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Chapter 13 Global Perspectives 3 Theories U.S. Education and Religious Systems

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central sociological principle of education is that a nation’s education reflects its culture” 


Credential Societies


Credential Societies - Diplomas Determine Job Eligibility  Diplomas Serve

as Sorting Devices

◦ Because employers don’t know potential workers, they depend on schools to weed out the incapable.

 Credential Societies

are usually Industrialized

Societies Education and Religion


History of Education in the US  Education

and Industrialization  One Room School House 

 Education Serves Social Purpose ◦ GI Bill – Post WWII control large number of males returning to work force ◦ National Defense Education Act- U.S.S.R. 1957 launched Sputnik . U.S. responded by funding Math and Science Education Education and Religion

Figure 13.1 Educational Achievement in the United States Note: Americans 25 years and over. Asterisk indicates author’s estimate. Sources: By the author. Based on National Center for Education Statistics 1991:Table 8; Statistical Abstract of the United States 2010:Table 228. ď ´


Education Around the World


Industrialized Nations:  Education in Japan

◦ Emphasis on Solidarity within Group ◦ Discourages Competition among Individuals

Industrializing Nations:  Education in Russia

◦ Education, including College was Free ◦ Post-Soviet Russians are “Reinventing” Education as Communism has dissolved Education and Religion

Education Around the World  Education in

Egypt (Least Industrialized

Nations)    

Mandatory Attendance Laws are Not enforced Many learn from their parents Education is expensive 1/3 of Egyptian men and over half of Egyptian women are illiterate

 Education in Burkina Faso

7 Education and Religion

Education and our 3 Theories 1. 2. 3.

Functional Analysis Symbolic Interaction Conflict Theory ď ´


Functionalist Perspective Education provides manifest & latent functions Manifest functions (positive & intended):  Learning skills and knowledge  Cultural transmission of values  Process by which schools pass on a society’s core values from one generation to the next.  E.g. support for Capitalist society = Grades are individual  No group tests

9 Education and Religion

Functionalist Perspective Latent Functions (not intended)  Social Integration- promote national identity ◦ To forge a national identity is to stabilize the political system

Mainstreaming – Inclusion  Students with disabilities

 Gate-keeping  Tracking- sorting of students into different educational programs (AP)  Credentialing – use of diploma for job eligibility

 Replacing family

functions (Child care) 10 Education and Religion

Functionalist Perspective 

There are dysfunctions within the educational system: ◦ School violence ◦ Mediocrity ◦ Unequal funding

11 Education and Religion

The Conflict Perspective The educational system perpetuates social inequalities that already exist in society  The

Hidden Curriculum  Tracking leads to inequalities  Standardized tests are biased towards certain social classes  IQ test

 Some

students lack cultural capital 12 Education and Religion

The Conflict Perspective Let’s see how “smart” you are  Cultural Bias in IQ testing 

13 Education and Religion

Figure 13.2 Who Goes to College?

Comparing Social Class and Ability in Determining College Attendance Source: Bowles 1977.

Education and Religion

The Conflict Perspective 

“Family background is more important than test scores in predicting who attends college” (p. 350).

Way schools are funded stacks the deck against the poor

Educational system reproduces not only the U.S. social class structure but also its race-ethnic divisions

15 Education and Religion

The Conflict Perspective Figure 13.3 The Funneling Effects of Education: Race–Ethnicity

16 Education and Religion

Symbolic Interaction Perspective  The

Ray Rist Study: Teacher’s perception of students led to labeling  Teachers

label students a certain way which leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy among many students  Expectations

of teachers have profound consequences for their students

17 Education and Religion

Theoretical Summary 

Functionalist look at how education benefits society

Conflict theorist examine how education perpetuates social inequality

Symbolic interactions study face-to-face interaction in the classroom. 18 Education and Religion

Diversity in Education •

Value system: Who’s Budget Gets Cut? • Arts • Music Video: PS22 Clip

Which voices have been historically left out of the conversation? ◦ Students who are homeless or migrant ◦ Students with Disabilities 19 Education and Religion

Students with Disabilities


Disability is a Social Construction

Association on Higher Education & Disabilities

From IEP to Self Advocate

Gallaudet College – Deaf and hard of hearing students

 King

Gimp (Oscar winning film on Dan Keplinger; a compelling artist

fighting an ongoing battle with Cerebral Palsy) 

