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APRIL 2019


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Heidi O’Hanley






PARIS STREET; RAINY DAY (detail) Oil on canvas; 83.5" x 108.75". By Gustave Caillebotte (French; 1848–1894). The Art Institute of Chicago. Charles H. and Mary F. S. Worcester Collection. ©/ Public domain. See “Arts & Activities Art Print,” page 19.

SUBSCRIPTIONS: (858) 605-0251; EDITORIAL: (858) 605-0242; AD SALES: (800) 651-7567; AD PRODUCTION: FAX: (858) 605-0247. WEBSITE: ADDRESS: 12345 World Trade Dr., San Diego, CA 92128. Arts & Activities® (ISSN 0004-3931) is published monthly, except July and August, by Publishers’ Development Corp., 12345 World Trade Dr., San Diego, CA 92128. Subscriptions: one year, $24.95; two years, $39.95; three years, $49.95. Foreign subscriptions, add $35 per year for postage. Single copy, $4. Title to this magazine passes to subscriber only on delivery to his or her address. Change of address requires at least four weeks’ notice. Send old address and new address. Periodical postage paid at San Diego, Calif., and at additional mailing offices. Printing by Democrat Printing, Little Rock, Ark. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Arts & Activities®, 12345 World Trade Drive, San Diego, CA 92128.


86 Y E A R S •

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16 3

e d i t o r ’s n o t e

Whether it’s raining or snowing, cloudy or clear,

it’s a good day for painting! Featured on our cover, Gustave Caillebotte’s famous painting, “Paris Street; Rainy Day” (1877), certainly makes the most of a rainy day, and has much to teach about composition, perspec-

I N M E M O R I A M ( 1 9 4 2 – 2 018 ) Thomas von Rosen p r e s i d e n t e d i t o r a n d p u b l i s h e r Maryellen Bridge

a r t d i r e c t o r Niki Ackermann EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

tive, atmosphere—and Paris during the late 19th century. Read more about this life-size painting on page 19, where you will find a wealth of

Cris E. Guenter Professor of Arts Education/Curriculum and Instruction California State University, Chico

information compiled by Tara Cady Sartorius.

Jerome J. Hausman Lecturer, Consultant and Visiting Professor, at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago

Fast forward to the 20th century, where we have

Barbara Herberholz Art Education Consultant, Sacramento, California George Székely Senior Professor of Art Education, University of Kentucky, Lexington

“Peter Max and the ’60s: Students Get Their Groove On” (page 10). Here, students learned how art, music, history and science work together to


influence artists and their creations. Peter Max during the 1960s serves

Geri Greenman Art Department Head (Retired), Willowbrook High School, Villa Park, Illinois

as a great example of this, with his “Cosmic Art” (think “space race”)

Paula Guhin Art Teacher (Retired), Central HighSchool, Aberdeen, South Dakota

and peace signs (think protests against the war in Vietnam). Elementary

Nan E. Hathaway Art Teacher, Crossett Brook Middle School, Duxbury, Vermont

students “dig” his bright, bold colors and “far-out” details—turn to page 10 to learn how Barbara Hildebrandt’s students got their “Groove On,” and how your kiddos can, too.

Looking for a confidence builder for high schoolers having difficulty with their formal drawing skills? Irv Osterer describes how he helped his students get past their doubts, and transform “their simple line drawings into expressive and lyrical works of art.” For more about this successful painting project, see “Creative Collaboration: Classroom Color” on page 12.

In other great lessons this month, watercolor paint is the star in “The Lovely Bones” (page 14), tempera cakes help elementary kids “Paint to the Maxx” (page 16), and “Art On the Go” (page 24) has youngsters turning delivery trucks into imaginative, colorful art.

Amanda Koonlaba Curriculum Specialist, Teaching Artist, Saltillo, Mississippi Glenda Lubiner Middle-School Art Teacher, Franklin Academy Charter School, Pembroke Pines, Florida Don Masse Heidi O’Hanley

Art Teacher, Zamorano Fine Arts Academy, San Diego, California Art Teacher, Brodnicki Elementary School Justice, Illinois

Irv Osterer Department Head – Fine Arts and Technology, Merivale High School, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Debi West Art Education Consultant, former Art Teacher, Hilton Head, South Carolina


a d v e r t i s i n g m a n a g e r Amy Tanguay

amy.tanguay @ 800.826.2216 or 888.651.7567 p r o d u c t i o n d i r e c t o r Kevin Lewis p r o d u c t i o n m a n a g e r Tong Ros production @

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Convinced it’s a good day for painting? With the paint and supplies you’ll need, and this month’s issue in hand, there’s no better time to start than now!

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Manuscripts Subjects dealing with art-education practice at the elementary and secondary levels, teacher education and uses of community resources, are invited. Materials are handled with care; however, publisher assumes no responsibility for loss or damage. Unsolicited material must be accompanied by a self-addressed, stamped envelope. For Writer’s Guidelines, visit Address all materials to the attention of the Editor. Simultaneous submissions will not be considered or accepted. Indexes Articles are indexed in January and June issues. Issues of Arts & Activities are available on microfilm and photocopies from: ProQuest Information and Learning, P.O. Box 1346, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106. (Issues beginning with January 1977 are available in microfiche.) The full text of Arts & Activities is also available in the electronic versions of the Education Index. Copyright Permissions Reproduction of any portion of this magazine without written

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SIGNATURE L&L FEATURES hArd cerAmIc elemeNt holders key to l&l’s durABIlIty The smooth, hard surface of the inside ceramic channel allows the elements to expand and contract freely. No pins! This prevents catastrophic element failure. Elements do not droop out of broken firebrick channels. The dense ceramic DynaGlow holders extend element life because they do not insulate the hot elements from the kiln interior. ( element-holders)

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L&L thermocouples are shielded from corrosion by a ceramic protection tube. We use the finest “special limit” aerospacegrade heavy-gauge thermocouple wire. The protection tube prevents black dust from the thermocouple end from discolouring your work. (

cerAmIc elemeNt termINAls Ceramic element terminals make element changes easy. ( ceramic-terminal)

“eAsy-oPeN, eAsy-loAd” lId oPeNs wIde for loAdINg The whole kiln supports the lid (not just one section). Our positive safety pin secures the lid safely. No support bars (like other kilns) get in the way of loading when the lid is fully tilted back. ( spring-hinge)

dyNAmIc ZoNe coNtrol

The DynaTrol separately measures temperatures in the bottom, middle and top of the kiln and automatically adjusts the heat output of three zones during the entire firing. Kiln temperatures are automatically evened out to within 1/2 cone or better top to bottom. Zone control automatically compensates for many loading issues and element changes over time. Even on kilns where we use graded elements, L&L kilns are fundamentally uniform because the element holders radiate the heat more evenly. (

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Stepping Stones is a monthly column that breaks down seemingly daunting tasks into simple, manageable “steps” that any art educator can take and apply directly to their classroom. Stepping Stones will explore a variety of topics and share advice for art-on-a-cart teachers and those with art rooms.




s an elementary art teacher, I’ve seen my students grow up over the time they’re in my classroom. I see my students once a week all school year, and each year I get to see them thrive. The best part is watching their creative growth over time. Through our art room social media sites and Artsonia, I look back on previous artworks and activities, then see how much their creativity has evolved. With seeing my students ever y week over time, I’ve also learned many things about them in and out of my classroom. As educators, we always work to understand what students know, how they think, what they value, who they are as individuals, and what motivates them. We gain these understandings by obser ving and listening to students as they work and learn in various settings, and in our case, while creating their projects. Here are a few things I have noticed about my students that help shape them and our school setting.


MY STUDENTS CARE. Even if they do not act as if they

do, my students respond to positive encouragement and support. The best feeling in the world is having students from previous years come back and tell me how much they enjoyed my art class, because they had a chance to create and try new things. I love encouraging all my students to try new methods and create artwork that is relevant and interesting to them. In doing so, we help students understand themselves during their transition from childhood to adolescence.


MY STUDENTS HAVE MANY DIFFERENT LEARNING STYLES. There’s a variety of students that need visual,

or additional assistance with projects, and we’re there to assist them with the way they learn and grow. Art is an exploratory class that gives students an opportunity to exercise their creativity and express their feelings through visual form. They progress in different ways and at different rates, and we do our best to adapt to their learning styles.


