh vlOD;a&wkd;yGm;a&;tm; ‘vlOD;&nfoef;wpf&mpDrHudef;’ (vuf&Sdcef@rSef;vlOD;&nf.ESpfqeD;yg;)tm; OD;wnfI pwef@xGif &nfn$ef;ajymqkdoGm;cJhonf? xkd@a=umifh yËdoawm;qD;umuG,fr_u tpkd;&usef;rma&;Xmersm;wGif us,fjyef@pGmr&&SdE_difjcif;jzpfI yk~vduaqmif&Gufr_ onfom yËdoawm;qD;umuG,fr_twGuf t"duaxmufyHhr_ay;jcif;jzpfa=umif; owif;&&Sdonf? txl;ojzifh TumuG,fr_onf yk~vduu|rf;usifolrsm;ESifh yk~vduaq;cef;rsm; &SdE_difonfhtaetxm;enf;yg;I EkdifiHwumtzGJ@ tpnf;tenf;tyg;avmufom apmifha&Smufa&;vkyfief; azmfaqmif E_difonfh yËdyQa=umifh xdckdufcHpm;ae&onfh jynfe,frsm;ESifh e,fpyfa'orsm;&Sd trsKd;orD;rsm;eSifh txl;oifhawmfayonf? xm0pOfrdom;pkpDrHudef;enf;rsm;vkyfaqmif &ef wif;usyfonfht[ef@twm;rsm;vnf;&Sdfonf? rdom;pkpDrHudef;tultnDay;Xmersm;r&Sdonfhtcg trsKd;orD;rsm;taeESifh i,f&G,f vGef;onfhtcsdefwGifuav;,ljcif;/ uav;wOD;ESifhwpfOD;tcsdefeD;uyfpGm ,ljcif;/ uav;rsm;pGm,ljcif;ESifh uav;,ljcif;aemufusr_wkd@tm; vkyfaqmifavh&Sdonf? Tonfwkd@rSm rdcifESifhuav; aoqkH;&jcif;tœ&m,fjzpfyGm;r_tm;ay;&m t"duta=umif;&if;av;ckjzpfonf? jynfhpkHr_r&Sdonfh rdom;pkpDrHudef;onfvnf; r&nf&G,fbJ ukd,f0ef&&Sdjcif;rsm;jzpfyGm;jcif;okd@OD;wnfI vkHðcHpdwfcs&r_r&Sdonfh ukd,f 0efzsufcsjcif;tusKd;w&m;tm; jzpfay:ayrnf? EkdifiHwumESifh EkdifiHawmfXmersm;pGm. tm;xkwfaqmif&Gufr_rsm;=um;rS tdyfcsftkdifAGD HIV ae&mtESH@jzpfyGm;r_onf a'owGif;wGif tjrifhrm;qkH;jzpfonf?

e,fpyf&SdvkHðcHpdwfcs&onfhrsKd;quf jyef@yGm;a&; qkdif&musef;rma&;Xmersm; rsKd;qufjyef@yGm;a&;qkdif&musef;rma&;vkdtyfcsufrsm;tm; xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfwGif vkyfukdifaqmif&Gufaeonfh Xmersm;wkd@u wifjy=uonf? okd@aomf r=umc%taeESifh pcef;rsm;wGif;aexkdifonfh 'kQonfrsm;xHokd@oma&muf&Sd&ef uef@owfxm;jcif;cH&onf? 1990 aESmif;ykdif;rsm;rSpI odomwkd;wufr_rsm;jzpfay:cJhonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh ta&;ay:om;zGm;r_apmifha&Smufa&;tm; ,cktcg wpfae@v#ifESpfq,fhav;em&DESifh wygwfv#if ckESpf&ufpvkH; tqifoifhtaetxm;jzifh pcef;tm;vkH;eDyg;wGif &&Sdae+yDjzpfonf? okd@aomfvnf; yËdoawm;qD;a&;enf;rsm;tm; tokH;ðyr_onf tenf;tusOf;om &Sdaeayao;onf? a&m*gul;pufjzpfyGm;r_ESifh aoqkH;r_ twkdif;twmjrifhrm;I vkHðcHr_r&Sdonfh ukd,f0efzsufcsjcif;rsm; tvGefrsm;jym;onfh twkdif;twmwGif&Sda=umif; =um;od&onf? vdifqufqHa&;ESifh rsKd;qufjyef@yGm;a&;ynmay;vkyfief;rsm; txl;vkdtyfaeayonf? 'kQonftrsm;pkwGif tajccHyËdoawm;qD;r_enf;vrf;rsm;ESifh rnfokd@ vdift&ul;pufa&m*grsm;ESifh tdyfcsftkdifAGD HIV a&m*gwkd@rS ukd,fwkdifrnfokd@ umuG,frnf qkdonfhtay: A[kokw tenf;i,fom&Sdonf? txl;ojzifh trsKd;orD;i,fwkd@onf tm;EGJ@=uI xkdif;EkdifiHtaemufykdif;&Sd jynfhwefqmcef;wpfckckwGif twif;tusyf tvkyfckdif;apr_cH&rnfh tœ&m,f&Sdaeonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif; ae&if;a'orSarmif;xkwfcH&olrsm;ESifh xkdif;EkdifiHESifh b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHa&muf 'kQonfrsm;wkd@twGuf rsKd;qufjyef@yGm;a&;qkdif&musef;rma&;t aeESifh vkHavmufonfhapmifha&Smufr_taetxm;ESifh a0;uGmaeayao;onf? „„ taxmuftyHhESifh u&d,mypPnf;rsm;ulnDay;tyfr_tygt0if vlom;t&if;tjrpf vkyfE_difpGrf;zG@Hòzd;a&; tultnDay;tyfr_ „„ oifhav#mfonfh rl0g'ESifh n$ef=um;r_rsm;tm; azmfaqmifjrSifhwifa&; odk@r[kwf jznfhpnf;a&; „„ jrefrmtpkd;&tm; uav;trsm;}uD;arG;zGm;apa&;tm;ay;onfh pwef@ xGifvkyfaqmifr_ &Sdaeaomfvnf; rdcifaoqkH;r_av#mhcsa&;twGuf rdom;pkpDrHudef;. ta&;ygr_tm; todtrSwfðyvmapa&; wkdufwGef;tm;ay;&ef

rl0g'a&;wkef@jyefvkyfaqmifcsuf +Adwdo#tpkd;&onf jrefrmEkdifiHtm; trsm;qkH;taxmuftyHhay;aeonfh EkdifiHrsm;xJwGif wpfcktygt0ifjzpfonf? uBmhukvor~. Xmersm;ESifh vkyfaqmifaeonfh ‚.Xmejzpfonfh EkdifiHwumzGH@òzd;a&;XmetaeESifh &HykHaiGwkd@taeESifh zdESdyftkyfcsKyfaeonfh w&m;r0if ppftpkd;&xHokd@ OD;wnfcsufajymif;I a&muf&SdroGm;apa&;twGuf jrefrmtpkd;&tm;wkduf&kduf tultnDay;jcif;xuf trsKd;om;a&;ESifh tpkd;&r[kwfonfha'ocHtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh qufpyfulnD aqmif&Gufv#uf&Sdonf? 2007 ckESpfwGif +Adwdo#ygvDrmef. EkdifiHwumzGH@òzd;wkd;wufa&;aumfrDwD u EkdifiHwumzG@Hòzd;a&;Xme. xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfwpfav#muf jrefrmEkdifiH ae&yfrSarmif;xkwfcH&olrsm;ESifh 'kQonfrsm;tm; ay;tyfonfhtultnDwkd@tm; ppfaq;I 2007 ckESpf atmufwkdbmwGif t=uHðywifjycsuftm; ykHESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf? xkdtpD&ifcHpmu vdifykdif;qkdif&mESifh rsKd;qufjyef@yGm;a&;wkd@tygt0if t"duaxmufyHh&ef vkdtyfaeonfhae&mrsm;tm; rD;armif;xkd;jyxm;onf? attkdif'Dtufpf / wDbDESifh iSufzsm;wkdufzsufa&; uBmvkH;qkdif&m&HykHaiGtzGJ@}uD;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHwGif; tdyfcsftkdifAGD ESifh attkdif'Dtufpf&HykHaiGtzGJ@ ESpfckpvkH;taeESifh tpkd;&r[kwfonfh trsKd;om;ESifh EkdifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rSwqifh axmufyHha&;rsm;vkyfukdifa&;vkdtyfcsuftm; tav;teufpOf;pm;cJhonf? okd@aomf tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rSwqifh taumiftxnfazmfonfhtcg EkdifiHtwGif; tm;tEGJ@qkH;olwkd@. vkdtyfcsufrsm;tay: jznfhpnf;E_difonfhtwkdif;twm vkdtyfcsuf. pdefac:r_ukdvnf; todtrSwfðycJhonf?


FMR

30

tvSL&SiftaeESifh vlxktokdif;t0kdif;tajccH tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; jrefrmEkdifiHwGif; tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm; vkdtyfonfh axmufyHha&;tay:todtrSwfðyjcif;u rl0g'tajymif;tvnf;wpfpkHw&m csxm;ay;jcif;jzpfonf? wuBmvkH;&Sd ppfajy;'kQonfrsm;taeESifh pcef;wGif;aexkdif jcif;r&Sdolrsm;ESifh ae&yfrSarmif;xkwfcH&olrsm;tjzpf todtrSwfðyr_rcH&olrsm;taeESifh xkdtaxmuftyHhtm; &&SdE_difa&;. jyifywGif&Sdae=uonf? EkdifiHwumzGH@òzd;wkd;wufa&;aumfrDwDu jrefrmEkdifiHtwGuf tultnDav;qwkd;ay;&ef t=uHðycJhonf? rnfokd@yifjzpfap tvSL&Sifwkd@twGuf pdrfac:r_rSm EkdifiHwGif;ESifh xkd@ xufykdI xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfwGif jzwfausmfvkyfaqmifaeonfh tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;tm; aumif;rGefonfh vkHðcHpdwfcs&onfhrsKd;qufjyef@yGm;a&;qkdif&m

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk usef;rma&;vkyfief;rsm;tm; xda&mufpGmaqmif&GufEkdifrnfh zGH@òzd;wkd;wufa&;vkyfaqmif rnfholrsm;tm; &SmazGa&;yifjzpfonf? *|efbmaumif; (BERCOWJ@parliament.uk) onf +Adwdo#vGwfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,ftrwfjzpfI/ jrefrmh'Drkdua&pDa&; ygwDaygif; pkHv$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@. OuUXjzpfonfhjyif +Adwdo#EkdifiH. EkdifiHwumzGH@òzd;wkd;wufa&;aumfrwDtzGJ@0ifwpfOD;vnf;jzpfayonf? 1 www.burmacampaign.org.uk/total_report.html#8 2 UNFPA, 2007 3 www.parliament.uk/parliamentary_committees/international_development.cfm 4 www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200607/cmselect/cmintdev/1070/107002.htm 5 http://myanmar.unfpa.org/projects.htm

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‘EkdifiHjyifywGifaexkdif&r_’ ay:aygufvmjcif; ae&yfrSarmif;xkwfcH&r_onf &kyf0wˆKESifh ae&yfa'orsm;tjyif wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD;qufqHa&;wkd@onfyifv#if rvGJ{uef &_yfaxG;ajymif;vJaponf? ae&mopftwGif; ykHrSef ae&ma[mif;uJhokd@wwfE_difoavmuf oabmxm;I aexkdif&eftwGuf u&ifeD'kQonfrsm;taeESifh &kyfykdif;qkdif&menf;vrf; rsm;jzifh &if;ESD;u|rf;0ifapa&;twGuf &SmazGvkyfaqmif&onf? xkdokd@vkyfaqmifjcif;jzifh ‚wkd@ taeESifh &&Sdonfhaexkdif&mae&mwGif qufpyfr_ 2 ckvkyfaqmif&efóud;pm;=uonf (v uf&Sdaexkdif&m'kQonfpcef;ESifh jynfyokd@oGm;a&mufa&;twGuf aexkdif&efae&m)? xkd@ jyif tcsdeftykdif;tjcm;ESpfck&Sdonf (,ck ae&yfrSpGhefcGmxGuf ajy;&jcif;ESifh aemifwGif

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FMR

30

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Suthep Kritsanavarin for TBBC, 2007

T,Ofaus;r_ESifh t&m0wˆKykdifqkdifr_wkd@tay: ykdrkdem;vnfay;jcif;u ykdrkdxda&mufI pmemr_&Sdonfh tultnDukd 'kQonfwkd@tm; ay;tyfE_difrnfjzpfayawmhonf?

xkdif;EkdifiH bef@ rkdifEkdifpkd; 'kuQonf pcef; trSwf (1)rS u&ifeD 'kuQonfrsm;

pEN&m 'wfav (shd3@le.ac.uk) onf t*FvefEkdifiH vufpwmwuUokdvf/ jywkdufavhvma&;wGif tr_xrf;v#uf&Sdonf? 1 ‘jrefrme,fpyf'kQonfaexkdif&mt&yfrsm;ESifh vlOD;&nfyrm%/ 2007 ckESpf Ekd0ifbm’ [lonfh xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf,m,Dpkpnf;axmufyHh a&;tzGJ@ Thailand Burma Border Consortium . 2007 xkwfjyefcsuf? www.tbbc.org/camps/2007-11nov-map-tbbc-unhcr.pdf 2 vl@tcGifhta&;apmifh=unfha&;tzGJ@ 2007 ‘jrefrm - ppfwyf.wkdufckdufr_a=umifh &maxmifcsDonhf ae&yfpGef@cGmxGufajy;&r_’? http:// hrw.org/english/docs/2007/10/25/burma17168.htm

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a&cs,f&Smy,fpf

pnf;wnfaqmufyHkudk nSdE_dif;aqG;aEG;jcif; tygt0if / rwlnDaom,Ofaus;r_ rsm;ESifhqufoG,fjcif;tm;jzifh wdk;wufaomuBmhtodkif;t0dkif;twGif; 0ifa&mufvk yfaqmifEdkif&efjzpfonf? qef;opfaomenf;vrf;rsm;jzpfonfh bavmhcfrsm;/ 0uf(bf)qkd'frsm;/ owif;vkyfief;trsdL;rsdL; rsm;rS u&ifvlrsdL;wdk@. v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk uGJjym;jcm;em;aomvlxky&dwfowf twGif;odk@ ydkrdkvufvSrf;rDay;ykd@jcif;onf t"duowif;tcsuftvufrsm;jzpfonf? u&ifwdkif;&if;om;wdk@. w&m;r#wr_uif;rJhr_tm;em;vnfapa&; todw&m;udkwdk;jrSifh&eftwGuf pmempdwf&Sdaomvlxk (odk@) rdrdwdk@.tawG@ t=uHKESifhwef;wl cH,lxm;onfh vlxky&dwfowftaejzifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_ uGef,ufudkzefwD;ay;rnfjzpfonf? a&cs,f &Smy,fpf (sharples.rachel@gmail.com) onf =opaw;v#EkdifiH rJvfbkef;&Sd RMIT wuUokdvfY yg&*lbGJ@ausmif;oljzpfonf? olronf xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfwav#mufwGif a&G@ajymif;jcif;a=umifh u&ifvlrsKd;rsm;onf ‚wkd@. ukd,fykdifjyXmef;csufESifh ,Ofaus;r_taetxm;tay: rnfokd@tusKd;oufa&mufr_jzpfaponfukd avhvmaeoljzpfonf?


FMR

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ar&DoD&Dpfbef;em; (mariet.benner@malteser-international. org) onf EkdifiHwum r,fvfwDqmtzGJ@}uD;. (www.malteser. de/61.Malteser_International) tawG@tóuH&ifhusufonfh usef;rma&;tusKd;aqmifjzpfonf? tm&D; rGefpGwf*sm&efrSm (aree@searo.who. int) uBmhusef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_tzGJ@}uD;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHrSajymif;a&$@0ifa&mufvmo lrsm;ESifh'kQonfwkd@. usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_udPrsm;twGuf xkdif;EkdifiHbefaumufòrd@ wGif vkyfukdifaqmif&Gufaeoljzpfonf? tuf*fbwf qef;a'gh (egbert.sondorp) onf yËdyuQESifhusef;rma&; tawG@tóuH&Sdynmay;yk~Kdvfjzpfum *|Kdif; awmif;qef; (joy. townsend@lshtm.ac.uk) onf tajccHusef;rma&; *k%fxl;aqmifygarmuQjzpfI ‚wkd@ESpfOD;pvkH; vef'efwukd,f&nfESifhywf0ef;usifoef@&Sif;a&;ESifh tylykdif;a'oxGufaq ;0g;ausmif;wGif wm0eftoD;oD;xrf;aqmifae=uonf (www.lshtm.ac.uk)? Taqmif;yg;wGifazmfjycJhonfh tjrifrsm;rSm txufygtzGJ@tpnf;wdk@ESifh ygwfoufjcif;r&Sdyg?

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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

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30

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

EC/ECHO/J P Aparicio

FMR

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27

r,fvtl; 'kuQonf pcef;/ xkdif;EkdifiH

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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR

30

Suthep Kritsanavarin for TBBC

28

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IRC staff

w&m;0if ulnD axmufyHhr_ ay;tyf onfh XmecsKyf vkyfief; rsm;ESifh xkdif;Oya' tay: wkd;jrSifh owdrl vmapa&; u¾ aqG;aEG;yGJ/ r,fvpcef;/ xkdif;EkdifiH

t=urf;zufr_a=umifh aouHra&muf oufraysmuf jyKusifhcH&olrsm;onfyifvsif wpfcgw&Hw&m;r#wr_ESifh azsmif;zsr_r&ekdifyg? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf pcef;t&m&Sdtr_ aqmifrsm;onf w&m;pD&ifa&;tay: wkef@jyefr_ESifh vkyfay;ekdifpGrf;enf;yg;jcif; wdk@a=umifh vnf;aumif;/ vlr_todkif;t0dkif;rSvnf; ajyvnfr_ESifh nSdEdkif;r_udk a&S;&_aoma=umifhvnf;aumif;/ trsdK;orD;rsm;taeESifh auseyfzG,f&mr&Sdaom w&m;pD&ifa&; &v'fudk vufcH&efzdtm;ay;cH=u&onf? xdk@enf;wl tenf;pkjzpfaom vlrsdK;pkrsm;onfvnf; +cHKiHkIem;vnfay;&jcif;/ pcef;w&m;pD&ifa&;ESifh zGJ@pnf;yHk .r#wr_ESifh xda&mufr_ ponfhtrsdK;rsdK;aom tawG@t}uHKrsm;ESifh&ifqdkif&vsuf&Sdonf? trsm;pkjzpfaom vlrsdK;pkrSvnf; vlenf;pkudk vGrf;rdk;vsuf&Sdonf?

ed*Hk;csKyf ,ckavhvmoHk;oyfcsufrsm;onf 'kQonfpcef;acgif;aqmifrsm;. tkyfcsKyfr_ tm;enf;csuf [krqdkvdkyg? trSef wu,ferlemrsm;pGm&&Sdonfh zsefajzr_wpfavsmuf toHk;jyKaom xda&mufonfhenf;pOfrsm;jzpfonf ?ESpfOD; ESpfzuf tjyeftvSefem;vnfr_ &&efulnDjcif;jzpfonf? rnfodk@yifjzpfapumrl xdus&Sif;vif;aom vrf;nGefr_ rsm; odk@r[kwf pHE_ef;rsm;r&Sdygu jyoemwpfckrSwpfck }uD;pGmuGm[r_/ zsefajzolESifh w&m;pD&ifa&;t&m&Sd rsm;t=um; uGm[r_&SdaeaytHk;rnf? pdwfxJYjzpfay:aomt&mum; ,cif'kQonfacgif;aqmifrsm;onf jyifytm; udk;tm;xm;tenf;i,fom&Sdjcif;/ pcef;twGif;w&m;r#wpGm tkyfcsKyfekdif&ef taxmuftyHhay;rnfh enf;pepfESifh taxmuftulypPnf;enf;yg;jcif;/ owfrSwfxm;onfhvlr_todkif;t0dkif;wGif jyoemtm; udkifwG,fajz&Sif;&mwGif &_yf axG;r_ESifh ywf0ef;usifwdk@rS wkef@ jyefumuG,fr_wdk@udk cH&vsuf&Sdonf?

tdkiftm&fpD (EdkifiHwumu,fq,fa&;aumfrwD)taejzifh pcef;twGif;0ifa&muf vkyfudkifcGifh&onfh tcsdefuwnf;upI t"dutaejzifh avhvmoHk;oyfcsufwGif azmfjyonfh[muGufr_rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf? ‚wkd@rSm Oya'ESifhywfoufonfh t}uHay;r_axmufyHhjcif;/ zsefajzr_ESifh cHkorm"djzifhpD&ifjcif;qdkif&m acgif;aqmifoifwef;rsm; ay;jcif;/ xdkif;Oya'ESifhywfoufI wkd;jrSifhoifwef;rsm;ay;jcif;/ vli,frsm;twGuf EkdifiHom;ESifhqkdifaomynma&;/ vHk+cHKa&;t&m&Sdrsm;ESifh w&m;pD&ifa&;twGufvdktyfaom taxmuftulypPnf;rsm;ESifh enf;ynmrsm;axmufyhHjcif;/ Oya'ESifh tcGifhta&;qdkif&mwdk@udk xkdif;vHk+cHKa&;vkyftm; ay;rsm;odk@ oifwef;ay;jcif;ESifh pcef;twGif;&Sd w&m;pD&ifa&;qkdif&m aumfrwDtm; vlr_todkif;t0dkif;zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_ESifh tpDtpOfwusaqmif&Guf ay;jcif;vkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf? odk@jzpfI Tvkyfief;wGif yg0ifvkyfudkif=u&ef urf;vSrf;ol trsm;tjym;&Sdvm+yD; ‚wdk@.urf;vSrf;r_vufcHvsuf pdwftm;xufoefpGm axmufyHhr_ wkd@ vkyfaqmifvsuf &Sdonf? *sKdt,f [m'if; (joel.harding@theirc.org)onf Oya'taxmuftuljyKXme. Xmaeudk,fpm;vS,f jzpfonf? &Sdef;puJvHk; (shane.scanlon@theirc. org) onf EdkifiHwumu,fq,fa&;aumfrwD/ xdkif;EdkifiH (www.theirc.org/ where/the_irc_in_thailand.html). Oya'taxmuftuljyKXme. refae*smjzpfonf? a&SmifvD;pf/ umpGef abum ESifh tkdifvDvif;rf wdk@onf xkdXme. okawoetvkyfr_aqmiftjzpf aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? 1 ,cifutDwvDtpdk;&ESifhukvor~~'kQonfrsm;qdkif&mr[mrif;=uD;&Hk;rSaxmufyHhcJhonf? ,cktcg ukvor~ 'kQonfqdkif&m r[mrif;=uD;&Hk;tjyif Austcare\DIAC =opa=w;vsvl0ifr_=uD;=uyfa&;ESifh EdkifiHom;owfrSwfa&;XmerS yl;aygif;axmufyHh=uonf?