Video Education and Religion

Problems in U.S. Education  Rising Tide


of Mediocrity

 Unequal Funding  Cheating on


 Dummying down SAT

 Grade


 Social Promotion  Functional Illiteracy

 Violence in


 Unqualified Teachers

Education and Religion


HOME SCHOOL One solution offered by our text  

Home school Year Book



Religion Intersection between Education and Religion What is Religion

Our 3 Theories ď ´



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What is Religion? Emile Durkheim said, “A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.” Sacred is the opposite of profane (ordinary)

Education and Religion


Three Elements of Religion (Durkheim)  Beliefs

that Some Things are Sacred  Practices Centering on Things Considered Sacred  A Moral Community Resulting from a Group’s Beliefs and Practices

Education and Religion

Quick Overview of Some (not all) World Religions. If you are interested see power


point slides at end.


Bahai ◦


Buddhist •

Education and Religion


Differences & Similarities in Worship 

Remember Durkheim’s elements that are common to all religious ◦ Develop a community ◦ Separate sacred from profane

Video        

Hampton Synagogue High Holy Days Atlanta West Pentecostal Church Choir Islamic Call to Prayer with English Subtitles Joel Osteen on Marriage Islamic Center of Greater Toledo Celebrates Eid up-Fitr Catholic Service St. Michaels Buddhist Monks Chanting in Pali (Sankalpa) Praise and Worship with Nathan Simmons

Education and Religion

Our 3 Theories 1) Symbolic 2) Functional 3) Conflict ď ´


Functionalist Perspective Religion provides certain functions: 

Answers questions about the ultimate meaning of life

Social solidarity

Emotional comfort

Provides guidelines for everyday life

Social Control

Social Change  Video: U.S. Civil rights movement MLK Baptist Minister 31 Education and Religion


Dysfunctions of Religion: War, Terrorism and Religious Persecution 

Witch Trials ◦ 1692 Protestant Leaders in Salem ◦ 2001 Democratic Republic of Congo

Crusades • Attempt to gain control of “Holy Land” from Muslims

Religious Terrorism • Ireland (Belfast) Protestants and Catholics • U2 “Sunday Bloody Sunday” Education and Religion

Symbolic Interaction Perspective Studies what meanings people give to their religious beliefs and what religion means to each individual  Religious Symbols  Rituals, Ceremonies, Repetitive Practices  For some people the meaning of the Religious Experience is so powerful, they believe they are Born Again 

33 Education and Religion

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Religious Symbols Christianity Buddhist Lotus Flower (Symbol of Purity)

Dharmachakra (Wheel of the law)

Lotus with Om

Isalm Star and crescent

"Allah" in Arabic

Judaism Star of David

Menorah Education and Religion


Conflict Perspective Marx saw religion as “The opium of the people” and believed that religion diverted people’s attention from the oppression they were facing 

Legitimization of Social Inequalities ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Social Arrangements Represent God’s Desires Divine Rights of Kings Pharaoh as God Hindu Cast System Education and Religion


Karl Marx and Religion

“Religion is the sign of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world . . . It is the opium of the people” . (Marx 1844/1964)

Education and Religion


What does Marx Mean? What is “Opium” ?  Oppressed workers find escape in Religion  Religion is like a drug  By diverting thoughts toward future happiness in an afterlife, religion takes their eyes off their suffering in this world, reducing the possibility that they will rebel against their oppressors. 

Education and Religion

Figure 13.6 Social Class & Religious Affiliation

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Types of Religious Groups  Cults ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Begin with Charismatic Leader Most Popular Religions Started this Way Religious Fervor is High Most Cults Fail If Cults Survive, They Often Form:

 Sects ◦ Loosely Organized and Fairly Small ◦ Emphasize Personal Salvation ◦ Some sects remain sects and never turn into churches (Amish) Education and Religion


Types of Religious Groups  Churches

◦ Highly Bureaucratized ◦ National and International ◦ Relationship with God Less Intense  Ecclesia