MY STUDENTS COME FROM MANY DIFFERENT BACKGROUNDS. One of the things I absolutely love about

my school district is how diverse it is. We have Polish, Arabic, Hispanic, Native American, African American, Asian, and more that make up our student body. The economic status varies as well, but all of our students are open-minded and genuinely work together. Through different projects created, I’ve been able to learn more about my students’ backgrounds through visual imagery and symbols familiar to them, which has helped me to learn more about the areas my students have come from. 6






MY STUDENTS ARE ALL THEIR OWN UNIQUE INDIVIDUALS. A majority of students may be into the

tions are vast and it’s exciting to see what they can design with each project. It’s interesting seeing how they can take an idea and develop their own product from the objectives given. Plus, the older they get, the more personal the projects become. With creating meaningful ar t experiences, we help students understand themselves as they grow.

some days where students lose grasp on their confidence and struggle with ideas, especially when the process doesn’t turn out the way they want it. I like to refer to the book Beautiful Oops by Barney Saltzberg to my younger students, which encourages looking at a mistake and seeing it an “opportunity to make something new.” We all have bad days too, and when we do, encouragement can help us to overcome those stumbling moments.

same video games, or sports, or music, but each are their own individual personalities. Over time, students move from the dependent years of early childhood development to the social area of adolescence, and as educators, we see the full range of development and address the individual needs of our students.



dabbing. And any other trend that is popular. These trends can be repetitively worn out, but it’s important to know your students. As maddening as “Baby Shark” may seem after the 200th time singing, it’s important to recognize what they like, which can help in giving meaningful art experiences. We do our best to encourage original design and concepts, but sometimes our students need that extra inspiration to help them in designing their artworks.


MY STUDENTS ARE AWESOME. No matter whether they are good days or bad days, I will still nurture my students’ creative development and give them a welcoming environment. I love how diverse my students are and encourage celebrating their differences, so I will continue encouraging tolerance and respect for everyone in our student body. As an adult role model, I encourage kindness in different ways, like saying hello in the hallways, or greeting them at the door. No matter what the situation, I will still support my students. n

Arts & Activities Contributing Editor, Heidi O’Hanley (NBCT), teaches art at Brodnicki Elementary School in Justice, Illinois. Visit her blog at www.talesfromthetravelling a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


Art is at the Core offers tips on integrating for visual art teachers and teachers of other subjects. Arts-integrated lessons offer students the opportunity to meet objectives in art disciplines and other subjects. Arts integration strengthens traditional core classes, but does not replace art-specific courses.




at Lipsky (b. 1941) is a contemporary American artist who grew up in New York City. She achieved great acclaim after attending both Cornell University and the prestigious Hunter College. Her work has been associated with Lyrical Abstraction, Geometric Abstraction and Color Field Painting. Throughout her career she has explored nuances in color palettes. Below are ideas for integrating Pat Lipsky’s Sandwich, 1969, with other subjects.


DESCRIBE AND DRAW. Have students find a partner and

select who will be the “describer” and who will be the “drawer.” Give the “describer” a printed copy of the work with the title at the bottom. Tell the “describers” to save the title for the very last step. In other words, they should not tell their partner, the “drawer,” the name of the artwork until the final step. Let the students know that when you say to start they will have four minutes to work. Tell them that you will give them a 15-second warning at which time they can say the name of the artwork. The “describer” will look at the artwork and describe it to their partner, the “drawer,” who will use crayons and pencils to try to recreate the piece based solely on the description. Encourage students to use artful language in their descriptions. At the end of the four minutes, tell the “describers” to show the “drawers” the actual artwork by Lipsky. Have them discuss the description given, the interpretation for the drawing, and why the artwork might have been named “Sandwich.” Of course, as in all things, encourage the students to be constructive rather than critical with their discussion as they explain to each other why they chose to describe it and draw it the way they did.


ART THINKING ON THE WALL. On a subsequent day from the Describe and Draw activity, have students do a deep dive into the artwork by incorporating a Visual Thinking Strategy. This variation on the See, Think, Wonder strategy is a great way to have the students spend more time looking at and analyzing the work. Tell them to view the work without talking for 30 seconds. Then, have them speak with a partner using this conversational language:

Student 1: I see ______________________________________. Student 2: I heard you say ______________________________. That makes me think_________________________. Student 1: I heard you say _______________________________. That makes me wonder________________________.

Go to and click on this button for resources related to this article.


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Then, have the students repeat by looking again for 30 seconds. This time, have the students switch who speaks first. That way, each student gets to be the one who “sees,” who “thinks,” and who “wonders.” Repeat this sequence at least two more times. Finally, have students select four or five words or short phrases from their discussions to write on sticky notes. So, each pair of students will have four or five notes. Place a print of the artwork on the wall and have the students put their notes around it.


PREDICTING. Once students have become super famil-

iar with the artwork by participating in the thinking strategies and discussions, have them begin the art-making process by squirting eight drops of paint in a vertical alignment on a sheet of tagboard. This will look like eight dots of paint, one above the other in a line. Make sure they place the drops about a half-inch from each other. Next, have the students make predictions about what will happen when the colors that are near each other touch. Will a new color be formed? If so, what will it be? If not, what is likely to happen instead?


ART-MAKING. Cut file folders into small rectangles about the size of a credit card. Show the students how to drag the card across the paper so that two colors at a time are smeared. Model how to make wavy lines as you do this. Talk to the students about only smearing the paint once. They should not be running their cards across the paint in the same spot multiple times. Move down the column of paint drops without switching cards. Paint from the first marks made will still be on the card and will mix with the other colors. The paint marks will look similar to the ones in Lipsky’s work. After students have completed these steps, have them revisit the predictions they made to analyze how those played out once the process was complete. This is a great segue into making predictions about a text as well as making predictions about science experiments. n

Arts & Activities Contributing Editor, Amanda Koonlaba (NBCT), is a Curriculum Specialist and Teaching Artist from Saltillo, Mississippi. The activities described in “Art is at the Core” may encompass Common Core State Standards for Math, the English Language Arts Anchor Standards of Writing, Speaking and Listening, and the Next Generation Science Standards Performance Based Expectations of Science and Engineering Practices for Analyzing and Interpreting Data. They also encompass the National Arts Standards processes of Creating and Responding. Please refer to particular grade-level standards for specifics.—A.K.


Yearlong Secondary Curriculum Series | 3D INTRO ART


Chopstick Sculptures by Debi West


tudents love to build “in the round” sculptures where they can be seen from every side, but it’s often a complicated concept. First of all, are students ready to be challenged to think spatially and consider all sides of their sculpture? What media will you use to ensure student success? And, perhaps most important, where in the world are you going to store all of the artwork?

There’s a lot to think about, but when we’re teaching students about the wonderful world of 3D art, “in the round” sculpture-making is an important process to learn. I think you and your students will love this chopstick sculpture lesson. I HAVE TO ADMIT, WHEN I FIRST SAW THIS LESSON, I was not impressed.

The teacher I was obser ving was having students design realistic imager y out of the chopsticks and then paint them using acr ylic paint and honestly, they were a hot mess. The craftsmanship was sloppy, the cutting of the sticks was complicated because students weren’t given the right tools and the paint was horrible and ver y childlike. The final sculptures weren’t at a high school level, and if we are giving students art lessons that aren’t garnering at least a 90-percent success rate, then we really need to ask

ourselves why we are teaching the lesson. But there was something there that had me intrigued. So I did a bit of research and realized that by changing the lesson in a few ways, kids would continue to be engaged and excited, but now they would end up with a fabulous and sophisticated artwork! I’m all about process, but I think it’s important when students complete a project, that they are authentically excited about their final piece. I want my students to be proud of their hard work and this is a lesson that pulls all of that together. Let’s take a closer look. I START OFF by giving kids chopsticks.

I mean A LOT of chopsticks! I have found that the more they have to experiment with, the better, so I purchase large boxes of bulk chopsticks containing 5,000 per box! That’s a lot of chopsticks for sure, so kids have access to grabbing as many as they

As students build their sculptures, they understand balance, rhythm and movement through the lines of the chopsticks.


a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


ARTICLE 8 OF 10 think they will need. On day one, they experiment with the chopsticks, laying them on top of each other and seeing how they “move” and sit. They have wire-cutting tools that aid them in neatly cutting the chopsticks to create a variety of sizes. They really enjoy this experience because they are free to play and, while they are playing, they’re learning! They take photos of the designs that work the best and, the next day, they come in and begin building again, but this time with glue.


Chopstick Sculptures LEARNING OBJECTIVES


High school students will ... • learn how to construct a 3D sculpture out of chopsticks using repetition and pattern. • learn to think spatially and mathemati- cally while gluing chopsticks together to create an interesting sculpture. • layer chopsticks on top of each other, ro- tating, shaping or twisting to change sizes. • understand monochromatic colors in an artwork.

