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GLOBAL VIEW 3 THEORIES FAMILY LIFE CYCLE TRENDS IN U.S. TWO-SIDES OF FAMILY LIFE Chapter 12 Marriage and Family


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Global Perspective What is a Family? MVP- Every human group in the world organizes its members in families Globally Huge Variety in what the term Family means

What is Marriage? Common cultural Themes Mate Selection Descent (how you figure out who you are related too) Inheritance Authority


Global Perspective: Family 

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Problems with definition of Family because of variety Family = “A family consists of people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage, or adoption.”

Household = people who occupy the same housing unit- an house, apartment or other living quarters Marriage and Family


Global Perspective: Family 

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Different types of Families

 Nuclear

Family – husband, wife, and their immediate

children Family – nuclear family plus grandparents, cousins & other relatives living in the same household or nearby

 Extended

of Orientation – family a person grows up in  Family of Procreation – family formed when a couple has their first child  Family

Marriage and Family


Global Perspective: Marriage 

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Problems with definition (due to variety)

In several Countries People of the same Sex Can Marry (Denmark, Canada, Most of Europe) Marriage = Groups approved mating arrangement usually marked by a ritual of some sort (the wedding) to indicate the couple’s new public status Polygyny – men have more than one wife

Polyandry- women have more than one husband Marriage and Family


Common Cultural Themes 

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All societies use marriage and family to establish patterns of mate selection, descent, inheritance, and authority Mate Selection –  Endogamy

= marry inside their group  Exogamy- marry outside their group  Incest Taboo = prohibits sex/marriage among designated relatives

Marriage and Family


More Common Cultural Themes 

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Descent: Societies around the world trace kinship (or who you are related too) Patrilineal – father’s side  Matrilineal – mother’s side  Bilineal – father’s and mother’s side 

Marriage and Family


More Common Cultural Themes 

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 

Inheritance- passing on property Authority Patriarchy Bride

social system in which men dominate women

takes Grooms Last name, Children receive father’s last

name  Matriarchy

– social system in which women as a group dominate men as a group (historically does not exists)  Egalitarian- authority is shared or equal  Hyphenated

last name, Bride keeps maiden last name

Polygamy is practiced in certain parts of the world whereas monogamy is the norm in the U.S. Marriage and Family


Common Cultural Themes: ď ´

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This is a nice summary of the first part of the chapter found on page 317

Marriage and Family


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Finding a Mate and Technology

INTERNET DATING  Video clip: You've Got Mail


Internet Dating: Losing Stigma see page 318 ď ´

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Marriage and Family


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Our 3 Theories And Marriage/ Family


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The family is universal because it fulfills certain functions including: sexual control, reproduction, socialization of children, care of the sick and aged, recreation, economic production  Talcott Parsons (1950) stated that men fulfill the instrumental role and women fulfill the expressive role in the family  Incest Taboo = function (avoid role confusion)  Dysfunctions include: incest, abuse, and divorce 

 Emotional

Overload- relative isolation of nuclear family = greater strain on each family member Marriage and Family


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Conflict is part of marriage

 Power

(or control over $$) is a major source of conflict between wives and husbands

The family is a reflection of the patriarchal society in which many societies live  There are many dual earner families today but women still pull the “second shift” (Hoschild) leaving many women dissatisfied with their marriage  The balance between power in marriages has led to the rising divorce rate 

Marriage and Family


Conflict Theory: Divorce ď ´

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Divorce: Can mark the end of hostilities, or it can merely indicate a changed legal relationship within which hostilities persist

Marriage and Family


Figure 12.1 Who Makes the Decisions at Home? Note: Based on a nationally representative sample, with questions on who chooses weekend activities, buys things for the home, decides what to watch on television, and manages household finances. Source: Morin and Cohn 2008.

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Symbolic Interaction 

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Husbands and wives “see” their marriages in different lights which causes a lot of dissatisfaction 

Looks at the meaning of “housework”

 Doing

the dishes vs. Mowing the grass

Gendered division of household labor

 Who

does what?

The definition of family, marriage, and divorce has changed over the past 50 years 

Marriage and Family


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The Family Life Cycle Love and Courtship in Global Perspective Marriage Child Rearing Family Transitions


The Family Life Cycle: LOVE 

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Romantic love is the basis for marriages in the U.S.  People

sexually attracted to one another and idealizing each other. Contrary to folklore, love is certainly NOT blind.

