Flow magazine - Quarter 4 2019: Plant & Process Engineering focus issue.

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Quarter 4 2019

Pump industry insight from

FOCUS ON: Plant & process engineering

Pumping challenging fluids

Pump efficiency: are we heading in the right direction?

Pump Industry News



Expert Opinion

Ensuring waste is never wasted The Chopper Hopper™ combines solids reduction and transfer pumping into one unit, saving energy and minimizing your carbon footprint. With the ability to handle various input sizes, the pre-cutters in the hopper breaks up solids, which our Muncher technology breaks into finer pieces. The EZstrip™ progressing cavity pump moves the homogenous slurry to the downstream process, creating an efficient transfer of biowaste with low power consumption and operating costs. To learn more, visit nov.com/industrial Š 2018 National Oilwell Varco | All Rights Reserved

CONTENTS 3 Editor Chris Callander chris@flowmag.co.uk 01732 671123 Contributing Editor Suzanne Gill suzanne@flowmag.co.uk Publisher Andrew Castle andrew@flowmag.co.uk 07785 290034 Accounts Touchwave Media Ltd accounts@flowmag.co.uk Production G and C Media Ltd production@flowmag.co.uk

For over three-quarters of a century the British Pump Manufacturers’ Association (BPMA) has been serving the interests of UK and Irish suppliers of liquid pumps and pumping equipment.


s we come to the end of our first year publishing flow, I should first thank everyone who has contributed and supported the publication. We couldn’t do it without our readers, our contributors and of course, those that support the title with advertising. We are delighted with the reaction we have received so far and have some great ideas in development to bring you even more through the pages of flow in 2020 and beyond. But, before we wish the rest of this year away, we can’t ignore what is in the pages of this issue. In our plant and process engineering focus, we look at solutions for pumping challenging fluids. We also explore factors that can support the calculation and management of a pumping system’s total cost of ownership. Elsewhere we hear how a dedicated pump and motor combination has delivered substantial cost savings at a Belgian lock facility. And discuss whether the drive for pump efficiency is focussing on the right areas. In our compliance section, a guest feature from Andrew Warren, Chairman of the British Energy Efficiency Federation, discusses the post-Brexit prospects for UK product policy on energy usage. Plus, we have brought you a new feature – a compliance calendar – which we plan to develop over future issues to highlight critical standards and directive changes and their relevant milestones. Of course, we have our regular event diary, news from the BPMA and the wider industry, plus the latest products and opinion. So please enjoy this issue, and we’ll see you again in 2020. Richard Harden, President, BPMA


BPMA National Metalforming Centre 47 Birmingham Road West Bromwich B70 6PY www.bpma.org.uk

Energy Snapshot exposes wastage in buildings

BPMA membership reaches record levels

awards update

Twitter @bpmapumps 7

16 Updating domestic circulator pumps

Xylem launches rental hub



features 18 Pump and motor ovehaul pays off 20 Pump efficiency: are we heading in the right direction?

Nomination deadline looms

flow is a controlled circulation journal published quarterly on behalf of the BPMA by Touchwave Media Ltd and G and C Media Ltd. For a copy of the magazine’s terms of control and to request a copy please email circulation@flowmag.co.uk The content of flow magazine does not necessarily reflect the views of the editor, publishers or the BPMA. The publishers accept no legal responsibility for loss arising from information in this publication and do not endorse any products or processes mentioned within it. No part of this publication may be reproduced or stored in a retrieval system without the publisher’s written consent. © BPMA. All rights reserved.


PRODUCTS 8 Drive for demanding environments 9 Dewatering pump range expands

SKILLS 10 Tackling the skills shortage

Compliance 12 Are energy standards about to take a step backwards?

Focus on plant & process engineering 22 Pumping challenging fluids 26 Calculate and manage total cost of ownership 28 Plant and process engineering news

OPINION 30 Expansion vessels can reduce legionella risk Quarter 4 2019




t the recent EMEX exhibition, ABB launched an updated energy assessment process, specifically targeting the financial community, energy managers and maintenance teams. The Energy Snapshot is a six-step process in which an ABB engineer, or one of its approved partners, visits a site and in half-a-day identifies up to five motor driven applications that are wasting the most energy. Typical applications examined include pumps, fans and compressors. The output from the Energy Snapshot is an Executive Summary, tailored to meet the specific needs of financial, energy or maintenance managers. The summary highlights which applications can benefit from retrofitting or upgrading variable speed drives (VSDs) and/or high efficiency motors, together with an estimate of the energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions saving potential.

Commenting on the launch, ABB’s Steve Hughes said: “Motor-driven applications are rarely seen or heard unless something goes wrong. To that end, VSDs are not generally at the front of many employees’ minds when it comes to energy saving initiatives. This lack of awareness means that companies could be missing out on the significant energy savings that VSDs can deliver. It is, therefore, important that energy managers can build a compelling business case so that others can understand the potential benefits.”



Saniflo Sanfos lifting station has been used to handle the wastewater at a challenging Norfolk building project. The build was at a riverside property, situated within the Norfolk Broads. Part of the project was a boathouse that included occasional accommodation which needed to be connected to the site’s wastewater system. However, its position on the water’s edge meant that the boathouse was some 4m below and 65m from the drainage level of the on-site sewage treatment plant. Because of this, discharging black and grey water waste would require a pump capable of lifting waste up and along soil pipes to meet the waste treatment plant. The project was further complicated by the waterside position, which meant that the ground was understandably damp. This meant that the



elegates to the second Women in Water conference organised by British Water have embraced the trade association’s campaign to support women in the industry. The event took place at MWH Treatment’s Manchester headquarters on 16 October and speakers shared their career stories along with offering expert advice from direct experience. British Water chief executive Lila Thompson said, “One of the important things about Women in Water is that it’s not just an event, it’s now a campaign, and we’re building our resources and incorporating other organisations’ actions and events. We’ve already had some excellent feedback from delegates that will help determine our next steps as we build on this important initiative.” In the spirit of collaboration, Angie Needle, founder of the Women’s Utility Network, delivered a keynote on empowerment. Quarter 4 2019

smallest possible hole needed to be dug for the waste transfer solution, to keep it stable and minimise the cost of the works. The site’s contractors called in Saniflo, and a site visit confirmed that a Sanifos 110 would be the ideal size to lift the grey and black waste and discharge it via 40mm pipework up to the treatment plant. Being significantly smaller than alternative solutions, it met the criteria for the project. A hole just 1m deep and less than 500mm wide was all that was required. The Sanifos has been covered by a simple manhole cover which is flush with the ground so creates no obstruction. The outlet pipe is sited out of the way by the guttering of the boathouse. Access to the unit for maintenance is still very good.

Setting out the current gender imbalance in stark terms she said only 20% of the half-million people working in the utilities are women; only 23% of those in leadership positions in the water industry are women and only 1% of those in skilled trades. MWH Treatment human resources director, Hilary Tew, had practical advice for companies wishing to recruit and retain female employees. She said: “We asked whether our benefits are inclusive. We now offer an extra five days of holidays you can buy. It’s not just about women; men can share the benefits. If we can help with their family life, it’s a win-win.” Feedback from delegates during and after the event was overwhelmingly positive. www.bpma.org.uk




team solutions provider, Spirax Sarco, is celebrating three decades of course-accreditation from City & Guilds Group. Beginning in 1989, the relationship was born out of a decision by The Dairy Trade Federation and City & Guilds to introduce a skills testing scheme for the validation and accreditation of maintenance engineers in the dairy industry. This led to the introduction of a nationally recognised certificate. Sally O’Connell, Training Centre Manager at Spirax Sarco, explained: “At that time, Spirax Sarco was the only authorised provider of the Steam Plant Maintenance training for the scheme. In the 30 years since we have continued to develop the course and gain accreditation for both our Steam Plant Maintenance and our Steam Boiler Plant Fundamentals (Shell Boiler) courses.” Kirstie Donnelly, Managing Director at City & Guilds Group,

added: “We are proud to have maintained a relationship with Spirax Sarco for three decades, accrediting their skills training and highlighting the quality process and credibility that learners are actively looking for.”




heavy rains, prolonged drought or temporary projects with changing wastewater conditions all require fast and flexible solutions. Xylem understands that the priority is to keep businesses operational and prevent downtime that results in additional cost. It has, therefore, set up what it says is the largest rental hub in Europe to provide fast, on-demand assistance, including expert support and on-site installation. The company’s rental fleet includes more than 6,000 assets available across 80 sites, chosen strategically for fast distribution and installation, to ensure that critical situations can be resolved quickly. “Unfortunately, due to climate change, there is a risk that heavy rainfall can cause damage to wastewater infrastructure or communities’ drinking water networks. Now, we can cover all of these demands and ensure continued operation with a fast response service and installation,” explained Andy Grewar, General Manager Service & Rental, Xylem Water Solutions UK&I.