• Sketchbooks • Pencils • Rulers • Wood glue, hot glue, glue guns • Chopsticks • Spray paint • Needle-nose pliers (for cutting chopsticks)


guns, which are set up in stations around the room and in the art hallway. With 34 students per class, it’s important that they have access to plenty of glue guns because often, these sculptures end up pretty large. I highly recommend extension cords and power plugs. As students are building, they are understanding balance, rhythm and movement through the lines of the chopsticks. I even have them sketch some of their designs and thoughts on where the final piece will end up. When they are all completed, we take the sculptures outside and lay them on a large piece of butcher paper. The kids then spray them with gold or black spray paint … and sometimes a little bit of both! They end up absolutely amazing! While my photographs do not do them justice, these sculptures become beautiful pieces of art that were created using design concepts and the freedom to create. Students are thrilled that they were encouraged to think like an artist! Next up in the May issue … Indoor Sculpture Garden! n Ar ts & Activities Contributing Editor Debi West recently retired from her job as depar tment chair and ar t educator at Nor th Gwinnett High School in Suwanee, Georgia. She owns and operates WESTpectations Educational Consulting. She and her husband now reside in Hilton Head, South Carolina.


PROCEDURES 1. Students will discuss contemporary design solutions and look at professional artists working in similar media, along with student examples. 2. Students will begin the lesson by choosing a simple geometric shape to work with. 3. Students will take this shape and alter the size of it or the spacing of the perimeter of it, working with patterns by laying the chopsticks together to create the illusion of movement.

4. Students will add hot glue to permanently adhere their chopsticks. 5. Once completed, students will take their works outside and spray paint on large pieces of paper (to preserve the cemented negative space). 6. Students will exhibit these beautiful abstract sculptures in the school media center to share with the community.

ASSESSMENT I use a project evaluation form for each lesson I teach. This allows my students to appropriately reflect on the learning at hand and leaves room for them to comment on the process and how they feel the final piece turned out. It also allows me to comment and give them a grade based on their learning and their final work. We also do in-process critiques using my “2 Glows and a Grow” model.

Go to and click on this button for resources related to this article.

These beautiful pieces of art were created using design concepts and the freedom to create. Students are thrilled when they are encouraged to think like an artist!

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by Barbara Hildebrandt


he l960s were a remarkable time to be alive! The American people were witnessing new approaches to the visual arts and music, historic militar y events and space exploration. Peter Max, the artist, began creating his “Cosmic Art” at this time. Young people of the ’60s loved the music of the Beatles and, to my surprise, many of my fifth-grade students knew of the Beatles and liked their music as well. The students were eager to learn of how Peter Max often listened to their music—and that of other 1960s music icons—as he created his art. The 1960s saw the Vietnam War, with over 2 million young Sammy men drafted to fight from 1965–72. Young people across the country protested the war, and the “peace sign” arose as a symbol of opposition to it. Peter Max included the sign in many of his artworks. Also during this time, astronauts were launching into space, orbiting the Ear th, taking spacewalks, and much more. Russia and the United States were the main players in what became known as the “space race.” Because of the omnipresent news coverage of these historical events, all of them were witnessed on television by the American people. As we discussed these events, I realized it was a great teaching moment to address how art, music, history and science work together to influence artists and their creations. PETER MAX—THE ICON. The students were quite interested

in Peter Max, the man. They enjoyed seeing him at work in his studio and listening to him talk about how his art evolved. His style of art became very popular and recognizable. Students were able to see his creative energy on airplanes, pianos, T-shirts, and all sorts of commercial goods, as well as on his canvases. We discussed his “Cosmic Art” period and what made it unique. We discovered that black lines, bright colors and particular subject matter identified his work. These characteristics would be the focus for our Peter Max 10

project. We noted that he frequently used images of planets, suns, stars, flowers, clouds, hippies, hair, and rays of light in his work. Bright paint colors dominated his palette, painting inside black lines, while flat, cartoonlike figures liberated his canvases. IN SEARCH OF A ’60s CREATION. The stu-

dents were eager to Angelly create their own art— with a Peter Max feel. We talked about how each of them had a unique way of thinking and how they could use the same cosmic images to visualize a different outcome in the composition of their artwork. Colored pencils and watercolor paint were the chosen mediums. The students had learned how to blend wax crayons and pastels in previous lessons, but this was the first a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upper-elementary students will … • learn about the life and work of artist Peter Max • become aware of world events and how they affect individuals and artists. • explore the use of colored pencils and how overlapping can affect color change. • experiment with watercolor paint to achieve transparency and various shades and tints of color. • learn how to create a monochromatic color scheme.


• CREATING: Combining ideas to generate an innovative idea for art-making. • PRESENTING: Interpreting and sharing artistic work. • CONNECTING: Identifying how art is used to inform or change beliefs, values or behaviors of an individual or society.


• •




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Watercolor paper Colored pencils

Watercolors, paintbrushes, water cups

time most of them would blend with colored pencil. They were shown how overlapping two colors, a new shade was made. They enjoyed this part of the lesson and were fascinated by the new colors produced by this method, sometimes a darker color over a lighter and then reversing the process. The background was the final step Rebecca and, because they had worked so intently on blending in colored pencil, the thought of working in watercolor appealed to them. We discussed a monochromatic color theme. The emphasis on watercolor being a transparent paint so the paper would show through is sometimes a difficult concept at this age. A demonstration was given to show darker shades could be made by overlapping the same color or another shade of that color, and lighter tints could be made by adding more water to the color. The modeled monochromatic backgrounds were a success and really made their brightly colored figures “pop.” The students were pleased with their work and were heard complimenting each other as they viewed their “Peter Max” installation in the hallways of our school. The staff enjoyed the art, with some of them smiling at the pleasant reminders of a decade from their youth. n Barbara Hildebrandt teaches K–5 art at Jefferson Elementary and Franklin Elementary Schools in Bergenfield, N.J. 11




ach academic year, art teachers at every level address OUR MUSIC TEACHERS had lamented the lack of vibrant the element of color with their classes and seek new posters in their studio and hoped the art department could avenues to make the experience a rich and rewarding one. provide some to inspire ensembles at their 7 a.m. rehearsals. After the introductory color wheel and value exercises are With this in mind, musical instruments provided the perfect completed, students usually have an abstract notion of how anal- subject for a set of large, colorful paintings to fill the void. The ninth-grade art class visited the ogous and complimentary theory work. band room to draw the instruments they Rather than keep this at the notebook by Irv Osterer found interesting. Those with smart level, junior art coordinator Lisa Gale phones were encouraged to photograph gives all grade nine students at Merivale High School a chance to work on a very satisfying and non- the instruments from a variety of angles. The students also threatening assignment, that allows them to explore color could do research in our library and consult a variety of Internet relationships, and to put into practice the color exercises sources that they could use for preliminary studies. My students had chosen to draw a wide range of instruthey had previously completed. ments and, while some of the drawings were more realistic and better proportioned than others, I reminded them all that this was a color exercise and that any reasonable effort would work well. Students made preliminary line drawings of their chosen instruments in their sketchbooks. Once satisfied with their compositions, they divided their image area (the instrument and the background) into at least four distinct parts. Then, rather than paint their subjects realistically, they assigned to each area a distinct color scheme we had discussed in class. The sketches were then rendered on 20" x 26" card stock and painted with acrylic. The results were impressive. For those who usually experience difficulty with their formal drawing skills, the project was a confidence builder.



Doris Isabelle

classroom 12

a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


LEARNING OBJECTIVES High school students will ... • recognize the impact that differing color schemes bring to a composition. • become familiar with the lexicon of color terms. • be able to recognize color schemes employed by artists when critically examining works of art.


• • • •

CREATING: Conceiving and developing artistic ideas and work. PRESENTING: Interpreting and sharing artistic work. RESPONDING: Understanding and evaluating how the arts convey meaning. CONNECTING: Relating artistic ideas and work with personal meaning and external context.


• •

Sketchbooks and pencils Acrylic paint, 00 and #10 paintbrushes

• •

Large sheets of card stock Access to the library and Internet for research


Lily carefully adds paint to the neck of her violin.



While some took a linear approach to divide their space, others followed a less traditional path. Students employed a variety of approaches to the problem, including warm and cool color schemes, complementar y and analogous areas, primar y and secondar y color blocks and a variety of monochromatic and chromatic scales, which transformed their simple line drawings into expressive and lyrical works of art that are perfect for a studio setting. The music teachers and their students were pleased with the results, which we then mounted and installed in the band room. This exercise can be used with most any age group and be easily tailored to fit any subject for an impressive series of original works suitable for display. It is a perfect opportunity for art teachers to collaborate with science, social science, English and language departments. ENRICHMENT. While this class used

inexpensive acrylic paint, the exercise could also be completed with terrific results using tempera, gouache, markers or pencil crayons. n Irv Osterer is Department Head–Fine Arts and Technology, at Merivale High School in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and an Arts & Activities Contributing Editor.