FMR

30

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

xkdif;EkdifiHwGifrjrif&ol umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; vkdtyfcsufrSwfwrf;wifjcif;

rm*&uf *&if;/ u&if *sufaumhbfqefESifh pENDykdif;

EkdifiHwumu,fq,fa&;aumfrDwD IRC u xkdif;EkdifiHe,fpyfa'orsm; wGifaexkdifonfh jrefrmvlrsKd;wkd@. tawG@tñuHrsm;tm; rSwfwrf;ðypk&ef pm&if;aumufcHcsufwpfck csrSwfvkyfaqmifI ‚wkd@taeESifh 'kQonfrsm;tjzpf EkdifiHwumumuG,fapmifha&Smufr_ESifh xkdufwefonfhtwkdif;tqtm; tuJjzwfcJhonf? EkdifiHwumu,fq,fa&;aumfrDwD International Rescue Committee (IRC) taeESifh EkdifiHwum umuG,fapmifha&Smufr_ESifh oifhav#mfxkdufwefonfh xkdif;EkdifiHwGifaexkdif=uonfh jrefrmt&nftwGufrSm odomxif&Sm;vSaomfvnf; ‚wkd@taeESifh ykHrSefrSwfykHwifpm&if; ay;oGif;a&; vkyfief;pOfwGif yg0ifcGifh r&&Sd=uay? xkdif;EkdifiHwGif;okd@ 0ifa&mufvmonfh jrefrmvlrsKd;wkd@twGuf =unfvifr_/ t=uifemw&m;ESifh jynfh0onfhckdv_HcGifhay;a&;rl uif;rJhonfhtaetxm;wGif tajctaetrsKd;rsKd;wkd@jzifh jrefrmEkdifiHrSxGufajy;I 0ifa&mufvmonfh 'kQonftkyfpktwGif; w&m;0if'kQonf&mckdifE_ef;owfrSwf&efrSm jzpfE_difajcr&Sdonfh udPjzpfonf? rnfonfhtwGuf jrefrmekdifiHrSxGufajy;vm&o nfqkdonfh ta=umif;jycsufrSwfwrf;rSwf&m csKd@wJhjcif;u xkdif;tm%mykdifwkd@ tm; 'kQonfpcef;jyifywGifaexkdifonhf jrefrmvlrsKd;wkd@tm; pD;yGm;a&;t& 0ifa&mufvmolrsm;taeESifhqufqHI jyefvnfESifxkwfcH&rnfh qifajcay;vkyfaqmifr_ wkd@tm; axmufyHhaeonf? xkdif;EkdifiHwGifaexkdifonfh jrefrmwkd@ESifh ywfoufI tvkyfvkyfae=uonfh XmetzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u ‚wkd@ukd,fpm; ukwftm;taeESifh axmufcHay;&efrSmvnf; tm;enf;aeayonf? 1988 uwnf;u &mZ0wfr_=uL;vGef&ma&mufonfukd odvsufESifh cGifhðycsufr&&SdbJ jrefrmEkdifiHom; wpfoef;ausmf EkdifiHwGif;rSxGufcGmcJh=uonf? uBmajray:&Sd zdESdyfnSOf;qJr_ trsm;qkH;EkdifiHxJ&Sd wpfckrS xGufajy;cJh=uonfjzpfaomf jim;vnf; xkdif;EkdifiH&Sd jrefrmtrsm;pkwGif w&m;0iftodtrSwfðytqifhtwef; r&Sdjcif; odk@r[kwf ,m,D a&$@a jymif;tvkyform;tqifhtwef;om&Sdjcif;wkd@jzifh aexkdif=u&onf? xkdif;tokdif;t0kdif;ESifh a0;onfh tpGeftzsm;wkd@wGifaexkdif=uI r=umc% ro<ga=u;ay;I a&mif;pm;cH&jcif;ESifh acgif;ykHjzwfjcif;wkd@tœ&m,f=um; vkHðcHr_r&Sdonfh taetxm;wGif aexkdif=u&onf? vufrSwf taxmuftxm;r&Sdonfh EkdifiHjcm;om;tm;vkH; (ckdv_HcGifh&&Sda&;vkdtyfolrs m;tygt0if) w&m;r0if ckd;0ifvmolrsm;' [k owfrSwfxm;onfh xkdif;EkdifiH. 1979 vl0ifr_ }uD;=uyfa&;Oya'yk'frt& ESifxkwfcH&rnfjzpfonf? xkdif;EkdifiH. jyif;xefonfh ESifxkwfonfhrl0g'rsm;u 1951 oabmwlnDcsuftm; azmufzsufonfomru EkdifiHtm;vkH;tm;csrSwfxm;I ckdv_Ha&;&SmazGoltm; tajctjrpf&Sdonfh tajctaewGif ESdyfpufnSOf;yrf;cH&rnfpkd;&drf&onfh EkdifiHokd@r[kwf ykdifeufokd@ jyefykd@jcif;wm;jrpfxm;onfh touftœ&m,fESifh vGwfvyfr_tm;csdef;ajcmufaeonfh ae&yftm; jyefvnfrykd@ aqmifa&; pnf;urf;ukdvnf; azmufzsufaeayonf? tar&duef/ uae'g/ =opa=w;vs/ qGD'if/ aemfa0ESifh tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;u jrefrmEkdifiHom;rsm;pGmwGif ,kH=unf&avmufI tajctjrpf&Sdonfh ESdyfpufnSOf;yrf;r_ wkd@tm; ekdifiHwum'kQonft"dy`g,fzGifhqkdr_t& jynfhpkHr_&SdI ckdv_HcGifhay;jcif; okd@r[kwf a&$@ajymif;tajccscGifhðya&;wkd@twGuf qkH;jzwfxm;=uonf? okd@ aomf xkdif;tpkd;&u cGJjcm;owfrSwfr_ESifh 'kQonfrsm;tm;qufqHa&;wkd@tm; EkdifiHwumw&m;0iftqifhtwef;rsm; twkdif;pDrHcef@cGJa&; vufcHtodtrSwfðya&;tm; wGifwGifjiif;qkdaeI ,if;tpm; t&Htqifhtwef;ykHpHrsm;ESifh xkdif;EkdifiHwGif;ykdifeuf usL;vGefr_tjzpf &_jrifjcif; okd@r[kwf owfrSwfcsufrsm;tjzpf trsKd;om;a&; tusKd;pD;yGm;ESifh qef@usifonhftaetxm;twkdif;tjzpfonf[k tjrif&Sdonf? 1951 oabmwlpmcsKyftm; xkdif;EkdifiHtaeESifhvufrSwfxkd;xm;jcif;r&Sdonfomru 'kQonftjzpfowfrSwfa&; uef@owfcsufay;E_difonfh jynfxJa&;Oya'jyXmef;xm;&Sdr_ ESifh w&m;0if'kQonfwkd@wkd;yGm;vmrnfh tcGifhtvrf;ESifh udkfufnDonfh taumif txnfazmfaqmif&Gufjcif;vnf;r&Sday? ‘ppfajy;’ jrefrmvlrsKd;wkd@twGuf ‚.e,fpyfwavsmuf rnfumrwWjzpfonfh pcef;rsm;tm; wnfaqmufcGifh ay;cJhaomfvnf; xkdif;EkdifiHwGif&Sdonfh q,fa,mufwpfa,mufyifr&Sdonfh jrefrmvlrsKd;t&nftwGufavmufom xkdpcef;rsm;okd@0ifa&mufE_dif=uonf? pcef;rsm;u wdusonfh vlenf;pktkyfpktm;vkH;ukd csefvSyfxm;I r#wr_enf;yg;I cGifhðya&;bkwftzGJ@

tm; vkyfykdifcGifhtjynfhESifh topfa&muf&Sdvmonfh jrefrmvlrsKd;wkd@tm; ppfaq;cGifhðyr_ rsm; aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf? uBmhukvor~ 'kQonfrsm;qkdif&m r[mrif;}uD;&kH; taeESifh yk~Kdvfa&;owfrSwfqkH;jzwf aqmif&Gufonfh vlawG@ppfaq;r_wkd@tm; befaumufòrd@ awmfwGif ,cifu aqmif&GufcJhonfh uef@owfr_tajccHabmiftwGif;rS aqmif&Gufr_ rsKd;tm; vkyfukdifaqmif&GufcGifhr&awmhajc? rSefuefwdusonfh tcsufjzifh ausmaxmufaemufcHtm;ay;r_rsm;twGif; IRC taeESifh wmhzfpf wuUokdvfrS u&if *sufaumhbfqefESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_t& xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf a'ookH;ck&Sd 'kQonfpcef;jyifywGif aexkdif=uonfh jrefrmEkdifiHom;wkd@ tay: pm&if;aumufcHr_wpfck csrSwfaqmif&GufcJhonf? xkda'orsm;rSm csif;rkdif (Zif;r,f)/ r,fa[mifaqmifESifh rJaqmufa'owkd@jzpfonf? xkdaumufcHr_u xkda'ookH;ck. arG;aopm&if;ESifh vlr_pD;yGm;a&; rl&if;tajctaewkd@. xif&Sm;uGJjym;r_ wkd@tm; azmfxkwfcJhonf? tvsOf;oifhovkderlemðyonfhenf;jzifh ajz=um;rnfholwkd@ tm;a&G;cs,fcJhI vlawG@tifwmAsL;rsm;tm; (u) jrefrmEkdifiHrStawG@tñuH - tdrfrSxGufcGmcJh&onfhta=umif;/ yËdyQESifhpyfvsOf;onfh &ufpufr_rsm;tm; awG@ñuH&jcif;&Sdr&SdESifh xkdif;EkdifiHokd@ra&muf&SdrD jrefrmEkdifiHwGif; ppfajy; 'kQonfjzpfcJh&jcif;&Sdr&SdESifh (c) jrefrmjynfokd@jyefE_difa&; v_yf&Sm;vkyfaqmifr_rsm;/ vlom;jcif;pmemI ay;tyfvmonfh tultnDrsm;&&Sdr_ESifh xkdif;tm%mykdifwkd@. qufqHr_wkd@yg0ifonfh xkdif;EkdifiHtawG@tñuHwkd@tm; ar;jref;cJhonf? rdrdwkd@taeESifh jrefrmEkdifiHrSxGufcGmvmcJh&jcif; twGuf ta=umif;jycsufrsm;tm; av;ckcGJjcm;xm;onf? „„ yËdyQESifhqufEG,fonfh ta=umif;jycsuf ? ? wkduf&kduf okd@r[kwf oG,f0kdufonfhenf;jzifh awG@ñuH&onfh &ufpufr_/ ESdyfpufnSOf;yrf;r_/ t"Rvkyftm;ay;apckdif;r_ odk@r[kwf vufeufukdif yËdyQwkd@a=umifh? „„ pD;yGm;a&;ta=umif;jycsuf ? ? tvkyf&SmazG&efvma&mufjcif; r#omjzpfonfh pD;yGm;a&;t&if;cHjy\ema=umifh? „„ ynma&; okd@r[kwf rdom;pka&; ta=umif;jycsuf ? ? aqGrsKd;rsm;&Sd&mokd@ vkdufvmvkdonfhtwGuf jrefrmEkdifiHrSxGufcJhjcif; odk@r[kwf ‚wkd@. uav;rsm;ynma&;tcGifhta&; ar#mfvifhcsufa=umihf? „„ tjcm;ta=umif;jycsufrsm; (txufygudPrsm;rSvGJI)

jrefrmEkdifiHrStawG@tñuH ajzqkdoltrsm;pku xGufajy;cJh&jcif;ta=umif;&if;rsm;pGmukd ajymjycJh=uonf? xkdolwkd@ taeESifh yËdyQESifhqufEG,fonfh ta=umif;jycsufay;ygu rdrdwdk@taeESifh xkdyk~Kdvfwkd@. pkd;&drfa=umuf&GH@r_tjzpf aumufcsufcsI r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfonfh 'kQonfcGJjcm;owfrSwfr_ tpdwftykdif;tjzpf vufcHonf? prf;oyf ppfaq;ar;jref;csufrsm; vkyfaqmifpOfwGif ajzqkdolrsm;u ‚wkd@.EkdifiHa&;tjrifrsm; odk@r[kwf wdusonfh jrefrmEkdifiHwGifvkyfaqmifcJhonfh v_yf &Sm;r_wkd@tm; etzod&SdoGm;I usefcJhonfh rdom;pk0ifrsm;tm; 'kQay;rnfpkd;I ajzqkdcsifrS ajzqkdrnfjzpfonfukd &Sif;vif;oabmaygufvmcJh&onf? Tacgif;pOf&Sd jznfhpGufcsufrsm; xnfhoGif;&mwGif tajz&Smr_tm;wefbkd;wufaprnfjzpfaomfvnf; vlusifh0wftm; aoGz,fonfh E_dufE_d ufc|wfc|wf oufaojyr_jzpfonf[k rSwf,lonf? TwGef@qkwfr_jzifh rdrdwkd@&&Sdonfh tajzrsm;wdrf;acsmfum rdrdwkd@ajymapcsifonfh &ufpufr_ESifh yËdyQtawG@tñuHxuf ‚wkd@u ykdrkdtawG@tñuHykdrsm;onfhtajctae jzpfaeayrnf? rdrdwkd@.&SmazGr_rsm;u xkdif;EkdifiHwGif w&m;0ifumuG,fapmifha&Smufr_wpfpkHw&mr&Sdonfh jrefrmvlrsKd; t&nftwGufvGefrsm;aeI ‚wkd@. 'kQonftqifhtwef;tm; pkHprf;ar;jref;&ef t=uHðycJhonf? xkd@jyif jrefrmvlOD;&nftenf;pkom ckdifvkHonfh

31


armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR IRC-MDU

32

30

tawG@tñuHwkd@tm;azmfjycJhI tjcm;jyif;xefonfhn$efjycsuf taeESifh ‚wkd@taeESifh 'kQonftumtuG,fay;tyfr_wkd@ ESifh xkdufwefa=umif; n$efjy=uonf? &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfr_. ypfrSwfxm;cH&olrsm;taeESifh rJaqmufwGif 22 &mckdifE_ef;ESifh r,fa[mifaqmifa'owGif 62 &mckdifElef; &Sdonfhtjyif ‚wkd@u EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ðyvkyfcJhonfhtwGufa=umifh[k rSwf,lxm;=uonf?

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t=uHðycsuf

xkdif;EkdifiH&Sd jrefrm a&$@ajymif; tvkyfor wpfOD;

'kQonftaxmuftxm;&SdI wqufwnf;jzpfonfh xkdif;tpkd;& odk@r[kwf EkdifiHwumtultnDay; XmetzGJ@tpnf;wkd@. tultnDESifh umuG,fapmifha&Smufr_ wkd@ukd trSefwu,f&&Sdol &Sdonf? xkdawG@&Sdcsufwkd@u xif&Sm;onfhwkdif;&if;om;t&nftwGufESifh bmomt,l0g'rsm;u xkdif;EkdifiHwGif ay:aygufaeonfh zdpD;ESdyfpufr_wkd@tm; &Snf=umpGm =uHh=uhHcHae&a=umif; jyocJhonf? Oyrm - csif;rkdifrS ajzqkdol 64 &mckdifE_ef;u ‚wkd@. ,kH=unfonfhbmomw&m;rSm c&pf,efbmomjzpf=uonf? xifxif&Sm;&Sm; yËdyQ.xdckdufr_cH&onfh a'orsm;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHom;wkd@taeESifh tumtuG,frJh aexkdifcJh=u+yD;jzpfonfrSm xif&Sm;onf? a'ookH;ckpvkH;wGif trsm;pku jrefrmEkdifiHukd pGef@cGmvm=u&onfh ajrmufrsm;pGmaom ta=umif;jycsufwkd@tm; ay;cJhonf? okd@ aomf rJa[mifaqmifESifh csif;rdkfifa'oESpfckpvkH;wGif ajzqkdol 50 &mckdifE_ef;ausmfu apmfum;aESmuf,Sufr_/ t"Rvkyftm;ay; okd@r[kwf zsufqD;cH&jcif; okd@r[kwf oifhav#mfonfh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;wkd@tm; zdtm;ay;I twif;t=uyfa jymif;vnf;vkyfckdif;jcif; okd@r[kwf ykdifqkdifr_wkd@tm; aESmuf,Sufodrf;,lr_wkd@a=umifh xGufajy;vm&jcif;jzpfa=umif; ajymqkdcJh=uonf? xkdif;EkdifiHokd@vma&muf&jcif;rSm wkdif;&if;om;ta&;ESifhywfoufaea=umif;xif&Sm; onf? rJaqmufa'owGif ArmvlrsKd;trsm;pku pD;yGm;a&;t& e,fpyfjzwfausmf0if a&mufcJh=ujcif;jzpfI xkdtxJrS 15 &mckdifE_ef;avmufom jrefrmjynfwGif;yËdyQESifh qufEG,fI a&mufvm=ujcif;jzpfonf? tjcm; wkdif;&if;om; tkyfpkrsm;u trsm;tm;jzifh yËdyQa=umifh[k om"ujycJh=uonf? a'owpfckjcif;wGif tu,fI ‚wkd@ ukd,fwkdifESifh tjcm;olrsm;tay:usL;vGefcJhonfh rsufjrifoufaotjzpf &ufpufr_

jrefrmEkdifiHom;wkdif;. ukd,fawG@Zwfvrf;rsm;rSm &Sif;vif;pGm uGJjym;jcm;em;=uonf? okd@aomf tawG@tñuHrsm;pGmwkd@wGif wlnDonfh yËdyQa=umifh &ufpufr_/ ae&yfrSarmif;ESifxkwfr_ wkd@a=umifh ae&yfjyefa&;twGuf pkd;&drfa=umuf&GH@=uonfh csdef;ajcmufr_wkd@tm; a0iScJh=uonf? Ttvm;tvm&Sdonfh 'kQonfwkd@taeESifh EkdifiHwum'kQonftqifhtwef; ESifhtnD vkHavmufonfh ulnDapmifha&Smufr_ &&Sd&ef vkdtyfaeayonf? xkd@a=umifh IRC taeESifh atmufyg t=uHðycsufwkd@tm; wifjyvkdonf? „„ EkdifiHwumtokdif;t0kdif;taeESifh r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfonfh apmifha&Smufr_ rsm;tm; w&m;0if (vuf&SdtodtrSwfðyxm;jcif;r&Sdonfhwkdif) wkd;jrSifh axmufyHhay;&rnfjzpfonf? xkdif;EkdifiHtaeESifh wpfOD;wnf;taejzifh jrefrm'kQonfvlxktm; ykckH;xrf;wm0ef,lr_ ðy&rnfr[kwfay? „„ xkdif;EkdifiHtaeESifh (todtrSwfðycHxm;&jcif;r&Sdao;onfh) 'kQonfrsm;u apmfum;aESmuf,Sufr_/ zrf;qD;r_ESifh ae&yfjyefykd@cH&jcif;wkd@r&SdbJ r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfonfh apmifha&Smufr_wkd@tm; &&SdcHpm;&jcif; &Sdr&Sd wkd;jrSifh pDppfaqmif&Gufay;&ef? „„ xkdif;EkdifiHtaeESifh tœ&m,f&Sdonfh yk~KdvftaeESifh OD;pGm ckdv_HcGifh awmif;qkda&; tcGifhta&;tm; yk~Kdvfa&;awmif;qkdcGifh ay;tyf+yD;onfhwkdif w&m;r#wr_ESifh wifjyr_vkyfief;pOftwGif; ae&yfokd@jyefvnfykd@ aqmifjcif;rsm;tm; qufvufvkyfaqmifjcif;rðy&ef? „„ xkdif;EkdifiHu r#wI tcGifhtvrf;&Sdrnfh 'kQonfowfrSwfa&; vkyfief;pOftm; yk~Kdvfa&;t&‚/ }uD;rm;onhftkyfpkt&‚ w&m;0if'kQo nftjzpfqkH;jzwfa&;tm; vkyfaqmif taumiftxnfazmf&ef? „„ xkdif;EkdifiHtaeESifh todtrSwfðy+yD;'kQonfrsm;. w&m;0iftqifhtwef;tm; csD;jrSifhxm;I xkdtqifhtwef;. oufaocHtaxmuftxm;ukd ay;tyfxm;&ef?


