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麋鹿 救赎

the saving of peer 的david's deer

E. 我们为什么要保护麋鹿

▲ 洞庭湖麋鹿 分布状态遥感 示意图 © WWF The Remote S e n s i n g Diagram of Milu Distribution in Dongting Lake

98年长江发生大洪水之后,东洞庭湖农 民发现并捕获了麋鹿,这些麋鹿被送到湖南省 救护中心人工饲养。专家分析:洪水之时,湖 北石首天鹅洲麋鹿保护区围栏被冲垮,这些被 捕获的麋鹿应当是在围栏冲垮之际流落出来的 个体,因为食物等原因南下游过长江来到洞庭 湖范围活动。 随后的几年,保护区断断续续的接到农民 举报有麋鹿活动。直至2006年,麋鹿自然野化 种群在洞庭湖的信息才逐渐明晰。4月,保护 区采桑湖管理站接到举报,有麋鹿产下幼子在 农民的田中,6月接到保护区核心区红旗湖管 理站附近发现6只麋鹿,9月保护区试验区南洲 芦苇场、新洲芦苇场发现麋鹿37只。在2007 年1月至4月期间,保护区组织了2次野外监 测,发现10只麋鹿相对稳定的活动在保护区红 旗湖一带。2008年2-4月,专门针对麋鹿的野 外调查发现50头种群。以上信息初步能够确认 有麋鹿长期生活在东洞庭湖保护区的核心区腹 地,并且能够自由的生活并繁育后代。 发现自然野化麋鹿的重大意义 自1986年,麋鹿重引进中国以来,国家 林业局、国家环保局分别在大丰、天鹅洲实施 过麋鹿野化的一些工程,但这些都是基于人类 监控和保护下的有意识努力,野化的范围也是 在保护区内部。 洪水的意外给了麋鹿野化工程一个惊 喜,如果麋鹿自己也能记录历史,也有人类的 意识,那么它们的子孙后代将铭记这些在98 年“叛逃”南下的先辈们。这群“叛逃”的麋 鹿为种群的自然繁衍做出了最大的贡献。 我们很遗憾的是,在调查这群麋鹿过程 中,我们始终未能近距离的接触到它们,未能 留下清晰的影像资料,因为它们跑得实在太 快,反应实在太灵敏。在遗憾的同时,我们也 深怀欣慰,这群强壮的种群将会为燃起燎原之 火。 在自然保护事业中,“再引入”是指把 一个在原分布范围内已经消失的五种重新引回 原产地,并努力恢复其自然种群的行动,是保 护濒危物种的一个重要手段。

麋鹿作为IUCN保护名录的物种,在中国野 外曾经绝迹,从重新引入后20年的保护历程来 看,异地保护并进行野放的意义十分巨大。原 保护工程规划中曾确定将麋鹿引入洞庭湖时考 虑到洪水的影响,没有将栖息地选择在真正的 湖区湿地,而是初选了3个退田还湖垸作为首选 地,也因为活动范围小和社区矛盾突出而暂时 没有启动。目前,因三峡截流等水文环境的改 变,洞庭湖全年被水淹没的区域逐渐减少,大 量的洲滩裸露,植被生长旺盛,为麋鹿的长久 栖息野放提供了初步条件。同时,麋鹿作为湿 地演替的指示物种,对全面实施洞庭湖湿地的 生物多样性工作提供了重要依据,对麋鹿本身 的保护和将来的持续利用有深远的意义。 墓志铭:工业革命以来,以文明自诩却无 限扩张为所欲为的人类,已使数百种动物因为 过度捕杀或丧失家园而遭灭顶之灾。当地球上 最后一只老虎在人工林中徒劳地寻求配偶;当 最后一只未留下后代的雄鹰从污浊的天空坠向 大地;当麋鹿的最后一声哀鸣在干涸的沼泽上 空回荡----人类也就看到了自己的结局。 地球是我们唯一的家园,但她并不只属于 人类,只有保护这个大千世界的物种多样性, 才能使我们自身的繁荣、稳定、持续发展的到 保障。

F. 生命的多样性 我们还记得自己是从猩猩进化而来的 吗?进化到现在的人类是否有真正考虑过自己 也是世间千千万万动物中的一种? 许多种群由于进化而形成了彼此息息相 关的生态系统。这样的生态系统内部关系错综 复杂,某一物种的存亡会直接影响许多其他物 种的存亡。例如某一只动物的排泻废物可能给 某些其他物种提供食物,并且使植物生长的土 壤得到肥料。鸟类和某些动物往往是植物种子 的携带者,帮助植物迁移到新的地方去生根发 芽。像蜜蜂和蝴蝶这样的昆虫要从花儿那里取 得食物,但同时也给各种花儿传授了花粉,使 得植物能够繁衍生息。 同样,人类也不可避免地与其他物种有 着千丝万缕的联系。大自然为我们提供了食 物,服装原料,建筑材料以及药品。无论居住 在哪里,人们都要极大地依赖于自然资源而生 存。正式大自然的多样性以成千上万中方式为 人类的生活提供保障。保护我们自己最好的方 法就是保护好大自然。 我们可以挽救生物多样性,但并非仅仅 是把多样的生物用栅栏围起来使人类远离它 们。仅仅把大自然圈在公园里、保护区里、及 实验室的基因库里是不够的,因为象孤岛般支 离破碎的小片小片的自然区域将无法存活于一 个已经被破坏了的大环境。 要让自然和人类和谐的相处。


麋鹿 救赎

the saving of peer 的david's deer

© 姚毅

critically endangered species.

