New route off East Africa dropped
Los artículos en español aparecen en las páginas 6y7 Статьи на русском языке приводятся на стр. 6 и 7
Call for Black Sea reform page 3 Falmouth helps fire survivors page 4/5 Personal property losses page 6 The Mission to Seafarers Founded in 1856, and entirely funded by voluntary donations, today’s Mission to Seafarers offers emergency assistance, practical support, and a friendly welcome to crews in 250 ports around the world. Whether caring for victims of piracy or providing a lifeline to those stranded in foreign ports, we are there for the globe’s 1.2 million merchant seafarers of all ranks, nationalities and beliefs.
The Sea Editor: Anna Emerson News: David Hughes The Sea is distributed free to seafarers through chaplains and seafarers’ centres. You can also arrange to receive it regularly at a cost of £3.50 or $5 per year (six issues). To find out more, contact: Anna Emerson, The Sea, The Mission to Seafarers, St Michael Paternoster Royal, College Hill, London EC4R 2RL. Tel: +44 20 7248 5202 Email: anna.emerson@ missiontoseafarers.org www.missiontoseafarers.org Registered charity in England and Wales: 1123613. The Mission to Seafarers Scotland Limited, Registered charity: SC041938.
Salvors recover 48 tonnes of WWII silver A US-BASED deep-ocean exploration company, Odyssey Marine Exploration, has recovered 48 tonnes of silver, worth about £24 million, from the wreck of a British merchant vessel sunk during the Second World War. The British-India Steam Navigation Company’s 412 foot steel-hulled cargo-
ship Gairsoppa was torpedoed by a German U-boat 300 miles off the Irish coast on February 17, 1941. The ship has since lain three miles below the surface with its cargo of silver ingots, pig iron and tea. Odyssey is carrying out the recovery under a contract with the UK Government, which will receive 20 per cent of the value
of the recovered silver. The company says the silver brought ashore so far is only about a fifth of the total on board, meaning the entire cargo could be worth over £120 million. In a press release, it claimed that the “record-breaking” operation was “the heaviest and deepest recovery of precious metals from a shipwreck”.
Labour convention hits 30 signatories as Russia & Philippines sign
MLC to come into effect THE Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) has been ratified by enough governments to come into effect in 12 months’ time, marking a significant step forward in the employment and welfare rights of the world’s seafarers, reports the International Labour Organisation (ILO), writes Ben Bailey. Thirty countries, representing 33 per cent of the world’s gross shipping tonnage, were needed before the convention could enter into force. Liberia became the first state to sign up, followed by the Marshall Islands and the Bahamas. But after a rush to be in the first wave of signatories, it then seemed the convention would take longer than thought to become a reality. For the first six months of this year, the total number of countries who had passed the legislation into their national law stood at 28. Then, as the summer months began to creep in, a flurry of signatories presented their instruments of ratification to the ILO. In July, Cyprus
The MLC sets international standards for almost every aspect of seafarers’ working lives. (Photo: Jamie Smith) became the 29th signatory to the convention and then in mid-August, the governments of the Philippines and Russia tipped the balance and brought the first global standard of employment for seafarers into being. “This is great news for the world’s more than 1.2 million seafarers,” said the ILO director general Juan Somavia. “It was a dream of the ILO as early as 1920, and I pay tribute
to the international maritime community for having made it a reality. Not only are these first 30 ratifications drawn from almost every region of the world, but the tonnage level is nearly double the required amount,” he said. The Maritime Labour Convention establishes minimum requirements for almost all aspects of working conditions for seafarers. The convention, sometimes referred to as the
‘Seafarers’ Bill of Rights’, sets out conditions for employment, hours of work and rest, accommodation, recreational facilities, food and catering, health protection, medical care, welfare and social security protection. “Each state is tasked not only with ensuring that ships flying its flag meet the ‘decent work’ requirements set out in the convention, but also with certifying [that] those ships comply with the requirements relating to labour conditions,” said Cleopatra Doumbia-Henry, director of the ILO’s international labour standards department. The Revd Canon Ken Peters, director of justice and welfare at The Mission to Seafarers joined unions and other organisations in welcoming the news, but was quick to point out that there will be a 12-month adjustment period to enable those countries that haven’t ratified the convention to get their houses in order. “This Convention has been a long time in the making, Continued on page 2
THE global shipping industry appears to have successfully lobbied against a proposal put forward at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to establish a new recommended route for all ships in the Mozambique Channel that would be approximately 1,000 miles long. An IMO committee decided not to proceed with the plan, although it could be put forward again. Shipowners’ organisation the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) led opposition to the proposed move. ICS director marine John Murray said the proposal would have resulted in all vessels following the same track, increasing the risk of collision for the hundreds of ships that would be using the scheme at any one time.
Seafarers advised to check out employers SEAFARERS should check out employers before signing on to avoid working on substandard shipping, according to the Maritime Authority of Jamaica (MAJ). In a statement issued on the international Day of the Seafarer, June 25, the MAJ urged seafarers to “assess the quality of the employers for whom they choose to work and become more involved in ensuring that their own welfare issues are adequately addressed”. “Whenever they can, seafarers ought to be careful about checking the credentials of the companies they work for,” said MAJ director general Rear Admiral Peter Brady. “Look at the company’s track record,” he added, “and find out about its reputation as an employer before you decide if you want to work for them. While we understand the need for jobs and the urgency of providing for families, seafarers put their lives at even more risk if they work for substandard and disreputable owners so it is wise to be cautious when you can be.”
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Fall in Somali piracy this year as attacks off West Africa increase
Drop in Indian Ocean piracy
EU naval forces capture suspected pirates off Somalia. (Photo: EU Naval Force Somalia)
HE number of pirate attacks fell sharply in the first half of 2012, led by a drop in Somali piracy, according to the International Maritime Bureau’s (IMB) global piracy report. IMB director Pottengal Mukundan told The Sea the trend had continued during July and added that the rough seas of the monsoon were probably partly responsible for the current lull in piracy in the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Captain Mukundan warned, however, that there was a worrying increase in attacks in the Gulf of Guinea. Overall, during the first six months of the year, 177 incidents were reported to the IMB Piracy Reporting Centre (PRC), compared to 266 incidents for the corresponding period in 2011. The report showed that 20 vessels were hijacked world-
PM Cameron warned over ransoms THE maritime union, Nautilus International, has urged the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, to urgently reconsider proposals to outlaw the payment of ransoms to pirates. The union says it fears seafarers will suffer if countries agree to restrict or criminalise the payment of ransoms to secure the release of captive ships and their crews. “Ransoms remain the only way in which we can ensure the safe return of seafarers, and it is clear from a number of cases that any attempt to frustrate the payment can put crew members into even greater danger,” writes general secretary Mark Dickinson, in a letter to the Prime Minister. Nautilus is worried that a task force which Mr Cameron has set up to consider ways of preventing ransom payments has already decided to make payments illegal and that the shipping industry has been allowed only a “restricted” voice in the discussions. Mr Dickinson warned: “We have yet to see any realistic alternative that would avert the potential for seafarers being exposed to even greater levels of violence and intimidation, which would then increase the prospect of refusal to sail into high-risk areas.”
wide, with a total number of 334 crew members taken hostage. A further 80 vessels were boarded, 25 vessels were fired upon and there were 52 reported attempted attacks. At least four crew members were killed. The decrease in the overall number is primarily due to the decline in the number ofincidents of Somali piracy activity, dropping from 163 in the first six months of 2011 to 69 in 2012. Somali pirates also hijacked fewer vessels, down from 21 to 13. Nonetheless, Captain Mukundan said, Somali piracy remained a serious threat. Somali pirates were still holding 11 vessels and 218 crew. Forty-four of those seafarers were being held ashore, with nothing known about either the conditions under which they were held, or where they were being kept.
Captain Mukundan said Somali gangs were attacking in new areas, including as far away as the area just south of the Strait of Hormuz. “Somali pirate attacks cover a vast area, from the southern Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Gulf of Oman to the Arabian Sea and Somali Basin, threatening all shipping routes in the north west Indian Ocean.” The IMB report said the noticeable decline in Somali piracy was partly due to the pre-emptive and disruptive counterpiracy tactics employed by international navies. This included the disruption of mother vessels and gangs. “The naval actions play an essential role in frustrating the pirates. There is no alternative to their continued presence,” said Mr Mukundan. The effective deployment of best management practices, ship
hardening and, in particular, the increased use of private sector armed guards had also contributed to the falling numbers, he added. The decline in Somali piracy has, however, been offset by an increase in the number of attacks in the Gulf of Guinea, where 32 incidents, including five hijackings, were reported in 2012, compared to 25 in 2011. In Nigeria alone there were 17 reports, compared to six in 2011. Togo reported five incidents, including a hijacking, compared to no incidents during the first half of last year. The IMB report emphasised that high levels of violence were also being used against crew members in the Gulf of Guinea. Guns were reported in at least 20 of the 32 incidents. At least one crew member was killed and another later died as a result of an attack. In Nigeria, three vessels and 61 crew members were taken hostage in the first six months of 2012. Seven vessels were boarded, six fired upon and one attempted attack was reported. The report further showed that attacks by armed pirates in skiffs were occurring at greater distances from the coast, suggesting the possible use of fishing or other vessels to reach targets. On June 30, 2012 alone – within a five-minute period – three vessels were fired upon, including a tanker and a containership, approximately 135 nautical miles from Port Harcourt. An increase in pirate activity off Togo has also been attributed to Nigerian pirates. The five reported incidents all occurred in April, culminating with the hijacking of a panamax product tanker.