ESSEAL has officially reopened its mechanical seal test house following an upgrade totalling more than £1.4 million. The test centre, where the company’s mechanical seals and compressor dry gas seals are produced and put through rigorous trials to ensure they meet the highest quality and performance standards, has undergone significant refurbishment over the past two years. This final phase has seen the company invest £800,000 in five state-of-the-art test rigs, with a sixth due to arrive in 2020. These will ensure the testing process is even more efficient and accurate. Michael Rich, AESSEAL Test House Manager, said: “All our test rigs can be run on an automated basis, leaving operators more time to focus on preparation and post-test analysis. They are also user-friendly, which means new test technicians can be trained quickly, adding another efficiency to this rapidly expanding area of our business.”

SIEMENS AND GRUNDFOS SIGN DIGITAL PARTNERSHIP TO TACKLE GLOBAL CHALLENGES SIEMENS AND GRUNDFOS HAVE SIGNED A DIGITAL partnership framework for strategic cooperation between the two companies. The new partnership focuses on the complementary products and solutions provided by both parties in three main areas: water and wastewater applications, industrial automation and building technology. By combining their complementary expertise and knowledge in a long-term co-development digital partnership, both Siemens and Grundfos aim to benefit customers by creating synergies that extend beyond the sum of their parts. Both parties are entering into this partnership, aiming to achieve sustainable global change by joining forces in digital solutions. “We are delighted to be further extending our collaboration www.bpma.org.uk

with Grundfos,” explained Klaus Helmrich, Member of the Managing Board of Siemens AG and CEO of Digital Industries. “Siemens and Grundfos are combining the competences of both companies to support our joint customer base in their digital transformation, and in the implementation of intelligent solutions.” “Our purpose is to pioneer solutions that contribute to solving the world’s water and climate challenges. To live up to that purpose, we are on a major digital transformation journey to supplement our pump solutions business by also becoming a digital solution and service provider. Partnering with Siemens is a big step in this direction,” added Mads Nipper, CEO of Grundfos. Quarter 4 2019

6 BPMA News





Michael Mitten, Chief Executive of BPMA member, Houghton International, is taking on a challenge unlike any other.

arly in December 2019, Michael begins a trek across the final degree of latitude, crossing 60 nautical miles (111km) in freezing temperatures and extreme conditions to reach the South Pole. He will be taking on this momentous challenge in memory of his mum, Christine, who sadly passed away in 2016 following a long battle with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to raise awareness of the condition which affects over 10,000 people in the UK alone. Michael had his first experience of the polar wilderness in 2009 when he challenged himself to trek to the North Pole in memory of his dad, Ron Mitten, who he lost to cancer in 2007. Ten years on, Michael felt it only fitting to get both feet under the table, in Polar trekking terms, and embark on a second trek, but this time to the South Pole to support the MS Society. Further information, progress updates and details of how you can support Michael can be found on the challenge’s dedicated website. polesapart2019.com

Traditional AC type RCDs are not suitable for an increasing number of modern DC devices, as the BPMA explains.

ost houses and commercial establishments in the UK have AC rated residual current devices (RCD’s) fitted as standard. These are used to detect and respond to AC sinusoidal wave only. They offer no DC fault protection. In the 18th Edition, BS 7671:2018 – requirements for electrical installations – IET wiring regulation 531.3.3 covers general application areas and futureproofs the regulation recognising the need to verify the selection of an RCD based on the residual current and characteristics of the appliance or loads being connected to the installation. As new electrically powered devices and appliances, including replacement highefficiency pumps and circulators, are introduced to the market, the correct RCD protection must be identified and fitted so that DC protection is in place where required. Property owners and installers need to be made aware of these requirements and take action to ensure the safety of the installation. Various appliances can produce residual currents that are not compatible with AC residual current devices. Consequently, the 18th Edition has been updated to be aligned with existing electrical safety standards adopted in other countries. In Germany and several other western European countries, AC rated RCD’s are no longer allowed due to their restricted protection scope. Therefore, and given that every installation is unique, the BPMA suggests that responsibility for selecting the correct RCD, squarely rests with the qualified installer or electrician. They should always follow the appliance manufacturers instructions on which type of RCD to use; the information for which can normally be found in the installation operating manual (IOM), or in downloadable form on their website. There are many types of RCD’s available, displaying a range of applicable symbols such as AC, A, F, B and B+, which readily allows for the correct one to be selected and installed.

BPMA ACHIEVES RECORD MEMBERSHIP LEVELS Securing the largest membership in the BPMAs history has been just one of several highlights from the last three months.


any of the BPMA’s 88 members gathered in Crewe for the association’s AGM on 14 November. Updates on the year’s achievements which included the highest membership levels in the association’s history were shared along with details of legislation developments from Europe and around the world, and updates on Brexit via its membership of EURIS. Delegates also enjoyed a presentation from Terry Boniface of BEIS (the department for Business Energy & Industrial Strategy) who gave an update on policy and took questions from the floor. Contributing to the association’s record membership levels were three recent new members. Altecnic manufactures and supplies an extensive range of plumbing and heating components as well as heat interface units. It serves the needs of trade merchants, original equipment manufacturers, plumbing and heating engineers and specifiers across the UK and Ireland. Packaged Pump Systems (PPS) has also recognised the range of benefits available to BPMA members. PPS is a manufacturer

Quarter 4 2019

of pump stations and is an installation/service specialist for the domestic basement market and the light commercial building services/facilities management sector. PDAS (Pump Design and Services Ltd) which is based in Camberley, offers design solutions, cost analysis, installation and ongoing maintenance/servicing to the waste and surface water pump station market. The BPMA is looking forward to their contribution to the association and having the opportunity to support them in their work. The association was also delighted to have its ongoing commitment to providing independent pump training recognised by the judges at this year’s AEMT Awards. The BPMA was voted runner up in the hotly contested Skills and Training category, and it offered its congratulations to Rotomec on their deserved win. Finally, with the dark evenings taking hold and temperatures plummeting, BPMA is looking ahead to spring which brings with it the BPMA Golf day, being held at Belton Woods on 21 May 2020. Full details are available via the BPMA website (bpma.org.uk) and team, and individual entries for what is always an enjoyable industry event are welcomed. www.bpma.org.uk



There is still time to make your nominations for the Pump Industry Awards 2020, but you’ll have to be quick as the entry deadline is Monday 6th January 2020.


or the past twenty years, the Pump Industry Awards (PIA) has been recognising the best performing pump companies, products and people for their achievements, developments and positive contributions within this important industry sector. The BPMA will again lead the way in championing those who strive for business, professional and engineering excellence, through its staging of the 2020 awards programme. Nine eagerly contested awards are up for grabs, with two new categories being introduced to help highlight the value and importance of both individual talent and ongoing skills development: • Technical Innovation, Products (Sponsored by Process Engineering) • Technical Innovation, Projects (Sponsored by Stuart Turner) • Environmental Contribution of the Year (Sponsored by SPP Pumps) • Manufacturer of the Year (Sponsored by BPMA) • Distributor of the Year (Sponsored by WEG) • Supplier of the Year (Sponsored by Wilo) • Contribution to Skills & Training (Sponsored by Tomlinson Hall) • Rising Star Award (Sponsored by World Pumps) • Lifetime Achievement Award (Sponsored by BPMA) Richard Harden, BPMA President, said of the awards: “The pump industry continues to be a hot bed of competitiveness, where the customers’ constant search for greater operational performance and improved efficiencies

demands all those operating within this important sector be at the top of their game. This BPMA backed awards programme allows the pump industry to come together in recognition of that drive for engineering excellence. I would therefore encourage anyone involved in the manufacture and supply of pumps to get involved with the awards and help celebrate our endeavours.” The prestigious awards dinner and presentation ceremony will take place on Thursday 19th March 2020 at the 4-Star Chesford Grange Hotel, near Warwick Castle, which offers easy access from all over the UK for the 250+ guests expected to attend. A full complement of Richard Harden, BPMA President sponsors has once again been secured for the industry event, with each one contributing to or work with. The online entry process the overall success of the awards couldn’t be easier, so if you want to programme and presentation dinner. play your part in bringing engineering They include ABB, John Crane, Process excellence to the fore, please do visit the Engineering, SPP Pumps, Stuart Turner, PIA website. Tomlinson Hall, WEG Electric Motors, The online entry forms will remain Wilo UK, World Pumps and of course the available for completion until 5.00pm BPMA. on Monday 6th January. If you want Entries are sought for any company, industry-wide recognition for a job well product, application or individual within done, be it for technical innovation or the pump industry that is worthy of application know-how, for environmental recognition and reward. Submissions consideration or distribution and supply, are not restricted to BPMA membership, make sure you complete the entry form and you can put forward entries for now. yourself and your own company, or you can nominate others that you know of pumpindustryawards.com