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here’s something magical, something lyrical, about the beauty of bones,” wrote Geri Greenman in her May 1999 article, Desert Sojourn. She called bones “nature’s sculpture,” and I’ve always agreed, finding the concave and convex forms appealing. Over the years, many others have drawn or painted these interesting organic objects, of course. Their paleness lends itself to rendering them in white chalk on a dark background, or laundry bleach on dark Bleached construction paper with ink construction paper. The accent lines. latter is best done with older students and good ventilation, not to mention protection for clothing. But the wet-on-wet technique and gradient washes are a natural for nature forms. I wanted my high school class to work first with high values in watercolor, and to finish with darker tones.

Like any good pack rat/art teacher, over the years I had accumulated a collection of bleached cow bones, animal skulls, antlers and more. I augmented my stockpile with realistic Halloween skeletons, plastic bony hands and fake human skulls. The science department loaned us their mounted, articulated human skeleton, too. Some students might enjoy subject matter they deem less “morbid.” Other natural forms also could be the basis for a wonderful watercolor painting: driftwood, large seashells, and even pleasingly shaped stones. I asked the class to draw several of the objects ver y lightly in pencil on watercolor paper. A reminder to work large was a good idea, since some young artists are reluctant to fill the page. I proposed that the color schemes should be limited—any two or three colors that worked well together. The students could make their own choices, whether realistic or not. THE SKELETON CREW PAINTS. I demonstrated wetting inside a shape and applying a graduated wash in lighter tones first, followed by deeper colors to round out the forms. I used a fat, “thirsty” brush to lift color from areas where the paint

The Lovely Bones by Paula Guhin

This student did a beautiful job with the highlights and shadows. 14

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High school students will … • understand the definitions of the terms “form,” “wash,” “wet-into-wet,” and “gradient.” • learn various techniques of watercolor painting and apply them to a work of art, completing said work exemplifying form. • create representational still-life paintings in watercolors, using their own choices for the colors. Go to and click on this button for resources related to this article.

• CREATING: Planning and designing works of art. Practicing and demonstrating the acquisition of skills and knowledge. • RESPONDING: Evaluating a work as to how it conveys form.


• Watercolors • Watercolor paper • Paintbrushes

• • •

Paper towels Water containers Sponges (optional)

had spread too much. Kids at any level should be cautioned to let damp areas dr y completely before working inside another shape directly adjacent to them. I also advised ever yone to work from back to front and to leave some white paper bare to highlight the forms’ highest points. Too, I “grounded” my own example by painting cast shadows. “Other wise,” I told them, “the bones would look as if they were floating in the air.” A VARIATION. Find a copy of Geri’s March 1992 article, Remains … To Be Seen! She took this idea a step further by enlarging small sketches (close-


This artwork features red-violet, an unnatural color for bones.



Great job rendering volume by an Art I student. Fine example of watercolors on watercolor paper.

ups) of bones and putting them together as a triptych or even a quadriptych. That abstract approach resulted in wonderful paintings of shapes and forms with a focus on value and gradations. Watercolor can be a challenging medium, but fluid forms with washed-in color made the beautiful bones come alive. n A&A Contributing Editor Paula Guhin taught K–12 art in Aberdeen, South Dakota. She is now busy with her art, photography and writing. Find her on Twitter @Paula_Guhin.


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and kicking

to the

by Don Masse

Students were somewhat restricted by the requirement to incorporate symmetry in their designs. There was a wonderful range of variety in the visual outcomes of the challenge, nonetheless.


or the past couple years, my fifth-graders have created unique symmetrical paintings as part of their exploration of painting and color value. Last year, we focused on the work of Australian artist Brad Eastman as inspiration for this experience. Brad draws much of his inspiration from the patterns that are found within the natural world. I really love his play of geometric and natural shapes, his use of contour line, and his wonderful sense of composition as he pulls everything together in his images.


This year, I am making a concerted effort to connect more with our community of San Diego–based artists, so we looked at a number of paintings by Maxx Moses as inspiration. Maxx is a prolific painter whose work ranges from immense wall works to intimately small paintings on canvas. He often plays with symmetr y in works that combine figurative and abstract elements. Unlike Brad, he incorporates light and dark colors to bring more implied three-dimensional effects to many of his pieces. Maxx’s play of light and dark creates striking metallic-looking forms that give a large number of his pieces an otherworldly and futuristic feel, which highly engages my upper elementary students. I BEGIN THIS LESSON BY SHARING work that Maxx or Brad has done. Both ar tists’ work is similar in subject, symmetr y, and use of color value gradations. We spend a few minutes identifying these elements and talking about what these works remind us of and what the students see in them. While I have shared the work of the a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students selected one of their sketches and moved forward with that concept by enlarging it on watercolor paper.

Upper-elementary students will … • create a unique symmetrical composition based on multiple sketches that draw inspiration from the work of focus artists and their own imagination. • create a range of color values by adjusting the amount of water used with tempera paint. • develop responsibility with paint, water and brushes while sharing supplies with other students.


CREATING: Combine ideas to generate an innovative idea for art making. • Demonstrate quality craftsmanship through care for and use of materials, tools, and equipment.

MATERIALS Inside bold contour lines, students applied light and dark values of tempera paint.

Sketch paper • Watercolor paper Tempera cakes, • Sharpie® markers, black crayons, paintbrushes • Pencils, erasers black color sticks

• •

Light and dark values were created by students adjusting the amount of water used with the tempera cakes.

two ar tists separately, you can totally use this as an oppor tunity to compare and contrast the work of multiple ar tists with your students. (As I type this, I realize that this is exactly what I will do next year!) To start the hands-on activity, the students and I create a small sketch loosely inspired by the selected focus images. I want them to see how they can break up the picture plane to create a design that emphasizes symmetry and repetition. We begin with a central form and then add lines that echo that shape on a larger scale to break up the picture


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plane. The point of this is for students to see how they can start with simple large shapes to set up the compositional framework. Then, I encourage them to add more lines to give their sketch more detail. Maxx often uses cur ved teardrop shapes in his work and I demonstrate how these can be used to create facial details or abstract decoration. Once that sketch is complete, students create a second sketch that starts with a shape of their choosing. They break up the picture plane in a similar fashion to the first one. WITH BOTH SKETCHES DONE, students choose one and explain why they would like to move forward with that concept.

When they completed their paintings, students reflected on their process by answering questions on an exit slip.

They then enlarge it very softly in pencil onto a large (12" x 15") sheet of watercolor paper. They hold off putting their name on the paper until the drawing is complete. They do this, so that they can use the back of the paper to restart their drawing if the need arises. To create the bold contour lines, students may trace their pencil lines with a crayon, chisel-tip Sharpie® marker, or a Crayola® Color Stick—or a combo, depending on the detail present in their drawing. When students move on to the painting step, I demo creating light and dark values by adjusting the amount of water used with the tempera cakes we are using. Each student gets a scrap of watercolor paper to test out colors while they are working. Students choose a brush to start with: large, medium, or small. If they need to change brush size, they are responsible for cleaning the brush in the sink, putting it back if the right bin, and getting a different size brush. They are also responsible for changing the water in the cups that they are sharing with their paint-tray team. Most students have needed about two hours to complete this activity. Some more, some less. I meet with my fifthgraders for 90 minutes, so this activity has been completed over two sessions. 18

WHEN THEY COMPLETE THEIR PAINTINGS, students reflect on their process by answering three questions on an exit slip: 1. How is your work different than the artist’s? Explain. 2. What was the hardest part of the activity? How did you solve that problem? 3. What is the most successful part of your work? Explain. I really emphasize question two: What was the hardest part of this activity? How did you deal with it? I want them to really think about that. How did they solve that problem? I want to see how they are developing perseverance strategies and critical-thinking skills throughout their elementary school experiences here at Zamorano. While students are restricted by incorporating symmetry, there is still a wonderful range of variety in the visual outcomes of the design challenge. Each year, my students have been thoroughly engaged during the painting experience. I always encourage them to relax and enjoy the painting process. This year, as an added incentive to do bring their best to this experience, I am selecting a small group of students from each class to assist Maxx in creating a new mural on their side of our school campus. There has been much excitement about this opportunity and it has definitely had an impact on the effort and behavior of a large number of my students. n

Arts & Activities Contributing Editor, Don Masse, is a K–5 visual arts teacher at Zamorano Fine Arts Academy in San Diego, California. At the 2018 NAEA national convention, Don was named the 2018 Pacific Region Elementary Art Educator of the Year. a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


A&A Art Print: Respond and Connect Gustave Caillebotte. Paris Street; Rainy Day, 1877.