IMB: fishing industry revival is key to defeating Somali piracy THE key to eradicating Somali piracy is to revive the country’s once prosperous fishing industry and develop an economy that offers a realistic alternative to impoverished young men, especially in the lawless central coastal province of Galmudug. That is the message being pushed strongly by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and its specialist agency, the International Maritime Bureau (IMB). IMB director Pottengal Mukundan told The Sea that arguments the ICC and the IMB initially put forward this April were now being considered seriously by agencies involved in dealing with the Somali piracy problem. The IMB says Somali piracy exists because some parts of the State of Somalia
simply do not function. The resulting administrative vacuum has been exploited by pirates who have been able to “park” hijacked ocean-going vessels along this coastline with impunity until a ransom is paid. “However”, Captain Mukundan said, “changing this situation does not have to wait for a stable political solution in all of Somalia, which could take many years yet.” The IMB plan is to use the skills of Somali entrepreneurs who, despite all the problems, are running substantial, hundred-million-dollar businesses successfully, with branches all over the country. The money remittance industry and the telecoms industry were as good as any in the continent, said Captain Mukundan.
Report reveals 50% of hostages suffer violence THIRTY-FIVE hostages held by Somali pirates died last year and at least half of all seafarers captured experienced physical abuse, according to a new report, The Human Cost of Piracy 2011. The report, which was co-authored by Oceans Beyond Piracy – a research and information project set up by the One Earth Future Foundation – and the Internationa Laritime Bureau (IMB), contains a statistical analysis of the threats of violence caused by acts of piracy and the first published findings collected following the 2011 Declaration Condemning Acts of Violence Against Seafarers. The declaration, which was signed initially in Washington in August last year by Liberia, the Marshall Islands, and Panama, and by the Bahamas in March this year followed by St Kitts and Nevis in June, commits those countries to submit reports to the IMB on the treatment of seafarers held hostage. “Thousands are attacked for financial gain, without regard for the human cost, to attain a ransom,” said Oceans Beyond Piracy’s project manager, Kaija Hurlburt. According to the new report, in 2011, at least 3,863 seafarers were fired upon by Somali pirates armed with assault rifles and rocket propelled grenades. Of that number, 968 faced armed pirates who managed to board their vessels. Four hundred and thirteen of these seafarers were rescued from citadels on their vessels by naval forces, after waiting for hours or even days while pirates tried to break into the citadels.
Six pirates sentenced by French court SOMALI pirates who were found guilty of hijacking the French vessel, Le Ponant, in 2008 have been sentenced to a total of 24 years’ imprisonment by a Paris court. Of the six men captured by French forces in a raid on land in 2008 two were acquitted, one was sentenced to serve four years, two others were sentenced to seven years and the remaining pirate received a ten-year sentence. Commenting on the judgements, Alastair Evitt, chairman of the shipping industry anti-piracy group, SOS SaveOurSeafarers said: “This is encouraging news. There are about 3,500 criminals active in these pirate gangs. All too often, when they are captured by security forces, confusion over admissible evidence or legal and international diplomatic complexities mean that they are set free to offend again. We applaud these convictions.”
Maritime Labour Convention to come into effect Continued from page 1 and it’s entry into force means that an equal system of justice for everyone – from the firsttime seafarer to the experienced shipowner – is in place for the very first time. But we must not become complacent. Today, the countdown begins for shipowners and Flag States so that seafarers can enjoy the rights which have been enshrined in international law for them,” he said. Canon Peters, who represents
seafarers’ missions at the International Maritime Organization and ILO, represented the views of seafarers and chaplains at the MLC meetings which were held in Geneva, Switzerland. He is also qualified in training trainers of the MLC and regularly works with flag states to make sure they are aware of their obligations when it comes to implementing the legislation. But as well as training flag states and others based
shore-side, Canon Peters said it was vital that seafarers themselves make sure they are aware of their rights under the new legislation. “A convention is meaningless if those for whom it is intended, are not aware of their rights,” he said. “At The Mission to Seafarers, we are preparing ourselves for a rise in the number of crew who may be prepared to speak out against ill-treatment and bad practice. In the UK, we have
developed a course with the Merchant Navy Welfare Board so that our chaplains are aware of the key points of the MLC and will be in a position to offer guidance and support to seafarers. “The entry into force of the Maritime Labour Convention is a truly historic moment. The basic principles of employment which those of us take for granted have, at long last, been extended to seafarers.”
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Report suggests old, substandard ships contribute to high accident rates
Unions call for reform of Black Sea shipping
Research suggests the majority of Black Sea ships are more than 20 years old, with 800 of these being more than 30 years old. (Photo: Shutterstock) TRADE unions from Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia, Romania, Turkey and Ukraine, in conjunction with the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF) have published a report which they say should shame governments into action over what they claim is the “shocking condition” of shipping in the Black Sea. According to the report, of the around 2,400 vessels using the Black Sea each year, a majority are more than 20 years old, with 800 of these being over 30 years old. The report claims the use of old, smaller vessels, working well beyond their economic life and moving low value goods, is reflected in the high number of serious accidents and repeated abuse of seafarers. The report points to a number of recent case studies in which ITF inspectors have
been involved. These include several cases of stranded and abandoned crews, as well as the case of the 1977-built, Cambodianflagged Vera, which sank in February 2012, killing eight seafarers. As with the 1971-built, Panama-flagged Ogan Bey, which sank in December 2009 with the loss of four lives, the Vera was registered to a one-ship company, with no P&I cover, leaving the dead men’s families with no chance of compensation. The report argues that “there would appear to be a high frequency of accidents, groundings and sinking of vessels in the Black Sea. In addition to poor weather conditions and geographical features, this is likely to be due to the proliferation of older vessels operating with substandard conditions. There would appear to be a
New ISF record book THE International Shipping Federation (ISF) has updated its widely used On Board Training Record Book for Deck Cadets, to meet the latest requirements governing seafarers’ training, which came into force in January. Use of a record book which provides evidence of structured on board training is now mandatory for trainees seeking to qualify as ships’ officers. The new ISF book for deck cadets contains structured on board training tasks formulated around the revised standards stipulated by the International Convention
on Standards, Training and Certification for Watchkeepers (STCW) 2010. The book covers new competences such as the use of Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS), the application of leadership and teamworking skills and proactive measures to protect the marine environment. The ISF says it is in discussion with the Philippines and other key seafarer supply countries to ensure that use of the ISF books is approved as part of national STCW certification processes.
Shipping confidence rises DESPITE the Eurozone economic crisis and poor markets in almost all sectors of shipping, shipowners seem to be more confident about the future. Shipping accountant and consultant Moore Stephens says its latest Shipping Confidence Survey found that overall confidence levels in the shipping industry increased in the three months ending May 2012, to reach their highest level since February 2011. However, fuel costs continued to worry the industry. “The ultimate squeeze nowadays really comes from the cost of bunkers. On top of the high price of oil, refineries are producing less and less marine product, putting further pressure on bunker prices,” was one response to the survey. Another respondent was quoted as saying that shipping was at the bottom of the economic cycle. Another response was: “If we are still alive now, after all the vessels that have entered the market and all the banks that have pulled out, there is a good chance that better times await us.”
lack of investment and poor maintenance due to a flawed economic model that does not sustain minimum safety measures”. When accidents do occur there is a recurrent theme of a lack of P&I cover, the report says. This, combined with ownership structures limited to single vessels registered under ‘brass plate’ companies in such countries as the Cayman Islands or St Vincent & Grenadines, makes it impossible to bring compensation claims for loss of life. Consequently families are left destitute in the wake of such casualties. The report also highlights what it says is an entrenched feature of the Black Sea maritime industry – the practice of nonpayment or delayed payment of wages. Once again, the report continues, the economic model fails to sustain decent living and working conditions. An ITF statement claims that “it seems acceptable behaviour on the part of shipowners to manage shortfalls in cash flow by neglecting to pay wages. This shows a total disrespect for basic human rights. In such circumstances the employment relationship is utterly dysfunctional and results in seafarers being forced to go on strike, enter into legal claims or, in some cases, take more extreme measures such as hunger strikes.” The ITF comments that “as the entry into force of the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 comes ever closer, the situation in the ‘Black Sea of Shame’ can no longer be tolerated”. “This is the beginning of a long haul – that we know will take years – to reform this scandalous state of affairs,” says ITF maritime co-ordinator Steve Cotton. “We start by going to governments to persuade them that they can no longer permit these awful conditions – especially with the Maritime Labour Convention soon to provide the kind of model framework to which they should all aspire.”