FMR

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„„ xkdif;EkdifiHu jyXmef;xm;onfhtcsdeftwkdif;twmtwGif; 'kQonfrsm;. tqifhtwef;tm; xkdif;EkdifiHwGif; w&m;0ifðyvkyfay;&efESifh xkd@a=umifh ‚wkd@taeESifh tqkH;wGif twnfwusaexkdifolrsm;ESifh EkdifiHom;rsm; tjzpfa&muf&Sdvmrnfjzpfonf?

rm*&uf *&if; a&mftef[kd@pf (margaret.green@theirc.org) onf EkdifiHwumu,fq,fa&;aumfrDwD. tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh tcGifhta&;,lepf (www.theirc. org) . tumtuG,f§w&m;a&;Xme. enf;ynmykdif;qkdif&mOd;aqmift=uHay;yk~Kd vf jzpfonf? u&if *sufaumhbfqef (karen.jacobsen@tufts.edu) onf zdef;pwdef; EkdifiHwumXmecsKyf. 'kQonfESifh ae&yfrSt"Rarmif;ESifxkwfr_ tumtuG,fay;a&; pDrHcsuf. n$ef=um;a&;rSL;jzpfonf? pENDykdif; (sandee.pyne@thailand.theirc. org) onf xkdif;EkdifiH EkdifiHwumu,fq,fa&;aumfrDwD (www.theirc.org/ where/the_irc_in_thailand.html) . t=uHay;tusKd;aqmifjzpfygonf?

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk T ppfwrf;aumuf,lr_&vm'f tjynfhtpkHukd http://fic.tufts. edu/?pid=76 . tifwmeuftGefvkdif;wGif awG@E_difygonf? IRC taeESifh okawoea&mif;&if;rsm;jzpf=uonfh *sLvD,m zpf&Smref;ESifh vif'D 0kd&Srf;tjyif rdrdwkd@tokdif;t0kdif;&Sd vkyfazmfukdifzufrsm;tm; a=u;Zl;wif&Sda=umif;ESifh ‚wkd@ryg&Sdygu Tokawoeðycsufvkyfaqmifa&;rSm jzpfE_difacs&Sdonfhtaetxm;r[kwfa=umif; 0efcHtyfygonf?

xkdif;EkdifiHwGif; ckdv_HcGifh&&Sda&;&SmazGaeonfhjrefrmvlrsKd; rsm; rnfonfht&yfokdh OD;wnf&rnfrod csrf;csrf;vDESifh tpPvm *vkdufpwm xkdif;tm%mykdifrsm;ESifh uBmhukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&m r[mrif;}uD;&kH; (UNHCR) taeESifh wdusonfh tjzpftysufrsm;/ ae@pGJrsm;tay: wpfpkHwpfOD;tm; pepfusw&m;r#wonfh ckHv_HcGifh&&Sda&;vkyfief;pOftm; ¹cGif;csufxm;onfh qef@usifaeonfh taetxm;wGif vuf&Sd ckdv_HcGifh&&Sda&;pepfu usbrf;b0xufykdonfh rnfonfht&mukdr#ay;tyfrnfr[kwfay?

xkdvufrSwfopfrsm;taeESifh xkdif;EkdifiHwGif w&m;0iftodtrSwfðyr_r&&Sd onfhjyif rnfonfh tcGifhta&;rsm;ukdr# tmrcHr_r&&SdcJhay? ‚wkd@taeESifh UNHCR . rSwfykHwifpm&if; ay;oGif;xm;onf qkdonfhtaetxm;r#om oufao&Sdonfhtaetxm;jzpfI UNHCR tm;ukd,fpm;ðyI xkdif;tm%mykdifwkd@ tm; tzrf;tqD;rvkyf&ef okd@r[kwf ukdifaqmifxm;olwkd@tm; jyefI ESifrxkwf&ef avmufom tenf;tusOf;vkyfE_difonfhtaetxm;jzpfonf?

tu,fI jrefrmppftm%modrf;tkyfpk. 2007 ckESpf pufwifbmv &efukef&Sd +idrf;csrf;pGmqjyolrsm;tay: &ufpufpGmwkef@jyefcJhonfh &vm'ftaeESifh ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;taeESifh jrefrmEkdifiHrS ckdv_HcGifh &&Sda&;vkdvm;olrsm;twGuf pm&if;oGif;a&;udPrsm;tm; jyefvnfzGifhay;cJhonf? ukvor~ 'kQonfrsm;qkdif&m r[mrif;}uD;&kH;taeESifh xkdif;tm%mykdifwkd@. awmif;qkdr_t& jrefrmEkdifiHrSrnfonfh ckdv_HcGifh&SmazGolESifh EkdifiHwum umuG,fapmifha&Smufr_vkdvm;ol rnfol@ukdrqkd pm&if;ay;oGif;r_ &yfqkdif;xm;cJhonfh xkdif;EkdifiHwGif;2005 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvrSpwifcJhonfh ESpfESpfwmuGufvyft+yD; Ttajct aejzpfay:vmcJhjcif;yifjzpfonf?

vGefcJhonfhESpftenf;i,ftwGif; a&&_'kQonfXme Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) tygt0if EkdifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u vufrSwfukdifaqmifxm;olESifh vufrSwfr&Sdolrsm;yg xyfwl 'kQonftodtrSwfðyr_&&Sda&;twGuf EkdifiHom;ppfaq;r_ESifh e,fpyfa'owpfav#muf&Sd 'kQonfpcef;ukd;cktwGif; 0ifa&mufaexkdifcGifh&&Sda&;wkd@ tm; t=uHay;vkyfaqmifcJh=uonf? t=uHðyr_rsm;u xkdif;tpkd;&tm; xkdif;EkdifiHtwGif; rSwfykHwifxm;onfh ckdv_HcGifhav#mufxm;olrsm;tm; ,m,DaexkdifcGifhðy&efESifh ukvor~ESifh tjcm;u,fq,fa&;Xmersm;taeESifh xkdolrsm;tm; taxmuftul ay;E_difa&; cGifhðyay;&efwkd@jzpfonf? UNHCR ESifh EkdifiHwumtzGJ@ tpnf;vufwpfqkwfpm. tm;ay;vkyfaqmifa&; óud;yrf;r_rsm;taeESifh uef@ owfxm;onfh tultnDay;r_wpkHw&mavmufudkom jznfhpnf;E_difcJh=uonf?

2004 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dvwkdif ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;u vkH;0 'kQonftodtrSwfðya&; qkH;jzwfr_ Refugee Status Determination (RSD) tm; jrefrm ckdv_HcGifh&SmazGolrsm;twGuf csrSwfE_difcJhonf? ckdv_HcGifh ppfaq;a&;vkyfief;pOftm; t}uD;tus,fxdrf;odrf; =uyfrwfxm;vkdonfh xkdif;tm%mykdifwkd@.qt& 2004 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dvaemufykdif; a&muf&Sdvmonfh jrefrmEkdifiHrS ckdv_HcGifhav#mufxm;olrsm;taeESihf UNHCR ESifhom pm&if;ay;oGif;r_ ðyvkyfE_difI jzwfykdif;vufrSwf wpfckukd&&Sdxm;onf (xkdtcsdefrSpI ,cktcg trsm;tm;jzifh ‘vufrSwfukdifaqmifxm;olrsm;’ [lI &nfn$ef;ajymqkd=uonf)? 2005 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvuwnf;u a&muf&Sdvmolrsm;taeESifh pm&if;oGif;cGifhESifh rnfonfhvufrSwfrsKd; okd@r[kwf tumtuG,fukdr# &&Sd&ef tcGifhtvrf;r&Sdawmhay? ,cifu vufrSwfukdifaqmifoltkyfpk okH;ck&SdcJhonf? befaumuftajcpkduf/ rJaqmuftajcpkdufESifh uefcsebl&Dc&kdiftajcpkduf'kQonf pkpkaygif; 10887 OD; &Sdonf? 2006 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif wmhcf c&kdif&Sd pcef;rsm;twGif;okd@ 'kQonfESpfaxmifausmf a&$@ajymif;cHcJh&I pD&ifpk0ifcGifh}uD;=uyfa&;tzGJ@ Provincial Admissions Board (PAB) [kod=uonfh xkdif;ckdv_Ha&;vkyfief;pOftwGif; xnfhoGif;cH=u&onf? okd@aomf vuf&Sd vufrSwfukdifaqmifxm;=uolrsm; twGuf UNHCR ESifh xkdif;tm%mykdifrsm;. qufvuf aqG;aEG;r_rsm; &Sdaeaomfvnf; rnfol@ukdr# pcef;twGif;okd@ a&$@ajymif;ay;jcif;r&Sdao;ay? 2004 ckESpfpykdif;rSpI ckdv_HcGifh&&Sda&;&SmazGa eoltrsm;pktaeESifh tumtuG,frJh usef&Sdae&ayonf? 2007 ckESpf pufwifbmv 15 &ufae@wGif UNHCR u &efukefwGif qjyr_ESifh ywfoufolrsm;twGuf pm&if;ay;oGif;r_rsm;tm; jyefvnfzGifhvSpfay;cJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; ,cif vufrSwfukdifaqmifxm;olrsm; tkyfpkuJhokd@

JRS ESifh EkdifiHwumu,fq,fa&;aumfrDwD International Rescue Committee (IRC) . xkdif;EkdifiH&Sd vufrSwfukdifaqmifxm;onfh jrefrmrsm;. tajctaeay: 2005 tpD&ifcHpm wGif 'kQonf 353OD;tm; yk~Kdvfa&;aumufcH&&Sdr_ rsm;t& tm;vkH;eD;yg; jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ESdyfpufnSOf;yrf;r_rsm;ESifhñuHawG@cJh+yD; ‚wkd@ taeESifh ae&yfokd@jyefygu jyif;xefonfh vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_tœ&m,fwkd@ESifh xyfrH&ifqkdif&E_difa=umif; awG@&Sd&onf? ‚wkd@taeESihf w&m;0iftaxmuftxm;r&Sdygu xkdkif;tm%mykdifwkd@taeESifh w&m;r0if0ifa&mufvmolrsm;tjzpf rSwf,lI tzrf;cH&jcif;/ tcsKyfaESmifcH&jcif;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHokd@jyefykd@cH&jcif;wkd@ukd cH&rnfjzpfonf? &yfwnfa&;twGuf xkdif;EkdifiHwGif w&m;r0if tvkyfvkyfjcif;wkd@tm; r=umc%acgif;ykHjz wfcH&onfhtaetxm;wGif vkyfukdif&yfwnfaexkdif=u&onf? pcef;tajcpkduf'kQonfwkd@ ESifhuGJjym;pGm tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;wkd@. tajccHaxmufyHhr_wkd@tm; òrd@ay:ckdv_H cGifh &&Sda&;vkdvm;olwkd@taeESifh &&Sd&ef rwwfE_difay? trsm;pktaeESifh vkHavmufonfh ckdv_H&efae&mESifh tpm;taomuf r&&SdbJ r=umc%tzrf;cH&I ‚wkd@. aiGESifh ykdifqkdifr_ wkd@tm; odrf;qnf;oGm;jcif;cH=u&onf? pufwifbmv_yf&Sm;olrsm;xH rSwfykHwifvufrSwfrsm;xkwfay;&ef tqifoifhóudqkdcJhonf? Ttcsufu ppfrSefonfh ckdv_HcGifhav#mufxm;olrsm;taeESifh ,cktcg UNHCR ESifh xyfrHrSwfykHwifI tqkH;wGif; xkdif;tm%mykdifwkd@u PAB pepftm;toufoGif;um jrefrmckdv_HcGifh&SmazGolrsm;tm; ppfaq;qkH;jzwfrnf[k ar#mfvifhcsufay;cJhonf? 1999 ckESpfwGifwnfaxmifcJhaomfvnf; PAB u vufawG@ wGif t}uD;tus,f tokH;rusjzpfcJhonf? Ttaetxm;u vuf&Sd'kQonfwkd@tm; vufcHygu jrefrmEkdifiHrS xyfrHa&muf&Sdvmrnfholrsm;tm; qGJxkwfrnfhtajctaetm; zefwD;E_difonfh pkd;&drfr_wpfpdwfwykdif;jzpfaeayonf?

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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk pufwifbmòzdcGif;r_aemufqufwGJtjzpf jrefrmEkdifiHrSxGufajy;vmonfh UNHCR rS ,m,DvufrSwf xkwfay;xm;onfh ckdv_HcGifh&&Sda&;vkdvm;olrsm;twGuf/ rnfonfhtcsdef okd@r[kwf ‚wkd@taeESifh PAB rS pDppfa&;rsm;ðyvkyfaqmif&Gufay ;ray; wkd@rSm usdef;aor_r&Sdonfhtaetxm;jzifh ,ae@wkdif &Sdaeayonf? odk@aomf vufrSwfukdif aqmifxm;olaxmifaygif;rsm;pGmESifh tjcm; rl0g'tajymif;tvnf;ESifh ‚wkd@. 'kQtajctaetm; EkdifiHwum. ta&;ay;r_wkd@ukd ar#mfvifhxm;=uolrsm;twGuf UNHCR u ‚wkd@tm; apmifhqkdif;&rnfjzpfa=umif; &Sif;vif;pGm today;cJhonf? tœ&m,ftaeESifh xkdif;tpkd;&u a&muf&Sdvmonfh vlopfwkd@tm; r=umrD 'kQonftjzpftodtrSwfðya&; pDppfaqmif&Gufapumrl jrefrmvufrSwfukdifaqmif xm;olrsm;tkyfpkopf zefwD;jzpfay:vmOD;rnfjzpfI wm&SnfcHrnfh tajz&Smr_tay: apmifhpm;ae=uonfh olrsm;. tvkyfaºuG; xyfrHjzpfay:OD;rnfjzpfonf? t}uD;qkH;aom pkd;&drfr_rSm rSwfykHwifpm&if;ay;oGif;a&;vkyfief;pOfwGif yg0ifcGifhr&olrsm;ESifh xkd@ a=umifh rnfonhftumtuG,fESifh rnfonfh ckdv_HcGifhar#mfvifhcsufwkd@ukdr# ‚wkd@ twGuf &Sdrnfr[kwfjcif;yifjzpfonf? taxmuftxm;r&Sdonfh/ rvkdvm;onfh/ jzpfE_difajct}uD;tus,fr&Sdonfh xkdjrefrmvufrSwfukdifaqmifxm;olrsm;ESifh ckdv_HcGifh &SmazGaeolrsm;u tpGeftzsm;a'orsm;wGif qufvuf aexkdifae=uayrnf? tu,fI

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jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd pufwifbmv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;tm; òzdcGif;r_vkyfaqmift+yD; xkdif;EkdifiHESifh EkdifiH wumtokdif;t0kdif;taeESifh ‚wkd@.tajctaersm;u w&m;ojzifhjzpfapa&;twGuf xif&Sm;onfh wkd;wufr_ESifh ykdrkdaumif;rGefonfh tem*wfwkd@tm; OD;aqmifoGm;aprnfjzpfonf? csrf;csrf;vD (chen@jrs.or.th) onf owif;ESifhtm;ay;ulnDa&; t&m&Sdjzpf+yD; tpPvm *vkdufpwm (isla@jrs.or.th) u xkdif;EkdifiH a&&_'kQonfvkyfief;Xme JRS (www.jrs.or.th) . rJaqmufpDrHudef; tusLd;aqmifjzpfonf? 1 2007 ckESpf atmufwkdbmv befaumufòrd@tajcpkduf UNHCR ESifh tDF;ar;tifwmeuf tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;r_ 2 rnfonfhae&mokd@vSnfh&rnfrod/ a&&_'kQonfXmeESifh EkdifiHwumu,fq,fa&;aumfrDwD 2005 www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/RMOI-6E83HG?OpenDocument 3 AD&m 'ef tkdwm. ‘xkdif;EkdifiH òrd@ay:&SdckHv_HcGifh&&Sda&;orm;rsm;ESifh 'kQonfrsm;/ FMR28 www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/ FMR28/27.pdf

b*Fvm;a'h&Sfa&muf &kd[if*smrsm;ESifh 'kQonftqifhtwef; yD,m y&kduf zD&D jrefrmEkdifiH &ckdifjynfe,fajrmufykdif;&Sd &dk[if*sm'kQonfrsm;onf rdrdwdk@.rlvedkifiHjzpfonfh b*Fvm;a'h&SfwGifckdv_HcGifh&&ef ra&&monfh tajctaewGifa&muf&Sdaeonf? okd@aomf r=umao;rDumvrsm;twGif; ta&;=uD; aomxif&Sm;onfhwdk;wufrSKtaetxm;rsm;ukd awG@jrifae&onf? 1991 ckESpfwGif &kd[if*smrlqvif ESpfodef;cGJcef@onf b*Fvm;a'h&Sftpkd;&rS 'kQonfrsm;tjzpf vkHavmufonfh tajccHtaetxm;wGif todtrSwfðycHcJh&onf? trsm;pkrSm xkdaemufykdif;ESpfrsm;twGif; b*Fvm;a'h&Sftpkd;&.jrefrmEkdifiHokd@ jyefykd@ jcif;ukdcHcJh&I ,cif'kQonfpcef; 20 rS ,cktcg pcef;ESpfckom usef&Sdawmhonf? vGefcJhonfh 16 ESpfuwnf;u usef&Sdonfh cef@rSef;ajc &kd[if*sm ESpfaomif;ckESpfaxmifrSm EkdifiH. awmifbuftpGefqkH;wGifwnf&Sdonfh aumufpfbZmòrd@teD; 'kQonfpcef;ESpfckwGif aexkdif=uonf? b*Fvm;a'h&Sftaejzifh 1951 ckESpf 'kQonftqifhtwef; pmcsKyfESifh TpmcsKyf. 1967 ckESpf nSdE_dif;csufrSwfwrf;wkd@tm; vufrSwfa&;xkd;jcif;r&Sdonfh tjyif ckdv_HcGifhESifh 'kQonfa&;&mudPrsm;tay: Oya'jyXef;csufwpf&yf&yfukd csrSwf vkyfaqmifjcif;vnf;r&SdcJhay? okd@aomfvnf; tpkd;&taeESifh 1991 ckESpfwGif a&muf&Sdvmonfh&kd[if*smrsm;tm; 'kQonfrsm;tjzpftodtrSwfðyjcif; ukd ukd,fwkdifpwifaqmif&GufcJh+yD; ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH; UNHCR ESifh ,ae@xufwkdif yl;aygif;tultnDay;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;&SdvmcJhonf? b*Fvm;a'h&SftaeESifh vuf&Sd EkdifiHwumtcGifhta&; yËdnmOfpmcsKyfrsm; ESifh xkH;wrf;rsm;tm; vufcHxm;onfrSm xif&Sm;um ‚.tajccHOya'abmiftwGif; ukvor~. oabmwlpmcsKyftwkdif; tcGifhta&;ESifh wm0ef,laqmif&Gufr_wkd@ ukd xdrf;odrf;xm;onhftjyif EkdifiHe,fedrdwftwGif; EkdifiHom;r[kwfolrsm;tm; w&m;0iftumtuG,fay;tyfr_vkyfaqmifonfukdawG@&onf ? tusKd;oufa&mufr_ taeESifh b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHonf 'kQonfumuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; tajccHvkyfief;rsm; udktaxmuftyhHðyonfh EkdifiHwumOya'.t"duusaomtpdwftykdif;ukd todtrSwfðyxm;jcif;yifjzpfonf? 'kQonftjzpftodtrSwfðyjcif;tm; ‚wkd@bmomvnfywfvkyfaqmif&ef Oya'r&SdonfhtwGuf pHxm;r_rsm;t& umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; vkyfief;rsm;tm;aqmif&Guf&mwGif aocsmonfh vkdufemaqmif&Gufr_ESifh xdrf;odrf;r_rsm;vkyfaqmif&ef tcuftcJ&Sdayonf? &kd[if*sm'kQonfwkd@. tajctaeonf qkH;jzwfcsufESifh vkdkovkdvkyfaqmif&onfhvkyfief;rsm; ESifh

txl;apmifha&Smufr_ay;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif pdefac:r_wpf&yftjzpf vufawG@ jyaeayonf? 16 ESpf=umonfhwkdif &kd[if*sm'kQonfrsm;. vGwfvyfonfhv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ tvkyfvkyfukdifykdifcGifhESifh ynma&;tcGifhta&;rsm; tjyif ukd,ftm;ukd,fukd;cGifhESifh ukd,fykdifjyXmef;cGifh tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; jiif;y,fxm;jcif;cHae&ayonf? 'kQonfrsm;rSm vkyftm;ctenf;i,fr#jzifh w&m;r0iftvkyfvkyfukdif=uonfh ykef;&_d;uG,f&_d;v_yf&Sm;r_tajctaeokd@ twif;t"R wGef;ykd@jcif;cHae=u&onf? wkd;wufr_tcGifhtvrf;/ avhvmoif=um;a&;ESifh ‚wkd@bmom ykdrkdaumif;rGefonfht aetxm;okd@a&muf&Sdedkif&efóud;pm;cGifh ponfh tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; ydwfyifcHxm;&+yD; 'kQonfvkyftm;ay;q&mrsm; oifay;onfh oifcef;pmrsm;ESifh twef;rsm;ukd tuef@ towfjzifh vkyfaqmifae&onfjzpfjyD; todtrSwfjyKjcif;rcH&aomynma&; pmoifcef;rsm;onfyif r=umao;ciftcsdeftxd wif;=uyfonfhabmiftwGif;rS uefhowfxm;&Sdxm;onfjzpfonf? b*Fvm;a'h&Sf&Sd ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;taejzifh vufawG@e,fy,fESifh EkdifiHwum umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;rsm;t=um; uGm[csufrsm; qufpyfr_&Sdap&ef tjyif;txeftm;ay;r_rsm;jzifh pHxm;csufrsm; wkd;wufjynfhrDap&ef qGJaqmif&mwGif atmifjrifr_rsm;&SdcJhonf? EkdifiHa&;tajymif;tvJrsm;a=umifhEkdifiHaw mftm; ta&;ay:tajctaera=ujimrD 2006 ckESpfwGif XmetaeESihf ,ciftpkd;&ESifh vufawG@vkyfaqmif&eftwGuf xif&Sm;onfh oabmwlnDr_rsm;csrSwfedkifonftxd atmifjrifcJhonf? vuf&Sd=um;jzwftpkd;&uvnf; 'kQonfrsm;ta&;vkyfaqmif&ef tðyoabm vkdvm;onfh taetxm;jyaeonfukdawG@&onf? avhvm&rnfhtcsuftaeESifh Tokd@ tpkd;&ESifh ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[m rif;}uD;&kH;wkd@t=um; appyfaqmif&Gufr_rsm;.orkdif;rSwfwkdifwkd@onf umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; ykHo¿meftm;ajymif;vJay;a&;ukd azmfaqmifay;jcif;yif jzpfonfukdawG@&onf? ueOD; 2006 ckESpfwGif EkdifiHwumpHcsdefr_atmufwGif xkdtcsdefu ckdv_Ha&;pcef;rsm;.qkd;&Gm;onfhtajctaeukd todtrSwfðyI uBmhukvor~'kQonfrsm ;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;tm; 'kQonfckdv_Ha&;pcef;opfrsm;tm; aqmufvkyfcGifhðycJhonf? 1992 ckESpfuaqmufvkyfcJhaom ckdv_Ha&;pcef;rsm;tm; taetxm;ykHpHwrsKd;rsKd;jzifh 'kQonfrsm; twnfwus tajccsaexkdifrnfhta&; tm;ay;vkyfaqmifr_rsKd; jzpfvmrnfukdpkd;&drfI ðyjyifxdrf;odrf;a&;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmifa&;udPrsm;tay: wif;usyfpGm qef@usifwm;qD;cJhonf? ,if; oabmwlnDr_&&Sduwnf;u uBmh ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH; taeESifh &HykHaiGwkd;csJ@aumufcHr_ vkyfief;rsm; atmifjrifpGmaqmif&GufE_difvmum 'kQonfpcef;ESpfcktwGif; wnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd pwifvmedkifcJhonf? 2009 ckESpfrukefrD