“I imagine that the very great artists attach you even more to life.” Gustave Caillebotte, in a letter to Claude Monet

MAIN ART CONCEPTS: Line • Shape • Form • Perspective • Atmosphere • Value • Composition • Unity

ART CONSERVATION: In 2013–14, this painting was cleaned and conserved by Art Institute of Chicago staff. The project became anything but routine, and they discovered some surprises along the way. The sky, for one, turned out to be much bluer than it appeared prior to cleaning.

• •

TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE: The triangular building in the background is an apartment building, but on the ground level it houses a pharmacy that is still in business today. The wide street splits on either side of the building and Caillebotte accentuates the sense of depth in the painting through the strong diagonal lines at the horizon.

WATER, LIGHT AND FORM. Note the fantastic reflections on the water between the cobblestones. This detail gives form to the rounded rocks that comprise the street surface. Interestingly, it is not actually raining in this scene. It seems Caillebotte has caught his subjects just after the rain has stopped, but not quite ready to close their umbrellas.

URBAN PLANNING: Between 1853 and 1870, GeorgesEugène Haussmann, Prefect of the Seine, was commissioned by Napoleon III to redesign the streets and look of Paris. The wide cobblestone boulevard depicted here is one result of those changes to the city.

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE: Young Caillebotte (pronounced “kai-BOT”) began drawing around the age of 12. His formal education was in law and engineering, but he was considerably wealthy and was able to paint and devote his life to art. He financially supported (and was one of the chief organizers of) the major Impressionist exhibitions. He collected works by many Impressionist painters including Monet, Renoir and Cézanne.

IMPRESSIONISM WITH A REALIST TWIST: Although Caillebotte is often considered an Impressionist painter, this painting is rendered too sharply and smoothly to be typical of Impressionist paintings of his day. His limited palette and atmospheric perspective brings a Realist feeling to the work.

TECHNOLOGY AND ART: Caillebotte’s younger brother, Martial, was a photographer. The brothers were close, spent much time together, and depicted some of the same subjects. Art historians believe that Caillebotte might have developed some compositional devices in his paintings through the use of photography.

SHADES OF RED: Note the color of the shadows under the umbrellas, and how they reflect the brick colors of the adjacent wall.

ENGINEERING: Documentation of the umbrella dates to ancient Egypt where palm leaves were used for shade. The word “umbrella” derives from the Latin, “umbra,” meaning shade. In China, umbrellas for shielding rain were used as far back as the 11th century B.C.E. In 1852, Samuel Fox invented the steel-ribbed umbrella. Technological advancements in umbrella concepts and constructions even continue into space exploration.

FASHION: Top hats, such as those worn in this painting, came into fashion in the late 1700s, and by the mid-19th century led to a booming trade for beaver furs from the United States. Later, top hats were made from silk. COMPOSITION: Caillebotte broke one of the cardinal “no-nos” of composition with us hardly noticing: he divided his painting into four equally symmetrical quadrants. This could have caused his piece to be static and stagnant; instead it is dynamic and bustling with people from all walks of life. He accomplishes this through exquisite placement of diagonal and curved lines, depicting a variety of activity in foreground and background areas.

Wherever you see this symbol, it means there are resources related to this article available online. Visit and click on this button to explore these topics further.


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APRIL 2019

Gustave Caillebotte (French; 1848– 1894). Paris Street; Rainy Day, 1877. Oil on canvas; 83.5" × 108.75". The Art Institute of Chicago. Charles H. and Mary F. S. Worcester / Public domain. Collection. ©

In the Studio: Create and Present Annotations and lesson connections on these pages by Tara Cady Sartorius, Program Director, Alabama Arts Alliance



BRIGHTENING THE DAY. This is a fun three-in-one skill-building

AFTER THE RAIN. Reflections in puddles make for wonderful sub-

lesson. It teaches proportions of the face, wet-on-wet watercolor methods, and symbolism through pattern, color, and shape. Teacher Graeme Ellzey says the lesson is an antidote “…to the many gloomy, rainy days of early spring. This is a favorite and challenging mixed media project ... providing success and confidence in various art skills and abilities.”

jects, especially when studying light and form. The accumulation of water in unexpected places can help us see familiar scenes with a new perspective.

Art by fourth-grade students of Graeme Ellzey from The Anthony School, Little Rock, Ark.

Although the bright patterns on the umbrellas are the most eyecatching aspects of these large 18" x 24" pieces, the work began with a lesson in self-portraiture. Students used mirrors to observe their faces in order to capture accurate physical likenesses. After they drew their self-portraits, students then designed symbolic portraits of themselves with zentangle-inspired patterns by drawing lines, shapes, and colors within the umbrellas. The final “wow” factor came with the liquid watercolor backgrounds painted to express their moods and rainy outdoor weather conditions. Once the backgrounds were dry, students collaged all their pieces to create some rather perfect storms!

NATIONAL ART STANDARDS: Grade 4 CREATE: Organize and develop artistic ideas and work. PRESENT: Develop and refine artistic techniques and work for presentation. CONNECT: Synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make art.

Art by high school students of Sarah Ratcliff at Merced High School, Merced, Calif.

Teacher Sarah Ratcliff advised her students to photograph 20 images and then submit 10 for teacher review. An assignment that challenges students to capture 20 different views, makes for a valuable experience in looking and seeing. She says, “… after it has rained really hard, water acts as a natural mirror against a dark pavement. If you angle it just right, it can even create a natural double exposure effect. It makes for stunning photo opportunities. Imagine the visual effect of having your model pose between the sky above, and the sky reflected below. In case you can’t find a puddle big enough, a small one will do.” Ratcliff advises her students to choose a very low angle. “…the illusion of distance will make your small puddle look like a lake. No photographer should miss out on this magical photo-op.”

NATIONAL ART STANDARDS: High School How to use the A&A Monthly Art Print: Carefully unbend the staples at the center of the magazine, pull the print up and out of the magazine. Rebend staples to keep magazine intact. Laminate the pulled-out section and use it as a resource in your art room. — Editor


CREATE: Shape an artistic investigation of an aspect of present-day life using a contemporary practice of art or design. • Experiment, plan, and make multiple works of art and design that explore a personally meaningful theme, idea, or concept. RESPOND: Respond: Analyze how one’s understanding of the world is affected by experiencing visual imagery.

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~ The Heidelberg Project ~

Dotty Wotty Houses

by Tammie Clark


nyone who knows me well knows I cannot throw things away. I see the potential in items others would throw away. When a colleague brought me a book she purchased while on vacation in Detroit, little did she know she had created a monster. Magic Trash, by J.H. Shapiro (Charlesbridge; 2015), tells the story of Tyree Guyton of Detroit, and his largescale public artwork called the Heidelberg Project. She also brought some photographs of the neighborhood. I told her I was familiar with the public art from an article in a past NAEA Art Education journal, and was eager to learn more about it. Tyree and his grandfather began gathering trash from his old neighborhood, sorting and painting it. The trash ended up on abandoned houses, in empty lots, wrapped around trees, across fences and power lines. Tyree painted an abandoned Victorian house with brightly colored polka dots—the Dotty Wotty House—in an effort to chase away drug dealers who had taken up residence there. After Christmas break, my colleague informed me that one of the houses she photographed had been burned by an arsonist. As I was doing web searches, I found out that not only had that house been burned, but four others as well, one as recently as December 2013. I was so disheartened, yet thankful for the photographs she brought me, because only two houses in my photographs still exist. LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Elementary students will … • draw houses using geometric shapes. • recognize the use of recyclable materials in art making. • recognize installation artwork, specifically the Heidelberg Project, by Tyree Guyton.


• • • •

CREATING: Identify, describe and visually document places and/or objects of personal significance. PRESENTING: Analyze the various considerations for presenting and protecting art in various locations, indoor or outdoor settings, in temporary or permanent forms, and in physical or digital forms. RESPONDING: Identify and interpret works of art or design that reveal how people live around the world and what they value. CONNECTING: Recognize that responses to art change depending on knowledge of the time and place in which it was made.