Find yours at tri-ark.com

01621 781144


NEW VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES HELP OVERCOME HARMONIC CHALLENGES ABB’S ACQ580 RANGE OF VARIABLE speed drives (VSDs), developed specifically for pumping applications in the water and wastewater industry, now includes an ultra-low harmonic (ULH) version. This new drive ensures reliable operation even in unstable power supply conditions by keeping the network clean from troublesome harmonics without the addition of filters or special transformers. The use of VSDs with motors that operate pumps and blowers offer significant benefits for a water plant, including enhanced energy efficiency, better control and reliability of operations. The issue is that VSDs can also introduce harmonics into the electrical network. Harmonics can damage sensitive

electronic equipment, trip circuit breakers, blow fuses and cause capacitor failures. They can also interfere with communication systems and cause false readings on measurement devices. In the worst cases, harmonics cause costly process interruptions. The traditional approach to tackle problems created by harmonics is to add filters, multipulse transformers or overdimensioning equipment. However, the ABB ACQ580 doesn’t need external filters or any special equipment. “The new ABB drive has harmonic mitigation built-in, including an active supply unit and integrated low harmonic line filter,” says Simo Niskanen, Drives Product Manager, ABB. “Compared to a conventional drive, the ACQ580 ULH

DRIVE FOR DEMANDING ENVIRONMENTS TEC MOTORS HAS INTRODUCED an IP66/NEMA 4X rated version of its general-purpose TECDrive Variable Speed Drive (VSD). Offering the same energy savings, ease of installation and intuitive user experience as the standard model, the IP66 TECDrive VSD is specifically designed for tough applications where durability and reliability are paramount. The IP66 TECDrive VSD has been designed to work outside the control cabinet environment and can be mounted almost anywhere. It will withstand outdoor conditions and regular low-pressure washdowns thanks to its high ingress

protection rating, tough polycarbonate enclosure and corrosion-resistant heatsink. The enclosure is UV stable and impervious to dirt, grease, oils and

can reduce harmonic content down to 3% THDI (total harmonic distortion of current).” www.abb.com weak acids. It also has a wide operating temperature range from -10 to +50°C. TEC says that a key advantage of the new drive is its ease of installation, allowing general-purpose users to start benefitting from energy savings and motor speed control quickly. There is a clear LED display with waterproof buttons for basic settings, plus, the option on every model to include a manual run/reverse switch and speed control potentiometer. There are four frame sizes available with power ratings from 0.37kW single phase, up to 22kW three-phase all available from UK stock. tecmotors.co.uk

PUMPS MINIMISE DOWNTIME IN OIL & GAS EXPLORATION ENGINEERED TO MINIMISE downtime in offshore applications, SPX FLOWs ClydeUnion Pump CUP-BB5 range features a cartridge retention design that means a complete rotor change-out can be completed in under eight hours. The CUP-BB5 range comprises radially split, diffuser type, multi-stage pumps specifically designed for the oil & gas market. With capacities up to 2,800m3/ hr and delivery heads up to 4,100m, typical applications for the CUP-BB5 range include produced water injection, seawater injection and main oil lines. CUP-BB5 pumps require no specialist tools or additional training, making maintenance straightforward and minimising downtime. The shear ring locking system ensures rapid change-out and minimises pump downtime because it does not require the use of high torque Quarter 4 2019

equipment to assemble or dis-assemble. With two main variants of in-line impellers (CUP-BB5i) or a back-to-back impeller arrangement (CUP-BB5b), the pumps are available as engineered-toorder solutions, fully compliant with the latest API 610 and API 682 requirements and customer specifications. The CUP-BB5 can also be packaged with various types of drive equipment to suit customer requirements. Typical options include fixed or variable speed electric motors, combustion engines and gas or steam turbines. Packaged systems are

further equipped with a range of pump healthcare monitoring equipment to enable measurement and analysis of performance data to aid preventative maintenance and increase availability. www.spxflow.com www.bpma.org.uk

Diary 9

Product News

NEW CLAMP-ON ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR LIQUIDS BELL FLOW SYSTEMS has announced the introduction of the Dynasonics TFX-5000 ultrasonic clampon flow and energy meters manufactured in the United States by Badger Meter. Designed for noninvasive, ultrasonic transit time flow measurement of liquids, these flow meters are suited to use in water and wastewater treatment, heating/ventilation/air conditioning (HVAC) and oil and gas applications. TFX-5000 ultrasonic clamp-on flow and energy meters measure volumetric flow and heating/cooling rates in clean liquids as well as those with small amounts of suspended solids or aeration, such as surface water or raw sewage. Typical applications include water mains, reclaimed water, lift stations and booster pump stations in water and wastewater, or the energy transfer of chilled water and glycol/hot water in HVAC systems, as well as produced water in oil and gas applications.

january 17 28






www.sulzer.com/ dewatering www.bpma.org.uk


Wastewater 2020 conference National Conference Centre, Birmingham bit.ly/wwt2020



SULZER’S NEW XJ 900 SUBMERSIBLE DEWATERING pump is an extension of the XJ series of pumps which were first brought to market in 2012. The company is positioning the new pump as an economical and reliable option for dewatering applications which, it says, is a valuable asset against waterrelated downtime. The new pump is equipped with a high-efficiency electric motor rated 90kW for 50Hz markets and 108kW for 60Hz markets. The highefficiency IE3 motor and new hydraulics combined with lowfriction bearings reduce power losses. As a result, the total energy costs are low, and the carbon footprint is reduced. The pump’s hydraulic design allows for easy conversion between high-head and high-flow configurations. This makes it possible to stock fewer pumps and still have the right hydraulic performance for the job.

Europump council meeting


BPMA Technical committee London www.bpma.org.uk

southern manufacturing

Farnborough www.industrysouth.co.uk

World Water-Tech: Innovation Summit

London worldwatertechinnovation.com


ExCel, London www.futurebuild.co.uk




pump industry awards

Manchester bit.ly/FLUID2020

Kenilworth www.pumpindustryawards.com

APril 6-9


CERTIFIED PUMP SYSTEM AUDITOR course West Bromwich www.bpma-cpsa.co.uk

drives & Controls 2020 NEC, Birmingham www.drives-expo.com

Quarter 4 2019

10 skills

TACKLING THE SKILLS SHORTAGE Chris Callander spoke to BPMA member companies to find out more about their experience of the reported skills shortage and how they are dealing with it.


eports suggest that skills shortages could cost science, technology and engineering businesses as much as £1.5billion a year in recruitment, temporary staffing, inflated salaries and additional training. We spoke to a variety of industry spokespeople to get their thoughts on the issues facing the pump sector. flow: Are you seeing a skills shortage in your business and if so, how are you addressing it? Julia Bloomer, Head of Learning & Development at AESSEAL: We are experiencing a shortage of skilled engineers and machine operators. We’ve addressed this in recent years by adopting a ‘grow your own’ approach. We dedicate time and money to demonstrating to young people that engineering is a career to aspire to. In 2019 we put 3,792 hours into outreach work, engaging with around 3,000 students from primary year six onwards. Christian Cuvelier, Business Controller and Aaron White, Product Manager (Technology), at PPS: We are seeing a shortage of qualified pump engineers. We would like to see an NVQ (or similar) developed as today this is not a natural path for young graduates building up skills in plumbing, electrical systems and mechanical engineering. Shabana Pottle, UK/Ireland Service & Rental HR Business Partner at Xylem UK&I: We have experienced a skills shortage in some regions but to mitigate this we are actively retirement planning, hiring apprentices and ensuring our workforce planning is fluid. In April 2018 we introduced a careers-banding structure in the engineering division to give our engineers a framework of

progression with additional training and mentoring. This has been effective in nurturing talent. flow: Has the Apprenticeship Levy helped you to bring young talent into your business? JB: We’ve always had apprentices, so the levy hasn’t made much difference. But it is easier to find good training providers and has made management of the apprentices and suppliers easier. CC/AW: We looked into apprenticeships, but as an SME struggled to identify the internal resources needed to support them. SP: Most certainly, we holistically promote the levy across our workforce but have a particular bias on our engineering workforce. We are increasing apprentice numbers year on year and are reaching out to all our employees for other levy qualifying study opportunities. flow: What methods do you use to upskill existing employees? JB: We use the levy to support external and in-house training. The personal and professional development support offered to our apprentices extends to all our employees, creating a strong culture of ongoing personal advancement throughout the company. We also have a focus on mentoring. CC/AW: As a company, we are committed to regular training for all our staff. Our field engineers receive the largest share of the training budget. Onthe-job training is also used to develop competencies internally, covering office staff and staff in the field. This includes toolbox talks on ad-hoc topics as and when required. SP: The majority of upskilling is identified through our feedback and