Seafarer rescued after 9 hours in sea
Mr Pratoom is pulled from the water (Photo: Maersk Line) A SEAFARER who fell from the containership Maersk Bintan was rescued after nine hours in the water without a lifejacket. Tanawoot Pratoom said he suddenly felt dizzy while alone on deck and fell into the sea. He went over the side 525 nautical miles south east of Bermuda at about 0715 local time on June 23, and was not missed for two hours. The Maersk Bintan backtracked while a number of other ships and a search aircraft responded to the mayday call. The US Coast Guard co-ordinated the search and used drift simulation technology to help pinpoint Pratoom’s posi-
tion. The bulk carrier Stalo sighted Mr Pratoom waving his arms at 1538. He was rescued some 40 minutes later by a boat’s crew from his own ship. The Maersk Bintan’s master, M E Alahi, said: “He is a lucky person to be alive. I am very grateful to all shore personnel, and three vessels who listened to the distress call of fellow sailors in right time and right place.” Brian Neilan, a watchstander with the Coast Guard 5th District Command Center in Portsmouth, Virginia commented that “this was a great success story, and the odds were not in favour of a good outcome”.
Philippines New fuel acts on metering STCW system compliance AN OFFICIALLY THE European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) has deferred taking action over shortcomings in the Philippines’ compliance with the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) for seafarers, according to the country’s Maritime Industry Authority (MARINA). EMSA held back from submitting an unfavourable report after MARINA took action to ensure compliance with the STCW, including designating the Transportation Department as the single administration responsible for seafarers’ standards.
North America limits emissions THE North American Emission Control Area (ECA), under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), came into effect on August 1. This means that ships trading off the coasts of Canada, the US and the French overseas territory of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon must use fuel oil with a sulphur content not exceeding 1.00 per cent or use scrubbers to achieve an equivalent sulphur reduction. There are now three designated ECAs in effect globally, the other two being the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.
approved mass flow metering system that could eliminate disputes over the quantity of fuel delivered has been used for the first time by an ExxonMobilchartered bunker tanker in Singapore. The transfer, which took place on July 11, between the Emissary and the containership Kota Layang, followed approval by the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore.
Payout as suicide claim not proved THE English High Court has ordered tanker operator BP Shipping to pay US$260,000 in compensation to the widow of a chief engineer, Renford Braganza, who disappeared overboard during an Atlantic crossing in 2009. BP had refused to pay any compensation on the grounds that the seafarer had committed suicide. The court ruled that suicide was only one possibility and had not been proved. BP is expected to appeal. The case was complicated by a failed claim of negligence against the company and a complex dispute over legal costs.
UK set to require work New poster permits aims to cut THE UK Government is to introduce work ore deaths set permits for seafarers A NEW poster, aimed at helping seafarers to identify ore types, is being distributed by the North of England P&I club as part of its campaign to cut the risk of further losses of ships and crews carrying ore cargoes that can liquefy at sea. The poster, Ore Cargo Types, provides a quick visual reference for seafarers on the typical particle size and appearance of the main types of ore cargo, including nickel ore cargoes. Five ships have been lost in the past 18 months while carrying nickel ore, leading to the deaths of 66 seafarers.
working on vessels trading on the country’s inland waters and coastal trades. The move follows protests by the seafarers’ union, Nautilus International, when a company employing non-European Economic Area seafarers tried to bid for a contract to run ferry services between the Scottish mainland and the Northern Isles. The government has now told the union that work permit requirements can be applied to ships flying the flags of other EU member states and operating on island routes. Revised operational instructions to this effect are likely to be issued later this year.
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Award for yacht rescue Award: Briar Maritime Services – System for Logging and Evaluating Personal Tiredness (SLEPT), which helps to evaluate hours of work and rest on board; • Security Award: Campbell Shipping Company – Antipiracy training video; • Systems Award: Inmarsat – Voice Distress on FleetBroadband, a free service that connects vessels in distress to maritime rescue co-ordination centres, and • Training Award: Longscar Marine Consultants – Enhanced Master/Pilot Relationships course, which aims Captain Ian McNaught, deputy master of Trinity House, former to improve co-operation master of Oleander captain Joop Vrolyk, and Lieutenant Sean between bridge teams and Jehu of the US Coast Guard. (Photo: IHS) pilots via combined training. BERMUDA Container Lines and presented on board the In addition, the overall vessel Oleander won this year’s historic museum ship HMS event sponsor, Survitec Group, Safety at Sea AMVER award for Belfast in London. gave an Award for Engineering Seamanship, for her rescue of The other 2012 Safety at Sea Excellence to Kelvin Hughes four seafarers from a drifting Award Winners were: for its MDICE Mantadigital sailing yacht in difficult condi- • Equipment Award: Vesper Ice Navigator, which increases tions, in November 2011. The Marine – Virtual AIS Beacon, the safety of ice navigation in award was made in partnership an aid to navigation that rough seas by providing an enwith the US Coast Guard’s Aumarks hazards at sea elec- hanced, 3D-like radar image of ice, debris and other stationtomated Mutual Assistance Vestronically; sel Rescue (AMVER) programme • Management/Operations ary or slow-moving objects.
New ECDIS rules now in force THE first deadline for the phased mandatory introduction of the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) and Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) passed on July 1, for new passenger ships of 500 gt and upwards and for tankers of 3,000 gt and upwards. Over the next few years all passenger ships and tankers in those size ranges and cargoships of 10,000 gt and upwards will be progressively required to carry ECDIS, with the last deadline being in July 2018. Chart providers and equipment manufacturers are all now engaged in a major training effort. The International Chamber of Shipping says because
the mandatory requirement to carry ECDIS and ENCs is happening in steps, training should not be a major problem. It adds, however, that officers should be trained as soon as possible The UK Hydrographic Office’s Admiralty brand has made available 50 ECDIS training places as part of its global ECDIS training campaign. The winning mariners will undertake comprehensive ECDIS training at maritime colleges around the world. A second draw, to award a further 50 training courses, takes place in September 2012. Seafarers can enter the draw through the campaign website or the Admiralty Facebook page.
IMPA and ICS revise pilot ladder guidance A NEWLY updated brochure produced by pilots and shipowners stresses the need to ensure that ladders used for pilot transfers are safe and always rigged correctly. The International Maritime Pilots’ Association (IMPA) and the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) have joined forces to revise the Shipping Industry Guidance on Pilot Transfer Arrangements to take account of the latest changes to the international rules concerning pilot ladders. The changes came
into effect on July 1. IMPA secretary general Nick Cutmore said that “sadly, pilots continue to lose their lives as a result of accidents while boarding or disembarking from ships, and many more have been seriously injured”. Common causes of accidents are defects in the structure of the ladder treads or ropes, or a lack of a proper securing of the ladder to the ship. An electronic copy of the brochure can be downloaded f r o m t h e I M PA a n d I C S websites.
Source: International Maritime Pilots’ Association
Crew recover US$63,000 of lost pay THE crew of the Panama-flag general cargoship, the Terry Siete, received a total of over US$63,000 in owed wages following the intervention of seafarers’ union Nautilus. The ship was detained in July by the UK’s Maritime and Coastguard Agency, with a long list of deficiencies. The wages were owed by a Spanish company, PM Shipping International, but the ship has now been bought by a Guyana-based company, which agreed to pay the crew their outstanding wages.
More generosity in manning? Michael Grey argues it is desirable and not impossible to come up with internationally acceptable minimum manning levels
EAFARERS of a certain age from northern Europe used to make jokes about the tramp s h i p o w n e r s o f E n g l a n d ’s north east coast, who did not enjoy a reputation for generosity among those who went to sea in their ships. These ships were manned, it was suggested, by “one man and a dog forward” to tie the ship up, and “a man without a dog aft”. There are no Tyneside tramp ship owners left, so the joke has rather lost its meaning, but many modern mariners, wherever they are sailing, would probably have some caustic remarks to make about the paucity of manpower in virtually every type of ship these days. Earlier this year the Project Horizon research programme took a close look at the impact of fatigue on safety and efficiency, and while there were no hard and fast recommendations about manpower numbers, the inference was that lean manning brings with it certain risks. In Rostock, Germany, earlier this year, the Confederation of European Ship Masters’
Associations (CESMA) noted, in the form of a resolution, that “the problem of fatigue is still not attracting enough attention”. It went on to voice its support for the principle that all ships of 500 gross tons and more should have three certified bridge watchkeepers, including the master, on board. CESMA said it deplored the ‘flexibility clause’ in the stipulation of hours of work in the Manila amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), which facilitates the six-on, six-off watch system aboard mainly smaller vessels. Such a regime, it pointed out, “affects [the] maritime safety and [the] health of the seafarers concerned”. CESMA is an association of professionals of huge experience and not known for exaggerating its claims. And as far as long term health from insufficient rest over extensive periods is concerned, there was something of a landmark case in the US recently, when a chief officer who had suffered heart problems attributable to his work
CESMA has noted that “the problem of fatigue is still not attracting enough attention”, while the Project Horizon preliminary research results earlier this year suggest that lean manning brings with it certain risks. (Photos: Jamie Smith) regime was awarded a massive $2.36 million. This was, however, reduced substantially on the grounds that his own willingness to work such long hours had contributed to his illness. Nevertheless, this is a significant judgement, in view of the fact that a 94-hour working week has been effectively endorsed by the Manila amendments. What most seafarers would
like to see is a more realistic assessment of what we mean by ‘safe’ manning, as is noted down in certificates carried aboard their ships. Is this the same as ‘adequate’ manning, or even ‘reasonable’ manning? Younger seafarers probably won’t recognise that their ships are undermanned in realistic terms, because they have never known a world where manning was more generous.