MATERIALS/RESOURCES Recycled papers: envelopes, • Tempera paint, cotton swabs book pages, music sheets, • Scrapbook paper/ painted paper scraps dictionary pages • Construction paper: 12" x 18" • Die-cut circle punches black, 15" x 20" colored • Book: Magic Trash, by J.H. Shapiro. Charlesbridge; 2015. • Permanent markers


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Third- and fourthgraders learned about the Heidelberg Project before creating their houses.


students, they weren’t just disheartened, but downright outraged. It was amazing to see the reaction the students had. Later many did their own internet searches on The Heidelberg Project. I even got notes from parents who learned along with their children. I am thankful the Dotty Wotty house still stands! Magic Trash really gives a good background on Tyree and the incarnation of the Heidelberg Project. The illustrations were inspiration for the project I did with third- and fourth-grade students, aptly named “Dotty Wotty Houses.” We used all recyclable papers in lieu of white sulphite: dictionary pages, insides of envelopes, music pages, book pages, and more. We talked about home architecture, using basic shapes to draw roofs, doors and windows. We drew with pencil first, outlined with permanent markers, and cut out the houses. They were glued to black paper and the dots were painted with tempera and cotton swabs. The black paper was mounted to 15" x 20" colored construction papers and bordered with dots punched from scrapbook paper and painted paper. I am thrilled with the results and will be sending photos to Tyree to see what he thinks. n Tammie Clark (NBCT) is an art teacher at Oak Park and Frances Nungester Elementary Schools in Decatur, Alabama. 23



by Megan Giampietro



Maxim Lada


he fourth-grade students at Loesche Elementary School were engaged in a lively discussion about modes of transportation and their function and purpose. The conversation led to their exciting observations of the many visually intriguing trucks that the children have seen on the local streets and highways. They collaboratively concluded that trucks can be large, moveable backdrops for art! The children described seeing trash trucks with art from the project “Design in Motion—The Recycling Truck Project,” sponsored by Philadelphia’s Mural Arts Program. This project completely wrapped an entire fleet of recycling trucks with art, turning this once dirty vehicle into something surprisingly beautiful! There was more talk about sightings of produce trucks with colorful paintings of large fruits and vegetables, ice cream trucks with giant ice cream cones on top, and stories about trucks with everything from comical cows to flashy clothing. The ideas kept flowing, just like the flow of trucks throughout the neighborhoods, with the varied imagery on the sides and even on the tops! Students’ amazement grew as they realized that trucks are an empty canvas for art, and art can be seen everywhere, not just in a museum. We researched trucks online and discovered many spectacular images on them—delightful donuts, crazy cupcakes, super salads, monster motorcycles, and so much more! Some we saw had gigantic cookies on them, while an exterminator truck had a giant insect sculpture riding on the top of it! During the research, students came upon the “Truck Art Project” that took place in Spain in 2016. For this project,


contemporary artists used the sides of trucks as gigantic canvases, making art that was not inside the confines of a museum or gallery, but out in the everyday world. The opportunities for creating artful trucks seemed endless, and the students could hardly wait to get started. TO ENCOURAGE INDEPENDENT think-

ing, the students were involved in deciding what materials to use for the artful trucks. After discussing markers, pastels and colored pencils, they decided on crayon resist, which would provide the colors and textures needed for making the “art on the go” trucks. The waxy feature of the crayons

would “resist” the watercolor, allowing for overlaying of different colors in order to create new combinations. For example, one student discovered that she could paint yellow over red crayon, and the hue took on a unique shade of orange. Another tried painting with blue on top of orange, and was amazed at the vibrancy of this combination of complementary colors! The students first drew their trucks in pencil using simple geometric shapes to create a basic truck shape with wheels. Then, they let their imaginations loose as they made many different kinds of trucks in a variety of shapes and sizes, with varying amounts of wheels. There were trucks hauling motorcycles, and trucks selling donuts! There were several ice cream trucks, and some were for games or animals. Creative backgrounds were added and included urban skylines with tall buildings in many architectural styles. Some students drew rolling country hills with sunny skies or snow-capped mountains.

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Go to and click on this button for resources related to this article.


students briefly hesitated adding the watercolors! But, they couldn’t resist painting with watercolors and experimenting with the crayons and paints, so they confidently wet their brushes and started using the paints! STUDENTS WERE TAUGHT ABOUT warm

Khilula Daniel Alexa

> >



LEARNING OBJECTIVES Fourth-grade students will … • explore the variety of modes of transportation and their purposes. • learn about the Philadelphia Mural Arts Program’s efforts to beautify life in the city, including art on trucks. • learn that trucks can be works of art that are accessible and visible in everyday life. • experiment with crayons and watercolors, in order to create a mixed-media product • create a variety of color combinations with new and exciting textures. • develop drawing skills when drawing the basic form of a truck, and a setting where the truck is travelling.

with color, using crayons. We discussed the amount of pressure needed to apply the crayon to achieve the right balance for the later application of watercolors on top of the crayon. Pressure that was too light didn’t seem to be enough color, and pressure that was too heavy would resist the watercolors too much. It was decided that medium pressure was just right, allowing the right amount of color and specks of white from the paper to show through, which the watercolor would pick up. The drawings of the trucks were so beautifully colored with crayon that the

and cool colors, and when to change their water in order to keep the colors true. If their water was green, blue, or purple, and they wanted to use yellow, they knew they had to change the water first, or the yellow would not be a bright pure yellow, and may even look gray or brown. We also talked about experimenting with colors, using surprising combinations, because the waxy color underneath could still be seen. The color and textures were so varied and vibrant, and the trucks took on surprising new looks as the students eagerly painted. Once the crayon-resist paintings were completed, they were placed in a drying rack to dry. The students all marveled at the results of the finished product. The truck art was hung on display in the school hallways, and everyone in the school was inspired by the children’s work. Several of the creative and colorful trucks became part of an art exhibit at a local Barnes & Noble bookstore! The students truly loved their fanciful trucks, and the bold idea that trucks could truly be “Art on the Go”! n Megan Giampietro teaches art at Loesche Elementary School in Philadelphia.


PRESENTING: Analyzing, interpreting, and selecting artistic work for presentation. Developing and refining artistic work for presentation. • CONNECTING: Synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make art.


• • •

12" x 18" white drawing paper Pencils, crayons Watercolors, brushes, cups, water


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Boxes by Nanyoung Kim

olor schemes, or color harmonies, are various combinations of colors that, when juxtaposed, produce pleasing and interesting effects. There are many color schemes, and design books present different sets as recommendations. Those color harmonies are loosely based on the physiological nature of color perception. Similar colors produce a pleasing effect because their similarity unifies the whole. Very different colors, such as complementary colors, produce an exciting effect because they enhance each other with their differences. Therefore, even though color schemes are not strict rules, they produce harmony automatically, because unity and contrast are already built into any color scheme. IN TEACHING COLOR SCHEME to my students—who

are not art majors—I establish several points: 1. It is convenient to conceptualize these two “camps” as unity-based color schemes on the one hand and contrastbased color schemes on the other. Thus conceived, different color schemes can be categorized in the following manner: • Unity-based color schemes: monochromatic, analogous, warm colors, cool colors and any colors with similar value or similar intensity. • Contrast-based color schemes: complementary, split complementary, triad and tetrad. 2. Because a good composition is made of not just one side but both sides of design principles, a unity-based color scheme needs more variety and contrast, and a contrast based color scheme needs more unity. 3. I saw many color scheme projects done mechanically, with the result that the combinations students produce are either “boring” or “harsh,” especially in cases of monochromatic color scheme and complementary color scheme 26

Two pairs of complementary colors.





respectively. Therefore, the final judgment of a color scheme project should be perceptual and aesthetic, not whether students followed a color scheme or not. If value range is controlled well, two pairs of complementar y colors can produce a pleasing and exciting design. It should also be noted that the original color in a color scheme does not have to appear at all; the color combination can be made up only of its tints and shades. MAIN PROJECT. Once students have learned to mix colors and understand color schemes, we move on to the hands-on project. As our “canvas,” we use wooden or papier-mâché boxes, which work well with the acrylic paints we will be using. The boxes are inexpensive, come in various shapes, and available at most craft stores. An added benefit is that students are motivated when painting a useful item for a keepsake. To begin, each student chooses a color scheme with which to paint his or her box. I recommend that they also use tints, shades and tones of the original colors, as well as black and white, and various grays, Next, they draw designs that have 20 or more areas to paint. Students choose one of the following approaches: 1. nonobjective regular or irregular pattern; 2. patterns made of a motif that is a stylized form of a familiar object they like; or 3. a stylized pictorial scene with a theme. THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN. Repetition, variety and contrast are the most important design principles in this project. Repetition is accomplished by the color scheme itself (tints, a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


LEARNING OBJECTIVES High school students will ... • understand color scheme in terms of design principles. • make a pleasing design by applying a color scheme and other design principles. • produce an artistic and useful object to keep and remember.