appraisal processes and one-to-one discussions with line managers. We have a number of subject matter experts who reach out to employees to develop competencies, working across all regions via a skills matrix to identify gaps. We find mentoring and coaching works well alongside classroom-based learning. flow: Do you place a focus on retaining staff, if so how? JB: Absolutely, all apprentices become formal employees from day one and are treated as young professionals. We pay, as a minimum, 10% above the national minimum wage. Succession planning means apprentices receive training for their current job and potential future roles, so are motivated to stay and progress their career. CC/AW: Retaining staff considering the current shortage of skills is key to our business growth. Following a random anonymous survey of our staff, the quality and calibre of training is viewed by most as a critical factor in their longterm commitment to the company. In addition to staff mentorship and competitive base salary packages, we have negotiated several benefits to offer staff an enhanced package. Team motivation events outside work hours were introduced to allow personal relationships to flourish, and a bimonthly internal newsletter highlights the positive contributions made by staff in their working environment. SP: Employee retention is a paramount concern for us and is a crucial stabilising force for our future success. We have continued meaningful dialogue with managers, teams and staff to discuss issues. chevron-circle-right

For details of the full range of training available from the BPMA download the FREE training guide at:

bit.ly/BPMAtraining BPMA TR AINING




Quarter 4 2019










Motors | Automation | Energy | Transmission & Distribution | Coatings



The monitoring solution for Industry 4.0 - for more information visit www.weg.net/wegmotorscan/en

We present the WG20 product range extension up to 18.000 Nm WG20 is the first geared motor program to be completely developed by WEG. It consists of helical, flat and bevel-helical gearboxes offering high efficiencies throughout the large gear range. The specification and design of the robust housing is compatible with those already established on the market making the WG20 fully interchangeable with other geared motors in an existing system or production line without delays or conversions. This flexibility makes the WG20 series of products both versatile and realiable for a wide range of applications. Learn more about the WG20: www.weg.net/wg20

Transforming energy into solutions.


12 Compliance

Are energy standards about to take a step backwards? In light of a rumoured change of direction by the UK Government, Andrew Warren, Chairman of the British Energy Efficiency Federation, discusses the post-Brexit prospects for UK product policy on energy usage.


K electricity consumption is 18% lower than 15 years ago. Some two-thirds of that drop can be ascribed to implementation of European Union energy-using product policy. Effectively, this policy is implemented via two distinct, but related, streams of activity. The first sets minimum standards of efficiency for energyusing products, outlawing the worst fuel-wasters from sale. The second ascribes labels to each of those products, ranging from A to G, revealing likely running costs. Such requirements are currently in place for 28 energy-using product groups, including domestic products like washing machines and TVs, and business products like power transformers and commercial refrigeration. For the first three years following the Brexit referendum, every single indication from Theresa May’s Government was that both of these successful policies would be continued seamlessly even when the UK was no longer formally part of the EU. So, UK product policy on energy usage would remain aligned with that in operation right across Europe – which is likely to remain UK manufacturers’ largest single market. This continuity would have ensured that the energy savings already achieved would remain for future years. And as new products continue to be added to the substantial list of those covered, the expectation had been that UK manufacturers operating in each sector would continue to make products that, at minimum, always complied with European standards. It is now becoming clear that this is no longer the policy of the new Johnson-led Government. Initial revelations from respected sources like the Financial Times and the Economist magazine have hinted that the international trade department is informing those in non-European countries that such environmental standards could become more flexible. The EU’s chief Brexit negotiator, Michel Barnier, tweeted that this was his understanding too. Then the BBC’s veteran environmental analyst, Roger Harrabin, revealed that he had been sent a formal statement that effectively confirmed that, post-Brexit, the UK could adopt very different, if any, minimum standards for energy usage by relevant products. He also revealed that Downing Street zealots were restricting UK officials even from attending formal EU meetings that were considering future initiatives regarding product policy. This diktat is applying even though the UK is still formally a member of the EU. Quarter 4 2019

All this has considerable potential ramifications for UK manufacturers of any such products. Even if the UK were in future to opt to run its own esoteric energy standards, that would still leave UK manufacturers severely disadvantaged. It would mean that – to be able to sell anything into the entire continental European market – such UK made products would inevitably need to comply with the EU’s requirements. The other big difference is that UK-based firms would no longer have any formal say in deciding the detail of all new standards being adopted. Essentially, becoming rule-takers, rather than rule-makers. At the end of October, a big EU consultation forum was held in Brussels, under the Eco Design Directive, this time dealing with water pumps. Up until the last minute, it was feared that UK government officials would not be attending. Nobody officially would have been able to put the case for British businesses. After much strenuous lobbying from the British Pump Manufacturers Association, a few days beforehand 10 Downing Street staff approved the attendance of two civil servants from the Business Department. By that stage, it had been conceded that any chance of achieving the declared departure date from the European Union before 2020 had evaporated. So, these two civil servants were indeed permitted at the eleventh hour to help put across the arguments of British businesses to their opposite numbers from other Governments. Leaving an empty chair may be portrayed by some as an overt gesture of Brexit purity. Those operating in the real world might describe doing so as another pointless gesture that is truly a dereliction of duty by government. And a giant step back from ever achieving net-zero carbon. chevron-circle-right www.bpma.org.uk

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14 Compliance calendar


ur new compliance calendar outlines legislation that manufacturers and end users of pumps need to be aware of. Each piece of legislation includes far more detail than we are able to share here. If you would like further guidance on any of the information below, contact the author at s.schofield@bpma.org.uk.

August 2018

31 October 2019

1 July 2019

WEEE 2012/19/EU In the UK, since August 2018, pumps have been included in the scope of the WEEE regulations and companies that produce and sell pumps need to be registered with the Environment Agency and with a recognised collection scheme.

ATEX (EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES) 2014/34/EU IEC standards 80079-36 & 37 were published in 2016 and include major changes to the marking and documentation of non-electrical goods such as pumps. Pump manufacturers should all be working to these two new standards which became a legal requirement on 31 October 2019.

ECO Design requirements for electric motors – repealing of Commission Regulation (EC) No 640/2009 Motors • IE2 level applies to three-phase induction motors rated at 0.12kW to 0.75kW with 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles (Exception Ex eb). • IE 3 level applies to three-phase induction motors rated at 0.75kW to 1,000kW with 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles, TEAO motors new in scope, (exception Ex eb and mining motors).

Variable speed drives (VSDs) • IE 2 level applies to variable speed drives rated for operating with motors with a rated output at or between 0.75kW to 1,000kW from. • The following drive technologies are excluded: • Regenerative drives (AFE, active front end). • Drives with sinusoidal input current (THD <10%).

By 2023

1 July 2023

Quarter 4 2019

Revisions To Water Pumps regulation 547/2012 The following thresholds still require ratification and an impact assessment. This regulation is expected to be in force by 2023. • EEIv (variable) for single stage pumps up to 45kW pump input power and booster sets up to 150kW pump input power. • EEIv threshold value of EEIv <0.62 for single stage pumps. • EEIv threshold value of EEIv <0.50 for booster sets. • Two tier approach: 1st product information, 2nd threshold. • EEIc (constant) or MEI for all other pumps in scope. • EEIc threshold value EEIc <1.00. • MEI threshold value MEI <0.40.