◦ State Religions ◦ Part of Cultural Identification Education and Religion

Figure 13.5 Religious Groups: From Hostility to Acceptance

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Religion in the U.S.  The

hour between 10 and 11 am on Sundays has been referred to as the most segregated hour in the U.S.  Religious

participation goes up as one ages

 62

% of Americans belong to a church, synagogue or mosque.  94

% of Americans believe that there is a

God Education and Religion





The Future of Religion


 Religion Thrives  People

will always ponder the Purpose of Life  Science Cannot Tell Us About ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

The Existence of God The Purpose of Life An Afterlife Morality

Education and Religion

Extra Info on World Religions (Not found in your text book and not on the exam but if you are interested here is an overview) 

Catholic Americans

Jewish Americans

Mormon Americans

Muslim Americans

Amish Americans

Rastafarian Americans

Santerian Americans

Hindu Americans 


Education and Religion

Socio-historical Perspective 

Historically, from the time of Pilgrims, the U.S. has been the haven for many religious groups fleeing persecution and seeking religious freedom ◦ U.S. founded by Pilgrims- a religious group fleeing persecution and seeking religious freedom ◦ Founding fathers built into the Constitution two fundamental principles:  1) Separation of church and state  2) Freedom of Religion

◦ This is a unique legacy and a pull factor for immigrants ◦ Also has resulted in a history of court cases/ challenges and conflict.

Education and Religion


Catholic Americans 

Catholicism did not gain easy acceptance in U.S. = Societal Hostility ◦ Mid -17th century all colonies had passed laws designed to thwart Catholic immigration ◦ Samuel Morse (inventor of telegraph) alleged papist conspiracy to take control of the U.S. government through Catholic immigration. ◦ In the 1850’s the Know-Nothing movement were anti-Catholic = riots and mobs burning Catholic churches, schools, convents etc. ◦ 1887 the American Protective Association (APA) was an antiCatholic organization dedicated to keeping Catholics out of political office

Education and Religion

Catholic Americans 

To understand why Catholics were not liked we need to know that: ◦ Historically, religion played a far greater role in people’s lives in previous centuries than it does today. ◦ This made religious differences a matter of greater concern ◦ People bring with them conflict from other parts of the world. The Catholic-Protestant conflict in Europe created a legacy of antagonism.

Religion ◦ Catholics followed Church dogma, or a prescribed doctrine and local churches were operated as part of a vast bureaucracy whose hierarchy of authority was located in Rome. ◦ U.S. Protestants feared that this bureaucratic structure would have millions of Catholic immigrants obeying a foreign ruler (the Pope) like an unthinking indoctrinated army. Education and Religion

Catholic Americans 

Religion: Also Catholic Practices marked them as different ◦ Different version of Bible ◦ Celibacy among priest and nuns = was seen as unnatural ◦ Mandatory weekly attendance & repetition of the same mass ceremony (in Latin) = viewed as un-American and repressive of individual thought. ◦ Use of private confessional booth to tell sins to priest = seen as bizarre to some.

Education= Greatest place of conflict with Protestants ◦ Different version of the Bible = conflict and separate schools ◦ Protestants thought that public school would end the “ignorance and superstition” of Catholic children and were against public funding for parochial schools Education and Religion

Catholic Americans 

Contemporary Scene ◦ 68 million = Largest single denomination in U.S. ◦ Overt discrimination has ended (except where it intersects with recent racial immigrants: Hispanic) ◦ First Catholic president (1960) JFK ◦ Greater dialogue occurs between Protestant and Catholic leaders due to Pope John XXIII ecumenical movement. ◦ Shortage of Catholic priests = more lay people involved = less different to outsiders.  (e.g.) No more Mass in Latin

◦ Increase in the Catholic-Protestant intermarriage  In 1990 about 40%

◦ Problem areas include  Church’s teaching on birth control (85% of Catholic Americans reject this), and cases involving sex abuse by priests.  Education and Religion


Jewish Americans 

Unique minority because they are not a specific religious grouping and need not even be religious

Although religion is an important bond among Jews, it is not a cohesive force- 3 main branches of Judaism ◦ Orthodox ◦ Conservative ◦ Reform

“A Jew is someone whom other people identify as a Jew” (Jean-Paul Sarte, p. 318)