• •

Acrylic paints Small and medium-sized paintbrushes • Wood or papier-mâché boxes

Acrylic gloss medium (optional) Black permanent markers or metallic paint-markers (optional)



• •






shades, and tones contain the original color), by repeating motifs (pattern), and by randomly painting the same color several times throughout the design. Variety and contrast can be achieved by size differences (big and small), shape differences in design (circular and rectangular, for example), and different degrees in value and intensity. For example, in order not to make a monochromatic color scheme dull or boring, students not only paint many colors (for example, an original color, two tints, two shades) but also choose tints, shades or tones that are far apart, such as very light tint, very dark shade. When they finish painting, I encourage students to


Split complementary.

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examine their designs and repaint areas that would make the design stronger. Another way to enhance the design is to draw outlines with a metallic paint marker or a permanent black marker. Acr ylic gloss medium can be applied as a final touch. I always am amazed how non-art majors, when well directed, can produce beautiful designs that are as sophisticated as those made by a professional designer. n Dr. Nanyoung Kim is a professor at East Carolina University in Greenville, N.C., where she teaches methods courses for art education majors, a design course for general college students, and supervises art education interns. 27

media reviews

EXPRESSIVE PAINTING: Tips and Techniques for Practical Applications in Watercolor, including Color Theory, Color Mixing, and Understanding Color Relationships, by Joseph Stoddard. Walter Foster Publishing, $21.95. It seems that recent Walter Foster art books often contain extensive educational material on color, as well they should. The extremely long subtitle advises us that this one, too, is filled with page after page of ver y useful knowledge on the subject. With that emphasis on powerful, expressive color, the author/artist is a watercolor maestro. His book is loaded with so much ser viceable information that, understandably, many of Stoddard’s terrific illustrations and paintings are pictured smaller than we’d like. But the arresting larger reproductions more than make up for that. The cover price of Expressive

BOOKS • DVDs • PRINTS • RESOURCES Jerome J. Hausman • Paula Guhin

Painting is well worth it. The author discusses tools and trappings for both studio painting and plein air. Also for rural, urban, and night scenes as well as interiors. His publisher states that the book is a basic guide for beginners, although we submit that learners of many abilities will enjoy it. An excellent second chapter, Preliminar y Work, involves quick sketching. It also explains focal points and perspective ver y well. Even if you’re not one to keep a painting sketchbook, you’ll appreciate the third section for its relevant advice. Later, six progressive demonstrations include two stilllife paintings. Stoddard concludes his book with

SEE HOW teachers have used past Arts & Activities PROJECTS in their ART ROOM.

eight choice habits, ace admonitions for any artist. He signs off with a quote from Chuck Close: “Inspiration is for amateurs. The rest of us just get to work.” And with one of the author’s own: “Never let reality stand in the way of a good painting.” Let us paraphrase that last bit: “Don’t let reality stand in the way of a colorful painting!”–P.G. GENINNE’S ART: BIRDS IN WATERCOLOR, COLLAGE, AND INK: A Field Guide to Art Techniques and Observing in the Wild, by Geninne D. Zlatkis. Quarry Books, $24.99. Yes, this book is alive with birds, but that’s not all. Plant motifs flourish, butterflies thrive—even hares. They’re chiefly decorative rather than true to life, and the bird species aren’t usually identifiable. The artist’s lighthearted, fanciful style has earned her droves of admirers on social media

It Works! 85th ANNIVERSARY

in Arts & Activities. lesson plans and resources found the following accounts The original articles that inspired Visit our home page at are available on our website. 85th Anniversary “A&A: It, click on the of successful ideas and Works” icon, and a veritable treasure

in this past September’s “A&A: It Works!” was announced celebration. We were issue, launching our 85th Anniversary started coming in from exhilarated when the testimonials around the nation. comments and we were Our hearts were warmed by the the young generation of art thrilled with the response from daily in their art rooms. We teachers who use the magazine they are using the ideas, enjoyed reading their stories of how

lessons will be yours.

Publisher — Maryellen Bridge, Editor and

Hands On

s Sumi-e Samurai | BY DAVID LAUX



he article that inspired this project was in the September 2017 issue, Hands On, by Irv Osterer. I made a short slide presentation work to about how artists can use their Edvard send a message. I started with BarMunch and Pablo Picasso, showed with bara Kroger’s work, and ended the street artist, JR. This coincided with the publicity border about JR’s current work on the I wall between Mexico and California. played an audio interview from National show. Public Radio with the slide it This proved to be powerful because mix and brought current issues into the to it the students seemed to respond with interest. The way that JR describes the work was open ended and personal. my The question I asked to prompt use the students was, “How can you with imagery of hands to send a message


& he January 2014 issue of Arts Activities is one of my favorites. in I was really drawn to the images David Laux’s article, Sumi-e Samurais. open I remember leaving that article I could on my desk for weeks, just so was so see those images every day. I out to inspired by it, that I reached Adopt-a-Classroom for sumi-e brushes. the I’d had a difficult time finding your artwork?” right projects to engage my fifth-gradkey. ers that year. This one was the Submitted by Hallie Levine workThey loved the whole concept of Art Teacher the ing on samurais and learning about Pickney Community High School spehistory. They also felt it was super Pickney, Michigan cial to have the new sumi-e brushes. had One student in particular, who havup ended art, never liked to create local ing his samurai displayed at our came to art museum! His whole family see it. It was a big deal. Submitted by Amanda Koonlaba Visual Art Specialist Lawhon Elementary School Tupelo, Mississippi

Alive and Kicking: Round and Round | DECEMBER 2015



Assorted Henri Rou ssea Lessons, Art Prints,u-Inspired etc. 1990s TO

Students layered the circles the same way as shown in the article. ® Students used Sharpie and marker to color symmetrically. The work was displayed on bulletin boards adminin the hall. Students, teachers, comistration and parents have all work is mented on how beautiful the of the and how they love the display work together.

| OCTOBER, 1992

Old-School Inspirati BY ANNE HOFFMAN


ers.) My students working were on 3D clay gargoyles (from the Feb. 2000 issue). I started using I showed them them as an elethe Ar t Print from mentary teacher May 2011—a 3.3a as now, and cm Japanese netschool middle (miniature suke teacher, I use sculpture), depictthem even more ing a monkey with … and not just the current ones! The baby. her clay I always start my students on gargoyles that we around the beginning of February, not as were making were small, but onea about be will it thinking that While love small as the 3.3 cm netsuke. month project. Not! My students analyzing the print, we discussed working with clay—as most do—and sculptures figurative into miniature my one clay project usually turns form. and (scale), texture, three or four more. I pulled out two magazines—the Submitted by Glenda Lubiner y 2000. May 2011 issue and Februar Art Teacher, Franklin Academy by (Yes, I have them all categorized Pembroke Pines, Florida bindmonth and years in several 28

| MARCH 2017


tried this

wonderful lesson by Anne Hoffman issue, on the artist in the March 2017 WRDSMTH. I never and I was intrigued heard of this artist before, by his work. I thought to spread some it would be a great kindness in our way middle school, the does, with his positive way WRDSMTH messages of hope and perseverance. I contacted Anne, and she was so gracious her PowerPoint, and generously her typewriter printout, gave me links to the stencils and lots of encourag she uses, ement. I followed her format, and with fantastic this project not results! The students only for the power loved of the quote they because they were chose, but also so successful with every aspect of the project.

Submitted by Kerri Waller Art Teacher, Simpson Middle School Marietta, Georgia


& have been a subscriber to Arts a Activities for the last 20 years (and use the writer for the past six), and I still pull-out Art Prints with my students.


Submitted by Nan Hathaway Art Teacher, Crossett Brook Middle School, Duxbury, Vermont

A&A Art Prints and more I

| MAY 2016

he idea of providing PRESENT “time, space and support” to students who choose to spend time with have enjoyed many a process, idea, of Arts & Activities tech’ Henri Rousseau nique or medium, dating back as far lessons and resources can transform art as the early 1990s. class What I’ve done with incorporate them into an authentic art-studio experienc into my two schools— all the e. where I teach students, project ideas is severe multiple Following Julie impairments and Toole’s example, aged 5 to 26, with autism spectrum I project focusing allow my students disorder—as a on animals in Rousseau to decide how long collabora tive ’s school was assigned to stay with an artwork paintings, and in the rainfores w w w . a r t s a ndifferent or line of thinkYEARS animal grouping paper,x 3D, texture s. We have a combinat t. Each ing and making, and rubbings and paint, to continue ion of cut ing until workmarkers and stamping “done.” This attitude ! supports the development of individual style, Submitted by Lori the creation of series Reuben, Art Teacher–S of works, (which Lincoln Developm pecial Needs span can ent Center and Pine years), encourages a connectio Grove Learning Center between n Grand Rapids Public school and home, Schools, Michigan and nurtures productive collabora tions between likeminded learners. Win-win-win!