Older seafarers will remember the way in which the size of a crew was halved and halved again in the ‘bad old 1980s’, and the efforts made by operators to squeeze the size of the crew to the absolute minimum which the flag state would accept. A pretty deplorable ‘competition’ grew up between thrusting flag states, which would try to encourage owners to join
their register by lowering the safe manning numbers below that offered by their competitors. When one flag has taken this step, others will start to mutter about the ‘level playing field’ and demand parity. It is a worry today, when freight rates in most sectors are bumping along the bottom, with fuel prices so high that owners under pressure will look at the manpower
bill and try to cut numbers further. Perhaps by putting some exciting new piece of kit on board... Many of us will argue that the size of the crew on the average ship is now well below what it ought to be and that more generosity in manning is required. How can you have any sort of social life if you work alone, possibly eat alone and spend the rest of your time sitting in your cabin watching videos or sleeping? How can anyone honestly suggest that working six-hour shifts in a high-intensity shortsea operation can be a sensible and healthy regime? People at sea should not have to endure an existence of endless toil. Nor should they have to be like the workers in a Korean factory some years ago who were so devoted to their cause that they quite literally “worked themselves to death”. It is peacetime sea transport, for goodness sake, not a matter of life and death. Owners will point out that one cannot ignore the pressures of competition, and that if additional officers are demanded for shortsea ves-
sels, an extra watchkeeper, for example, could bump up the ship’s costs so that it was unable to compete with road haulage. It is something that cannot be ignored. They might also point out that internationally acceptable minimum manning levels would be difficult to establish, with every ship being different in terms of its demands on the workforce. Age and equipment, trade and route are just some of the complexities that will make such a regulatory approach difficult. But it shouldn’t be impossible to establish such minimum manning levels, and perhaps it should be an independent body, not marine employers or even flag states who should determine the adequacy of manning aboard every ship. We could establish a rule which would, as an alternative to today’s ‘safe’ manning, require numbers and skills to be sufficient for the expected level of work, with a sensible margin, just in case there was some illness on board, or the voyage for some reason became more intense. Let’s give it a try.
Falmouth cares for fire survivors Penny Phillips describes the support given by Falmouth Mission to Seafarers to the crew of the MSC Flaminia after a fire at sea
HE devastating explosion in July on board the MSC Flaminia brought into sharp relief how hazardous a life at sea can be. The blast, which sadly claimed the lives of two seafarers and injured three more, reminded all of us of the enormous risks our seafarers face as they ply the world’s seas and oceans. When the Falmouth branch of The Mission to Seafarers heard that the survivors were being brought to their port, the emergency team immediately launched into action. In a special one-off column, Penny Phillips, the group’s emergency co-ordinator, describes how the local branch was able to support the men as they arrived after their mid-Atlantic ordeal. The wind had freshened in the afternoon of Wednesday July 18, but by 2100 hours the pink strands in the Cornish summer sky heralded calm seas for the survivors of the MSC Flaminia as they made their way to the safety of the Port of Falmouth and into the care of The Mission to Seafarers volunteers waiting for them. The two-storey building of A&P Falmouth, the dockyard authority which runs the Falmouth ship repair yard, had been turned into an emergency control centre and reception area for the 18 seafarers and two passengers who had been on board
the MSC Flaminia when it suffered a sudden and devastating explosion, 1,000 miles off the coast of Cornwall. The training room became a restaurant; the boardroom a doctor’s examination room; reception was where Immigration would stamp the crews’ passports, and the directors’ offices were turned into police interview rooms. The Mission’s Flying Angel Centre was to be the final and most welcoming area that the seafarers would see at the end of the lengthy but necessary formalities. The DS Crown, a tanker, now in Falmouth Bay, had rescued the survivors from the MSC Flaminia, and it was to this vessel that the Mission’s launch set sail with Fr Jon Bielawski, the local Roman Catholic priest, on the sombre journey to bless the ship, conduct a blessing for the dead and finally bring the body of the Polish chief officer ashore. He had been fatally injured, while three other crew members suffered serious burns, and one was still listed as missing. The launch then began to bring the crew ashore. The first we saw in the dim evening light was a string of people walking slowly and quietly towards us. As they approached we stepped forward to shake each of their hands and welcome them. Their
(Left) Five of the Mission to Seafarers emergency team with ship agent Rob Churcher, at 4.10 am (L-R): the Revd Jon Robertshaw, the Revd Mark Mesley, Jane McLennan, Rob Churcher, Graham Hall, Penny Phillips. (Right) Falmouth Flying Angel centre. faces showed the strain of what they had been through. The emergency team of six volunteers was made up of the Revd Jon Robertshaw, Jane McLennan, Graham Hall, Penny Phillips, Father Jon Bielawski and MtS port chaplain the Revd Mark Mesley. Between us, we had 160 years’ experience of the sea, shipping and seafarers’ welfare. The evening was non-stop, with volunteers welcoming the crew, serving them food and drinks, showing them to changing rooms, escorting them to the doctor and ensuring a smooth flow through all the various processes. At all times, the crew
were with someone. There was a smile for everyone, and words of encouragement and assurance; kindnesses were expressed throughout the evening to strangers who soon became friends. Jon held the hand of one Filipino seafarer whilst they jointly said a prayer. After having all they could eat, the survivors were shown to a row of large, black holdalls which contained new clothes, shoes and toiletries, all personally labelled (sourcing a pair of size 15 shoes had been a challenge). All the crew were keen to remove and leave behind their old clothes – their last material
reminder of the horror that they had witnessed. A row of chairs lined up outside the boardroom as each seafarer waited to see a doctor. We were very grateful to a local GP, Dr Rob Jones, who offered his services, and jovially waved in each seafarer one at a time for examination. The next stage was a visit to the immigration officer. Trevor Brooks arrived late into the evening and found his makeshift office ready and waiting. The light touch and humour of all involved made the evening a lot more bearable for the survivors and once the police interviews
were out of the way, the seafarers were taken to the Flying Angel Centre where they started to relax for the first time. The sweet scent of the skyscraper lilies and sweet peas in the seafarers’ garden drifted into the centre, and a young German officer took photographs of the flowers. All four Mission phone boxes were in use, with crew ringing families in the Philippines, Poland and Germany. The Mission had provided each seafarer with two MtS telephone cards, which for Filipino crew meant 140 minutes of conversation with family. It would have seemed like any
other night in the centre to the untrained eye – seafarers with bent heads spending some quiet time in the Mission chapel, others using the table football game or strumming a guitar, and the Mission cat winding her way in and out of legs and bags. We got a shout from Rob Churcher, the ship agent, at 3.50 am to say that the men could start boarding the coach to Heathrow, where they were due to stay the night. Before he left, the immigration officer Trevor Brooks sought me out. He said he was totally overwhelmed with the level of compassion and care the Mission had shown the crew, adding: “I have never met such care for strangers”. Dawn began to break, and we said our farewells to the men as they boarded the coach. The German captain was the last to leave. He had one foot on board the coach when he stopped, turned around and walked back towards the row of weary volunteers standing on the pavement. He shook our hands individually with a firmness that portrayed much more than a handshake – it was the expression of the words that he was unable to utter. The ship agent, Rob Churcher, said that the enormity of the events and what the Mission
meant to seafarers had only struck him when he got home that night. He had said to his wife: “As the bus moved off, the seafarers waved to the Mission volunteers in a spontaneous show of appreciation – it was an amazing and moving thing to see and reminded me of children waving as they left their parents to go on a long trip. I hadn’t realised until that night just how important the work of The Mission to Seafarers is.” The crew wanted to sign our visitors’ book and the comments they have left were commendation enough for us. The messages are very personal, but I would like to share one written by a survivor who had been a paying passenger – an Irishman now living in Phoenix, Arizona. He wrote, just two words, in large capital letters: BLOODY MARVELLOUS! I would like to thank everyone who supported the Mission’s emergency team that night, especially A&P Falmouth for allowing us to use rooms in their building. We are extremely fortunate to have a very closeknit marine community in Falmouth which is always ready to step up and help others in times of need. God willing, we will continue to be there for crews when they need us most.