FMR

30

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

35

UNHCR/K McKinsey

UNHCR . taxmuf tyHhjzifh aqmuf xm;onfh e&y& 'kuQonf pcef;&Sd tdrfopfrsm; a&S@wGif aqmhupm; ae=uonfh jrefrm 'kuQonf uav;rsm;/ b*Fvm;a'h&Sf/ 2008 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv

pcef;ESpfckpvkH;wGif aexkdifpm;aomufa&;twGuf vkdtyfonfhtaxmuftyhHrsm;tm;vkH; jynfhrDpGmaqmif&GufEdkifrnf[k ar#mfvifhxm;=uonf? 'kwd,t"duusonfh atmifjrifr_wpfckrSm b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHwGif yxrqkH;t=udrftjzpf vkyfaqmifonfh uBmhukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;. wwd,EkdifiHokd@ ajymif;a&$@tajccsaexkdifapa&;vkyfief;rSm tumtuG,fay;tyfr_/ ckdifrmonfhajz&Sif;csufwkd@jzifh taetxm;tcsKd@ odkhydkhaqmifay;cJhonf? 2006 ckESpfwGif 'kQonf 26 OD;tm; uae'gEkdifiHokd@ ajymif;a&$@ykd@aqmifay;EdkifcJh+yD; 2007 ckESpfwGif 79 OD;txd apv$wfay;E_difcJhonf? xkdajymif;a&$@tajccsaexkdifa&;oabmwlnDcsufrSm ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;. tpkd;&tm; wpkHw&mpnf;&kH;r_jzifh t& nftcsif;jrSifhwifa&;oifwef;rsm;wkd;jrSifha&;ESifh ynma&;taxmuftulðyypPnf;rsm; tm;jrSifhwifa&; cGifhðyay;&efjzpfonf? tusKd;quftaeESifh 2006 ckESpfwGif tpkd;&u t&nftcsif;jrSifhwifa&;oifwef;ESifh ausmif;rsm;wGifoifay;aeonfh twef;rsm;ukdyg wkd;csJ@aqmif&Gufa&; vkyfief;rsm;cGifhðyay;&ef oabmwlcJhonf? Twkd;wufr_taeESifh EkdifiHwumpHcsdeftm; rrSDonfhwkdif vrf;a=umif;rSefay:okd@ OD;wnfaeonfrSm trSefyifjzpfonf? uae'gEkdfifiHokd@ yxrt}udrf ajymif;a&$@aexkdifapa&;vkyfief;rsm; atmifjrifcJhpOfrSpI xkdta&;ay:umuG,fapmifha&Smufr_vkdtyfaeonfh 'kQonfrsm;twGuf ajymif;a&$@a&;udPrsm;wGif tjcm;pdwf0ifpm;onfht"duEkdifiH rsm;ESifh qufvufndSE_dif;aqmif&GufE_difcJhonf? e,l;ZDvefESifh t*FvefEkdifiHwkd@u 2008 ckESpfwGif vma&mufrnfh 'kQonfrsm;tm; vufcH&ef ta=umif;jyefcJhonf? xkd@xufykdonfh xif&Sm;onfhwu,fhwkd;wufr_rSm b*Fvm;a'h&Sftpkd;&u 2006 ckESpfwGif ukvor~qdkif&mtjcm;Xmersm;ESifh tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; 'kQonfpcef;rsm;twGif; tem*wfwdk;wufa&;twGuf u|rf;usif&mvkyfaqmifrSL ESifh ulnDr_rsm; udk0ifa&mufvkyfaqmifcGifh ay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? okd@aomfvnf; 'kQonfwkd@twGuf EkdifiHwumOya'rsm;atmuf&Sd oifhav#mfonfhtcGifhta&;rsm;tm; aumif;rGefpGm &&SdcHpm;E_difjcif;r&Sdao;rSD

umvtwGif; taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Guf&ef tcsKd@enf;vrf;rsm; vkdtyfaeayao;onf? b*Fvm; ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&m r[mrif; }uD;&kH;taeESifh ‚wkd@.tcef;u¾t& vuf&Sdtaetxm;wGif xkdudPrsm;ukd taumiftxnfazmfa&; rjzpfedkifao;onfukd &Sif;vif;pGmajymqkdcJhonf? 16 ESpfwmumvtwGif; vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh vl@*k%foduQmwkd@twGuf 'kQonfumuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; tajccHoabmw&m;ESifh zDvmqef@usifjzpfcJh+yD; jyifyEkdifiHwkd@. tultnD wkd;wufr_r&SdonfukdomawG@&onf? b*Fvm;a'h&Sftpkd;&ESifh tjcm;ta&;ygonfhEkdifiHrsm;t}um; &kd[if*smwkd@twGuf ckdifrmonfhtajctae odkha&mufzdkh&ef aqG;aEG;nSdE_dif;r_aqmif&Gufa&;rsm; qufvufwnf&Sdaeayonf? xkdaqG;aEG;r_. &v'frsm;tm;cef@rSef;a&;rSm tvGefapmaeayao;onf? okd@aomf tvGef@ tvGefaumif;rGefonfh tcsufrSm ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;ESifh tpkd;& ESpfbufpvkH; &kd[if*sm'kQonfrsm;. tusOf;tusyftm; vkH;vkH;vsm;vsm;ajyvnfoGm; onftxd &nf&SnftusKd;jzpfaprnfh &_axmifhrSajz&Sif;vkyfaqmifoGm;=u&ef oabmwl nDr_&Sdae=ujcif;yifjzpfonf? yD,m y&kduf zD&D Pia Prytz Phiri (BGDDA@unhcr.org) onfb*Fvm;a'h&Sfqkdif&m uBmhukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&m r[mrif; }uD;&kH;ukd,fpm;vS,fjzpfonf? (www.unhcr.org/country/bgd.htm). pma&;olwifjyxm;onfh tjrifrSm ‚.yk~Kdvfa&;qkdif&mtjrifomjzpf+yD; uBmhukvor~'kQ onfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH; okd@r[kwf uBmhukvor~.tjriftm; ukd,fpm;rðyyg? 1 www.un.int/bangladesh/mission_arc/treaty_adherence.htm 2 1972 tajccHOya'yk'fr 25/ 31 ESifh 32


36

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR

30

udk;cdk&mrJh tdd,ESifhrav;&Sm;EkdifiHa&muf csif;'kQonfrsm; atrD tvufZENm;

csif;'kQonftrsm;pkonf 'kQonfpcef;wpfckckwGif ajccsaexkdifjcif;r&SdbJ tdd,EkdifiHESifh rav;&Sm;EkdifiHwkd@&Sd òrd@ae'kQonf okd@r[kwf pm&Gufpmwrf;pm&if;rJh 'kQonfrsm;tjzpf aexkdifae=uonf? jrefrmedkifiH&Sd tjcm;wkdif;&if;om;rsm;uJhokd@ jyef@ESH@pGmjzpfyGm;aeaom vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;a=umifh jrefrmEkdifiHtaemuf&kd;r awmifwef;rsm;wGifaexkdif=uonfh axmifESifhcsDonfh csif;wkdif;&if;om;wkd@onfvnf; ‚wkd@.ouf&Sif&yfwnfr_twGuf a'otoD;oD;wkd@xGufajy;cJh=u&onf? xkdif;EkdifiHu jrefrm'kQonf trsm;pktm;vufcHonfhtcsdefwGif csif;vlrsKd;OD;a&rSm xkdif;EkdifiHwGif tenf;tusOf;om&Sdonf? ,if;tpm; csif;wkdif;&if;om;trsm;pku tdd,ESifh rav;&Sm;EkdifiHrsm;wGif cdkv_HcGifh&&Sd&ef&SmazGvkyfaqmif=uonf? xkda'owkd@wGif ‚wkd@ ESifh we,fwnf;om;jzpf=uonfh xkdif;EkdifiH&Sdcsif;vlrsKd;wkd@ESifhuGJjym;onfh pdefac:r_ rsm;ukd&ifqkdif=u&ayonf?

Amy Alexander

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jzwfoef;a&$@ajymif;0ifxGufaeonfh jrefrmEkdifiHom;wkd@onf EkdifiHtwGif;tjyif EkdifiHe,fpyfrsm;ukdjzwfausmfIv_yf&Sm;ouf0ifaeayonf? TonfrSm ‚wkd@. tajctaetay:rlwnfonfh vkdtyfcsufwGef;tm;t&‚/ ykdrdkawmufyonfh tem*wfar#mfvifhcsufrsm;.qGJtm;t&‚ wpfckr[kwfwpfckt& jzpfyGm;v#uf&Sdonf? trsm;pktwGuf wpkHw&mjznfhpGrf;r_ay;edkifaomfvnf; tcsdK@rSmrl T0ifa&mufr_tay: tjrwfxkwfjcif;rsm;/ rw&m;apmfum;r_rsm;/ a&m*ga0'emESifh toufqkH;&_H;onfhwkdif qkd;&Gm;onfhtajctaersm;ukd &ifqkdif=u&onf? vlukeful;jcif; (,ae@acwfpm;aeonfh trsKd;orD;/ uav;rsm;ESifh trsdK;om;rsm;tm; u|efðyukeful;aer_) onf wuBmvkH;wGif jzpfay:aeayonf? okd@aomf azmfjyedkifonfh tuef@towftwkdif;twmtwGif; &&Sdxm;onfh tcsuftvufwkd@u ta&S@ awmiftm&Stm; txl;ojzifh r¾Kdifðyaeonf[k n$efjyaeonf? xkda'otwGif; jrefrmEkdifiHonf xkdif;ESifh w&kwfEkdifiHESpfckpvkH;okd@ vlukeful;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;rsm;. t"duyif&if;EkdifiH jzpfaeayonf? ESpfpOf T'kp&kdufvkyfief;twGif; vlOD;a&rnfIrnfr# om;aumiftjzpfusa&mufcJhonfukd rod&Sd&aomfvnf; cef@rSef;ajctwkdif;twmrSm vlokH;axmifrS okH;aomif;twGif; a&mif;pm;jcif;cHae=u&ayonf? tcsKd@olrsm;u jrefrmEkdifiHwGifT&mZ0wfr_tm; xdxda&mufa&mufajz&Sif;azmf xkwfaqmif&GufE_dif&ef ar#mfvifhaumif; ar#mfvifh=uayrnf? qif;&JrGJawr_ESifhtwl xkdif;EkdifiH befaumuf òrd@&Sd tpkd;&ykdif bef@ c&uf x&muef &dyfomwGif ,cktcg &kd;&m vufr_ ynm avhvmae onfh rw&m; pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief; wpfckokd@ a&mif;pm; cH&r_rS vGwfajrmuf vmonfh jrefrm trsKd;orD; wpfOD;

o,f,lykd@aqmifa&; okd@r[kwf xdrf;odrf;xm;jcif;wkd@rSm vlukeful;jcif;vkyfaqmifr_ jzpfonf? 'kwd,tcsufrSm tusyfukdifjcif; (t"Rapckdif;jcif;§t"Rcsdef;ajcmufjcif;) okd@r[kwf jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifjcif;wkd@yg0ifvmygu vlukeful;jcif;[k t"d`g,foufa&mufonf? wwd,tcsuft& vlukeful;jcif;&nf&G,fcsufrSm vdifqufqHr_t& (okd@) tvkyform;rsm;tay:acgif;ykHjzwf tjrwfxkwfjcif; vkyfaqmif&ef jzpfonf?1 rdrdfwkd@taeESifh TtcsufokH;ckpvkH;ESifhywfoufonfh taetxm;xif&Sm;cJhygv#if vlukeful;jcif;[lIom okH;E_ef;ajymqkd=uayonf?2 Tt"d`g,fzGifhqkdcsuftm;tokH;ðyjcif;jzifh vlukeful;jcif;onf &Sif;vif;wdusonfh &mZ0wfr_wpfck t+rJr[kwfonfukd awG@&ayrnf? vlwkd@taeESifh r=umc%‚wkd@ qtav#mufyg0ifvm=urnf/ tvkyform;tajctaersm;wGifyif ‚wkd@.E_d if;,SOfcsuft& vuf&Sdtaetxm;tay: acgif;ykHjzwfjcif;cH&onf[k owfrSwf&aumif;owfrSwf&ayrnf? tjcm;wbufwGif vlwkd@ taeESifh vkyfctenf;i,fom&&Sdjcif;/ tvkyfcsdefykdvkyf&jcif; okd@r[kwf ,cifoabmwlnDcsufESifh qef@usifonfh vkyfief;cGiftaetxm;rsm;wGif xm;&SdcH&jcif;wkd@jzifh vSnfhjzm;jcif;cH&aumif;cH&rnf? Ttajctaersm;wGif ‚wkd@ taeESifh wpkHwOD;. twif;t=uyfapckdif;r_r&SdbJ qufvufaexkdifvkyfukdifaeygu ‚ukd w&m;0ifvlukeful;onf[k rqkdfedkifay? tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh vlwkd@taeESifh tpyxrwGif rdrdbmom ul;oef;0ifa&mufvmjcif;jzpfedkifaomfvnf; aemufykdif;wGif vlukeful;cH&onfhtaetxm;twGif; odkhoufqif;usa&muf=u&onf? Tt"d`g,fzGifhqkdr_wkd@ukd w&m;0if vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Gufjcif;onf vlukeful;r_qef@usifa&; 0ifa&mufvkyfaqmifr_. t"dupdefac:r_wpfckyifjzpfonf? rnfokd@yifjzpfap Taqmif&Gufr_onf trSefwu,fvkdtyfaeonfholwkd@twGuf umuG,fr_ESifh tultnDrsm; vufcH&&Sdefedkifjcif;&Sdr&Sd aojcmpGm vkyfaqmif&rnfh ta&;}uD;onfh vkyfief;yif jzpfonf?

Kay Chernush for the US State Department.

0ifa&mufaexkdifjcif;ESifh vlukeful;jcif;

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FMR

30

odkhaomfvnf; rsm;pGmaomjzwfausmf0ifa&mufr_wkd@rSm rdrdtdrfwGif;&SdtcGifhtvrf; ESifh EkdifiH&yfjcm;&SdtcGifhtvrf;ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;twGif; uGmjcm;csuftay: qif;&JrGJawr_ ESifhqufpyfonfh pD;yGm;a&;tqifrajyr_rsm;a=umifh jzpfay:vmonfhtodtjrif. wGef;tm;ay;r_a=umifhjzpf&jcif;jzpfonf? wm0efodpdwfjzifhvlukeful;jcif;qef@usifpGufzufaqmif&Gufa&;&nf&G,fcsufrSm ,if;v_yf &Sm;aqmif&Gufr_ukd &yfwef@ypf&efr[kwfbJ vlukeful;r_udk&yfwef@ypfa&;omjzpfonf? r=umrDESpfrsm;twGif; jrefrmEkdifiHwGif tqkdygudPESifhpyfv#Of;onfh tm;wufp&m ajymif;vnf;wkd;wufr_tcsKd@ukd awG@&onf? odomonfhwkd;wufr_rSm jzwfausmf 0ifa&mufvmolrsm;tm;vkHjcHKr_ay;tyfa&;tjyif a&mif;pm;cH&olrsm;tm; ulnDaxmufyHhr_ay;a&; ESpfckpvkH;yifjzpfonf? 2005 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif Oya'ðyxm;onfh jrefrmEkdifiH. vlukeful;r_qef@usifa&;Oya'u w&m;pGJqkdcH&r_ rSuif;vGwfcGifh/ vkdtyfonfh Oya'a=umif;vrf;/ aiGa=u;ESifh aq;0g;taxmuftyHhwkd@ tygt0if a&mif;pm;cH&oltay: wdusonfh w&m;0iftumtuG,faxmufyhHr_ rsm;ay;tyfxm;onf? xkdOya'u &JESifh vl0ifr_}uD;=uyfa&;t&m&Sdrsm;tm; a=umufvef@ jcif;rsm;tm; av#mhcsa&;rsm;vkyfaqmifr_ESifh wcsdefwnf;rSmyif cHpm;&olrsm;twGuf t ultnDrsm;vufcH&&Sdapa&;vG,fulap&ef &nf&G,fxm;onf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif 2005 ckESpfrSpI umuG,fa&;v_H@aqmfaqmif&Gufr_rsm;tm; ta0;ajy;um;*dwfrsm;wGif pwifaqmif&GufcJhonf? oifwef;ay;xm;onfh oifwef;q&mrsm;u vlukeful;jcif;. tœ&m,frsm;omru tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;/ tokH;0ifonfhtquftoG,frsm;ESifh t"duusonfhtokH;tE_H;rsm;ukdyg tcsuftvufay;I ynmay;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfaqmif=uonf? tpyxrwGif &efukefywf0ef;usif um;*dwfrsm;wGif pwifcJhaomfvnf; ,cktcg armfvòrdifòrd@ xkdif;EkdifiHe,fpyfokd@oGm;onfh ul;ajymif;um;*dwfwpfckwGifyg wkd;csJhvkyfaqmifae+yDjzpfonf? vlukeful;onfhudPESifhywfoufonfh AD'D,kdrsm;tm;jyojcif;/ vufurf;pmapmifrsm;ukd c&D;oGm;jynfolrsm;tm; e,fpyfoGm;onfh um;rsm;ay:wGif a0iSjcif;wkd@vkyfaqmif=uonf? 2006 ckESpfwGif Tv_yf&Sm;r_jzifh vloef;wpf0ufausmftm; ynmay;a&; vkyfaqmifE_difcJhonf? jzwfausmf0ifa&mufoltm; vkHðcHr_&Sdapa&;aqmif&Gufr_ESifhtòydif umuG,fa&;ESifh a&mif;pm;cH&olrsm;tm; tultnD&&Sdapa&;wkd;jrSifh&ef óud;yrf;vkyfaqmifa&;rsm;rSmvnf; vkdtyfcsuf&Sdaeayao;onf? tmrcHcsufay;Edkifonfh pwifvkyfaqmifr_wpfckrSm e,fjcm;qufqHa&;&kH;rsm;tm; (ukvor~ rl;,pfaq;0g;ESifh &mZ0wfr_yaysmufa&;&kH; UN Offices on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) ESifhyl;aygif;I rl;,pfaq;0g;a&mif;0,fr_wkdufzsufa&; vkyfief;rsm;twGufzGifhvSpfcJhonfh&kH; rsm;) ‚wkd@.vkyfykdifcGifhtm; wkd;csJhum vlukeful;r_rsm;tm;vnf;umuG,fE_dif&ef zGifhvSpfvkyfaqmifedkifjcif;jzpfonf? Tvkyfief;wGif tajccHvkyfaqmifr_rSm pdrfh0ifvmedkifaome,fpyfrsm;rSjzwfausmf0if a&muf vmonfholrsm;tm; wm;qD;&efr[kwfyJ tpkd;&Xmersm;. e,fpyfjzwfoef;a&; yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_jzifh a&mif;pm;cH&olrsm;tm; ae&yfokd@vkHðcHpdwfcspGmjyefvnfykd@ aqmifedkif&ef ulnDa&;yifjzpfonf? jzwfausmf0ifa&mufvmolrsm; ESpfbufe,fpyfrS &JESifhvlr_a&;tultnDay;tyfonfht&m&Sdrsm;wkd@ESifh vkyfaqmif&mwGif e,fjcm;qufqHa&;&kH;rsm;u ,cktcg a&mif;pm;cH&olrsm;tm; rlvae&yfXmaeokd@ ulnDykd@aqmifa&;rsm;tm; axmufyhHay;&efjzpfonf? xkdc&D;pOftqkH;wGifvnf; a'ocHESifhEkdifiHwum tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;tm; xkda&mif;pm;cH&olrsm;twGuf ESpfodrfhynmay;aqG;aEG;jcif;/ aiGa=u;ESifhaq;0g;tultnD/ rdom;pktm;pkHprf;ay;jcif;tjyif toufarG; 0rf;ausmif;ynm oifwef;rsm;rSwqifh vkdtyfonfhulnDapmifha&Smufr_ rsm;tm; ykdrkdvkyfaqmifedkif&ef tm;ay;onfhtjyif xkdvkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmifedkif&ef vkdtyfonfhtajctaersm;ukdvnf; ay;tyfxm;onf? vlr_tajccHtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm;ay;tyfxm;onfh oifwef;jzifh a'ocHvlxktm; xkdqufvufjzpfyGm;aeqJjzpfonfh vlukeful;r_rsm;tm; wkdufzsufa&;vkyfief;rsm; wdk;jrSifhvkyfaqmif&ef vkyfykdifcGifhrsm;ay;tyfxm;onf?