Choice-Based Art: Diving Deep

Autumn Leaves: An Experiment in Cubism m a y 2 0 1 8 • 85



ound and Round is an example of how art teachers can incorporate modern, living artists within our classroom walls. The article focuses on artist Matt Moore from Maine. While Masse teaches a younger group, the to project was easily transferred my seventh-graders. My students narexamined Moore’s website and murals. rowed in on his more organic Masse We focused on the same mural colorful did with his students—a We 2010. in Portland in painted piece y, reviewed vocabular y like symmetr murals shape, line, space, overlapping, and collaboration.

Visit our website and click on the “IT WORKS!” icon to learn more.




point his project was a starting tsa ndactiviti for numerous variations on cubist it, we leaves. The first time I taught white used colored marker on plain same copy paper. We followed the used 4 directions as in the article, but color 5 leaf shapes. They looked very step. another need to seemed but orful, The next time I taught the lesson, in conwe added another layer of leaves ® tour lines with black Sharpie . Students onto who had time went “off the paper” much another paper. This version looked sprayed more finished. We have also to water with lightly marker the colored another make the colors bleed for yet to the look. This past fall, we added salt wet markers to add some texture.

m a y 2 0 1 8 • 85 Y E A R S

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may 2018

Submitted by Stephanie Stamm, Art Teacher Boyertown West Middle School, Boyertow n, Pennsylvania 29

Submitted by Donna Staten, Art Specialist, Gattis Elementary School, Round Rock, Texas ❘ tsandactivi

a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


(a good reason to put her name first in the title). She’s omnipresent: Etsy, Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, and the list goes on. She has commercially licensed calendars, puzzles, and that list goes on, too! It’s not that Zlatkis is limited to a stylized, people-pleasing approach. She has never taken a watercolor class, and is her own woman with the medium, but as a former student of graphic arts, the author is more than capable of creating realistic work. She even makes her own paper feathers for collage. Note: The author doesn’t work en plein air—the subtitle states “obser ving in the wild.” Geninne creates art indoors using her own photographs as references. In her watercolor paintings, the author sometimes leaves her background white or fills in a ver y dark subject first. She adds highlights back in with white acr ylic paint. She relies on white pigment a great deal, and even came up with a good idea featuring white ink and paintstore samples. The collages are spare and simple rather than layered ever ywhere multiple times. Same stor y in the Drawing with Ink chapter. Rather typical with Quarr y books, readers will find many photos of objects, art spaces, and ephemera. In fact, preparative material comprises the first 30 pages of the soft cover. And about 20% of the concluding pages are made up of collage papers that could be cut from the book. Geninne’s groupies will be happy that some of those are reproductions of her art. But the audience for this lovely paperback isn’t particular to her followers. If you’re a playful artist avid about collage or ink drawing, you might be smitten with it.–P.G.


86 Y E A R S •

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86 Y E A R S •

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Introducing a heavily insulated Paragon glaze test kiln The Max-119 is heavily insulated so you can fire to 2300°F (1259°C) on 120 volts. The kiln is 11” wide x 9” deep. The walls are 4 ½” thick! The 2 ½” thick firebricks are backed with an extra 2” of block insulation. Optional colors at no charge If you don’t like the black shown here, order your kiln in turquoise, hot pink, purple, berry, navy, jade, or blue. Ideal for classes Buy a Max-119 for your classroom. Students can make gifts for special occasions without waiting until the school’s large kiln is fired. New teachers inherit bags of unlabeled clay. Many ceramic firings have been ruined because the clay was fired to the wrong temperature. With a small kiln, you can test unlabeled clay. Test glazes while you feel the momentum instead of waiting to fire them in your large kiln. A test kiln creates enthusiasm for a clay program. A glaze test kiln vastly increases students’ knowledge of glazes. 18” tall deluxe rolling stand The rolling stand raises the kiln to a convenient height. Should you need a vent, merely slide the Orton collection cup into a mounting bracket on the top of the stand. Join the Clayart pottery forum here:

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Childe Hassam (American; 1859–1935). Rainy Day, Boston, 1885. Oil on canvas; 26.10" x 48.03". Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio. Purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey. ©/ Public domain.

“Sketching is almost everything. It is the painter's identity, his style, his conviction, and then color is just a gift to the drawing.” — Fernando Botero


hope now you have all had a little R & R and are ready for the home stretch. April brings to us Child Abuse Prevention Month, Autism Awareness Month, Holocaust Remembrance Day, Passover and Easter. We also have great painting tips and a little insight as to what we have learned from our students!

tip #1

PRACTICE PAINTING. Toni Ratzlaff from

Summit Elementary School in Divide, Colorado, has her primary students practice painting with water—directly on the table. To introduce painting, she shows them how to hold the brush, how to dip into water and to brush across the top of the water container to get rid of extra water, then paint. They talk about not tapping, since it splatters onto everything in the area! Then they practice using only water right on the table. They love it! They

their paper in thirds. They can do this in three equal sections vertically, horizontally, diagonally, or by making a circle or square/rectangle in the middle and adding two more concentric ones. Students can start by sketching their drawing lightly on their paper. One section should be painted realistically. The next section could be painted using neutral or complementary colors and different watercolor techniques. The third section could be colorful and again using different watercolor techniques. There are the usual techniques of wet on wet, splattering, washes, and dry brush, but you can have your students try techniques like using a masking tape or rubber cement block, salt, sponging, crunched paper towels or plastic wrap. There are also different techniques to scrape and scratch.

tip #3

SUNSET SILHOUETTES. A fun way to teach warm and cool colors to elementary students is to have them look at sunrises and sunsets. When I taught elementary school, I would show pho-

Color is a Gift draw big lines and write their name and whatever other things they can fit in their workspace. When it is time to clean up, the tables are amazingly clean! While they never remember everything about painting, they always remember painting with water. A continuation to this practice could be painting with water on newsprint.

tip #2

H2O COLOR EXPERIMENTS. This tip can be used with students in fourth grade and up. When teaching about watercolor, have your students divide

ATTENTION READERS If you would like to share some of your teaching tips, email them to:


tos and have my students discuss the colors and objects they saw. I also started to teach them about composition, incorporating the words “foreground” and “background.” Most of the time the objects were in silhouette. I would split the class in half and some kids would use warm colors— pink and orange tempera paint, and the other half of the class would use turquoise and purple tempera. This was a 2-day project. The first day they would paint “messy,” alternating stripes with their two colors, blending the colors just a bit. They loved the fact that their painting could be messy. The second day they would paint their silhouette in black tempera paint. Because we live in Florida, I showed the kids how to make a palm tree. They had to paint at least one palm tree and anything else they wanted. The finished products ranged from only trees,

Glenda L


tip #4

to trees, islands, fish, buildings, and an assortment of other non-distinguishable items. BOY DID I LEARN A LOT. With all her experience teaching high school, Victoria Eichler from Bishop Ireton High School in Alexandria, Virginia, has learned some tricks to make her life just a bit easier. She uses Aver y 5960 address labels for all the students work and types them up early in the year. Name, grade, and the school year on the labels. She never has to translate a signature and hence knows what class drawer to put the art in. When it’s time for the school art show, she has readymade labels. Since Victoria teaches high school, she uses a sharps container to dispose of any sharp materials. It takes years to fill up and she doesn’t have to worry about sharp items in the garbage. Sharps containers can be purchased at most pharmacies. HAPPY BIRTHDAY to Max Ernst (April 2, 1891), Raphael (April 6, 1483), Eadweard Muybridge (April 9, 1830), James Ensor (April 12, 1860), Fernando Botero (April 19, 1932), and Cy Twombly (April 15, 1928). Thank you Victoria and Toni for your helpful tips. n

Arts & Activities Contributing Editor Glenda Lubiner (NBCT) teaches art at Franklin Academy Charter School in Pembroke Pines, Fla. She is also an adjunct professor at Broward College.

a p r i l 2 0 1 9 • 86 Y E A R S


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Data + Design Lesson Plan for Grades 5–12

Step 1: Collect data and design a pattern to represent each data set.

Step 2: Repeat the pattern for each data recording, altering it slightly for each recording that is different.

Sargent Art Dual Tip Markers Item #00876 Step 3: Glue the graph paper designs onto rigid board and arrange the data sets into a cohesive, collage-like artwork.

Forget bar graphs and pie charts! Data recorded as design creates a STEAM-y relationship between art and science. In this project, students become “data detectives” by collecting information, designing patterns, creating arrangements, and developing a piece of visual communication. Encourage them to select a set of data that interests them, create designs on graph paper that reflect the different data points, then assemble the patterns into a puzzle-like presentation or collage. CHECK OUT NEW lesson plans and video workshops at For students of all ages!

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