ECO Design requirements for electric motors – repealing of Commission Regulation (EC) No 640/2009 Motors • IE 2 level applies to the following products: • Three-phase induction motors rated at 0.12kW to 0.75kW • Single-phase induction motors rated at 0.12kW • Increased safety motors (Ex-eb) rated at 0.12kW to 1,000kW • IE 3 level applies to the following products: • Three-phase induction motors rated at 0.75kW to 1,000kW with 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles




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16 Q&A

Updating domestic circulator pumps In this issue’s Q&A, Dave Lacey, Director of Sales for Domestic Building Services at Grundfos Pumps, talks to flow about updating domestic circulator pumps to the current electronic versions. flow: Why might a domestic circulator pump need to be replaced with a different model? Dave Lacey: Due to a change in legislation, from 1 January 2013, traditional domestic circulators with induction motors were no longer available for sale in the UK or other European markets, because of increasingly stringent energy efficiency requirements. This meant that from that date, only electronically controlled variable speed pumps with permanent magnet DC motor technology could be legally supplied. This change redefined the pump choice selection for the majority of the installed base of pumps in the home, at the point of replacement. To help, pump manufacturers produced a number of tools and reference materials to simplify the changeover process. flow: How simple is it to replace a domestic threespeed circulator with one of the new electronic versions? DL: When a system issue is recorded, the first step is to establish if the failure of the heating system is due to the pump and establish if the pump can be brought back into operation. It could be that the underperformance is due to air in the system, incorrect system balancing, or there is a power supply issue. Where a replacement pump is deemed to be the solution, a suitable model will need to be selected, taking into account any recent system changes. Hard copy, pdf and on-line replacement guides are widely available, some of which can be accessed via apps on smartphones or tablets. If it is deemed to be a pump failure, depending on the condition of the pump casing, it may be possible to replace just the pump head. Still, this option is dependent upon several factors, and an installer can best advise the feasibility of this option. The basic steps involved in replacing a pump (or pump head only) include: 1. Switching off the heating system. 2. Switching off and disconnecting the power supply to the pump. It is vital that the power supply cannot be accidentally switched back on. 3. Isolating the pump hydraulically (closing the inlet and outlet valves). In older installations, isolating valves may be blocked, and if they need to be replaced, the system may need to be drained down. 4. Disconnecting the pump unions and removing the pump from the pipework (once the system has cooled down sufficiently). Alternatively, replacing the pump head (usually via four screws). 5. Re-connecting the pump to the pipework unions using the new washers supplied (or fitting the new pump head) and refilling and bleeding the system. Quarter 4 2019

Dave Lacey, Director of Sales for Domestic Building Services, Grundfos

6. Re-connecting the power supply wires to the new pump. The pump power supply connection may need re-wiring, as a replacement pump may require an alternative power plug system. A qualified electrician should always assess the safety of electrical installation. 7. Switching the heating system back on in full accordance with all and any relevant Installation and operating instructions. Changing a circulator pump offers the opportunity to check the whole system, including electrical installation safety compliance and hydronic balancing. By ensuring the heating medium is correctly distributed, and the right amount of heat is delivered as required, balancing affects comfort levels as well as overall system efficiency. Another advantage of the modern domestic heating circulator is that variable speed pumps include automatic control modes which help reduce energy consumption. Depending on the type of hydraulic system, it can be a proportional pressure (radiators) or constant pressure (underfloor heating), where pump performance is adjusted depending on the current settings of control valves (TRV). By aligning its performance with requirements, the pump can reduce energy consumption. So, it is straightforward for a qualified professional to exchange a pump. This also offers an excellent opportunity to look at the entire system to ensure that the optimal pump is selected, that the system is operating as efficiently as possible and that it is fully compliant with the latest regulations and recommended best practice. Of course, any pump replacement or corrective actions should only be carried out by a suitably qualified industry professional. chevron-circle-right uk.grundfos.com www.bpma.org.uk

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18 energy efficiency

Pump and motor overhaul pays off

Following the renewal of the lock gates at Sluis Zemst in the Brussels-Scheldt Sea Canal, two pump installations were recently replaced. Accounting for a total flow rate of 18,000m3/hr, a 5% improvement in efficiency was achieved by clever coordination of the pumps with the motors. The custom-made pumps and motors were developed by pump supplier KSB and motor specialist WEG, as the companies explained to flow.


he Brussels-Scheldt Sea Canal, popularly known as the Willebroek Canal, is one of the oldest canals in Europe. Today, it remains of great economic importance to Belgium. The airport of Zaventem is entirely dependent on a good throughput of the route for kerosene. Four locks manage the 14m drop in level along the route. The canal also plays a significant role in supplying Brussels itself, and in maintaining the water level of the local area. To guarantee the reliability of this important artery, the Zemst lock needed an overhaul. The lock gates were replaced, followed by pump installations to maintain the water level of the upper part of the lock. Jan van Laer, Senior Expert Water & Waste Water at KSB, explained how the decision to install completely new pumps had both technical and practical reasons: “Sluis Zemst had a total of five Ensival AGV15 pumps installed in the 1970s, which were no longer achieving their specified flow rate of 9600m3/hr. Three of the five pumps were in use and two in reserve, so that they could be switched on if necessary. But of course, you need to be able to rely on them all to perform so good maintenance is essential. However, Vlaamse Waterwerg NV, the manager of the lock complex, faced a challenge. Firstly, some spare parts had to be rebuilt; secondly, every maintenance request had to be put out to tender. So each time you had to deal with different parties. What’s more, when requests are put out to tender, the best technical solution does not always win, so the pumps sometimes ended up with poorer performance than they went in with.”

we compared various motors based on price, quality and efficiency. WEG came out on top here. Moreover, we know WEG and their motors well from other projects.” When asked about the pump characteristics that convinced Agidens to work with KSB, Jan initially mentioned their high efficiency. “Because in this application the pump only has one operating area – the fluctuations in water level are negligible – we could count on a fixed flow of 9000m3/hr and a fixed delivery head of 10m. We were then able to optimise the design for this. In this case, this resulted in an SEZ 1500 centrifugal pump with a semi-axial impeller with optimised blade angle, with high hydraulic efficiency of 85.1%. And because a relatively low speed of 500rpm is sufficient for these values, we were able to work with a 6kV medium-voltage motor.

“We could count on a fixed flow of 9000m3/hr and a fixed delivery head of 10m.”

NEW PUMPS Vlaamse Waterweg NV, therefore, decided to replace the pumps. This was also a tender, which was won by the engineering firm Agidens. Based on past experience, Agidens called in KSB as supplier of the pumps. They, in turn, chose WEG as their motor supplier. Jan continued: “For our proposal, Quarter 4 2019


energy efficiency 19 “This motor, specially built by WEG for this application, brings the total efficiency of the entire pumping installation to 82%. This is an improvement of at least 5% on the previous setup. With this proven efficiency improvement you can save a lot of energy: each motor has a power of 670kW, so during the life of the pump – about 50 years – that’s a big advantage.” James Jonckers, Sales Manager at WEG Benelux, explained the role the motors played in the overall efficiency figures: “Although in the past we have mainly produced low-voltage motors, in recent years we have also successfully focused on the medium and high-voltage segment. We now supply motors up to 15mW. The expertise we have built up in this area is bearing fruit: at full load, the HGF630 motors used for Sluis Zemst have an efficiency of 96.2%, with a power factor of 0.8. This last figure was also an important requirement because too low a value can result in penalties for the user for the reactive power supplied”. The motors’ bearings were also unusual in this project. Because of the vertical arrangement of the motors, they are lubricated with grease instead of oil. The torque is 12900Nm at the specified low speed of 500rpm, which has a positive impact on the life of the engine. Both KSB and WEG are currently working on the construction of a third pump and motor to replace another of the old pump installations. Whether this

will be followed by pumps four and five is not yet certain: in principle, with the three new pumps, there is more than enough reliable capacity available to maintain the water level. Moreover, if the level during planned maintenance is too low, the old pumps could also temporarily assist. Add to this the fact that the maintenance for the first five years does not have to be put out to tender but is done by KSB Service Belgium, and the future of the Zemst Sluis and a smooth flow of the Brussels-Scheldt Sea Canal seems to be secured. This future-proofing also applies to the cooperation between KSB and WEG as James explained: “Like us, KSB likes to sit around the table with partners at an early stage to fully identify the customer’s needs and to make the best possible offer. If you can understand each other during the early planning stage, it underpins smooth collaboration on future projects.” chevron-circle-right

“This motor, specially built by WEG for this application, brings the total efficiency of the entire pumping installation to 82%. ”

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20 energy Efficiency

Pump efficiency: are we heading in the right direction? With an increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of pumps and pumping systems, Tony Keville, Managing Director of pump distributor, Tomlinson Hall, argues that more significant savings can be made by looking beyond the pumps and motors themselves.