&&SdcJhonfhoifcef;pmrsm; ae&mtoD;oD;wGifjrkyfESHxm;onfh0efxrf;rsm; (vlxkwGif;pnf;&kH;a&;rSL;rsm;/ tpkd;&t&m&Sdrsm;/ ukvor~ESifh tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS 0efxrf;rsm;) taeESifh Tpepftm;o,faqmifI ouf0iftaumiftxnfazmfedkifap&ef vkyfaqmif=uonf? vlukeful;jcif;rsm;tm; azmfxkwf&ef t"duvkdtyfaeonfh tajctaerSm jrefrmtpkd;&u Tjy\emtm;todtrSwfðyumuG,f apmifha&Smuf&efESifh wpkHw&majz&Sif;r_vkyfaqmif&efq&Sda&;yifjzpfonf?

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk xkdtcsufESpfckpvkH;rSm ukvor~rSwqifh enf;ynmu|rf;usifolrsm;taxmuftyhH jzifh rJacgifa'owGif;&Sd 6 EkdifiHtpkd;&rsm; taumiftxnfazmfaeonfh wkd;wufa&; vkyfief;pOfESifhqufpyfonfh vkyfief;twkdif;twmwGifyg&SdI/ twlwuGyl;aygif;r_jzifh vl ukeful;jcif;wkdufzsufa&;vkyfaqmifoGm;&ef uwdxm;cJh=uonf? rJacgif vlukeful;r_qef@usifa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking (COMMIT) [k trnf&onfh Tvkyfief;pOftm; 2004 ckESpf atmufwkdbmvwGif uarBm'D;,m;/ w&kwf/ avm/ jrefrm/ xkdif;ESifh AD,uferfEkdifiHwkd@jzifh w&m;0ifpwifcJhonf?3 COMMIT u jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif; zdtm;ay;aeaomjy\emjzpfonfh vlukeful;jcif;tm; w&m;0iftodtrSwfðyjcif;wnf;omru jrefrmEkdifiHtm; a'otzGJ@0ifEkdifiHtjzpfxnfhoGif;xm;um xdkjy\emtm; wifjy&efESifh ajz&Sif;vkyfaqmif&efjzpfonf? T COMMIT vkyfief;pOfonf a'owGif;&Sdtpkd;&t&m&Sdrsm;twGif; qufoG,fr_ uGef&ufwnfaxmifay;xm;um ‚wkd@.tawG@tñuHrsm;tm;r#a0jcif;tjyif jrefrmEkdifiHwGif rlvuwnf;ucsrSwfxm;onfh toifhawmfqkH;EkdifiHwum vkyfaqmifr_ wkd@tm; aqmif&Gufjcif;jzpfonf? ‚tcsufonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif; tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;ESifh ukvor~Xmersm;twGuf vlukeful;r_rsm;qef@usifa&;aqmif&Guf&mwGif vkdtyfonfhtaetxm;tm; ay;tyfxm;ayonf? xkd@jyif vlukeful;r_umuG,f&ef tpkd;&udk ulnDaxmufyHhjcif; tygt0if ta0;a'orSa&mif;pm;jcif;cH&oltm; umuG,f&efjzpfonf? aemufqkH;taeESifh xkd 6 EkdifiHtwGif; rnfonhftpkd;&u vlukeful;r_wkdufzsufa&;vkyfief;rsm;ukd t&Sdeft[kefjrSifhxdrf;odrf; aqmif&Gufaeonfukd tpkd;&rsm;tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif xnfhoGif;oHk;oyfvkyfaqmifjcif; jzifh vlukeful;r_ wkdufzsufa&;udPtay: yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEkdifcJh=uonf? Tvkyfaqmifr_wkd@onf wkd;wufr_wkd@tm; (trsm;pk+yD;pD;&efvkdtyfae) tm;ay;aeayonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif vlukeful;jcif;qef@usifa&;a&ShwGif pdefac:r_ tenf;qkH; okH;&yf&Sdonf? ‚wkd@rSm „„ tultnDtrSefwu,fvkdtyfaeonfholrsm;xHokd@ tultnD wkduf&kdufa&muf&Sdjcif;&Sdr&Sd aocsmatmifvkyfaqmifa&;? „„ xda&mufonfh 0ifa&mufumuG,fvkyfaqmifr_jzifh vlukeful;cH&olrsm;OD;a&av#mh csjcif;? ( tumtuG,fay;r_onf o,f,lykd@aqmifa&;vrf;a=umif;rsm;wav#muf (okd@) e,fpyfòrd@rsm;ESifh ‚a'orsm;=um;&Sd &nfrSef;xm;&mae&mrsm;odkh OD;wnfcsuftwkdif;a&mufra&muf qufvufI tajctwifaqG;aEG;jcif;?) „„ vlukeful;r_qef@usifv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;tm;csOf;uyfvkyfaqmif&mwGifjzpfajrmufjcif ;&Sdr&SdnSdE_dif;aqmif&Gufjcif;? (ukvor~Xmersm;ESifh ðyvkyfcH&olrsm;apmifha&Smuf a&;Xmersm; xHrS t=uHnm%f&&Sda&;twGuf jrefrmtpkd;&taejzifh ta&;,l aqmif&Gufr_rsm;vkyfaqmifE_dif&ef EkdifiHawmfpDrHudef; rl=urf;a&;qGJae+yDjzpfonf?)

vlukeful;r_qef@usifa&;rsm;wGif vkyfaqmif&efvkdtyfonhftcsufrsm;pGmusef&Sd aeayonf? xkd@tjyif vuf&Sd wkd;wufr_rSmvnf; +yD;jynfhpkHonfhtaetxm;ESifh a0;uGmv#uf&Sdaeayao;onf? rnfokd@qkdapumrl vlr_a&;apmifha&Smufr_ tultnDay;tyfolrsm;taeESifh pDrHudef;vkyfaqmifa&;pdefac:r_ESifh EkdifiHa&;tajctaersm;tm; &ifqkdif&onfhae&mwGif vlukeful;r_qef@usifa&;v_yf &Sm;r_ajcvSrf;rsm;onf ar#mfvifhcsuftvif;wef;wpfckjzpfonf? vlukeful;r_qef@ usifa&;onf tdyfcsftkdifAD (attkdif'Dtufpf) wkdufzsufa&;jzpfouJhokd@ vmwfpm;r_ qefhusifa&;ESifh pepfwuspDpOfxm;onfh&mZ0wfr_wkdufzsufa&;vnf;jzpfayonf? ykdIta&;}uD;onfhtcsufrSm vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;twGufwkdufyGJ jzpfaoma=umifh udk,fydkifvGwfvyfcGifhESifh w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;twGufvnf;jzpfonf? wkd;wufr_rSm aES;auG;aumif;aES;auG;ayrnf? ao;i,faumif;ao;i,fayrnf? okd@aomf trSwfwrJhxm;onfht&m rjzpfoifhonfrSm taotcsmyifjzpfonf? eDukdvwf0if;jrifhonf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 2003 ckESpfrS 2007 ckESpftxd tvkyfvkyfukdifcJhonf? r=umrDu rJacgiftxl;a'o ukvor~EkdifiHwumXmevlukeful;r_wkdufzsufa&;pDrHudef; UN Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong-Subregion (UNIAP www.notrafficking.org) wGifwm0ef,lcJhaom yk~Kdvfjzpfonf? Taqmif;yg;onf yk~Kdvfa&;t& aqmif&GufedkifcJhonfhtaetxm;jzifh a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfonf? xkd@a=umifhukvor~. tjrifESifh &_axmifhrsm;tm; ukd,fpm;rðyyg?

39


40

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR

30

tm&S. opfvGifonfh avSvkdufolrsm; c&pf(pf) vD0g EkdifiHrJh&kd[if*smaxmifaygif;rsm;pGmwkd@onf rav;&Sm;wGif omvGefaumif; rGefonfhb0tdyfruft& jrefrmEkdifiHESifh b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHwkd@rS xGufcGma&;vkyfaqmifae=uonf?

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GHRE www.ghre.org

b*Fvm;a'h&SfxufausmfvGefIjzpfay:ae onfh &kd[if*smwkd@0ifa&mufvmr_rsm;onf txl;tqef;r[kwfay? q,fpkESpfrsm;pGmtwGif; vlarSmifckdukefonfrsm;u &kd[if*smwkd@ tm; ‚wkd@trsm;pktaeESifh ,m,DaexkdifcGifh&&Sdonfh aqmf'Dtma&As/ yguPwefESifh tm&yfapmfbGm;jynfaxmifpkEkdifiH (,lattD;) EkdifiHwkd@okd@ ykd@ay;ae=uonf? aqmf'Dtma&Asu ykdrkdoGm;a&muf&ef ESpfoufonfh a&muf&Sd&mjzpfaomfvnf; 2005 ckESpfukefwGif rav;&Sm;EkdifiH uGmvmvrfylòrd@&Sd ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&m r[mrif; }uD;&kH;taeESifh &kd[if*sm aomif;wpfaxmiftm; ,m,DumuG,fapmifha&Smufr_ ay;tyfpm&if;oGif;ay;cJhonf? b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiH&Sd c&D;oGm;at;*sifhrsm;u ‘b*Fvm; a'h&SfEkdifiHul;vufrSwfrsm;’/ [wfcs okd@r[kwf trf&m jynf0ifcGifhADZmrsm;tjyif av,mOfvufrSwfrsm;ukdygpDpOfI rUmòrd@odk@oGm;a&muf&ef vkyfaqmifay;=uonf? c&D;pOftwGuf ,cifa&muf&Sdtajccsaexkdif=uonfh a&$@ajymif;aexkdifrnfholwkd@. aqGrsKd;om;csif;wkd@u tukeftuscHay;=uonf?

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2007 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmv 25 &ufae@wGif &kd[if*smOD;&nf 240 avmuftm; rav;&Sm;EkdifiHokd@ vlarSmifckd ckd;xkwfvmonfh ig;zrf;oabFmwpfpD;ESifh ul;wkd@ avSESpfpD;wkd@onf b*Fvm;yifv,fauG@twGif; epfjrKyfoGm;cJhonf? vl 80 avmuftoufraousef&SdcJhI tjcm;yk~Kdvftm;vkH;wkd@ a&epfaoqkH;cJh=uonf? wywft=umwGif tjcm;avSxyfjrKyfjyefI tqkdt& jrefrmha&wyfu ypfcwf ESpf¹r_yfcJhjcif;[kod&onf? vlOD;&nf 150 avmuf aornf[k,kH=unf&onf? &kd[if*smrsm;pGmtaeESifh zdESdyfr_/ cGJjcm;qufqHr_ESifh tvGef@tvGefqkd;&Gm;onfh qif;&JiwfrGwfr_wkd@rS vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf tœ&m,fa&m¹yGef;aeonfh yifv,fjyifc&D;tm; xGufcGma&;twGuf avSoabFmay:wuf&ef tqifoifhjzpfae=uonf? 2008 ckESpf rwfv 3 &ufae@wGif oD&dvuFma&wyfu tif*sifysufI tdd,ork'&mwGif 22 &ufcef@arsmaeonfhavSrS &kd[if*smtrsm;pkygonfh c&D;oGm; 71a,muftm; u,fq,fcJhonf? ta,mufESpfq,frSm iwfjywfr_ ESifh cœmukd,fwGif;a&"mwfukefqkH;r_a=umifh vrf;wGifaoqkH;cJh+yD;jzpfonf ? tm&uefpDrHudef;tzGJ@ The Arakan Project u 2007 ckESpf atmufwkdbm a&a=umif;oGm;vma&;umvrS vuf&Sdumvtxd vlOD;&nf 5000 tygt0if 2006 ckESpf atmufwkdbmvrS 2008 rwfvv,ftxd avSvkdufol 8000 ausmfcef@ b*Fvm;urf;ajcrS xkdif;EkdifiHESifh rav;&Sm;EkdifiHwkd@okd@ xGufcGmoGm;=uonf[k cef@ rSef;cJhonf? xkd&kd[if*smwkd@rSm t&nftwGuftm;jzifh 725000 cef@&Sd b*Fvm;a'h&SfEkdifiHESifh ab;csif;uyfvsufwnf&Sdonfh &ckdifjynfe,fajrmufykdif;wGiftajccsaexkdif=u onfh rlqvifvlenf;pk vlrsKd;pkjzpfonf? wkdif;&if;om;/ bmompum;ESifh bmomw&m;wkd@. qufEG,fr_t& ppfwaumif;bef*gvDvlrsKd;wkd@ESifh qufEG,fywfoufonf? &kd[if*smwkd@ taeESifh 1982 ckESpf jrefrmEkdifiHom;Oya' a=umifh EkdifiHrJhrsm;b0 a&mufcJh=u&onf? xkdtcsdefrSpI ‚wkd@.v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;tay: cGJjcm;qufqHa&;vkyfaqmifr_rsm;/ vufxyf&eftwGuf txl;cGifhðyr_vkdtyfcsuf/ ajr,modrf;ykdufcH&jcif;/

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rav;&Sm; - t"duOD;wnfcsuf


FMR

30

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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk 2007 ckESpf rwfv 21 &ufae@txd xkdif;EkdifiHawmifykdif; yifv,furf;ajcwGif tzrf;cH&onfh avSvkdufolrsm;rSm tcsdefwkdtxdrf;odrf;cH&I aemufykdif; rJaqmufòrd@ teD; typftcwf&yfpJxm;onfh e,fajrwGif;okd@ ‘w&m;r0if’ ESifxkwfcHcJh&onf? yGJpm;rsm;u ‚wkd@xHrS xkdif;EkdifiHrS rav;&Sm;okd@ykd@aqmif&eftwGuf tar&duefa':vm 700 tca=u;aiG,lxm;onfhtay: jyefv$wfay;=uonf? xkdif;tm%mykdifwkd@u aemufykdif;wGif vltenf;i,fwkd@tm; jrefrmvl0ifr_}uD;=uyfa&;tm%mykdifrsm;vufokd@ (prf;oyfonfhtaetxm;jzpfayrnf) jyefykd@a&;vkyfaqmifcJhonf? okd@aomf xkdESifxkwfcH&olrsm;tm; aemufae@wGif xkdif;bufokd@ jyefwGef;xkwfcJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; 2007 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmv yifv,fc&D;oGm;&moDopftpuwnf;u ueOD;xdrf;odrf;r_rsm;tm; r=um;od&awmhI xkdavSvkdufolrsm; b,fqDb,furf;a&mufukef=uonfukd rod&awmhonfhtwGuf Ttaetxm;rSm ta&;w}uD;pkd;&drfzG,f&mudPjzpfvmonf? xkdif;EkdifiHawmifykdif;wGif ‚wkd@tm; xkdif;vl0ifr_ }uD;=uyfa&;tm%mykdifwkd@u rav;&Sm;e,fpyfteD;wGif yGJpm;rsm;xHv$Jajymif;ay;I qufvuf arSmifckdjzwfoef;0ifa&mufa&;twGuf ‚wkd@xHrS aiG&onftxd qufvufzrf;qD;xdrf;odrf;xm;onf[k qkdonf? xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfwGifuJhokd@ xkdif;rav;e,fpyfwGifvnf; ‚wkd@.zrf;qD;xm;olrsm;tm; aiGay;vmapa&;vkyfaqmifr_zdtm;taeESifh ykHrSef&kdufESuf=uonf? ray;E_difolrsm;tm; pkdufysKd;a&;ykdif&Sifrsm;okd@r[kwf ig;zrf;avSykdif&Sifrsm;xHa&mif;pm;I csnfaESmifxm;onfh tvkyform;rsm;tjzpfvkyfukdifaponf? aemufqkH; rav;&Sm;okd@ vlrsm;pGma&muf&SdcJh+yD; w&m;r0if0ifa&mufvmolrsm;tae ESifh tvkyf&Sm=u&onf? okd@aomfvnf; vlrsm;pGmwkd@ vrf;wGifaysmufqkH;cJh=uonf? xGufcGmonfhavSrsm;qufvuf rsm;vmonfhtwGuf aqGrsKd;aysmufowif;&Smonfh rdom;pkrsm; ykdrkdrsm;jym;vm=uonf?

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jrefrmEkdifiH. arhaysmufxm;jcif;cH&onfh jynfolrsm;

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&kd[if*smrsm;.orkdif;onf (7) &mpktpykdif;rSpI tm&yfrlqvifukefonfrsm; &ckdifjynfwGif vma&muftajcpkdufaexkdifonfh twdwfumvrSjzpfonf? 1950 ckESpf ygvDrefacwfwGif OD;Ek.tpkd;&u wkdif;&if;om;tjzpf todtrSwfðycJhaomfvnf; 1983 ckESpf AkdvfcsKyfae0if;. ppftpkd;&u jrefrmEkdifiHawmf EkdifiHom;Oya'ukd jyXmef;cJhonfhtcsdefrSpum ‚if;wkd@. EkdifiHa&;ESifh tajccHOya't& ukd,fykdiftaxmuftxm; qkH;&_H;cJh&onf? Tvkyfaqmifr_u &kd[if*smwkd@. vlenf;pkwkdif;&if;om;tjzpf todtrSwfðyxm;jcif;tm; jiif;qefqef@usifcJhjcif; jzpfonf? ppftkyfpktaeESifh &kd[if*smxktay: &Sif;vif;jywfom;onfh xkdpwef@ xGifvkyfaqmifr_ukd qufvufxdrf;odrf;xm;cJhonf? 1992 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (26) &ufae@wGif xkwfjyefcJhonfh jrefrmhEkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;Xme. owif;xkwfjyefcsufwGif “trSefrSm ,ae@jrefrmEkdifiHwGif wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pk 135 ckaexkdif=uaomfvnf; &kd[if*smqkdonfholrsm; ryg0ifyg? orkdif;t& jrefrmEkdifiHawmfwGif ‘&kd[if*sm’ wkdif; &if;om;vlrsKd;pkwpfckr&SdcJhbl;yg?” [k tpkd;&u a=ujimcJhonf? 2004 ckESpf {+yDvwGif ðyvkyfcJhonfh ukvor*~uav;tcGifha&;aumfrDwD. a0zefcsufrsm;tm;wkef@jyefonfhtaeESifh ppftkyfpku &kd[if*smwkd@tm; tjcm;vlrsKd;pktkyfpkrsm;ESifh arG;aopm&if;rSwfwrf;wifr_/ ynma&;/ usef;rma&;ESifh vlr_a&;wkd@ESifh ywfoufonfhudpPrsm;wGif wef;wltcGifhta&;tjynfhay;xm; a=umif; ajymqkdcJhjyefonf? xkd@jyif tm%modrf;ppftkyfpkonf b*FgvDwkdif;&if;om;

vlrsKd;pkwpfcktjzpf pm&if;oGif;um jrefrmEkdifiHwGif t+rJaexkdifonfhyk~Kdvfrsm;t jzpf todtrSwfðyxm;+yD;jzpfa=umif;vnf; &nfn$ef;ajymqkdcJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; vufawG@wGif &kd[if*smvlxk. tcGifhta&;rsm;rSm t}uD; tus,fwm;qD;ydwfyifxm;jcif;cH ae&ayonf? &ckdifjynfajrmufykdif; urBmhukvo r~'kuQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;ESifh tjcm;tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. wm0efcsxm;aqmif&Gufr_u &kd[if*sm'kuQonfwkd@. tusyftwnf;tm; wpfpkHw&m wkd;wufaumif;rGefE_difaomfvnf; jrefrmppftkyfcsKyfolwkd@. EkdifiHa&;oabmqEN ryg&Sdygu ‚if;wkd@.a=uuGJzG,f&m'kuQtjzpftysufwkd@tm; ajz&Sif;aqmif&GufE_difrnfr[kwfygay? nDnDausmf (nnkster@gmail.com) onf pifumylEkdifiH eef,ef; pufr_wUokdvf Nanyang Technological University tufpf &m*s&erf EkdifiHwumbmom&yfrsm;qkdif&mavhvma&;ausmif;. (S Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) EkdifiHwumEkdifiHa&;pD;yGm;a&;od`Hausmif; om;jzpfonf? jrefrmrlqvifwpfOD;jzpfonfh nDnDausmfonf ‚if;. ody`HbGJ@ twGuf pifumylokd@ausmif;wuf&ef rvma&mufrDtcsdeftxd jrefrmEkdifiHwGif aexkdifcJholjzpfonf? azazmf0g&Dv 2008 wGifT vuf&Sdaqmif;yg;xuf&Snfonfh aqmif;yg;tjynfhtpkHtm; yxrqkH;t}udrf tufpf &m*s&erf EkdifiHwumbmom&yfrsm; qkdif&mavhvma&;ausmif; (RSIS) . tifwmeuftGefvkdif;wGifazmfjyaom a0zefa&;aqmif;yg;wGJrsm;wGif azmfjycJh+yD;jzpfonf? www.rsis.edu.