6 the sea sept/oct 12
JUSTICE MATTERS BY DOUGLAS STEVENSON
Personal property losses
EAFARERS keep a lot of valuable personal property on board their ships. It is not unusual for them to have laptops, smartphones, modems and cameras. Such expensive personal property items are necessities for those who work at sea. They make life livable for seafarers by enabling them to communicate with their families and friends from almost anywhere in the world. With today’s seagoing realities of living and working in confined spaces, long separations from home, and quick turnaround periods in port, seafarers need the relaxation and diversions from shipboard routines that personal electronic devices provide. Such items have become elemental necessities for today’s seafarers – elemental necessities that bring benefits for both seafarers and their employers. Ships are seafarers’ workplaces as well as their homes. They need secure places to keep their personal property. Because shipowners must provide decent living accommodation for their crews, and because they derive benefits from seafarers possessing personal property on ships, shipowners have a duty to provide seafarers with reasonably safe and suitable storage for their clothes and personal property. When it comes into force, the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006, for example, will require shipowners to provide each seafarer with adequate personal stowage space that can be locked by
the seafarer to ensure privacy. Shipowners can be held liable for losses of or damages to seafarers’ clothes and personal property in some circumstances. For example, shipowners are often held responsible for compensating seafarers for personal property losses caused by pirates, shipboard fires, collisions, and founderings. A shipowner who fails to provide adequate gangway security can also be held responsible for property stolen by an intruder. Shipowners’ liability is not unlimited, however. They will not be held responsible for personal property losses caused by the seafarers’ own negligence. In most circumstances, shipowners will not be held responsible for compensating seafarers for losses of large sums of cash, negotiable instruments, precious or rare metals or stones, valuables or objects of a rare or precious nature. Shipowners’ liability to pay for seafarers’ personal property losses is covered by protection and indemnity (P&I) insurance. P&I insurance, however, insures only against shipowners’ liabilities. It does not provide seafarers with a right to compensation beyond the shipowners’ obligations. Seafarers’ rights to compensation for personal property losses are sometimes part of their employment contracts. The Philippines Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) standard agreement, for example, requires employers to reimburse sea-
farers for the full amount of loss or damage to their personal effects, but limits damages to no more than US$ 2,000 for losses caused by “wreck or loss or stranding or abandonment of the vessel or as a result of fire, flooding, collision or piracy”. The POEA contract also excludes losses caused by the seafarer’s own fault, larceny, theft or robbery. Some countries have statutes that address seafarers’ rights to personal property losses. Panama requires shipowners to reimburse crew members in cash for the value of their personal effects lost or deteriorated during a shipwreck. While shipowners are obligated to reimburse seafarers for some personal property losses, seafarers must always be diligent in caring for their own property. In addition, before seafarers can receive any compensation, they must prove what articles have been lost or damaged and how much they were worth. Seafarers would be advised to: n maintain an accurate inventory of their property, including the value of each item; n keep currency or other small, high value items in the ship’s safe; n review their employment contracts; n review their ship’s flag state law; n consider purchasing items with credit cards that provide buyers’ protections, and n keep their own valuables safe and secure.
Pérdida de objetos personales de los tripulantes
os tripulantes llevan a bordo de sus barcos un gran número de objetos personales de valor. Es muy normal que tengan consigo ordenadores portátiles, smartphones, módems, cámaras, etc. Son efectos personales muy necesarios para la gente de mar, porque hacen la vida a bordo más llevadera y les permiten comunicarse con sus familiares y amigos desde prácticamente cualquier lugar del mundo. Las circunstancias actuales de la vida en el mar obligan a los tripulantes a vivir y trabajar en espacios reducidos y a pasar largas temporadas lejos de sus hogares. Además, las escalas son muy breves. En estas circunstancias, los marinos necesitan la relajación y la distracción de las rutinas de a bordo que ofrecen estos dispositivos electrónicos, que se han convertido en necesidades básicas para los navegantes de hoy y cuyos efectos benefician no solo a los propios usuarios, sino también a quienes les emplean. El barco no solo es el puesto de trabajo del marino, también es su hogar. La tripulación necesita un lugar seguro donde guardar sus efectos personales. Los armadores deben proporcionar alojamientos decentes a los tripulantes y, teniendo en cuenta que se benefician de que los navegantes tengan consigo sus efectos personales en el barco, también deben proporcionarles lugares razonablemente seguros y adecuados para guardarlos. El Convenio sobre el Trabajo Marítimo (CTM) de 2006, por ejemplo, obliga a los armadores a proporcionar a cada tripulante espacio de almacenamiento adecuado y que pueda cerrarse con candado para garantizar su privacidad. En determinadas circunstancias, a los armadores pueden exigírseles responsabilidades por la pérdida o los daños sufridos por los efectos personales de los tripulantes, por ejemplo en caso de piratería, incendio a bordo, abordaje o hundimiento del barco. También pueden ser responsables si las pasarelas de acceso al barco no se protegen debidamente durante una escala y se produce un robo como consecuencia. La responsabilidad legal de los armadores, sin embargo, no es ilimitada. No son responsables, por ejemplo, de las pérdidas de objetos personales como consecuencia de la negligencia de sus propietarios. En la mayoría de los casos, los armadores no serán tampoco responsables de compensar a los tripulantes por la pérdida de grandes cantidades de dinero en efectivo, títulos negociables, piedras o metales raros o preciosos, objetos de valor u objetos raros o valiosos. Los armadores están protegidos contra la pérdida de efectos personales de los tripulantes por su seguro de protección e indemnización. Este seguro, sin embargo, solo cubre la responsabilidad legal del armador y no da derecho a los tripulantes a recibir compensación por encima de ella. En algunas ocasiones, el derecho de los tripulantes a recibir compensación por la pérdida de sus efectos personales está contemplado en sus contratos laborales. El contrato estándar de enrolamiento de la Dirección de Empleo en el Extranjero de las Filipinas (POEA, por sus siglas en inglés), por ejemplo, exige que los empleados compensen a los tripulantes por el coste íntegro de la pérdida o los daños de sus efectos personales, pero limita la compensación a un máximo de 2000 dólares estadounidenses en caso de pérdidas ocasionadas por “naufragio, pérdida, varada o abandono del buque o como consecuencia de incendio, inundación, abordaje o piratería”. El contrato de la POEA
excluye también las pérdidas como resultado de la negligencia del tripulante, hurtos, robos u atracos. La legislación de algunos países cubre los derechos de las gentes de mar en caso de pérdida de efectos personales. La legislación panameña, por ejemplo, exige que los armadores compensen a la tripulación en efectivo por el valor íntegro de los efectos personales perdidos o dañados en caso de naufragio. Incluso si el armador está obligado a compensar a la tripulación por ciertas pérdidas de efectos personales, los navegantes deben ser siempre diligentes en su cuidado. Asimismo, para poder recibir compensación en caso de pérdida o daños, deben poder demostrar qué artículos han perdido y cuál era su valor. Es aconsejable que los tripulantes: n Mantengan un inventario preciso de sus efectos personales, incluyendo el precio de cada objeto. n Guarden el dinero en efectivo y otros artículos de valor en la caja fuerte del barco. n Estudien los términos de su contrato laboral. n Estudien la legislación nacional del estado de bandera de su barco. n Consideren la posibilidad de adquirir artículos con tarjetas de crédito que ofrezcan protección al comprador. n Conserven sus efectos personales en lugar seguro.