Education and Religion

Jewish Americans 

First wave: Immigration before 1880 ◦ All English colonies discouraged Jewish immigrants and passed laws to keep them from voting or holding office ◦ Ulysses S. Grant expelled Jews from the military during Civil War ◦ Know-Nothing group singled Jews out for discriminatory treatment

Second wave: Mid -19th Century ◦ Ashkenazi Jews from German provinces  Wealthier and better educated  Initial “push” factor was Pogrom – Organized massacre that followed the assassination of Russian Czar Alexander II  Jews were not invloved in regincide.. But new government used them as scapegoat  Then you get World War I and World War II as huge “Push” factors

Education and Religion

Jewish Americans

Anti-Semitism ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Anti-Jewish stereotypes in arts and media Example Life magazine “Jew York” Stereotypes of clannishness & pushiness Hotel accommodations denied (to even very wealthy people who were Jewish) ◦ This behavior declined after World War II  Partly because of revulsion against Nazi genocide

◦ Billings, Montana  Vandalism after Menorah = Local news paper printed full page Menorah and over 10,000 homes displayed them  Education and Religion

Jewish Americans

Upward mobility

◦ 2/3rd were skilled workers = economic assimilation ◦ Cultural factors  History of self-sustaining occupations  Most came with entire families = emotional stability  Tradition of learning reinforced by religion = read the Torah by age 13 = strong education values

◦ Social ostracism – often accompanied economic success  This has changed with shifts in identity and inter-cultural marriage Education and Religion


Mormon Americans

Group is unique as a minority because its principal migration was to leave what was then the U.S.  Early Years 

◦ Joseph Smith receive first of several visitations from angel Moroni who guided him to golden plates ◦ He translated plates into the Book of Mormon ◦ Early church was founded in New York State – then moved several times due to hostility: first to Ohio, resettled in Missouri, then Illinois, and last the Salt Lake Valley (1847) in what became Utah. ◦ Attracted enemies because of  Antislavery views  Growing political power / visibility  Polygyny – or practice of having more than one wife

Education and Religion

Mormon Americans 

Polygyny = Legal Problems ◦ In 1862 Lincoln singed the Morill Act forbidding bigamy in U.S. territories (and giving us land grant colleges like Ohio State) ◦ Mormons Challenged the law but lost in 1878 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Reynolds v. United States ◦ 1882 “Lewd cohabitation act” = many polygamist in jail ◦ In 1887 Edmunds-Tucker Act dissolved the Mormon Church as legal entity and confiscated church property (documents of plural marriage) ◦ 1890 Mormon Church president Wilford Woodruff issued a manifesto ending the open practice of plural marriage ◦ U.S. President Harrison then granted pardons to all imprisoned polygamists ◦ In 1896 Utah became a state ◦ Currently: Small separate sects practice and TV show on TLC “Sister Wives” tries to bring issue into open so that fear of law does not lead to spouse abuse. Education and Religion

Mormon Americans 

Values: ◦ Typically do not smoke or drink (alcohol, coffee, tea, or caffeinated soda). ◦ Family = heavy emphasis and behavior that undermines growth/family stability is discouraged (e.g. birth control, divorce, abortion) ◦ Monday is seat aside as Family Home Evening ◦ Education: great stress on education  Founded both Brigham Young and University of Utah  Apply values to BYU basketball = No pre-marital sex for players 

◦ Religion = strong missionary programs  Part of experience for people age 19-25 and retired couples  Practices tithing 10% of gross income to church

◦ Economics  Take care of own poor without public-welfare assistance  Church has investments and corporate assets (e.g. skyscrapers in NYC, Beneficial Life Insurance Company, AgReserves Inc.)  Annual income of 5 to 6 billion Education and Religion

Mormon Americans 

In summary: ◦ The Church of the Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints evolved from a persecuted people to a respected church

◦ Worldwide, Mormon membership is now over 13.5 million, and such remarkable growth means that U.S. residents account for less than half of this worldwide major faith ◦ Mormons place heavy emphasis on family and education and have a program for young missionaries

Education and Religion


Muslim Americans


Westerners often think that Islam (the religious faith of Muslims) is an Arab religion- most Muslims throughout the world are not Arabs. â—Ś Many are in Indonesia, India, China, Malaysia, Kazakhstan, and African countries

Education and Religion

Muslim Americans 

First Muslims in U.S. were unwilling immigrants – enslaved people of color.