sg/publications/Perspective/RSIS0122008.pdf

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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

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FMR

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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk q&mrsm;/ oif=um;r_t&nftaoG;tay: v$rf;rkd;E_difr_ESifh }uD;=uyfppfaq;r_ESifh oifwef;rsm;ay;tyfjcif;wkd@tm; qkH;&_H;&onfhjy\emwkd@tm; jrifhwufvmaponf? ynma&;u¾taeESifh a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;r_a=umifh xdckdufapjcif;twGuf tjcm; ta=umif;jycsufESpfck &Sdonf? yxrwGif q&mrsm;taeESifh tjcm;tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. 0efxrf;rsm;xuf enf;onfh axmufyHha=u;aiGom &&Sd=uonfhtwGuf xkdq&mrsm;tm; ykdrdkay;onfh vpfvyfaeonfh tjcm;tvkyfwkd@u a&$@ajymif;vkyfaqmif&ef qGJaqmifaeonfhtwGuf tjcm;u¾rsm;wkd@.qkH;&_H;r_xufykdrkdqkd;&Gm;&onfrSm ynma&;u¾. vkHavmufr_r&Sdonfhtaetxm;yif jzpfonf? 'kwd,tcsuftaeESifh ynma&;vkyfief;Xmewkd@csrSwfxm;onfh t&nftcsif;jrSifhwifa&;csOf;uyfr_rSm ae&yfjyefykd@a&;pOf;pm;csuft& ykHpHcsxm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? twdtusqkd&v#if 'kQonfwkd@ tm; ukd,fykdifoifwef;rsm;/ }uD;=uyfjcif;ESifh tpD&ifcHjcif;wkd@tm; csrSwfvkyfaqmifa&; jrSifhwifay;jcif;wkd@jzpfonf? xkwu,fhcsOf;uyfr_u ,cktcg ynma&;pepftm; ykdrkdusqif;aprnfh aysmhuGufjzpfaponf? wlnDonfhtwkdif;twm r[kwfonfhwkdif pcef;tkyfcsKyfa&;u¾onfvnf; a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;r_a=umifh xdckdufr_tcsKd@tm; cHpm;rdcJh=uonf? t"duyk~Kdvfwkd@. vkdtyfr_u vuf&Sdusef&Sdaeonfh aumfrDwDtzGJ@0ifwkd@twGuf ykdrkdav;vHonfh0efrsm;tm; xrf;&Guf&onfhtaetxm;jzpfvm aomfvnf; tokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. 0efxrf;rsm;pGm a&$@ajymif;tajcpkdufr_ wkd@. xdckdufr_tm; vkdufrDap&ef pDrHcef@cGJE_difonfht&mjzpfojzifh E_dif;,SOfr_t& TvkyfykdifcGifhrsm;twGif; acsmarG@atmifjrifap&ef ‚wkd@zGJ@pnf;ykHrsm;. cGifhðyr_ enf;vrf;wkd@tm; ay;tyfcJhonf? t&Hoifh&Sdonfhvlpktm;vkH;taeESifh pcef;wGif; ynmwwfESifh tawG@tñuHjynfh0olwkd@ avsmhenf;vmonfhtwGuf tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u taumif;qkH;&E_difrnfh 0efxrf;rsm;tm; &SmazG=u&onf? xkd@jyif tokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; tvkyftaºuG;ðyaeonfh t&nftcsif;jynfh0onfh pcef;tajcpkdufaexkdifolrsm;twGuf tòydifvkyfukdif&rnfrSm ajr}uD;vufcwfrvGJay? tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wGif tcsdefjynfhwm0efxrf;aqmifaeolrsm;taeESifh ykHrSef vpmay;tyfr_r&Sdonfh tokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wGif ESpf¹r_yfvkyfukdif&ef tcsdefenf;oGm;ayrnf? a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;a&;taeESifh usef&Sdaeao;onfh 'kQonfxktwGuf tE_wfoabmaqmifonfh +idpGef;r_rsm;jzpfyGm;&onfhtaetxm;rSm xkdif;EkdifiH wpfckwnf;wGif jzpfyGm;aejcif;r[kwfouJhokd@ txl;ojzifh tcsdefwkdtwGif;omjz pfyGm;jcif;jzpfonf? eDaygEkdifiHwGifaexkdifonfh blwef'kQonfwkd@rSm tvkH;t&if;jzifh a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;a&;twGuf txl;ojzifhwnfae=uI tjcm;'kQonftkyfpk rsm;taeESifhvnf; jzpfE_difajct&SdqkH;ESifh a&&SnfwnfwHhrnfha&G;cs,fr_taeESifh a&$@ ajymif;tajccsr_wkd@buf vSnfhvmayOD;rnf jzpfonf? rdrdwkd@. okawoeðycsufu n$ef;qkdonfrSm tcsdefwkdtwGif; 'kQonfpcef;rsm;taeESifh oifwef;ay;tyfr_wkd@tm; xGufcGmrnfh t&nftcsif;jynfh0onfh 0efxrf;wkd@ae&mwGif tpm;xkd;a&;twGuf ykdrkdvkyfaqmifa&; vkdtyfcsuft& tpkvkduftðyHvkduf a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;ay;a&; vkyfaqmifr_wkd@u usef&Sdaeonfh 'kQonfwkd@twGuf vkdtyfcsufrsm;. vkdtyfcsufwkd@tm; wkd;yGm;vmaponf [lIjzpfonf? atmufyg t=uHðycsufwkd@ ukd txl;ojzifh xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf&Sd 'kQonfvlxktwGuf azmfaqmifxm;jcif;jzpfI ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif;}uD;&kH;. wkd;csJ@t=uHðycsuf wkd@ukdyg xnfhoGif; azmfjytyfayonf? xkdt=uHðycsufrsm;pGmtm; aumufcH&&Sdxm;+yD;jzpfonf? tjcm; tpkvkduftðyHvkduf a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;a&;tajctaersm;wGif atmufazmfjyyg wlnDonfh t=uHðycsufwkd@taeESifh oifhavsmfaumif; oifhavsmfayrnfjzpfonf? „„ tvSL&Sifwkd@tm; oifwef;rsm;/ t&nftcsif;jrSifhwifa&; pDrHcsufrsm;ESihf tawG@ tñuHr&Sdonfh 0efxrf;opfwkd@twGuf y%mrajcvSrf;rsm;tm; axmufyHha&; tm;ay;&ef/ „„ jzpfE_difygu tjrefqkH; tpm;xkd;0efxrf;opfwkd@. oifwef;taumiftxnfazmfr_ vkyfaqmifay;I t&Hoifhtkyfpktjzpf&Sdaeonfh yk~Kdvfwkd@ ESifh aemufcHtqifoifhxm;r_wkd@tm; qufvkyfoGm;&ef/ „„ 'kQonfpcef;twGif; t&nftcsif;ESifh 0efxrf;t&nftcsif; ppfwrf;aumuf,lr_ tm; t&Htpm;xkd;0efxrf;jznfhpnf;E_difa&;twGuf wm0ef,lvkyfaqmif&ef/ „„ pcef;tvkyform;wkd@tm; pcef;wGif;vlopfrsm;ESifh a'ocHxkdif;vlxktwGif;rS pkaqmif;oGm;&ef/

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„„ jzpfE_difonfhtwkdif;twmjzifh vGwfvyfI tem*wftm;wifóudcef@rSef;E_difrnfh a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;a&; vkyfief;pOftjzpf wkd;jrSifh&efESifh xkdrS 'kQonfwkd@ taeESifh a&$@ajymif;tajcpkdufa&;tcsdefumv rnfr#=umrnf/ pcef;rsm;twGif; axmufyHhtultnDay;a&;vkyfief;wkd@wGif yg0ifaeonfh vkyfief;Xmersm;taeESifh rnfonfhtcsdefwGif ‚wk@d.0efxrf; xGufcGm&rnfwkd@tm; od&Sdxm;ayrnf? „„ 'kQonfpcef;rsm;wGif; tultnDvkdtyfr_rsm;tm; jyefvnfqufpyfE_difa&; twGuf tcsKd@yhHykd;r_rsm;ESifh vG,fulap&efðyjyifxm;onfh pDrHcef@cGJa&;ykHpHwkd@ aygif;pyfI xda&mufonfhvkyfief;rsm;ay;tyfulnDjcif; vkyfaqmif&ef/ „„ pcef;rsm;twGif; t&nftcsif;jynfh0onfh 'kQonfrsm;tm; a&$@ajymif;aexkdifE_difa&; tm;ay;&ef/ „„ todpdwfjzifhvkyftm;ay;r_wkd@tm; vufcHrnfhtdrf&SifEkdifiHwkd@. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_jzifh 'kQonfrsm;wGif;&SmazGa&; pOf;pm;&efESifh xkd@ a=umifh xkdEkdifiHwkd@taeESifh ‚wkd@. a&$@ajymif;tajccsr_tm; vkdtyf onfhtcsdeftwkdif;twmtwGif; okd@r[kwf tpm;xkd;&efyk~Kdvfwkd@tm; tjynfht0 avhusifhay;r_ +yD;pD;onftxd a&$@qkdif;ay;=uayrnf/ „„ vufcHxm;onfhEkdifiHtaeESifh 'kQonfrsm;/ jynfajy;0efxrf;rsm;ESifh tpkd;&r[kwfonhftzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;ESifh tokdif;t0kdif;tajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. a'ocH0efxrf;tm; 0ifa&mufvkyfudkifa&;ESifh pcef;rsm;twGif; 0ifxGufcGifh jrefqefpGmcGifhðyay;a&; tm;ay;&ef/ „„ EkdifiH0efxrf;wkd@tm; pepftwGif; qufvuftaumiftxnfazmfvkyf aqmifaer_&Sdr&Sd ppfaq;vkyfaqmifjcif; jrefqefr_&Sdapa&;twGuf a&&SnfpmcsKyfcsKyfqkdvkyfukdifr_tm; tm;ay;&ef/ „„ usef&Sdaeonfh 'kQonfwkd@tm; EkdifiHawmfusef;rma&;ESifh ynma&; pepfrsm;twGif; ykdrdkjrifhrm;onfh aygif;pnf;vkyfaqmifa&;ukd tm;ay;a&;tjyif toufarG;0rf;ausmif; pDrHcsufrsm;tm; pcef;rsm;. twGif;tjyif w&m;0ifcGifhðyay;&ef tm;ay;r_wkd@ vkyfaqmifoGm;&efwkd@jzpfonf?

pcef;wGif; ¹yGwfodyfaexkdifr_ avsmhenf;apjcif;/ aiGykd@ay;E_difjcif;/ i,f&G,fonfh'kQonfrsm;twGuf vkyfykdifcGifhtcGifhta&;rsm;wkd;wufvmjcif; ESifh pcef;vkyfief;Xmersm;tm; xda&mufpGmtokH;ðyE_difjcif; ponfh a&$@ajymif;tajccsa&;. aumif;rGefonfh tusKd;a=u;Zl;tcsKd@&Sdonf? okd@aomf vuf&Sdusef&Sdaeolrsm;pGmtwGuf txl;ojzifh tcsdefwkdtwGif; t&nftcsif;jynfhrDonfh vkyfom;rsm;avsmhenf;vmjcif;u pcef;b0.cufcJrGef;=uyfr_rsm;tm; ykdrkdqkd;&Gm;apayonf? rnfuJhokd@/ rnfonhftcsdefwGif vkdtyfr_jzpfrnf wkd@ukd rSef;qjcif;ESifh tem*wftwGuf pDrHudef;a&;qGJjcif;wkd@u a&$@ ajymif;ae&mcsxm;a&;. tajctaewpfpkHw&mtaeESifh tenf;qkH; oufomap&ef tultnDðyrnfjzpfonf? qlqef befuD (s.banki@griffith.edu.au)ESifh a[Z,fvf vef;*f (hazellang@yahoo.com.au) wkd@onf umv&Snfvsm;onfh tm&SwkdufrS ae&yfrSarmif;ESifxkwfcH&jcif; &SmazGa&;twGuf =opa=wvs okawoeaumifpD. 3 ESpf pDrHudef;wGif vuf&Sdyg0ifvkyfaqmifae=uonfh =opa=wvsEkdifiH *s&yfzpf wUokdvf (www.griffith.edu.au). okawoetzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf=uonf? TpDrHudef;twGuf qufoG,faqmif&Gufaeonfh vkyfazmfukdifbufrSm tpkd;&r[kwfonfh =opa=wvsapmifha&Smufa&;tzGJ@ (www.austcare.org.au) jzpfonf? Taqmif;yg;onf xkdif;EkdifiHa&mufae&yfrSxGufajy;cJh&olrsm;twGuf yl;aygif;tultnDay; a&;aumfrDwD CCSDPT uwm0efay;cJhonfh okawoetay:tajccHxm;jcif;jzpfonf? okd@aomf pDppfawG@&Sdcsuf aumufcsufESifh t=uHðycsufrsm;rSm txufygpma&;q&mrsm;eSifhom oufqkdifI CCSDPT tzGJ@0ifrsm;. t,ltqwkd@ESifh vkH;0 oufqkdifr_r&Sdyga=umif;? 1 www.ccsdpt.org 2 qlpef befuDESifh a[Z,f vef;*fwkd@. ‘tem*wfpDrHudef;a&;qGJjcif; - pcef;wGif;usef&Sdonfh 'kQonfxktm; a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;a&;. xdckdufapr_’/ 2007 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv? tGefvkdif; www.tbbc.org? &SmazGr_tusOf;csKyftm; UNHCR . rl&if; csifhcsdefqkH;jzwfcsuf tpD&ifcHpm. jznfhpGuft=uHðycsufrsm;tm; jznfhpGufxm;jcif;jzpfonf? ‚rSm ‘usefaecJhonfhxkdif;EkdifiH&Sd pcef;vlxktay: a&$@ ajymif;ae&mcsxm;aqmif&Gufr_wkd@. xdckdufapr_ESifhygwfoufonfh csifhcsdeft=uHðycsuf’ UNHCR 2007 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmv? 3 tkdifbpfESifh [m;Af tpfprfbwf UNHCR ‘xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfpcef;rsm;twGif; usef;rma&;u¾tm; a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;r_ vkyfaqmifa&;. xdckdufr_ - AsL[majrmufcsOf;uyfa&;okd@’ 2007 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv?


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a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsjcif;tm;jzifh pcef;twGif;&Sdvkyfief;pOfrsm;/ a0,m0pPudPrsm;onf vpf[maejcif;jzpfI xdktusdK;qufrsm;udk tpdk;r[kwfaomtzGJhtpnf;rsm;u t,lcHpmwGif azmfjycJhjcif;jzpfonf? odk@aomf rsm;aomtm;jzifh tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzGJ@ tpnf;ESifh ukvor~'kQonfrsm; qdkif&mr[mrif;=uD;&Hk;wdk@. &_axmifhudkomazmfjycJhjcif; jzpfonf? ‚wdk@taejzifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;ESifhywfoufI 'kQonfrsm;tay: jzpfay:apaom tusdK;oufa&mufr_tjynfhtpHkudk wifjyr_r&Sdjcif;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_"avhxHk;pH &_axmifhrS =unfhjcif;wdk@ryg&SdcJhay? trSeftm;jzifh/ Oyrm - rk'def;r_ESifh vdift=urf;zufr_wdk@ onf etz. enf;AsL[mjzpfjyD; pcef;twGif; =uD;rm;aomjy\emjzpfonf/ odk@aomf ‚jy\emudktpD&ifcHpm wGiftenf;tusOf;omazmfjyxm;cJhayonf? u&iftrsdK;orD;tpnf;t&Hk;ESifh u&if'kQonfaumifpDwdk@onf T'kQonfwdk@. t"dutpdwftydkif;rsm;jzpf=uonf? rdrdwdk@onf 'kQonfpcef;rSjzpfjyD; 'kQonfrsm;jzpfonf? pcef;wGif;rSvlxku rdrdwkd@tm; toHwpfcktjzpfvkdtyfonfhtjyif ‚wdk@ udk,fpm;ðyajymqdk&efvkdtyfonf? wm0ef&Sdyk*~dKvfrsm; (tvSL&Sifrsm;/ ukvor~ 'kQo nfrsm;qdkif&mr[mrif;=uD;&Hk; / yHhydk;olrsm;) taejzifhpcef;wGif;rSvlxkrsm;ESifh pum; ajymqdk&ef vdktyfygu rdrdwdk@rSwqifh vkyfaqmif=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; rdrdwdk@tae jzifhudk,fhudk,fudkjyef=unfhvdkufrnfqdkygu tvGeftm;enf;aeayonf? ta=umif;rSm xdkif;EdkifiHtaejzifh 'kQonfoabmwlnDcsufwGif vufrSwfa&;xdk;jcif;r&SdbJ 'kQonfrsm; tm;axmufyHh&efwm0efr,lvdkjcif; odk@wnf;r[kwf vufrcHvdkjcif;wkd@a=umifhjzpfonf? ‚wdk@taejzifh jrefrmtpdk;&ESifh cspf=unf&if;ESD;r_udk rysufuGufvdkjcif;a=umifhyif? odk@aomf ‚wdk@onf vlom;csif;pmemaxmufxm;r_twGufwm0ef,lvkyfaqmifoifhayonf? xdk@ a=umifh rdrdwdk@taejzifh Tae&mwGif aexdkiftvkyfvkyfudkifEdkifa=umif; odk@aomf rdrdwdk@ tm; v#dK@0SufpGmxm;&SdcJh=uonf? ‚wdk@taeESifh EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;tm; pcef;twGif;odk@ 0ifcGifhray;jcif;/ txl;ojzifh owif;rD'D,morm;rsm;tm; 0ifa&mufcGifhrðyay? EdkifiHjcm;o

IOM 2007/MTH0279/Thierry Falise

'kQonfwdk@.toHrsm;


46

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk “u$sefrwdk@.tdrfu tdrfr[kwfawmhbl;/ u$sefrwdk@&J@vSywJhe,fajru aemufxyfvSp&mr&Sdawmhbl; / tJ'ga=umifh usrwkd@u u&ifvli,fxkawGtwGuf jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&; awmif;qkdcJhwmyg?” (u&if'kQonfa&;wufºuGv_yf&Sm;olwOD;)

pdk;&drfaeonfrSm vli,frsm;twGufyifjzpfonf? ‚wdk@u rdrdwkd@.tem*wfjzpfI EdkifiHom;wOD;.&ydkifcGifhESifh vlom;qefqef qufqHr_udk&&Sdrnfhae&mwckESifh oufqdkifjcif; udkvdktyfjcif;jzpfonf? tcsdK@vli,frsm;onf pcef;twGif; ESpf20 vHk;vHk; aevmcJh=uayonf? jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;u rdrdwdk@twGuf cspfjcif;w&m;ESifh trkef;w&m;wkd@ tm; ,laqmifvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? wenf;tm;jzifhqdkaomf ynma&;tygt0if aumif;rGefaom tcGifhta&;rsm;udkjzpfay:aponf? odk@aomf pcef;rsm;u nDn$wfr_/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh pGrf;&nf &Sdaomolrsm;udkvdktyfaeonf? rdrdwdk@taejzifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;pDrHudef;udk tjypfrwifvdkonfrSm Tt&mudkrdrdwdk@u awmif;qdkcJhjcif;jzpfonfhtjyif jyefvnfae&ma&G@ ajymif;a&;vkyfaqmifolrsm;twGufvnf;aumif;rGefrnfjzpfaoma=umifhyifjzpfonf? odk@aomf jyefvnfae&mcsxm;jcif;u vl@todkif;t0dkif;udk tem*wfwGifpdk;&drfp&mtjzpfESifh axmufyHhr_uif;rJhpGm csefxm;&pfjcif;jzpfaeonf? ynm&SdjyD; t&nftcsif;&SdolawGtm;vHk;u ac:aqmifr_odk@vdkufygoGm;cJh=ujyD;jzpfonf? rdrdwdk@ taejzifh xdkolwdk@oGm;a&muf tajccsaomEdkifiHY ‚wdk@.twwfynmudktenf;i,f r#omtoHk;ðyI&onf [k =um;od&aomfvnf; xdkyk*d~Kvfwdk@onf pcef;twGif;wGif ta&;=uD;aomolrsm;jzpf=u ayonf? pcef;wGif;wGif; ausmif;q&mjzpfcJh&if rdrdwdk@oGm; a&muftajccsaomEdkifiHopfwGif q&mjzpfEdkifrnf[kxif=uaomfvnf; vufawG@ wGif xkdokd@rjzpfay? pcef;wGifusefcJhaomolwkd@taeESifh qdk;&Gm;onfh usef;rma&;ESifh ynma&;tcuftcJrsm;tm; &ifqdkifae=u&onf? rdrdwdk@taejzifh rnfolrnf0gqdkonfudkxkwfazmfwifjycJhjcif;ESifh vGwfvyfjcif;twGuf =udK;yrf;vkyfaqmifcJhaomfvnf; xdkxGufcGgoGm;olawGtm;vHk;a=umifh ‚vkyfaqmifcsufwkd@ tm; ykdrdkqHk;&_H;&jcif;jzpfonf? vlwdkif;ujyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;udk apmifhqkdif;aejcif;a=umifh vl@todkif;t0dkfif;zGJ@ pnf;yHkonf ,dk,Gif;ysufpD;oGm;cJhonf? jyefvnfae&mcsxm;jcif;a=umifh rdom;pktwGif; yËdyuQrsm; zdpD;jcif;rsm;ESifh=uHKawG@ae&onf? wcsKd@aomrdom;pk0ifrsm;taeESifh oGm;vdkpdwf&SdI tcsdK@rSmrloGm;vdkaomqr&Sday? pcef;wGif;usef&SdaecJhaom'kQonfrsm;t wGuf pOf;pm;&efvdktyfaeayonf? xGufcGgoGm;olrsm;onf &J0HhpGmajymwwfqdkwwfolESifh tpGrf;tp&Sdaomolrsm;jzpf=uonf? usef&SdcJhaomolawGtaejzifh pmrwwfolrsm;/ &dk;pif;aomolrsm;ESifh tdrfwGif;ykef;rsm;jzpf=uonf? xdkolrsm;taeESifh rajym&Jrqdk&Jonfholrsm;jzpfI ‚wdk@tm; tultnDay;&ef tcsdK@usefaecJh&ef vdktyfaeayonf?