海员的个人物品损失 海员们在船上保留很多有价 值的个人物品。海员拥有笔 记本电脑、智能手机、调制 解调器和照相机的情况相当 常见。对于这些在海上工作 的人来说，此类昂贵的个人 物品是必需品，让海员从世 界上几乎任何地方与亲友保 持联络，使海员生活更加好 过。考虑到当今的海上生涯 现实（在有限空间内生活和 工作，长期不在家，以及在 港口的快速周转） ，海员们在 船上的例行工作之余，需要 个人电子设备所带来的放松 和消遣。对那些在当今的船 舶上工作的人来说，此类物 品已成为基本必需品，给海 员和他们的雇主都带来好处。
船东对海员个人物品损失的 赔偿责任，是在船东互保协 会（P&I） 保 险 范 围 内 的。 不过，P&I 保险仅覆盖船东 的赔偿责任。它并不赋予海 员获得超出船东义务范围的 赔偿的权利。
在某些情况下，船东可能要 对海员衣物及个人物品的损 失或损坏承担赔偿责任。例 如，在海盗、船上着火、碰 撞以及沉没导致个人物品损 失的情况下，船东往往要承 担 向 海 员 做 出 赔 偿 的 责 任。 未能提供充分舷梯保安的船 东，也可能要承担物品被闯 入者偷窃的责任。 不过，船东的赔偿责任并不 是无限的。对于因海员本人 疏忽而导致的个人物品损失， 船东无需承担责任。对于大 笔现金、可转让票据、贵重 或稀有金属或宝石、贵重物 品或者稀有或珍贵物品的损 失，船东在多数情况下是不 需要承担责任的。
海员因个人物品损失而获 得 赔 偿 的 权 利， 有 时 候 被 列 入 他 们 的 雇 佣 合 同。 比 如，菲律宾海外就业管理局 （POEA）的标准协议要求雇 主全额赔偿海员个人物品的 损失或损坏，但对于“船舶 遇 难、 损 失、 搁 浅 或 放 弃， 或着火、浸水、碰撞或海盗 所导致的”损失，设定 2000 美 元 的 赔 偿 金 上 限。POEA 的合同还排除因海员本人的 船 既 是 海 员 们 的 工 作 场 所， 过错、盗窃或抢劫所导致的 也是他们的居所。他们需要 损失。 把自己的个人物品放在安 全 的 地 方。 由 于 船 东 必 须 某些国家的法规对于海员在 为船员提供像样的生活住宿 个人物品损失方面的权利有 条 件， 由 于 船 东 获 益 于 海 明确规定。巴拿马要求船东以 员在船上拥有个人物品，因 现金赔偿海员在海难中遭受 此 船 东 有 责 任 为 海 员 提 供 的个人物品损失或损坏价值。 合理安全及合适的储存空 间，用于存放衣物和个人物 尽管船东有义务赔偿海员的 品。 例 如， 《2006 年 海 事 劳 某些个人物品损失，但海员 工公约》 （Maritime Labour 必须始终积极管好自己的物 Convention, 2006） 将 要 求 品。此外，在海员能够得到 船东向每一名海员提供充足 任何赔偿之前，他们必须证 的带锁个人储物空间，以保 明哪些物品遭到损失或损坏， 其价值又是多少。 障海员的隐私。
■ 保持自己物品的准确记 录，包括每件物品的价值； ■ 把货币或其它高价值的小 件物品放在船上的保险 箱里 ； ■ 审阅自己的雇佣合同 ； ■ 审阅所在船舶的船旗国 法律 ； ■ 考虑用提供买家保护的信 用卡购买物品，以及 ■ 把自己的贵重物品放在安 全可靠的地方。
Потеря моряками личного имущества
моряков на борту имеется множество ценных личных вещей. Практически у всех есть ноутбуки, смартфоны, модемы и фотоаппараты. Такие дорогостоящие предметы личной собственности в длительных плаваниях стали насущной необходимостью. Они делают жизнь моряков более терпимой, позволяя им поддерживать связь с друзьями и родственниками из практически любого уголка планеты. В сегодняшних реалиях морских путешествий, предполагающих проживание и работу в ограниченном пространстве, длительные отлучки из дома и непродолжительные стоянки в порту, морякам требуется отдыхать и отвлекаться от рутины корабельной жизни. И личные электронные устройства способствуют именно этому. Они превратились в предметы первой необходимости для экипажей современных судов, полезные как морякам, так и их работодателям. Морские суда — это и рабочее место моряков и их дом, где для хранения своей личной собственности им необходимо надежное и безопасное место. Владельцы судов обязаны обеспечивать достойные условия проживания для своих экипажей. А поскольку им выгодно наличие у моряков личного имущества, то на них также ложатся обязательства по обеспечению достаточно надежных и пригодных хранилищ. Конвенция MOT о труде в морском судоходстве от 2006 года, например, требует от владельцев судов предоставления каждому моряку соответствующего, закрывающегося на ключ, места для хранения личного имущества, тем самым обеспечивая конфиденциальность. Владельцы судов в некоторых случаях могут нести ответственость за утрату или причинение ущерба личным вещам и имуществу моряков. Например, владельцы судов чаще всего обязаны выплачивать компенсации морякам за утрату личного имущества в случае нападения пиратов, пожаров на борту судна, столкновений и затоплений. Судовладелец, не обеспечивший адекватной охраны трапа, также может быть привлечен к ответственности за ущерб личной собственности моряков, причиненный незаконно проникшим на борт человеком. Тем не менее ответственность судовладельцев не безгранична. Их нельзя привлечь к ответственности в случае ущерба, нанесенного личному имуществу по халатности самого владельца. Чаще всего судовладельцы не привлекаются к ответственности и не обязаны компенсировать ущерб морякам при утрате крупных сумм наличных денег, кредитно-денежных
документов, драгоценных или редких металлов или камней, редких или имеющих высокую ценность предметов. Обязательства судовладельцев выплачивать компенсацию за ущерб личному имуществу моряков покрывается страховкой ответственности перед третьими лицами (Пи энд Ай). Однако страховка «Пи энд Ай» гарантирует лишь обязательства судовладельцев. Она не обеспечивает морякам права на компенсацию вне обязательств судовладельцев. Права моряков на компенсацию ущерба личному имуществу иногда включаются в их трудовые договоры. Стандартный договор филиппинского управления по трудоустройству за рубежом (POEA), например, требует от работодателей возмещения морякам полной суммы утраты или ущерба личному имуществу, но ограничивает его суммой в 2000 USD для потерь, понесенных в случае «крушения, утраты, посадки на мель или оставления судна или по причине пожара, затопления, столкновения или пиратства». Договоры POEA также исключают потери, понесенные по вине самого моряка, или в случае кражи и грабежа. В некоторых странах имеются законы в отношении прав моряков на возмещение ущерба личному имуществу. Панама, например, требует возмещать членам экипажей в денежном эквиваленте стоимость их личного имущества утраченного или поврежденного во время кораблекрушения. Несмотря на то, что обязательства по возмещению потерь личного имущества во многих случаях возложены на судовладельцев, моряки должны всегда добросовестно заботиться о сохранности своего личного имущества. К тому же, прежде чем моряки могут получить какуюлибо компенсацию, они должны доказать какие предметы личного пользования были утрачены или повреждены и какова была их стоимость. Морякам следует: n вести детальный реестр своего личного имущества, с указанием стоимости каждого из предметов; n хранить валюту и другие мелкие ценные вещи в сейфе своего судна; n внимательно изучать свои трудовые соглашения; n внимательно изучать законы государства флага своего судна; n стараться приобретать вещи, используя кредитные карты, предоставляющие защиту покупателям; и n хранить собственные ценные вещи в надежном и безопасном месте.
sept/oct 12 the sea 7
FOCUS ON FAITH BY THE REVD CHRIS COLLISON
HE young seafarer was called Tim – Tim Junior. It was back in the 1980s and the ship he was working on was in dry dock, being repaired after an explosion at sea. The work took weeks and so we got to know Tim and the rest of the crew quite well. Tim and his wife were about to have their first child, but there was trouble brewing on the horizon. One day, we learnt that Tim’s father was very ill. At that time, there were no mobile phones, no emails, no Skype, or Facebook. Just letters and phone calls, from landline to landline, if the family had access to a phone. Information took time to come through and Tim was anxious. We tried to be there for Tim. He would phone and speak to his family, desperately wanting to be there for them – his father, his wife and his newborn child. His friends on the ship were very supportive, but his father’s condition worsened, and sadly he died. Tim was torn apart, and we talked things over many times. We listened, we prayed, we lit candles, we said mass. Tim could not decide whether to leave the ship to get home to be with his loved ones, or whether to stay and continue to feed his growing family. For days he agonized over the choice. He could not afford to leave his contract and fly home, only to end up stuck in Manila waiting for work. But neither did he want to miss the opportunity to say ‘farewell’ to his father – and to meet his first child. In the end, Tim stayed, and the ship sailed. Such great moments of crisis are bad enough for those of us who live close to our families. But for seafarers, the
l joven marinero se llamaba Tim, como su padre. Fue allá por 1980 y el barco de Tim estaba en dique seco porque había sufrido una explosión en alta mar. La avería era grave y se necesitaron varios meses para repararla, así que llegué a conocer bien a Tim y al resto de la tripulación. Tim esperaba su primer hijo, pero el destino le tenía preparado un revés. Un día nos enteramos de que su padre estaba muy enfermo. En aquellos tiempos no existían los teléfonos móviles, ni el correo electrónico, ni Skype, ni Facebook: solo el correo postal y el teléfono fijo. La información llegaba con cuentagotas, y Tim estaba muy preocupado. Intentamos ofrecerle todo el apoyo que pudimos. Solía llamar por teléfono a casa para hablar con su familia, pero estaba desesperado por estar con ellos: con su padre y con su propia esposa y el hijo que esperaban. Sus amigos en el barco también le arropaban todo lo que podían. Desgraciadamente su padre empeoró y falleció. Tim sufrió muchísimo. Hablamos muy a menudo, le escuchamos expresar su dolor, encendimos velas, celebramos misas… Tim no sabía qué hacer: si dejar el barco y volver a casa para estar
difficulties and pain are multiplied. It will not be every day that such crises come, but when they do and you are far from home, or hear news many days after it has happened, you carry a heavy burden. Today, we live in a world of instant communication. Would that have made things easier for Tim? I wonder. In some ways, in our new world of instant communication, we are losing touch with who we are and how we feel. We are drawn into ourselves and perhaps into our shadows. Cabin doors are shut as wifi becomes more common, encouraging each seafarer to withdraw into their own world. It is important that we try to break away from this isolation and make efforts to be with other crew members in shared spaces, relaxing, but not alone. For when the crises come, you will need support around you, and friendly crewmates, to help you get through them. When you experience a crisis in your personal life, keep the channels of communication open. Try not to be on your own all the time, tell the captain what has happened, and try to get ashore if and when you can. Perhaps the change of scenery will help, and there may be a seafarers’ centre in port where you can have counselling, or simply use the chapel to be quiet in, light a candle, pray and remember. Be kind to yourself. If it is loss that you are suffering, you may go through a whole range of emotions – anger, disappointment, regret, heartache, gloom. Use wifi or telephone to be with those you love and share your pain. And pray if you do. Your prayers don’t have to be sophisticated, or clever – simple prayers are just as good to help you connect with God. When we pray, we reach out. So when a crisis comes, reach out to others, reach out to God and reach in to your own depths for the strength you need.