he European Union has imposed measures designed to improve the overall efficiency of pumps and motors to save energy and carbon emissions. After all, pump systems account for 20% of the energy consumed in the UK, an estimate that is probably conservative. The major manufacturers have responded to the challenge, and pumps are certainly more efficient now, as are electric motors. Many of the older lowefficiency models have been eliminated. However, this has forced plant operators to adapt pipework to suit the new models, or in the case of circulators, to install new control panels and wiring, a consequence, which, along with the associated costs, was never considered at the outset. So, when considering centrifugal pumps which represent the largest percentage of the installed base, can any more improvements be wrung out of the pump assembly and at what cost and what are the potential problems that may be encountered? We are all familiar with the Pareto principle, the 80/20 rule. It applies here, but there is a limit, and that limit is fast approaching. It is well known and documented that as the efficiency of a centrifugal pump increases, so do attendant problems. The two issues which cause the industry the most pain are the increase in minimum continuous stable flow (MCSF) and the increased likelihood of an unstable characteristic being imposed. If you have been in the industry for some years, you may recall the fundamental clauses which traditionally were used in enquiry documentation. It read something like: ‘the characteristic shall rise continuously from duty point to closed valve, and that rise will be a specified percentage of the duty point head’. That clause may have been written in the days before variable speed drives (VSDs), but it is as relevant now as it was then. In reality, with the use of VSDs it is more important. But why? If we have a stable characteristic, running via a VSD that controls it at a constant pressure, then at any point if Quarter 4 2019

the demand increases the pressure drops and the pump then speeds up to compensate. That continues to closed valve. Now consider what happens for an unstable characteristic operating close to closed valve. As demand increases the pressure rises, so the pump slows down and ultimately stalls out. That is why VSDs are only part of the solution. As anybody who has struggled with parallel operation of unstable pumps knows only too well, such a scenario leads to a complete failure of the system. But there is another issue to consider, and that is the MCSF. It can be seen that as efficiency rises so does the MCSF, and that means the pump must run at a closer point to the duty point, so the savings are now minimal. But why is it important? As closed valve is approached, the shaft deflection increases and thus bearing and seal life are reduced, noise increases, suction recirculation becomes significant, and then there is the likelihood of tip recirculation cavitation occurring. The nett result is a shortened pump life. The tell-tale sign is to look at the vibration analysis for an increase in amplitude around the vane pass frequency. Typically, the tips of the impeller will have a pockmarked appearance and the shrouds sometimes have a polished appearance. There is much pressure on users to fit inverters to save money, but they should only be installed after the shape of the pump curve has been taken into consideration. The use

“When considering centrifugal pumps, which represent the largest percentage of the installed base, can any more improvements be wrung out of the pump assembly?”


energy efficiency 21 of inverters on multistage pumps where balance discs are fitted is not recommended by many manufacturers as they require a minimum pressure to operate correctly. Always check with the pump manufacturer before proceeding. The consequence is that of the disc running against the seating with no lubrication or cooling flow with a catastrophic outcome. If I go back to the initial statement: ‘are we going in the right direction?’ the answer is possibly no, we aren’t. Pump and motor manufacturers are looking now at incremental changes – 2% here 4% there – but is that the end of the line? IS IT POSSIBLE TO MAKE GREATER SAVINGS? In many instances, much more significant energy savings can be made, perhaps up to 50%. You might think that is a bold statement to make, but it really isn’t. In cooling or heating circulation duties, for example, the frictional resistance component of the total head can be a significant amount, and anything that can be done to reduce this will have considerable lasting financial benefits. Put simply the friction is inversely proportional to the pipe diameter to the power of four, so going up a pipe size will reduce the friction by a large amount. In turn, this reduces the power and motor size, leading to a reduction in whole life costs, carbon footprint and environmental charges. This is not rocket science.

Whose responsibility is it to correctly specify pipe sizes? Sadly, these days specification is all down to project cost, and not running costs. So, by the time a plant is built, it is too late to install the correct energysaving pipework. Therefore, it is surely down to those in the pump industry to remind, cajole, and persuade contractors, consultants and end-users to consider the running costs at the outset, as the potential savings are enormous. The cost of the pipe friction software needed to carry out these calculations is within most companies’ budgets. Invariably it will enable the supplier to give the customer a report to back up its selection and also to sit down with the customer to show instantly how changes in pipework can change the total head and hence the power and thus what savings can be made. The cost of the bigger pipe will fade into insignificance when compared with the whole project cost. Which project team would turn down the opportunity to save money for the long term? chevron-circle-right

“Which project team would turn down the opportunity to save money for the long term?”



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22 Challenging fluids

Finding the best solution for your fluid handling needs Suzanne Gill looks at a variety of different pumping solutions which have been specified for handling abrasive fluids.


ovement of abrasive fluids demands equipment manufacturer. A further consideration was careful pump specification to ensure the the running costs of the pumps, which had escalated best solution to transport the medium over time.” The task facing IPL was to replace the four pumps efficiently, while minimising pump wear, with new units that would provide greater resistance maintenance costs and downtime. Operating conditions should always be taken into to wear, deliver optimum performance at all times account as this will have a significant effect on the and reduce running costs. service life of a pump system. Transferring fluids at Following discussions with lower speeds, for example will reduce any abrasive effect, so a common solution when pumping abrasive KSB UK, it was decided that the best solution fluids is to overspecify the pump to allow it to be would be the installation of operated at lower speeds and differential pressures. Careful pump specification can offer other benefits, two KSB Omega 200-250 AGBV1s in a duty/standby as one glass manufacturer has found out. By rethinking configuration. This would its pump requirements, the company has overcome allow the customer to the problems associated with pumping abrasive fluids have total control over the pumps at all times in order and has also benefitted from some impressive energy to adjust flow levels following production requirements. savings. The pumps are monitored 24/7, and if there is a power For many years the glass manufacturer had relied cut or loss of pressure in the operating pump, there is an on four split-case centrifugal pumps for the supply and immediate switch-over to the duty standby pump. circulation of process water around its plant. Excessive With corrosion resistance and energy savings high wear, caused by the level of work demanded of the pumps, resulted in signs of declining performance. on the customer’s agenda, the Omega was a natural fit as the corrosion and abrasion-resistant materials Numerous repairs and overhauls of the pump system used in the pump contribute to long service life by had been undertaken over the years, but, following one protecting key components. Further, being an axiallyinspection by Industrial Pumps Ltd (IPL), it became clear split case pump simplifies maintenance procedures, that further repair work was going to be uneconomic, enabling easy access to all parts for thorough cleaning. and the decision was made to look at replacement The interior of the pump is designed to transport water pumps. Based on the application details provided by the plant’s with the minimum of flow resistance, a factor that also contributes to its energy savings and reduced life-cycle pump engineer and a review of the nature of the wear on costs. the pumps, IPL recommended replacing all four existing IPL was able to convince its customer that two pumps with two KSB Omega pumps. Omega 200-250 AGBV1s, each delivering flows of The water used in the plant is drawn from two 700m³/hr at a head of 90m and power absorption large lagoons and pumped around the site to the of 206.7kw running at 1490rpm, would be more production areas. After passing through filtering than adequate to replace the existing weirs, it is returned to the lagoon. four pumps. They would also be far Commenting on the challenges more economical to run, of the application, David with a reduction Silverwood, IPL technical in the absorbed sales engineer, said: power being over “The pumped water 50%. contains quantities “As with any of glass, sand and project, capital various other solids investment costs and the cumulative were closely effect these aggressive examined,” particulates had on concluded the pump casings and Silverwood. “After other key components just 12 months meant that it became uneconomical to effect of continuous operation, the repairs. In addition, it new pumps was becoming harder The Omega’s axially-split case pump simplifies maintenance procedures, enabling ready access to all parts for thorough cleaning. to source spare parts have provided power savings of from the original

“The pumped water contains quantities of glass, sand and various other solids.”

Quarter 4 2019

> 24


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24 challenging fluids 80kw/hr which translates into a £49,000 reduction in the running costs of pumping water around the plant.” A HORIZONTAL SOLUTION To efficiently pump liquids with abrasive solids in suspension, Goulds Pumps, a division of ITT Industries, can offer a single-stage, enclosed-impeller, back pullout process pump. The model CW/CWX horizontal pumps have wear parts made of HC600 chrome iron to ensure a long service life in all types of slurry applications. The pumps are designed with only three power ends for maximum interchangeability of parts and reduced spare parts inventory. Rugged casings are made with abrasion-resistant HC600 with extra-thick metal sections for maximum operating life. The patented Shearpeller design feature of the CWX non-clogging pump ensures it can handle large, stringy or fibrous solids in suspension, entrained air in water, viscous materials, plus many other hard-to-pump slurries. The Shearpeller’s radial vanes narrow as they approach the eye to allow large or stringy solids to enter. This way, almost anything that enters the impeller can be pumped. The vanes widen toward the OD of the impeller to provide a positive pumping action and higher heads than fully recessed impeller pumps. HOSE PUMPS RVA specialises in the recovery and recycling of salt slag – a by-product of aluminium smelting which contains around 5% residual aluminium metal and various metal oxides, mainly aluminium oxide. Pumping this slurry is a particularly harsh application, for which the company specified Bredel hose pumps from Watson-Marlow Fluid Technology Group (WMFTG) to safely transfer this abrasive fluid around a plant. Salt slag is considered hazardous waste, so the recycling

operation relies on a closed-loop process that makes minimal demands on the environment. The recovery process first sees the salt slag milled with optional recirculation to liberate aluminium using an eddy current separator, and iron via a magnet. Next, the remaining salty material is introduced to a dissolution section where it is mixed with water which is recovered later in the process. The brine-laden water is transferred by two high-flow Bredel 100 pumps into pressurised reaction vessels, before Bredel 65 and 40 pumps transfer aluminium oxide as a slurry to the reactors. It is here that the aluminium oxide is very abrasive and at a high temperature. Residue from the reaction phase is then conveyed to a belt filter where brine and water are pumped out under vacuum using a Bredel 80, leaving a solid residue known as Valoxy. Clean water – along with water removed at the dissolution stage – is then used to wash the solids. In the final stage of the process, the effluent brine continues to the crystallisation section. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are crystallised out of solution, and an in-line decanter increases the concentration of solids in the slurry, facilitating higher salt recovery. The hose pump is well suited to use in this application as it has no valves or seals to clog or replace and the pump hose is designed to handle abrasive slurries with up to 80% solids in suspension. chevron-circle-right

“After just 12 months the new pumps have provided power savings of 80kw/hr which translates into a £49,000 saving.”