EdkifiHopfc&D;pOf a&G@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;a&;tpDtpOftm;qðycJhI a&G;cs,fcH&aomolrsm;taeESifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&; vkyfief;pOftaeESifh Tvkyfief;pOfukd,fwkdifyif r=umc%xdcdkufr_jzpfaponf?pcef;twGif;rS IOM ESifh tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzGJhtpnf;rsm;u a&Ghajymif;rnfh EdkifiHopf. raumif;aomta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh pdefac:r_rsm;tm; vl@todkif;t0dkif;rsm;tm; ajymqkd&Sif;vif;jyjcif;r&Sday? trnfpm&if;ay;oGif;&ef wdkufwGef;jcif;cH&aoma=umifh vlxktaejzifh tvsifpvkda&G;cs,fcJh=ujcif; jzpfonf? vkyfief;pOfonf v#ifjrefpGmtxajrmufapjyD; ‚wkd@ukd,f‚wkd@ tcsdefwkdtwGif; wwd,EdkifiHa&mufae=uonfukd awG@&awmhonf? aemufwGif tawmfrsm;rsm;rdrdwdk@ tdrfodk@rdrd jyefvmvdk=ujyefonf? tajccHvl@todkif;t0dkif;tzGJ@tpnf;.tpD&ifcHpmt& wwd,EdkifiHodk@rxGufcGmrDa0iS cJhaomta=umif;t&mtcsuftvufwdk@onfjynfhpHkr_r&Sday? ta=umif;t&mrsm;tm; 3&uftwGif;om a0iSajymqdkcJhjyD; aumif;rGefaomb0udk wnfaqmufa&;ESifh zdpD;r_uif;rJhaomb0opfaqmufwnfa&;twGuf jynfhpHkvkHavmufr_r&Sday? 'kQonftrsm;pkonf rdrdwdk@woufwmeD;eD; pcef;twGif;wGifom aexdkifvmcJhjyD; q&m0efxH cGJpdwfukoa&;wcgr# ra&mufbl;ay/ um;armif;jcif;/ taemufwdkif;tdrfyHkpHjzifh aexdkifjcif; r&SdcJhay? xdk@jyif t*Fvdyfpum;rajymwwfonfhtjyif oGm;a&mufrnfhae&m ,Ofaus;r_"avhxHk;wrf;ESifh Oya'udkvnf; tenf;i,fr# em;vnfod&Sdr_r&Sday? owif;tcsuftvufydkrdk&&SdcJhygu ‚wkd@taeESifh ykdrkdaumif;rGefonfh qHk;jzwfcsufudk csrSwfEdkifcJh=urnfjzpfonf?

FMR

30

jrefrmjynfwGif; yËdyuQqufvufjzpfyGm;aeonfhtwGuf 'kQonfrsm; ykdrkdrsm;vmum pcef;rsm;twGif; 0ifa&muf&ef vrf;&Smae=uonf? xdkif;tpdk;& taejzifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;u qGJaqmifr_wckjzpfrnfudk pdk;&drfI jrefrme,fpyfudkydwfxm;um ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qdkif&mr[mrif;=uD;&Hk; taejzifh vnf; a&muf&SdvmrnfhvlopfawGudk pm&if;ay;oGif;jcif;rðycJhay? a&muf&Sdvmaomvlopfwkd@onf e,fpyfudkrjzwfausmfrDS awmwGif;wGifykef;atmif;I t csdefumvtwef=umaexkdifcJh&ayonf? ‚wdk@taeESifh usef;rma&;ESifh tpmt[m&csdK@ wJhr_wkd@ESifhvnf; &ifqdkifcJh&ayonf? okd@aomf rnfonfhpm;eyf&dQma0pkESifh usef;rma&; apmifha&Smufr_ukdr# r&&Sd=uay? pcef;wGif;wGif vlwdkif;twGuf pm;eyf&dQmzlv_Hr_ r&SdonfhtwGuf Ttcsufu =uD;rm;aomjyomemw&yf jzpfaponf?

t=uHjyKcsufrsm; u&iftajccHvl@todkif;t0dkif;tzGJ@tpnf;ESifh u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh wwd,EdkifiHodk@ a&G@ajymif;tajccsjcif;tm;&yfwef@&efqr&Sday? odk@aomf xda&mufaom jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;jzpfap&eftwGuf ‚wdk@taeESifh yGifhvif;aomaqG;aEG;r_udk vdktyfa=umif; pOf;pm;=uonf? rdrdwdk@taeESifh t=uHjyKwifjyvdkonfrSm „„ wwd,EdkifiHtpdk;&rsm; / uBmhukvor~qdkif&mr[mrif;=uD;&Hk; / IOM ESifh tjcm;Xmersm;taeESifhu) jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;pDrHudef;wpfckvHk; jzpfajrmufa&;rvkyfaqmifrD u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;xHrS t=uHOm%fESifhtcsuftvufrsm; &,ljcif;/ jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;ESifhywfoufjyD;jzpfay:vmrnfh qdk;usdK;oufa&mufr_ rsm;tm; rnfodk@ taumif;qHk;vkyfaqmif&rnfudk pDrHvkyfaqmifjcif;? „„ owif;tcsuftvuftm;vHk; u&ifbmompum;jzifhvnf;&Sd&ayrnf? „„ tpdk;&taejzifh rdrdwdk@.EdkifiHESifhywfoufonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm; jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&; ay:vpDrsm;tm; u&iftajccHvl@ todkif;t0dkif;rsm;tm; a0Xay;jcif;? „„ a0;uGmaomawmifay:a'orS 'kQonfrsm;od&SdE_dif&ef wwd,EdkifiHrsm;ESifhywfoufaom ta=umif;t&mrsm; vlr_qufqHa&;/ EdkifiHa&;ESifh Oya'vrf;pOfwkd@tm;a0Xjcif; ? „„ qdk;usdK;ESifhaumif;usdK;tygt0if wwd,EdkifiHodk@a&muf&SdjyD;jzpfaomrdom;pkwdk@. tawG@ t=uHKESifh tajctaersm;tm; xdkif;EdkifiHrS u&iftodkif;t0dkif;tm; jyefvnfwifjyay;jcif;? „„ jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;pDrHudef;udk ajz;ajz;vkyfaqmifapjcif;tm;jzifh 'kQonfrsm;taeESifh ‚wdk@qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwf&ef tcsdefydkrdk&&Sdrnfjzpf+yD; ‚wdk@ vkyfief;v$Jajymif;&ef tcsdefvkHavmuf pGm&Sdoifhonfhtjyif vl@todkif;t0dkif;taejzifh xdkvpfvyfonfhae&mwGif tpm;xkd;0ifa&mufvkyfukdif &ef oifwef;ay;csdef vkHavmufpGm&&Sdrnfjzpfonf? „„ usef&SdaecJhaomvl@todkif;t0dkif;taejzifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;. oufa&mufr_udk taotcsm qef;ppfjcif;ESifh xGufcGmoGm;oltpm; tvkyfr_aqmifopfwkd@udk oifwef;ay;&ef tajccHvl@todkif; t0dkif;tzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;taejzifh aiGa=u;axmufyhHr_&Sd&efjzpfonf?

u&iftrsdK;orD;tzGJ@tpnf; (www.karenwomen.org) onf tajccHvl@ todkif;t0dkif;tzGJ@tpnf; jzpfjyD; jynfwGif;&SdtrsdK;orD;rsm;/ jynfwGif;ppfajy;'kQonfrsm;ESifh xdkif;e,fpyf&Sd 'kQonfpcef;rsm;tm; zG@Hòzd;wdk;wufa&;twGuf tulnDay;aeonfh tzGJhtpnf;jzpfonf? u&iftrsdK;orD;rsm;tm; trsdK;orD;tcGifhta&;ukd od&Sdxm;a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;vrf;pOfrsm;/ vl@todkif;t0dkif;twGif; qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwfa&;rsm;wGifyg0ifvkyfa qmifa&; u&iftrsdK;orD;tpnf;t&Hk;u wdkufwGef;tm;ay; vkyfaqmifaeayonf? tD;vD(ef) zdxa0; (e.pittaway@unsw.edu.au) onf =opa=w;v,m;EdkifiH e,l;apmufofa0;vf(pf) wuUodkvfXmerS (www.crr. unsw.edu.au)S 'kQonfokawoe tvkyfr_aqmifwpfOD;jzpfonf ? qJ&m zlvm (sarahbfuller@yahoo.com.au) onf xdkXmerSausmif;olwpfOD;jzpfonf? 1 www.karenwomen.org 2 www.tbbc.org/resources/2007-6-mth-rpt-jan-jun.pdf


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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

47

aESmifah ES; =umjrifah eonf'h o Qk nftajctaew&yf. ynma&;tajymif;tvJ rmhcf Aef'g pwkd;0DESifh pktefef tkd@ xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfwpfav#muf 'kQonfpcef;rsm;tm; ynma&;axmufyHhr_wkd@taeESifh tESpfESpfq,fausmft=umwGif ajymif;vnf;r_taeESifh &nf&G,fcsufcsrSwfjcif;/ vufvSrf;csJ@xGifjcif;ESifh t&nftcsif;ESifh qufpyfr_wkd@tm; wkd;jrSifhaqmif&Gufjcif;wkd@ jzpfay:vmcJhonf?

ay;tyfxm;onf? ‚wkd@taeESifh qlnHI vljynfhusyfaeonfh pmoifcef;rsm;/ taxmuftulðyypPnf;tenf;i,fESifh t&nftcsif;a&marGoif=um;onfh pmoifcef;rsm;ESifh awG@ñuH&ifqkdif=u&onf? trsm;pku óud;yrf;I aumif;rGefpGm oif=um;ay;aomfvnf; tawG@tñuHESifh u|rf;usifr_ tm;enf;onfhtaetxm;twkdif; vkyf=u&onf ?

Tumvwav#muf EkdifiHa&;raocsmr_rsm;/ tDav;qGJqufwkdufjzpfaeonfh 'kQonfrsm;xGufvmr_rsm;ESifh ywf0ef;usifrl0g'tajymif;tvJu 'kQonfwkd@ ynmoif,la&;/ ���wkd@vuf0,f&&Sdrnfh t&nftcsif;ESifh oifhav#mfonfhynma&;ESifh ‚wkd@. t&nftcsif;A[kokwwkd@tm; vmrnfhrsKd;qufopftwGuf qnf;yl;a&;tjyif vl@tokdif;t0kdif;zGH@òzd;wkd;wufr_wkd@twGuf avhvma&;wkd@tm; xdckdufapcJhonf?

avhvma&;pDrHudef;rsm;tm; touft&G,f}uD;&ifholrsm;ESifh ausmif;raeonfh vli,frsm;twGuf axmufyHhxm;onf? ‚wGif pmta&;tzwfoifwef;rsm; (paumESifh ykd;u&if)/ bmompum;rsm; (t*FvdyfESifh xkdif;)/ toufarG;0rf;a=umif;r_twwfynm (pkdufysKd;a&;/ pufcsKyf/ tcsuftðywf uJhokd@) vufr_ynmrsm; (qyfjymðyvkyfjcif;/ okd;ar$;xkd;jcif;) ESifh vl@tokdif;t0kdif;qkdif&mt&nftcsif; (tdyfcsftkdifAGD/ rkdif;tœ&m,f/ tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufjcif;) wkd@tjyif nausmif;rsm;&Sd tuef@towfjzifhay;tyfonfh taxGaxG ynma&;wkd@ yg0ifonf? wufa&mufolrsm;taeESifh wefbkd;&Sdonfh twwfynmA[kokwrsm;tm; &&Sd=uonf? okd@aomf 'kQonfrsm;taeESifh

Taqmif;yg;wGif rdrdwkd@taeESifh t"dutm;jzifh u&if'kQonfpcef; ckESpfckwkd@&Sd ynma&;taxmuftyHhtm; avhvmwifjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf? u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t&kH; Karen National Union (KNU) ESifh qufpyfaeonfh u&ifynma&;Xme Karen Education Department (KED) taeESifh xkdpcef;rsm;wGif rl0g'a&;qGJa&;ESifh taumiftxnfazmfvkyfaqmifjcif;wkd@ wGif ta&;ygonfh tcef;u¾wpfckrS yg0ifaeayonf? ynma&;pepftm; tzGJ@ tpnf;tajrmuftrsm;u axmufyHh=uI tpkd;&r[kwfonfha'ocHtzGJ@tpnf;rsm; (Oyrm - u&iftrsKd;orD;tzGJ@tpnf; Karen Women's Organisation (KWO) ESifh u&ifvli,ftzG@Jtpnf; Karen Youth Organisation (KYO)) tjyif tpkd;&r[kwfonfhEkdifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm; (Oyrm - Zkdtm 'kQonfapmifha&Smufa&;tzGJ@ ZOA Refugee Care ESifh EkdifiHwum uav;axmufyHha&;tzGJ@ International Child Support) u taumiftxnfazmfvkyfaqmif=uonf?

r,f&m rvGef pcef;&Sd tv,fwef; ausmif;om; wOD; rJha[mif aqmif c&kdif/ xkdif;EkdifiH

xkdif;tm%mydkiftpkd;&u 'kQonfpcef;rsm;tay: tºuGif;rJhtm%m&SdaeI rl0g'ESifh taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Gufr_rsm;tm; jyXmef;vkyfaqmifv#uf&Sdonf? tpkd;&r[kwfonfh EkdifiHwumESifh a'ocH tzG@Jtpnf;rsm;tm; tajccHaxmufyHhr_/ vkdtyfonfhaqmif&Gufr_vkyfief;Xmersm;ESifh t&nftcsif;jrSifhwifa&;wkd@tm; ynma&;taxmuftyHhtaeESifh ay;tyf&efcGifhðyxm;onf?

ynma&;vkyfief;Xmersm;. tykdif;tjcm; taxGaxGynma&;pepfwGif ae@uav;xdrf;ynma&;/ rlvwef;/ tv,fwef;ESifh tv,fwef;txuf ausmif;rsm;yg0ifonf? pcef;rsm;.ynma&;twGuf xkdif;tm%mydkiftpkd;& rl0g'rSm wpfpHkwpfa,mufu pcef;rsm;jyifywGif ynma&;vkdufpm;rnfudk pdk;&drfaoma=umifh ‚vkyfaqmifr_tm; wm;jrpfxm;um pcef;wGif; tv,fwef;txuf ynma&;tqifhtxd cGifhðyxm;onf? ausmif;oif&kd;n$ef;wrf;tm; u&ifynma&;Xme KED uvufcHtwnfðyay;I ausmif;okH;pmtkyfrsm;tm; pcef;. ywf0ef;usiftaetxm;ESifh vkdufavsmnDaxGjzpfap&ef qufwkduf jyifqifwkd;jrSifhðypk=uonf? uav;rsm;u u&if/ Arm ESifh t*FvdyfbmomokH;rsKd;/ od`H/ ocsmF/ yx0D/ vlr_a&;od`HESifh usef;rma&;bmom&yfwkd@tm; avhvm=uonf? pm&if;ay;oGif;xm;onfh udef;*%ef;rsm;t& 2007-08 pmoifESpfwGif pcef;wGif;&Sd uav;rsm;. 18 &mckdifE_ef;cef@ rlvwef;ESifh tv,fwef;ausmif;rsm;wGif wufa&mufjcif;r&Sd a=umif;jyocJhonf? ausmif;q&m/ q&mr 1500 ausmf tm; rpkd@rykd@vpmaiG

Marc van der Stouwe

xkdt"duu&if'kQonfpcef; ckESpfckwkd@wGif aexkdifol cef@rSef;ajcrSm 115000 a,mufcef@ jzpfI vl 54000 rSm uav;ESifh vli,frsm;wkd@jzpfonf? vlOD;&nf 4000 rS 45000 cef@xd&Sdonfhpcef;rsm;twGif; t=urf;zsOf;taeESifh trsKd;om;ESifhtrsKd;orD; t&nftwGufjcif; wlnD=uonf? rwluGJjym;onfh a'oœ&wnf&Sdr_/ vlOD;&nfodyfonf;q/ vlOD;&nftkyfpkESifh vltokdif;t0kdif; zGJ@pnf;vkyfaqmifr_ qkdif&m t&nftcsif;wkd@u us,fjyef@a0;uGmonfh pcef; 7 cktm; oifhawmfI t&nftcsif;jynfhrDonfh ynmay;a0a&;ESifh nSdE_dif;aqmif&Gufa&;twGuf rwlnDonfh pdrfac:r_rsm;ay:aygufvmaponf?

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ta&;ay:rS aESmifhaES;=uef@=umaeonfh


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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

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FMR

30

„„ &ufwkdq&mjzpfoifwef;rsm;taumiftxnfazmfjcif;jzifh ausmif;q&mopfwkd@ taeESifh jrefE_difoItjrefqkH; pmoifcef;wGif;oif=um;a&;wkd@ pwifE_dif&ef? „„ &Sd+yD;jzpfonfh jzmqif;aeonfhoifwef;ykHpHtm; uGif;qif;tajcðyoifwef;q&mrsm;u qufwkdufykd@csr_taxmuftyHhay;tyfa&;ESifh tawG@tñuHenf;onfh q&mrsm;tm; oifwef;ay;jcif;uJhokd@aom wkduf&kdufpcef;wGif; tpkd;&r[kwfonfh tzGJ@tpnf;u ukdifwG,fonfhykHpH jznfhpGufvkyfaqmif&ef? „„ xkdokd@ r=umrDuwnfaxmifcJhonfh t&nftcsif;wl,E W&m;tm; t&Sdeft[kefjrSifhjcif;wpfck vkyfaqmifjcif;?

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FMR

30

txufwef;tqifh ynma&;tcGifhta&;rsm;tm; &&SdE_difa&; a&G;cs,fr_rsm;tm; 'kQonfrsm;twGuf pOf;pm;ay;&ef xkdif;tm%mydkiftpkd;&ESifh r=umrDu aqG;aEG;r_rsm;ðyvkyfcJhonf? y%mrtaeESifh 'kQonfausmif;olausmif;om; 8 OD;wkd@ xkdif;wuUokdvfrsm;wGif wufa&mufcGifhðycJhI TtcGifhtvrf;rSm tjcm;'kQonfausmif;om;rsm;. tem*wftwGuf vrf;cif;ay;jcif;jzpfonf? 'kQonfpcef;rsm;twGif;rS ta0;oifynma&;pepf&&Sda&;rSm vkyfukdifrnfholrsm; ykdrkdyg0ifvmonfhtjyif xkdif;tm%mykdiftpkd;&. tifwmeuf qufoG,fcGifhay;a&;vkdt yfonfhtwGuf (EkdifiHa&;t&txdrcHE_difonfhudP) ykdI&_yfaxG;ayonf? TrsufESmpmwGif wkd;wufa&;rSm tcsdefykdrkdvkdtyfrnf/ tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh tjcm;yk~Kdvfwkd@ taeESifh qGJaqmifr_qufvufvkyfukdif&ef vkdtyfrnf[k ar#mfvifh&ayonf?