Marriage in the U.S. is based on endogamy (similar characteristics) 

 Highly

predictable: Age, Education, Social Class, and RaceEthnicity  Homogeny = tendency of people who have similar characteristics to marry one another.  Propinquity = Spatial nearness Marriage and Family


The Family Life Cycle: Marriage 

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Romantic love is not basis for marriages throughout the world (i.e., arranged marriages)

A groups marriage practices match its values.  For

example: America values individuality and independence = people choose their own partners. Vs. Indians view love as a peaceful feeling that develops over time = Parents choose marriage partners for child

 Video

Clips Marriage and Family


The Family Life Cycle: Marriage 

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Marital satisfaction tends to follow a U curve

Marital satisfaction is at its highest points when couples first get married and at the retirement stage

Marital satisfaction decreases with the arrival of the first child

During the empty nest stage satisfaction increases

42 % of children ages 24-29 are still living at home today and are often referred to as “the boomerang generation” 

Video Clip: Step Brothers (FYI: a few swear words)

Today: dramatic change = increase in interracial marriage (esp. between Black and White). This used to be illegal. Marriage and Family


The Family Life Cycle: Child Rearing 

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Today’s parents (both mom and dad) are spending more time with their children than in 1970’s or 80’s Married Couples and Single Mothers:  Grandparents

help fill gap left by absent fathers

Daycare  About

1 in 4 children is in day care  Day care workers are paid very poorly  Concerns with quality of day care and cost of day care Marriage and Family


Who Takes Care of Preschoolers While Their Mothers Are at Work? Includes day care centers, nursery Figure 12.5

schools,

preschools, and Head Start programs. bIncludes in-home babysitters and other nonrelatives providing care in either the child’s or the provider’s home. cIncludes self-care and no regular arrangements. Source: America’s Children 2005:Table POP8.B.

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Diversity in U.S. Families Social Class Race One-Parent Families Families without Children (DINKS) Blended Families Gay and Lesbian Families


Diversity: Social Class 

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Child rearing patterns- Social class makes a difference  Working-class

parents tend to think of children as wildflowers that develop naturally  Set

limits on children & then let them choose their own activates  Discipline = concern with conformity and increased use of physical punishment  Middle

class parents are more likely to think of children as garden flowers that need nurturing  Schedule

activities for children  Discipline = concern with motivation for behavior, more likely to withdraw privileges Marriage and Family


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There is no such thing as the “American Family” Primary distinction is not between race-ethnic groups… rather Social Class plays a major role.

SOCIAL CLASS: MVP!!!!!!!!


Diversity: Race 

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African American Families – Middle Class African American families focus on achievements and responsibility  Least likely to be headed by married couples and most likely to be headed by women Latino Families – families differ by country of origin  Machismo (emphasis on male strength and dominance) is decreasing with every generation Asian Families – have retained Confucian values  Two parent families are common Native American Families – Elders play a strong role in the child’s development  Variations among tribes Marriage and Family


Diversity: Race (page 325) ď ´

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Figure 12.6

Family Structure: U.S. Families with Children Under Age 18 Headed by Mothers, Fathers, and Both Parents Sources: By the author. For Native Americans, Kreider and Elliott 2009:Table 1. For other groups, Statistical Abstract of the United States 2009:Table 69.

Marriage and Family


Diversity: One –Parent Family ď ´

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Single-Parent Families – the number of single parent families, especially headed by women, has increased in large numbers since 1950. Most divorced women earn less than their former husbands, yet about 85% of children of divorce live with their mothers Marriage and Family


Diversity: Families w/Out Children ď ´

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Families Without Children – married couples who are making the decision not to have any children has increased. The biggest reason is freedom from responsibility. DINKS- Dual Income, No Kids http://www.thechildfreelife.com/ http://www.child-free.com/ http://notexpecting.blogspot.com/ http://www.overpopulation.org/

What Percentage of U.S. Married Women Never Give Birth? Figure 12.8

Marriage and Family


Diversity: Blended Families 

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Blended Families – families whose members were once part of other families. This number have risen as divorce rates have increased. 

Result = more complicated family relationships

Directly related to increase in divorce rate

Marriage and Family


Diversity: Gay and Lesbian Families 

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Gay and Lesbian families with and without children has increased in recent years and some states have now legalized marriage 

1/5th of gay and lesbian couples were previously married to heterosexuals.

 About

 22%

of female couples and 5% of male couples have kids from earlier marriages

 Gay

Couples and Adoption: Ricky Martin, Neil Patrick Harris . . . Marriage and Family


Privileges Associated with Marriage 

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 

Tax Benefits Estate Planning Benefits (Receiving an exemption from both estate taxes and gift taxes for all property you give or leave to your spouse)

Government Benefits (Receiving Social Security, Medicare, and disability benefits for spouses)

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Employment Benefits (Obtaining insurance benefits through a spouse's employer) Medical Benefits (Making medical decisions for your spouse if he or she becomes incapacitated and unable to express wishes for treatment.) http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126034014

Family Benefits (Filing for stepparent or joint adoption, Receiving equitable division of property if you divorce.)