B. the Return of Milu

The extinction history of Milu in its native place 1900 year ago Milu is a unique species of China. The unearthed Milu fossil indicates that Milu dates back to more than 2 million years ago, and prospered from approximately 10,000 years to 3,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found that the number of Milu skeleton ruins are equal to that of pig bones in that period, rapidly declining in the Shang and Zhou period 3000 years ago, and finally exterminated in the Qing Dynasty. The domestic Milu however, were killed by the Eighth Power Expeditionary Force when they stormed into Beijing in 1900, causing its local extinction in China. Milu chronology: 1. Ancient times: Milu had a natural breeding growth period. With little human disturbance, this period became a prosperous and unthreatened time for the Milu. 2. From Shang and Zhou Dynasty to Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - A.D. 220 years): Since the Zhou Dynasty, Milu were captured as game within the imperial hunting park, and also tamed. At this time the wild population and the domesticated population coexisted, but the former out-numbered the latter.

Historical record: Shangwang once became addicted to arresting Milu and captured 726 heads of Milu after hunting them in a total of 40 days from Jiazi to Guimao. During this period, human hunting was the main threat to the Milu. 3. From the Han Dynasty to the Yuan Dynasty (AD 1206 -1368): The Milu’s boom is over. As human productivity and population develop fast, human activities such as farming and landreclamation of lakes speed up the destruction of the Milu habitat. Furthermore, since 1050, the temperature has become gradually colder, which is not suitable for the thermophilic Milu's survival. Documents before the Han Dynasty had a lot of material recording the hunting of Milu, but the literature records on frequency and amount of Miluhunters after the Han dynasty are lacking. So it may be inferred that at that time wild populations were heading toward extinction, and it only remained large in certain districts. 4. From the Yuan Dynasty to 1900: Since The Yuan Dynasty, the Milu have had low numbers, and the literature records that the wild populations are even fewer then the few domesticated ones, which were mainly distributed in the Nanhaizi Royal Hunting Court in the southern suburbs of Beijing. From the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty to the Yongding River Flood and Invasion in 1894, this court was regarded as the hunting court by about


麋鹿 救赎

the saving of peer 的david's deer

© 姚毅 province. The Milu returned to the coastal shallow seas and tidelands where their wild ancestors finally settled. Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve in Jiangsu, located on the coast of the Yellow Sea has a total area of 1,170,000 Mu in which the core area is 40,000 Mu, the world's biggest Milu Nature Reserve, which boasts a complete wetland ecological succession series and rich biodiversity. Until the April of 2008, Dafeng Milu Nature Reserve has altogether raised more than 1307 in which, the wide breed population is 109 heads of Milu, with the rates of child-birth, survival and the annual increasing rate being first in the world. In 2006, the China Wildlife Conservation Association awarded it the “Milu town of China." The Natural Milu Preserve in Swan Islet Wetland in Hubei The Nanhaizi Milu Court delivered 64 heads of Milu respectively in 1993 and 1994 to Hubei Swan Islet Nature Preserve. The Milu could quickly adapt to the original habitat of the environment, a healthy grassland ecosystem., They reproduced smoothly and gradually were restored to their natural population. In a few years, their numbers increased to more than 120 heads. Since then, they have grown strongly to number about 600.

D. The rebellious fleeing of Milu to Eastern Dongting Lake

“Wild” Milu are discovered After the Yangtze River flood in 1998, farmers in Eastern Dongting Lake discovered and caught some Milu. These Milu were delivered to the Hunan Provincial rescue center for artificial rearing. Experts’ analysis: As the fences of the Natural Milu Preserve in the Swan Islet Wetland in Hubei

were destroyed by floods, these captured Milu fled and searched for food southward across the Yangtze River to the South Dongting Lake. In the following years, the protectorate consecutively received the farmer’s report on the Milu’s activity. It was not until 2006 when the information of natural wild Milu populations in Dongting Lake gradually became clear. In April, the management station of the Caisang Lake Protectorate received reports that the Milu had given birth in a farmer's field. In June, six heads of Milu were discovered near the core area of the Red Flag Lake Protectorate Management Station. In September, 37 heads of Milu were discovered in the south protectorate pilot areas (the continent reed field and the new continent reed field.) From January to April, in 2007, the protectorate has organized two open country monitoring systems, and found 10 heads of Milu that haunt the Red Flag Lake Protectorate area. From February to April, of 2008, 50 heads were discovered in the open country investigation. The above information can preliminarily confirm that Milu live a long-term and free life in the core area of the Eastern Dongting Lake Nature Reserve and are successful at breeding. The great significance of finding wild Milu Since the re-introduction of Milu to China in 1986, the State Forestry Administration and State Environmental Protection Administration have implemented a number of wild-exercising projects of Milu in Dafeng and Swan Island, based on monitoring. These wild areas are now protected.. The flood accident was a surprise to the wild Milu project. If Milu were able to record history or had a human consciousness, then their posterity would always be remembered for “rebelling and fleeing.” The older generations who went south in


麋鹿 救赎

the saving of peer 的david's deer

© 姚毅



MILU