con los suyos, o seguir trabajando para alimentar a su familia, que pronto iba a engrosarse. Tim se debatió largo tiempo entre ambas posibilidades. Por un lado, no podía permitirse renunciar a su contrato y coger un avión de vuelta a casa, para luego encontrarse en Manila sin trabajo. Por otro, tampoco quería perder la oportunidad de despedirse de su padre y de ver llegar a su nuevo hijo. Finalmente, Tim se quedó hasta que su barco, ya reparado, levó anclas. Si los momentos de crisis como este son terribles para quienes vivimos cerca de nuestros familiares, para los marineros, las dificultades y el sufrimiento se multiplican. Aunque estas situaciones no se producen todos los días, cuando estás lejos de casa y de los tuyos, o cuando pasan muchos días antes de enterarte de que ha sucedido una desgracia, la sobrecarga emocional es enorme. En cierto modo, en nuestro mundo actual, donde la comunicación es instantánea, estamos perdiendo la noción de quiénes somos y el contacto con nuestros propios sentimientos. La actualidad nos arrastra a nuestro mundo interior y no vemos más que nuestra propia sombra. Ahora que hay Wi-Fi en los barcos, las puertas de los camarotes permanecen cerradas y en su interior los tripulantes se encierran en sí mismos. Es importante que intentemos salir de ese aislamiento y que nos esforcemos
олодого моряка звали Тим-Том Джуниор. События происходили в далекие 80-е, и судно, на котором он ходил в плавание, стояло в сухом доке на ремонте после взрыва. Работа растянулась на долгие недели, и мы довольно близко познакомились с Тимом и другими членами команды. Тим и его жена радостно ожидали первенца, но на их горизонте сгущались тучи. В один из дней мы узнали, что отец Тима тяжело болен. В то время не было мобильных телефонов, электронной почты, Скайпа или Фейсбука. Только письма и телефонные звонки с одного стационарного телефона на другой, при условии, что у семьи был доступ к телефонной линии. Известия доходили нескоро, и Тим очень тревожился. Мы старались помочь Тиму всем, чем могли. Он звонил и разговаривал с членами своей семьи, отчаянно желая поддержать их всех — своего отца, свою жену и своего младенца. Друзья на борту судна не оставляли его, но здоровье отца все ухудшалось, и, к великому сожалению, он умер. Душа Тима рвалась на части, и мы много и подолгу общались с ним. Мы слушали его, мы молились, мы зажгли свечи и отслужили
por pasar tiempo con el resto de la tripulación en los espacios comunes, relajándonos, pero no en soledad. De esta forma, cuando llegue un momento de crisis y necesitemos apoyo, podremos recurrir a nuestros compañeros. Cuando pases por un mal momento en tu vida personal, no dejes que se cierren los canales de comunicación. Procura no estar todo el tiempo solo. Cuéntale al capitán lo que ha ocurrido y, si puedes, intenta bajar a tierra a menudo. Cambiar de aires puede ayudarte y además es posible que en el puerto haya una Casa del Mar donde puedas encontrar consejo y apoyo, o simplemente, recogerte en la capilla, encender una vela, rezar y reflexionar. Trátate con cariño. Si has sufrido una pérdida, atravesarás toda una gama de emociones, como furia, decepción, arrepentimiento, pena y desesperación. Usa Internet o telefonea a los tuyos para compartir con ellos tu dolor. Y si eres creyente, reza. Tus oraciones no tienen que ser ni sofisticadas ni inteligentes. Una sencilla plegaria funciona igual de bien para ponerte en contacto con el Señor que la más elaborada de las oraciones. Cuando rezamos, tendemos la mano. Pues bien, cuando sufras una crisis, tiende la mano. A Dios, a los demás. Y también busca en tu interior, porque es probable que encuentres allí la fortaleza que estas ocasiones requieren.
丧亲之痛 那名年轻的海员名叫蒂 姆——小蒂姆。那是在上 世纪 80 年代，他所在的船 舶在海上发生爆炸后，正 在干船坞里修理。修船工 作持续了好几个星期，因 此我们对蒂姆和其他船员 逐渐加深了解。蒂姆和妻 子 将 要 迎 来 第 一 个 孩 子， 但还有一件事预示着麻烦。 有一天，我们了解到蒂姆 的父亲病重。那时没有手 机，没有电子邮件，也没 有 Skype 或 Facebook 。 只有邮递信件和固定电 话——如果海员的家人能 够用上电话的话。信息传 送相当费时，蒂姆很焦虑。 我们试着支持蒂姆。他会 打电话与家人交谈，急切 地想要支持他们——他的 父亲、妻子和新生的孩子。 他在船上的朋友们很支持 他，但他父亲的病情出现 了恶化。不幸的是，他去 世了。 蒂姆悲痛欲绝，我们深谈 了好几次。我们倾听，祈 祷，点上蜡烛，我们做了 弥撒。蒂姆不能决定他应 当离船回家，与家人团聚， 还是留在这里，为养家而 继续坚持。他为这个选择 苦恼了好几天。他没有钱 中止合同飞回家，而且到 头来只是在马尼拉等候新 的工作。但是他也不想错 过送别父亲的机会，并见 到自己的第一个孩子。最 终，蒂姆留了下来，而修 好的船舶也启航了。
这样的危机不会每天都降 临，但是当它们发生而你 远离故乡时，或者当你在 很多天之后才听到消息时， 你会有很重的负担。 从某些方面看，在当今即 时通信的时代，我们与自 己是谁和自己的感受反而 脱离了接触。我们沉浸于 自己的世界。随着无线上网 的普及，舱门关上了，海 员们都退缩到自己的世界 里。我们有必要试着突破 这种孤立，努力与别的船 员一起在公用的空间放松， 而不是独处。因为，当危 机袭来时，你将需要周围 人的支持，需要友好的船 员同事帮助你渡过难关。 当你在个人生活中遭遇危 机时，应当保持沟通渠道 的畅通。试着不要一直一 个人独处，而是把情况告 诉船长，并在可能的情况 下上岸。也许改变一下环 境会有帮助，港口还可能 有海员中心，让你获得心 理辅导，或只是利用小礼 拜堂安静地呆一会，点上 一支蜡烛，祈祷，回忆。
记住善待自己。如果你正 在 遭 受 失 去 亲 人 的 痛 苦， 你可能经历多种情绪，包 括愤怒、失望、悔恨、心痛、 忧郁。利用无线上网或电 话，与你的亲人保持联系， 分担痛苦。你还可以祈祷。 你的祷告词不需要很复杂， 也不需要很巧妙，简单的 祷告词也可以帮助你与主 沟通。当我们祈祷时，我 即便是对我们当中那些与 们伸出手。因此，当危机 亲 人 近 在 咫 尺 的 人 来 说， 降临时，不妨向别人伸出 这些重大的危机时刻也是 手，向主伸出手，同时也 够糟糕的。但对海员们来 从自己的内心深处找到你 说，困难和痛苦成倍放大。 需要的力量。
службу. Тим не мог решить, стоит ли ему покинуть судно и вернуться домой, чтобы быть рядом со своими близкими, или лучше остаться и продолжать зарабатывать деньги, так необходимые его растущей семье. Несколько дней он мучительно пытался сделать выбор. Он не мог позволить себе разорвать контракт и улететь на родину, чтобы потом застрять в Маниле в ожидании работы. Но он также не желал потерять возможность сказать последнее «прости» своему отцу и увидеть своего первого ребенка. В итоге Тим остался, и судно отправилось в плавание. Подобные критические моменты достаточно тяжелы для тех из нас, кто живет рядом со своими семьями. Но для моряков боль и тяжесть преумножены во много раз. Такие переломные моменты случаются не каждый день, но если это происходит, и вы находитесь вдали от дома, или узнаете о случившемся спустя многие дни, то несете тяжкое бремя. В современном мире мгновенной коммуникации мы в некоторой степени теряем понимание нашей сущности и наших чувств. Мы уходим в себя, и, возможно, в собственную тень. Чем больше распространяется wifi, позволяющий каждому моряку замыкаться в своем собственном мире, тем чаще закрываются двери кают. Для нас очень важно попытаться вырваться из этой изоляции и приложить усилия к тому, чтобы проводить свободное
время вместе с другими членами команды, отдыхая в местах для совместного пользования, а не в одиночестве. Потому что, когда наступит критическая минута, вам потребуется поддержка и сопереживание окружающих, которые помогут пережить ее. Если в вашей личной жизни наступает трудное время, пусть все каналы общения будут открыты. Старайтесь не находится постоянно в одиночестве, расскажите о случившемся капитану, и по мере возможности выходите на берег. Смена обстановки поможет вам, и хорошо, если в порту найдется центр моряков, где вы получите необходимые советы и поддержку, или просто посетите часовню, побудете в ее тишине, поставите свечу, помолитесь и предадитесь воспоминаниям. Будьте добры к себе. Если вы переживаете тяжелую утрату, вас может охватить целый спектр эмоций — злость, разочарование, сожаление, страдание, уныние. Воспользуйтесь wifi или телефоном для того, чтобы ощутить себя рядом с теми, кого вы любите и с кем можете разделить свою боль. И помолитесь, если захотите. Ваша молитва не обязательно должна быть искусной, самая простая молитва достаточно хороша для того, чтобы дойти до Господа. Когда мы молимся, мы обращаемся к кому-то. Когда приходят трудные времена, обращайтесь к людям, обращайтесь к Господу и загляните глубоко внутрь себя, чтобы обрести необходимые вам силы.