A low maintenance chocolate pumping solution KINNERTON CONFECTIONERY IS A UK-BASED manufacturer of chocolate and novelty confectionery. The company recently decided to convert its entire pump range to DESMI ROTAN pumps. Lee Hunt, engineering manager at Kinnerton Confection, explained why: “One of the main reasons for the conversion was due to the low maintenance demands of these pumps. Traditionally we have done six-monthly pump checks and often needed to do a full repair. With the DESMI ROTAN pumps installed, so far we have done a yearly check and have only had to replace the packing on a few pumps.” When pumping such a difficult fluid as chocolate, the pumps’ internal parts often get blocked due to a temperature increase in the pump caramelising the chocolate which congeals as a result. As more chocolate congeals the internal friction in the pump increases, and ultimately the pump can become blocked entirely. To overcome this issue, the internal tolerances in the ROTAN pump have been designed to ensure that new chocolate is always added to the areas around the rotating parts of the pump, and in particular around the pivot of the star wheel and bushings. This reduces or eliminates the tendency for the chocolate to caramelise on the back of the rotor and at the bearing of the star wheel, helping to prevent the pump from blocking. The pumps are also equipped with a heating jacket on the front and rear end. Quarter 4 2019

ROTAN pumps are also well suited to applications where the media must be handled delicately because the internal toothing of the gear pump results in almost no change in the flow direction through the pump, translating into gentle fluid transfer.


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26 Total cost of ownership

calculate and manage A pump system’s Total cost of ownership As the total cost of ownership of pumping systems comes under greater focus, Harvinder Bhabra looks at the typical method of calculating the cost and suggests other considerations that should be made to assess, and manage, an accurate figure.


umps have been used for the transfer of fluids for centuries, starting from the early Egyptian shadoof and Greek Archimedean screw, through to the highly engineered designs we now use. There are many types of pump in use today, mainly classified between roto-dynamic, positive displacement and other special designs. Over time, as industry processes became ever more sophisticated, the specifications for the various pump types demanded innovative pump manufacturing techniques and advanced features to keep pace. Some of these include hydraulic profiling, CAD/CAM, computational fluid dynamics, finite element analysis and 3D printing. Most recent developments are taking into account the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the collection of pump operating data and condition monitoring. Instant visibility of a pump’s performance provides a reduced risk of unplanned downtime caused by a failure. This article is based primarily on rotodynamic centrifugal pumps, but some elements may also apply to other types of pumps. Each sector or process has developed general industry as well as process- or customer-specific specifications to suit its requirements. Regardless of the industry, the transactional purchase and sale of pumping equipment was primarily based on the capital cost of the equipment and availability was the secondary factor, provided there was compliance with the relevant specifications. However, as processes required increasingly higher throughputs, pump sizes became larger, and the cost of the energy needed to run them became very noticeable. As an example, pumps used for absorber recycle applications in the power industry increased in size as process flow rates went from 2,000m3/hr in the mid-1970s to over 15,000m3/hr in the 2000s and motor powers increased from ~250kW to 1000kW and upwards. With the environmental impact of industrial processes coming under intense focus on a global scale and following the Kyoto Climate Summit, some European governments introduced legislation to penalise energy usage and enforce the use of energyefficient equipment. Furthermore, mandatory energy efficiency regulations are now being introduced in several key countries, including the MEI index in Europe and various others in China, Canada and the USA. Despite this, by 2050, worldwide energy consumption is expected to be 50% greater than it was in 2018. Pumping systems account for more than 20% of the world’s electrical energy demand, and in certain industrial plant operations, they can be

Quarter 4 2019

responsible for between 25% and 50% of the site’s total energy usage. Pump designs further developed into applications where the transported fluids contained solid particles, the wear rates of pump components increased, and another factor started to take prominence – the cost and availability of spare parts. The mining industry was particularly focussed on this aspect as pumps were used for increasingly more arduous applications. As a result, materials technology and the hydraulic design, became critical. This noticeable increase in the cost of energy consumption and spare parts consumption (including warehousing, inventory handling and labour) resulted in pumping equipment being treated as an asset and assessed in terms of the total cost of ownership (TCO) over a given period, such as 1, 3 or 5 years. In evaluating TCO, three main elements were identified: • Initial capital cost • Operating cost • Labour cost Of course, the proportions of these costs in the TCO vary depending on the applications that pumps are used for. Figure 1 shows the difference between an example based on a clean fluid and one based on an abrasive fluid.

Total cost of ownership – typical proportions

Clean fluids


Abrasive fluids

Capital cost

Spares & labour

Figure 1

While this analysis is a widely used one, and covers most major elements of the costs of operating pumps, several other factors should not be overlooked. CORRECT PUMP SELECTION A centrifugal pump’s performance characteristics include a best efficiency range, where reliability and hydraulic efficiency is at its highest., (figure 2) Modern pump designs can achieve very high efficiencies www.bpma.org.uk

Total cost of ownership correct time for parts replacement as the cost of rising energy consumption must be offset against the cost of parts replacement; remembering that each breakdown incurs spare parts replacement, labour, warehousing and inventory handling costs.

Figure 2

and selecting duty points in the best efficiency range should be a priority. Moving away from this range results not only in a loss of efficiency but also in compromised performance of bearing components and the wear life of hydraulic parts. This affects both energy consumption as well as useful component life. The most common reason why pumps operate away from the best efficiency range is the miscalculation of the site and operating conditions, resulting in the pump performance and system curve not meeting at the desired duty point. CORRECT MOTOR SELECTION Electric motors operate at optimum efficiency depending on the load at which they are running. Manufacturers provide performance data for their motors on rating plates which show, amongst other things, the efficiency at 50%, 75% and full load. While an undersized motor will not provide optimum performance, oversizing it is also not desirable as it affects the overall efficiency of the pump set. DRIVE COMPONENTS A pump is not generally considered on its own, but as a complete set to include the driver and drive components, such as couplings, gearboxes and belt and pulley systems. There are inherent inefficiencies in gearboxes and particularly belt drive systems. Incorrectly fitted and maintained belts can be extremely inefficient. Electronic variable speed drives (VSDs) have been developed to be extremely efficient now and should always be considered as they allow direct driven pumps to be used with minimal losses. In addition, VSDs can be used to control the pump speed to maintain the operating point as close to the best efficiency range as possible. MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION The operating life of components in contact with a pumped fluid will be compromised due to corrosion or abrasion if not selected to suit the application. The consequences can be the premature failure of parts which causes unplanned downtime, as well as the increased cost of replacement parts and associated labour. TIMELY PARTS REPLACEMENT As parts start to deteriorate, due to corrosion or erosion, their performance is also compromised. A pump selected based on its as-new efficiency will eventually begin to consume more energy (figure 3). At some point, a decision needs to be made regarding the www.bpma.org.uk

TIMELY MAINTENANCE A pump’s useful part life can be extended by regular maintenance. While gland seal and bearing maintenance are common to all pumps, slurry pumps are susceptible to increased wear due to recirculation within the casing. This tends to increase as parts begin to wear and clearances become enlarged. The most affected components are the impeller and the suction side of the casing, where recirculation from the high to the low-pressure side of the casing is present. It is common practice to maintain a small gap between the impeller and the suction side of the casing, effected by either adjusting the impeller, the casing or suction liner. In high wear applications the extension to wear life can be significant. So, in terms of calculating and managing the TCO of a pumping system, it is necessary to look beyond the most obvious cost components, i.e. capital, spare parts, energy and labour, and consider the impact pump and motor selection, materials of construction and maintenance regime to get a full picture of the true cost of the assets. Experts at Sulzer are always

“The operating life of components in contact with a pumped fluid will be compromised due to corrosion or abrasion if not selected to suit the application.”