Consumer Benefits (Receiving family rates for health, homeowners', auto, and other types of insurance.) Marriage and Family


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Trends in U.S. Families Postponing Marriage and Childbirth Cohabitation (try it before you buy it) Unmarried Mothers “Sandwich Generation” Divorce and Remarriage


Trends in U.S. Families: Waiting ď ´

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Today’s average first-time bride and groom are older than at any other time in U.S. history Postponing Marriage– The average age of first time grooms is now 29 and for first time brides is 27. This is an increase of 5 years since 1950. Postponing Childbirth -This average age of first time mothers is now about 29. Marriage and Family


Trends: Waiting ď ´

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Figure 12.9 When Do Americans Marry? The Changing Age at First Marriage Note: This is the median age at first marriage. The broken lines indicate the author’s estimate. Source: By the author. Based on U.S. Census Bureau 2009:Table MS-2.

Marriage and Family


Trends: Cohabitation 

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Cohabitation- adults living together in a sexual relationship without being married 

 2/3

of couples have lived together before they got married  Cohabitation is almost 12 times more common today than it was 30 years ago

Couples who cohabit before marriages are more likely to divorce.  Unmarried mothers –this refers to mothers in cohabitative relationships and has risen along with cohabitation. 

Marriage and Family


Trends: Cohabitation

Marriage and Family


Trends: Grandparents & Sandwich Generation

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Grandparents as Parents – more grandparents are fulfilling the parental role as more parents are working Sandwich Generation – families who are taking care of their children and their parents at the same time  Often the responsibility for parental care is taken on by the daughters  Creates additional stress Marriage and Family


Trends: Divorce 

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The effects of divorce on children are varied  Serial Fatherhood – fathers who keep in contact with their children for about a year after a divorce, get remarried, and refocus their attention to the “new” family 

Divorce rates rose between 1950 and 1980 and since then the numbers have leveled off Divorce has increased because of: changing norms, less stigma, and governmental policies Marriage and Family


Figure 12.13 What Percentage of Americans Are Divorced? *Author’s estimate Note: This figure shows the percentage who are divorced and have not remarried, not the percentage who have ever divorced. Only these racial–ethnic groups are listed in the source. The source only recently added data on Asian Americans. Source: By the author. Based on Statistical Abstract of the United States 1995:Table 58; 2010:Table 57.

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Trends: Risk of Divorce  ď ´

What factors reduce your risk???

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Marriage and Family


Trends: Risk of Divorce ď ´

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Marriage and Family


Trends: Life After Divorce 

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Women are more likely than men to feel that divorce is giving them a “new chance” in life The spouse who initiates the divorce usually gets over it sooner and remarries sooner Today only half of women who divorce remarry Decreased stigma: Divorce Party Marriage and Family


Trends: Remarriage 

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Most people who get divorced will remarry within three years. 

If children are brought into the remarriage divorce is likely 

The biggest problem, according to step-parents, is discipline 

Boundary ambiguity can lead to problems in blended families 

Marriage and Family


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Two Sides of Family Life Dark Side (Violence, Child Abuse, Incest) Brings side (Successful Marriages, Support networks)


Dark Side: 

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Child Abuse – the majority of victims are children under age six  The most common form of child abuse is neglect  Other forms of child abuse are emotional and physical abuse Spousal Abuse – more men than women are the perpetrators of spousal abuse  Women stay in abusive relationships for various reasons including: lack of resources, fear of retaliation, salvation ethnic, blaming themselves  About 85% of injured are women Incest- Most likely to occur in families that are socially isolated Marriage and Family


The Bright Side: Successful Marriage ď ´

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

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Studies of couples that have been married for 50 years indicate that there are several reasons for lasting happiness: Thinking of their spouse as their best friend Like their spouse as a person Strongly want relationship to succeed They laugh together They share the same goals Think of marriage as being sacred Think of marriage as a long-term commitment Marriage and Family


Summary by the Numbers: 

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    

  

Average Age of first-time bride in 1970: 21 years old Average Age of first-time bride today: 27 years old % of kids living with both parents in 1970: 85% % of kids living with both parents now: 70% % of births to unmarried moms in 1970: 10% % of births to unmarried moms now: 37% Number of cohabitating couples in 1970: 523,000 Number of cohabitating couples now: 6,200,000  See

page 339 Marriage and Family


Summary by the Numbers: 

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    

White Americans divorced in 1970: 3.1% African Americans divorced in 1970: 4.4% White Americans divorced now: 11% African Americans divorced now: 12.4% Number of hours per week of housework husbands do in 1965: 4.4 Number of hours per week of housework husbands do now: 9.7

Marriage and Family

Henslin chapter 12 Soc 2010  

Henslin Chapter 12, Soc 2010, Family