Life@Sea 2012 They say that every picture tells a story, and we want to hear yours! We’re inviting seafarers around the world to submit their photos to our 2012 Life@Sea competition, and show people what life on board ship is really like.
8 the sea sept/oct 12
Environmental protection to be top priority in wreck removal
Concordia salvage ‘to take a year’
Damage where the ship’s hull hit rocks shows above the water (Photo: R Vongher) THE work of removing the wreck of the Costa Concordia from Giglio Island, Italy, is now under way and is expected to take about a year. US-based Titan Salvage has the contract and is working in partnership with the Italian firm, Micoperi. Titan says that throughout the complex operation, environmental protection will have top priority. When the main work is complete, the sea bottom will be cleaned and marine flora replanted. The plan also includes measures to safeguard the island’s tourism and its wider economy. The main operating
base will be located on the mainland at nearby Civitavecchia, where equipment and materials will be stored, so avoiding any impact on Giglio’s port activities. Once afloat, the wreck will be towed to an Italian port and what will happen to it then will be up to the Italian authorities. Meanwhile the criminal investigation into the incident is also progressing slowly. A preliminary hearing, scheduled for July 21, to determine charges against those responsible for the sinking, in which 32 passengers and crew died, has been postponed by an Italian
‘World’s first’ hybrid car carrier completed
Mitsui OSK Lines’ Emerald Ace JAPANESE Mitsubishi Heavy Industries’ Kobe shipyard has completed a hybrid car carrier, designed to generate zero emissions while berthed, for Mitsui OSK Lines (MOL). MOL is describing the Emerald Ace as the world’s first hybrid car carrier. Electricity is generated by a solar power generation system while the vessel is under way and stored in the lithium-ion batteries. The diesel-powered generator is completely shut down when the ship is in berth, and the batteries provide all the electricity it needs, resulting in zero emissions alongside the berth.
MOL praised for tsunami support JAPAN’S Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Yuichiro Hata, has awarded Mitsui OSK Lines (MOL) a certificate of appreciation for its support in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in April last year. MOL’s assistance included sending the cruise ship Fuji Maru to areas stricken by the disaster. The Mission to Seafarers
the telephone card you can trust
The ship called at three ports – Ofunato, Kamaishi and Miyako, and provided services including meals, baths and rest areas for free to 4,451 local citizens. MOL also provided various transport services and other support activities, and nearly a year and a half after the disaster it continues to support reconstruction of the stricken areas. n Launched over 10 years ago n Best overall rates n Call from anywhere worldwide n No hidden charges n Extra services added all the time n Fair and open pricing n The only card endorsed by The Mission to Seafarers n Because we care.
Ask for it at your seafarers’ centre
court until October 15 this year. The court decided to delay the hearing, which will decide whether to indict the Concordia’s captain and others, to allow an expert assessment of the vessel’s voyage data recorder (VDR). According to press reports, magistrates allowed numerous new allegations to be made known, including claims that: watertight doors were not closed properly; unauthorised charts were being used; electrical problems trapped some victims in lifts, and there had been a history of problems with the VDR. The ship’s master, Francesco Schettino, has said a “divine hand” guided him, preventing a greater tragedy. In a letter published in Italy’s La Corriere della Sera newspaper, he argues that he avoided sailing head-on into the rocks, and saved many lives by steering the stricken vessel into shallow water. The BBC has reported that Captain Schettino said recently in a television interview that he was distracted by a telephone call just before the accident, and that he believed his decision to move the ship closer to shore to shallow waters instead of immediately ordering an evacuation, potentially saved lives. Prosecutors claim he sailed too close to the island as a publicity stunt.
Alarm over IMF climate change fund comments THE International Monetary Fund’s managing director, Christine Lagarde, caused alarm in June when she said the shipping and aviation industries should provide about a quarter of the funds to be used for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing countries. International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) chairman Masamichi Morooka wrote to Madame Lagarde saying that given the severely depressed state of global shipping markets, now was not the time to impose an
additional major cost on international shipping. The ICS says shipowners have no objection in principle to contributing, at some point in the future, to the Green Climate Fund, as long as: the money is used for climate change response; the same charges are applied to all ships regardless of flag; the amount contributed by shipping is proportionate to its share of total global emissions (less than 3 per cent), and the International Maritime Organization sets up the scheme.
New seafarers’ welfare award
HE International Committee on S e a f a r e r s ’ We l f a r e (ICSW) has added a new category to its annual International Seafarers’ Welfare Awards which recognise companies, ports, welfare organisations and individuals who provide excellent welfare facilities and services to seafarers on land or at sea. The new Drop-in Welfare Centre of the Year award will recognise the vital support that smaller centres offer and it will complement the existing Seafarers’ Centre of the Year award. The other categories in the awards are Port Of The Year, Shipping Company of the Year and Welfare Personality of the Year. The awards are funded by the ITF Seafarers’ Trust and are also supported and endorsed by
the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), the International Shipping Federation (ISF), the International Christian Maritime Association (ICMA), and SeafarerHelp. The ISF is sponsoring the Welfare Personality of the Year Award, Intermanager is sponsoring the Shipping Company of the Year Award, and V.Ships is sponsoring the Drop-in Welfare Centre of the Year award.
For more information about the awards, visit: www.seafarerswelfareawards.org
Deck officer wins work claim
Three charged over ferry disaster
A US court has awarded a former deck officer US$590,000 damages against his employer, Maersk Line. William Skye claimed he was required to work about 15.75 hours a day as chief mate of the containership Sealand Pride and that this caused the heart condition, left ventricular hypertrophy. He alleged he worked these long hours due to Maersk’s negligence in not observing International Maritime Organization and US national regulations. The court ruled that regulations had not been broken but nevertheless concluded that his long hours caused the seafarer’s illness. However, the court also decided that Mr Skye had also been negligent and was three-quarters responsible for his situation. Had Maersk been fully responsible damages would have been nearly $2.4m. Mr Skye is intending to appeal against the ruling that he had been largely to blame.
THREE people, including the master, have been charged with manslaughter following the capsize in July of the ferry Skagit, off the coast of Zanzibar. Up to 144 people may have died in the disaster, the second such incident involving a Tanzanian ferry in a year. In September 2011 nearly 200 people died when an allegedly overcrowded boat, the Spice Islander, sank with 800 people on board. The International Maritime Organization offered assistance at that time, with the investigation and in preventing such accidents.
Marine monitoring pilot success THE Straits of Malacca and Singapore Marine Electronic Highway (MEH) Information Technology System, based in Batam, Indonesia, but until now managed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), has been handed over to the Indonesian Government. IMO says this marks the final stages of the pilot marine surveillance project and a move towards a full-scale MEH network in the Straits, under the ownership of the coastal states. The system is intended to enhance maritime safety and can also be used to protect the environment. Among other things it can identify and track ships that illegally discharge oily waste. The current MEH pilot project covers the whole traffic separation scheme for the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. Malaysia and Singapore are also expected to establish MEH data centres like the one in Batam, thus setting up a regional network.
New safe mooring guide A NEW guide stresses the need to maintain mooring equipment to ensure safe operation. Mooring Practice Safety Guidance for Offshore Vessels when Alongside in Ports and Harbours has been published by the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA). It has easy-to-follow sections on planning the operation, such as: who is in charge?; communication; personal protective equipment; danger zones; condition of mooring lines; hazards; environmental conditions; vessels assisting; quay access, and mooring equipment.
Nautilus pushes for Danny FII report ANGLO-DUTCH seafarers’ union Nautilus International has lodged fresh protests with the Panamanian authorities over what is says is a continued failure to publish a report on the investigation into the loss of the livestock carrier Danny FII in December 2009. Two Nautilus members were among the 44 crew who died when the vessel sank off the coast of Lebanon and the union says that the register has still to produce a report on the incident, despite repeated claims that publication is imminent.
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