Figure 3

happy to discuss pump design, operation and maintenance to help optimise operations across a multitude of industries and applications. chevron-circle-right Harvinder Bhabra is Head of Segment – Fertilisers, Metals, Mining and Chemical Process Industries, at Sulzer Pumps. www.sulzer.com Quarter 4 2019


28 Plant & process news

316L STAINLESS-STEEL FILTERS AXIUM PROCESS HAS DEVELOPED a range of hygienic stainless-steel filters designed with ease of use, simple maintenance, dependability and quality in mind. The standard filter range, which is available with short delivery times, has a 90º or in-line housing option with fully interchangeable and replacement elements. The elements can be safely removed without specialist tooling, cleaned or steamed in place, and quickly put back into service reducing unnecessary downtime. They are available in wedgewire, sintered mesh and perforated tube, providing a filtration range from 5 to 8000 microns. The popular wedge-wire design is widely used for applications where product consistency and smoothness are essential and for powder dispersing applications. The sintered mesh screen is ideal for high or lowtemperatures. It is used in the pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries for the removal of suspended

solids, micro-flakes, fibres and for glass contamination prevention. For process security duties or coarse filtration applications, the company’s perforated tube screen provides a robust and flexible solution. The filter systems include duplex, triplex and multiplex options and are engineered to give a small footprint, high flow rates and substantial dirt holding capacity. Systems can be customised with support framework, sample points, drainage, vent valves and pressure gauges. www.axiumprocess.com

UNITING TO DEFEAT FOG SMART STORM HAS BECOME AN official distributor of Börger rotary lobe pumps for wastewater applications, particularly in the recovery of fats, oils and greases (FOG). This new partnership brings together the experience of two companies that provide pumping, pollution prevention and monitoring solutions – not just for the municipal market, but across numerous industries. David Brown, Börger UK’s Managing Director, commented: “Our rotary lobe pumps work seamlessly with the innovative Greasebuster skimmer from

Smart Storm. This is a very positive new agreement”. Laurence Dowson, Project Manager for Smart Storm, added: “Börger’s track record in pumping speaks for itself, so by working together we are providing significant added value to those customers who are dealing with tricky FOG applications”. Börger’s pumps operate in some of the most aggressive and challenging environments, ranging from wastewater treatment works to applications involving food, adhesives, paints and chemicals. Smart Storm is already working closely with the food processing industry to treat FOG before discharge, reducing effluent bills and preventing blockages in the sewage network. The company’s Greasebuster combines the innovation of fat and oil skimmers by using hydrophobic belts to attract FOG, but reject water. www.boerger.com smartstormgroup.com

Quarter 4 2019


ALFA LAVAL HAS UNVEILED A refreshed, version of the Alfa Laval ThinkTop, the company’s best-selling valve sensing and control unit for hygienic valves used in the dairy, food, beverage, brewery and pharmaceutical industries. The Alfa Laval ThinkTop V50 and V70, the second-generation of premium control units, have been re-engineered to meet customer needs while incorporating the latest advances in technology. The rethought Alfa Laval ThinkTop is said to offer customers fast and intuitive setup and commissioning, up to 90% faster than the previous generation. In addition, an enhanced 360° LED visual status indication enables operators to see the valve status no matter where they are on the production floor. A repositioned Gore vent makes the ThinkTop more durable and more reliable, equalising the enclosure pressure in the unit while eliminating the risk of water ingress. A highly effective burst of clean in place (CIP) liquid during the opening moment of seat lift and seat push helps to optimise valve activations, drastically reducing water consumption during CIP operations, helping to save up to 90% in cleaning agent costs. Both series meet the protection class IP66, IP67 and IP69K. The ThinkTop V50 series matches the requirements of the Alfa Laval DV-ST, butterfly, single seat and double seal valves while the ThinkTop V70 series matches the needs of all these valves plus Alfa Laval double seat and special valves. www.alfalaval.com www.bpma.org.uk


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FEATURE 30 Opinion

Expansion vessels can reduce legionella risk With recorded cases of legionella on the increase, Gary Wilde, BPMA Technical Services Officer, looks at the role expansion vessels can play in minimising the risk of bacterial infection in water systems.


ealth and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance, HSG274 Part2: 2014, has identified expansion tanks as a potential legionella risk due to low water flows or stagnation issues in hot and cold-water systems. There are a number of different types of expansion vessels on the market ranging from diaphragm, bladder or flow through versions. Most are made with EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), a type of synthetic rubber. These materials can encourage the growth of micro-organisms including legionella unless approved against BS 6920: 2014. Two of the methods used to minimise the risk of legionella are keeping water flowing and avoiding or minimising any dead legs within a system. Under the HSE’s approved code of practice, L8, ‘designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers of water systems that may create a risk of exposure to legionella bacteria must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the water system is so designed and constructed that it will be safe and without risk to health when used at work.’ Also, adequate information about the risk and measures necessary to ensure that the water systems will be safe and without risk must be provided to the user. Legionellosis is a collective term for diseases caused by the legionella bacteria, including the most serious legionnaires’ disease, as well as the similar but less serious conditions of Pontiac fever. Legionnaires’ disease is normally contracted by inhaling small droplets of water containing the bacteria which are suspended in the air. Legionella requires certain conditions which include warm water between 20 and 45°C, (the bacteria do not survive above 60°C) low flow or stagnant water and deposits being present that can support bacterial growth, this may include organic matter, sludge, rust, sediment, or scale. According to the latest data supplied by Public Health England, the number of confirmed cases of legionnaires’ disease since 1 January 2019 is 311 and is on the increase. Commenting on the risk, Duncan Smith, HM Principal Specialist Inspector, said: “Designers and installers must ensure that the water systems they provide are safe and without risks to health. Some types of expansion vessels can be a source of water stagnation, increasing the risk of legionella bacteria growth. Increased awareness of these risks will assist designers and installers to make informed product selections that reduce the risks to the service users and also to discharge their own legal duties under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.” Quarter 4 2019

So, what is an expansion vessel? An expansion vessel, or tank, is a pressurised container that normally incorporates a replaceable bladder or fixed diaphragm in its design. It is installed in heating, cooling, boosted water, and solar heating systems. They can also be referred to as pressure vessels and hydraulic accumulators and can be found in many commercial and industrial buildings. Under HSE (HSG274 Part 2), if you operate a business you have a legal responsibility to identify potential risks in the workplace and minimise risks to protect staff and the public. There are two options available to reduce water stagnation within the vessels, these are flow through valves or flow through vessels. A flow through valve works by circulating a portion of the flow back into the vessel when there is demand on the system and the vessel is depleted of water. The internal design of the vessel encourages circulation within it, to prevent water stagnation, so, it is also advisable to install a specially designed vessel which aids correct circulation when fitting these valves. Flow through vessels are designed in a similar way to potable vessels and they allow a larger proportion of water through. But they have a higher cost because of the additional construction. Expansion vessels should be mounted as close to the incoming water supply as possible and in cool areas on cold flowing pipes. They should be installed vertically on pipework to minimise any trapping of debris and fitted with an isolation valve and drain valve to aid flushing and sampling. The vessels should be flushed through and purged, and bladders should be changed, according to the manufacturers guidelines or as indicated by a risk assessment. Also, instead of air, nitrogen should be used when topping up the pressure as this improves the lifespan and permeates through the membrane at a slower rate than oxygen. Nitrogen is also a dry Inert gas so it will not lead to corrosion from inside-out. chevron-circle-right

“The number of confirmed cases of legionnaires’ disease since 1 January 2019 is 311 and, on the increase.”


REWARDING PUMP EXCELLENCE FOR THE PAST 20 YEARS The Pump Industry Awards have grown into one of the leading industrial awards programmes, celebrating the achievements of pump businesses, large and small. If you or your company have something to shout about these awards provide the perfect platform. We believe the best way to celebrate excellence is by bringing people together at live events, so the annual gala presentation dinner caps off the awards programme in style. As always there will be excellent networking opportunities, great food and superb entertainment. It’s your chance to celebrate with colleagues, connect with peers and be part of the pump industry’s biggest and best celebration; put the 19th March 2020 in your diary now. The Call for Nominations opens on the 2nd September, so be sure to visit the Pump Industry Awards website to review the award categories and decide which ones you will be entering! We have introduced two brand new categories, the ‘Rising Star Award’ and the ‘Contribution to Skills & Training Award’ which will bring an added and important dimension to the 2020 awards programme.




2nd September 2019


6th January 2020


January 2020


February 2020


19th March 2020

at the Chesford Grange Hotel, Warwickshire

“The 2019 Pump Industry Awards was another huge success and once again provided an excellent forum through which to acknowledge and celebrate business and professional excellence. I very much look forward to building on that success with the 2020 awards programme and would encourage all those operating in this wonderful sector of ours to put forward a nomination.” – Richard Harden, BPMA President

Award Programme Partners www.pumpindustryawards.com

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on behalf of