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armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

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ynma&;tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh axmufyHhjcif;twGuf tajctaeudkzefwD;,ljcif;/ qGJaqmifjcif;ESifh axmufcHjcif;tjyif xkdif;EkdifiHwGif rl0g'tajymif;tvJr_jzpf&ef wkduf&kdufqufEG,faqmif&Gufjcif;wkd@ðyvkyf&ef tvGefta&;}uD;ayonf? rmhcf Aef'g pwkd;0D (mpvdstouwe@hotmail.com) onf Zkdtm 'kQonfapmifha&Smufa&; (www.zoa.nl) rS taumiftxnfazmfvkyfaqmifaeonfh xkdif;EkdifiH&Sd jrefrm'kQonfrsm;twGuf twkdif;twmjrifhonfhynma&;ESifh oifwef;pDrHudef;rsm;tm; OD;aqmifr_ESifh t=uHay;r_wkd@tm; 2003 ckESpfrS 2007 ckESpftxd vkyfaqmifcJholjzpfonf? pktefef tkd@ (suann.oh@gmail.com) onf 'kQonfynma&; vlr_aA'ynm&SifwOD;jzpfI xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf&Sd okawoet=uHay;taeESifh tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wGif 2005 ckESpfrSpI vkyfukdifaeoljzpfonf? 1 www.karen.org/knu/knu.htm 2 xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf,m,Dpkpnf;tultnDay;tzGJ@ wnf&Sd&m vlt&nftwGuf? 2008 ckESpf ZM0g&Dv www.tbbc.org/camps/populations.htm 3 Oh, S-A, Ochalumthan, S, Pla Law La and Htoo, J. (2006) ynma&;ppfwrf;-2005/ xkdif;EkdifiH/ Zkdtm 'kQonf apmifha&Smufa&; http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=2020.

arWmjzifh&SufzD;okd@ yufx&pf&Sm [kdif;pf ESifh ,OfrGefol 2005 ckESpf arvrS 2007 ckESpf pufwifbmvtwGif; xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfrS 'kQonf 174 OD;wkd@onf +Adwdo#EkdifiH &SufzD;òrd@wGif a&$@ajymif; tacspkdufaexkdif=uonf? omvGefaumif;rGefonfh jyifqifr_ESifh ykdrkdI vufawG@usonfh tultnDwkd@u ‚wkd@. +Adwdo#tokdif;t0kdif;twGif; aygif;pnf;aexkdifr_twGuf oufawmifhoufomjzpfaprnfjzpfonf? 2004 ckESpf rwfvuwnf;u +Adwdo#EkdifiHtaeESifh umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; pDrHcsuf0ifayguf Gateway Protection Programme [k vlodrsm;onfh ajymif;a&$@ae&mcsxm;a&;pDrHcsufukd cGJa0,lxm;onfh'kQonfrsm; twGuf pwifvkyfaqmifcJhonf? 'kQonfrsm;tm; ukvor~'kQonfrsm;qkdif&mr[mrif; }uD;&kH;. uGif;qif;t&m&Sdwkd@u a&G;cs,fI +Adwdo#ekdifiHokd@ t+rJwrf; w&m;0iftqifhtwef;jzifh a&muf&SdcJh=uonf? ,ae@txd jrefrmEkdifiH/ uGef*kd'Drkdu&ufwpfoRwEkdifiHESifh vkdufab;&D;,m;EkdifiHwkd@rS 'kQonfrsm; taeESifh T pDrHcsufrSwqifh a&muf&SdcJh=u+yD; &SufzD;/ [l;vfESifh aemh&pf&Sf òrd@}uD;rsm;wGif aexkdifp&mae&m ay;tyfcJh=uonf?

Htun Linn Latt

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&SufzD;wGif b0txm usa&; vkyfaqmif ae=uonfh pma&;ol r,OfrGefol tygt0if a&$@ajymif; tajccs jrefrm 'kuQonfrsm; UK


50

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk

FMR

30

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tar&duef ,Ofaus;r_ rdwfquf u¾twGif; a&$@ajymif; aexkdifa&; twGuf EkdifiHwum tzGJ@}uD; IOM . 0efxrf; tzGJ@0ifESifh jrefrm vli,f 'kuQonfrsm;

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xkdtajctaersm;twGif; tvkyf&Sma&;vkyfaqmifaeygonf qkdonfhoufaojyr_u txl;ojzifh cufcJvSonf? tu,fI ‚wkd@ezl;awG@'l;awG@awG@&onfh tvkyfXme. t&m&SdrSm cufxefwif;rmaeonfh taetxm;ESifh bmomjyefay;rnfholvnf;r&Sdygu yk~Kdvfa&;zdtm;jzpfvmum tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&yfwef@&onfh em;vnfr_vGJonfhtajcokd@OD;wnfaeayonf? tu,fI 'kQonfwpfOD;taeESifh t&nftcsif;rvkdtyfonfh tvkyftukdif&&Sdygu vkHðcHtœ&,fuif;pGmvkyfukdifa&; pnf;ur;frsm;tm; em;vnfvkdufemE_difjcif;r&Sdr_onf jy\emwpfckjzpfvmjyefonf? +Adwdo#EkdifiH&Sd 'kQonftvkyftukdifESifh oifwef;ykd@ csr_ay;tyfaeolrsm;taeESifh xkdif;EkdifiHrSvmonfh 'kQonfrsm;wGif pcef;jyifyokd@xGufI tvkyfvkyfukdifcGifhtm; wif;=uyfpGmwm;jrpfjyXmef;xm;cJhonfhtay: tvkyfvkyfukdif&ef tcGifhta&; tenf;i,fom&Sdonfukdowdðyrd&efvkdtyfonf? tvkyftukdiftwGuf oif=um;ay;cJhjcif;r&SdcJhonfh pufr_EkdifiHwpfckwGifjyefvnftajccsaexkdifonfh 'kQonfwkd@. 'kQtwkdif;tqtm; wm0ef,lpdwfjzifh ajz&Sif;&efvkdonf? 'kQonfrsm;pGmwkd@ taeESifh t&nftcsif;jrSifhwifa&; okd@r[kwf &Sd+yD;om;t&nftcsif;wkd@tay: todtrSwfðyvufrSwf vkdtyfayrnf? okd@r[kwfu Ttaetxm;u ‚wkd@ tm; pdwfusapjcif;ESifh tiftm;rJhjzpfapjcif;wkd@ jzpfapayrnf? ‚wkd@taeESifh t& nftcsif;rsm;vkdtyfonfqkdonfhwkdif todtrSwfðyvufrSwfay;jcif; odk@r[kwf oifwef;rsm;xyfrHay;jcif;wkd@u oyGwftlvkdufaeonfh twm;tqD; jzpfaeaponf? u&iftrsKd;orD;'kQonfwpfOD;u atmufygtwkdif;&Sif;jycJhonf?

bmompum;udPrsm;

“'kQonfpcef;xJrSm usr om;zGm;q&mrtaeeJ@vkyfvmwm tESpf 20 &Sd+yD?'g ayr,fh'DrSmawmh usrukd,fusr 'kQdweD;yg;avmuf tokH;rusjzpfae&w,f xifw,f?”

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pufr_enf;ynm

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FMR

30

tcsKd@vlopfa&mufvmolrsm;taeESifh rD;zkdacsmiftaxmuftulðyypPnf;rsm; tm; tjynfhtpkH &if;ESD;pGm tokH;ðyE_difa&;twGuf tcsdef 6 vywf0ef;usif=umonf? bwfpfum;rsm;ay:wGif wHcg;rnfokd@zGifhrnf/ "gwfavSum;rnfokd@tokH;ðyrnfwkd@ onfvnf; avhvm&eftcsdefwpkHw&mvkdtyfonf? ueOD;a&$@ajymif;tacscsr_twGif; 'kQonfrsm;tm; xkdae@pOfpdefac:r_rsm;tm;ajz&Sif;E_difa&;twGuf vkyftm;ay;rsm;pepfukd tokH;cscGifh&onf? a&mufvmonfhvlopfwkd@twGuf usm;rtqifhtwef;cGJjcm;r_r&Sdonfh tjyif csufðywfav#mfzGwf&ef/ uav;tpmaºuG;&ef/ oef@&Sif;a&;ESifh aps;a&mif;jcif;wkd@ðyvkyf&ef vkdtyfcsufwkd@u trsKd;orD;rsm;wGif xkdt&nftcsif;rsm;wkd;wufa&;twGuf okd@r[kwf aemufxyfynma&;twGuf tcGifhta&;tenf;i,fom &Sdonf[k t"dy`g,f&onf? TudPajz&Sif;E_difa&; pDrHudef;rsm;ESifh trsKd;orD;rsm;vkyfykdifcGifh tm%mwkd;jrSifha&;wkd@u tusKd;jzpfxGef;aprnfjzpfonf? tkdrif;onfhtrsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf pufr_enf;ynm tokH;csa&; ukd,fukd,fukd,kH=unfpdwfcsr_jrSifhwifa&;u r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfcsufyifjzpfonf? ,cifuwnf;u xkdpOf;pm;csuftrsm;pkwkd@tm; aumif;rGefpGmpkpnf;xm;I xkdtcsufrsm;pGmwkd@ukd odxm;&efvkdtyfonf? ,cifuwnf;u ajz&Sif;E_difr_ r&Sdjcif;u jrefrm'kQonfrsm;. vlr_a&;uBmrsm;ukd ao;onfxufao;i,f oGm;aprnfjzpfonf? o,f,lykd@aqmifa&;ESifh pufr_enf;ynm jy\em rsm;a=umifh tcsKd@yk~Kdvfwkd@taeESifh tdrftjyifokd@xGuf&ef pkd;&drfa=umufvef@ ae=uI ‚wkd@tkyfpkrS tjcm;olrsm;ukd awmufav#muftm;ukd;ae&rnfjzpfonf ? tjcm;jrefrm'kQonfrsm;ESifh eD;uyfpGmxdpyfaexkdifvkdr_u xkdtcsufa=umifhtqef; w=u,fr[kwfbJ tokdif;t0kdif;tzGJ@0ifwkd@ESifheD;pyfr_jzpfap&ef ,cif'kQonftkyfpktaeESifh tiftm;pkdufxkwfr_wkd@onf 'kwd,0ifa&mufvmoltm;ulnDay;tyfr_wkd@uvnf; E_dif;,SOfE_difonfhtcsufjzpfonf?

rwluGJjym;onfh ,Ofaus;r_ESifh ygwf0ef;usif “tm;vkH;arWmt"d`g,frSef&Jhvm;?”&SufzD;okd@a&mufvm=uonfh 'kQonfrsm;u t*Fvdyfvkd vyfAf 'love' [lonfhpum;vkH;tm; yk~Kdvfa&;qufqHr_ESifhEG,fI w&if;wESD;&Sd=uonf? &SufzD;okd@a&mufvmonfhtay: a'ocHwkd@u Tpum;vkH;tm; E_wfqufpum; tqkH;wGifxnfhoGif;ajymqkdvmonfhtcg ‚wkd@taeESifh oufawmifh oufomrjzpf=uonhftaetxm;&Sdonf? Ttaetxm;onfyif tao;i,fqkH; ,Ofaus;r_t& xdrf;odrf; aqmif&Guf&efjzpfaomfvnf; vlopfrsm;twGuf tcuftcJ&Sdonf? ueOD; +Adwdo#. &moDOwktay: thHtm;oifhpGmñuHawG@&+yD; vkdufav#m nDaxG&Sdvm+yD;aemufykdif; Oya'/ EkdifiHa&;pepfESifh tokdif;t0kdif;. csa&;rxm;onfh pnf;urf;rsm;tm; em;vnfoabmaygufatmif ðyvkyfjcif;wkd@ yg0ifvmonf? ‚wkd@u taetxm; qkH;&_H;r_rsm;pGmtm; awG@ñuHcJhonf (txl;ojzifh pcef;wGif; tcsdefjynfhtvkyfvkyfukdifcJholrsm;twGuf)/ usm;rt& vkyfykdifcGifhrsm;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_t&uGJjym;owfrSwfcsuf wkd@ajymif;vnf;cJhonf? jrefrm okd@r[kwf u&iftrsKd;orD;wpfOD;taeESifh vufqGJE_wfqufjcif;ESifh vlpdrf;wpfOD;. ayG@zufr_onf txl;ojzifhxkdwpfpdrf;olu trsKd;om;jzpfaeygu TtawG@tñuHrSm vkH;0pdrf; onfhtajctaeyifjzpfonf? vl=um;xJwGif E_yfcrf;jcif;erf;&_H@jcif; odk@r[kwf puyfwkd eH@eH@ 0wfxm;onfhtrsKd;orD;rsm;ukd vlopfrsm;taeESifh rdef;rjzpfjzpf a,muFsm;jzpfjzpf tHhtm;oifh=uayrnf? trsKd;om;wpfOD;u atmufyguJhokd@rSwfcsufjconf?

armif;ESifxkwfcH&onfhjrefrmvlxk a&mufvmrnfholrsm;tm; uav;umuG,fapmifha&Smufjcif; okd@r[kwf tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_ESifh ywfoufonfh tcsuftvufwkd@tm; óudwifa0iSxm;+yD;jzpfaomfvnf; awG@&onfrsm;u xkdOya'rsm;ESifh ywfoufIjzpfyGm;onfh jyif;xefonfh tajctaersm;tay: ‚wkd@ jynfh0pGm em;vnfoabmaygufxm;jcif; r&Sda=umif; awG@&onf? xkdudPrsm;tay:aqG;aEG;&ef vkyfief;qkdif&maqG;aEG;yGJrsm;tm; xdvG,fckdufvG,f ukdifwG,fr_rsm;twGuf vkdtyfrnfjzpfonf? odk@aomf vkyfief;pOfwGif; okd@r[kwf a&$@ajymif;ae&mcsxm;a&;rsm;twGif; tulnDjzpfaprnfjzpfonf? jrefrmh"avhxkH;wrf;t& jrpfzsm;cHvmonfh cGJjcm;r_ xdrf;odrf;xm;&efESifh wcsdefwnf; ykdifqkdifr_tjriftm; wkd;wufa&;vkyfaqmif&ef pdefac:r_u vG,fulonfht&mr[kwfay? a&$@ajymif;tajccscJhonfh jrefrm'kQonfrsm;axmufyHhr_ ESifh E_dif;,SOf=unfhrnfqkdygu tar&duefEkdifiHokd@ 1980 ckESpfrsm;twGif; avm/ AD,uferfESifh crm'kQonfrsm;tm; óudwifI ajcmufv qufwkduft*Fvdyfp mavhvma&;oifwef;ESifh ,Ofaus;r_rdwfqufoifwef;rsm;tm; rxGufcGmrD &&Sd=uI Taqmif;yg;wGifyg0ifonfh rD;armif;xkd;jycJhonfh udP&yfrsm;pGmwkd@tm; v$rf;ðcHaqmif&GufE_difcJhonf? tu,fI Ttxl;wm&SnfcHrnfh ajz&Sif;r_tm; atmifjrifr_twGuf taumif;qkH;tcGifhta&;twGuf ay;tyfvkdygu jrefrm'kQonfwkd@ twGuf ykdrkdaumif;rGefonfh a&$@ajymif;tajcpkdufa&;rdwfqufaqmif&Gufr_ukd OD;pm;ay;vkyfaqmifoifhonf?

rl0g'qkdif&m t=uHðycsuf „„ wifóudI oGm;a&muftajccsrnfhEkdifiHrsm;okd@ ra&muf&SdrD 'kQonfwkd@tm; xkdEkdifiHwkd@ ESifhywfoufonfh tcsuftvufwkd@tm; ykdrkdaumif;rGefonfh ay;tyfr_ðyvkyf&ef „„ a&mufvmonfhtcsdefwGif 'kQonfwkd@twGuf tcGifhta&;rsm;/ cHpm;ykdifcGifhrsm;ESifh pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;wkd@tm; aumif;rGefonfh t&nftaoG;ESifh vufcHE_difrnfh tcsuftvufwkd@tm; ay;a0&ef „„ vkyfief;pOfwpfckvkH;twGif; t=uHay;Xmersm;twGuf t&H&HykHaiG axmufyHh&ef „„ yxrykdif; 12 v axmufyHhr_umvtm; wkd;jrSifhay;&ef „„ y%mr vkyfaqmifr_rsm;twGif; AsL&kdua&pDt&vkyfaqmifr_ taetxm;ESifh ae@pOf vufawG@pdefac:r_rsm;tm; tultnDay;&ef 'kQonf tm;ay;apmifha&Smufolrsm;tm;tokH;ðya&; „„ trsKd;orD;rsm;ykdrkdtcGifhta&;ESifh vkyfykdifcGifh&vmapa&;twGuf oifwef;pDrHcsufrsm;tm;xm;&Sda&; „„ tvkyftukdiftwGuf vufvSrf;rDapa&; t&nftcsif;jznfhpnf;r_oifwef;rsm;ay;a&; „„ umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;pDrHcsuf0ifayguf Gateway Protection Programme pDrHudef;Xme. &nf&G,fcsufESifh atmifjrifr_wkd@tm; ykHrSef tuJjzwfr_vkyfaqmifa&;

“um;*dwfu|efawmha&S@rSm olwkd@erf;&_H@ae=uawmh u|efawmft&rf;&Suf+yD; rsufESmrxm;wwfavmufatmif jzpf&w,f?”

„„ pdwfykdif;qkdif&musef;rma&;u|rf;usifolrsm;tm; vufvSrf;rDapa&;twGuf ,Ofaus;r_qkdif&m xdvG,fckdufvG,ftaetxm;rsm;tm; zG@Hòzd;a&;vkyfaqmif&ef

tm;vkH;twGuf usef;rma&;ESifh ynma&;apmifha&Smufr_wkdhrSm tcrJh jzpfa=umif; odem;vnfjcif;u owif;aumif;yif okd@aomf xkd'kQonfwkd@ taeESifh tœ&m,f&Sdolrsm;ESifh arG;zGm;+yD;prdcif apmifha&Smufrltajc tae =um;a&mufaeolwkd@uJhokd@ rwlnDonfh,Ofaus;r_wkd@ESifh vkdufavsm nDaxG jzpf&ef vkdtyfonf? jrefrmh&kd;&m"avhxkH;pHt& arG;zGm;+yD;prdcif apmifha&Smufa&;twGuf rdciftaeESifh 45 &uftdrfwGif;atmif;&ef vkdtyfI tpm;taomufqifjcif&jcif;uJhokd@ wdusonfhusef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_wkd@ tm; vkdufem&efvkdonf? arG;zGm;rdcifpdwfusjcif;tay: t"duxm;csufu ,cifu jrefrmtrsKd;orD;rsm; ezl;awG@'l;awG@ñuH&onfhtjzpfwkd@ESifh qef@ usifaeayrnf? xkd@jyif q&m0efESifhawG@&rnfhtcsdefu t,ltqopfjzpfaeonfhjyif xkdcsdef;qkdcsufrsm;ysufuGufr_wkd@a=umifh tokdif;t0kdif;twGif; ‘vkyfrvm;/'gr[kwf tvkyfzsufrvm;’ aqmifyk'fcsxm;&jcif;jzpfonf? pdwf"gwfusjcif;/ txD;usefjcif;ESifh tokdif;t0kdif;tultnDrjynfhpkHr_wkd@tm;vkH;ukd cGJjcm;owfrSwfxm;+yD;jzpfonf? okd@ aomf pdwfykdif;qkdif&musef;rma&;wnf&Sdr_0ef;usif&Sd t&Sufw&m;ESifh t=uHðyjcif;wkd@u r=umr=um aq;aomufjcif;ukdykdESpfouf=uonfhtwGuf usqif;&onf? TonfrSm bmomjyefolrsm;u xkdtokdif;t0kdif;twGif; rSjzpfaejcif;ESifh 'kQonfrsm;u ‚wkd@.jy\ emwkd@tm; vlodrnfpkd;aoma=umifh jzpfay:&jcif;yifjzpfonf?

„„ a&mufvmonfESifh uav;umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;ESifh tdrfwGif;t=urf;zufr_ tygt0if tdrfwGif;a&;qkdkif&mOya'ukd odem;vnfapa&;twGuf vkyfief;qkdif&maqG;aEG;yGJrsm; axmufyHhay;tyf&efwkd@jzpfonf?

yufx&pf&Sm [kdif;pf (t.hynes@mdx.ac.uk) onf xkdif;jrefrme,fpyfwGif 1996 rS ouU&mZf 2000 twGif; 'kQonfwkd@twGuf tultnDay;a&;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfukdifcJholjzpfonf? r,OfrGefol (soa07ymt@sheffield.ac.uk) onf 2005 ckESpfrSpI a&muf&Sdvmonfh'kQonfopfrsm; twGuf &SufzD;òrd@ wGif ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfukdifaeolkjzpfonf? Taqmif;yg;onf avhvmxm;csufrsm;/ vlawG@ar;jref;csufrsm;ESifh pma&;olrsm;. tawG@tñuHwkd@tay: tajccHxm;I rnfonfhtzGJ@ tpnf;ukdr# ukd,fpm;ðyxm;onfh t,ltqrsm;r[kwfygay? 1 tpkd;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;0efxrf;ESifh pum;vufqkHajymjcif;/ xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf/ 2007 ckESpf rwfv 2 www.iomlondon.org

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DCA-ACT International

NCA-ACT International

Tjrefrmbmomjzifhxkwfa0onfh ae&yfrStwif;t"rRa&$@ajymif;cH&jcif;pmapmif (FMR) tm; ykHESdyfxkwfa0r_ 冒yvkyfaeonfhtaetxm;wGif uBmu em*pfpfqkdifuvkH;rkefwkdif;. jrefrmEkdifiHESifh jynfoljynfom;wkd@tay: zGwfzGwfnufnufa=uonfhxdckdufr_tm; tm&kHpkdufapmifh=unfhae=uayonf? taotaysmufE_H;ESifh qkH;&_H;r_ysufpD;r_ rsm;ukdvnf; ae@pOf jrefqefpGmodae&ayonf? FMR taeESifh jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wkd@. &Sifoefa&;twGuf 贸ud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_ESifh ab;tE W&m,ft+yD; jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&;wkd@ twGuf jrefrmvlxkESifhxyfwl aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_&Sd aernfjzpfyga=umif; Tae&mrS tav;teuf azmfjytyfygonf?


Forced Migration Review issue 30 Burmese