In 1916 a large group of Muslim Arabs settled in Dearborn, MI to work in in Ford Motor plant

Worldwide Islam has more than 1.4 billion people ◦ Second largest religion in membership (Christianity is first largest).

What is it like to be a Muslim American at a Christian College in Michigan? ◦ Education and Religion

Muslim Americans 

Values/Practices ◦ Muhammad was the greatest prophet (completing a line of prophets from Adam though Moses to Jesus) ◦ Islam incorporates many beliefs and practices of Jewish and Christian faiths. Muslims subscribe to a rigorous Holy Law or Shari’ah based on teaching from the Quran (Koran). ◦ Keep Sabbath on Friday and do not eat pork or drink alcohol ◦ Five pillars of Islam:  Profession of faith, prayer 5 times a day, almsgiving to poor, fasting during daylight hours throughout holy month of Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca.  Call to prayer.

◦ Personal hygiene rules (similar to Hindu e.g. eat with right hand, clean body after defecation with left hand) ◦ To Muslims, religious beliefs and the social mores of public conduct and private experience are inseparable  Muslims reject the dominant U.S. group’s preoccupation with materialism and their self-indulgent pleasures at the expense of obligations to family and community  Should not be confused with radical Muslims who use Quran to justify violence Education and Religion

Muslim Americans


◦ After 9/11 Muslim Americans faced hostility that unfortunately still continues in U.S. and Europe  E.g. French Burka law 

◦ Community leaders work on educating non-Muslims and try to encourage public not to blame an entire group for actions of one person. ◦ U.S. public view on Islam remains divided  2009 Pew Research Center Poll found respondents with a more negative view towards Islam were more likely to be conservative Republicans or evangelical Protestants  Polls also find that the more familiar Americans are with Islam, especially if they know someone who is Muslim the more positive view they will have toward the religion.

◦ Lets take a virtual tour   

Education and Religion


The Amish 

Descended from Swiss Anabaptist who believe in voluntary adult baptism only ◦ Ethnic group as well as religion. ◦ Uses shunning as a powerful social control mechanism (that enables Amish to maintain their way of life).  Considered “tough love” the congregation can vote to impose Meidung on errant members = no interaction even with family. ◦ Live in gemeinschaft community = intimate, homogeneous and close nit. ◦ Pride is a major sin, so is seeking leadership role, and wearing jewelry. ◦ Clothing is an important symbol of group identity (No belts or gloves- even in cold weather) Education and Religion

The Amish

Language = another symbol = German (English is the second language)  Amish refer to all non-Amish people as “English” regardless of their nationality or race  German is used exclusively for preaching service and formal ceremonies  Conservative Amish farmers use horses instead of tractors  Do not use electricity furnished by public power lines 

 Bottled gas, batteries, small generators, etc o.k. 

As farming land is less available = new occupations = entrepreneurs

Education and Religion

The Amish  

Most Amish keep their young people (willingly adopt the way of life) Rumspringa = running around. Allow their youth to experiment with larger world and temptations: clothing, cell phones, dancing, drinking, smoking etc.. ◦ Teens may “go away” on Friday night and not return until Sunday evening. ◦ Takes place while teens live at home and carry out ordinary work activities on farm

 

Endogamous marriage / no birth control = large family Conflicts with Society ◦ Leave school at 8th grade ◦ Not wanting to pay taxes or receive government benefits ◦ Tourism annoys the Amish (esp. in Lancaster county) Education and Religion

The Amish 

Summary: ◦ Forming geminschaft communities, the Amish have remained remarkably constant in a radically changing dominant society ◦ Clothing and language serve as symbolic attributes ◦ They have grown from 59,000 in 1970 to about 227,000 today ◦ Several Amish Congregations have accepted some elements of modern life Education and Religion


Rastafarian Americans 

Marcus Garvey- Jamaican born founder of Back to Africa movement was influential in Jamaica (before leaving the island for U.S. in 1916.) ◦ When he left Jamaica he said “Look to Africa, where a black king shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is near.” ◦ In 1930 Ras Tafari was crowed as the Emperor in Ethiopia  Ras Tafari also added the titles “King of Kings” and “Lion of the Tribe of Judah” to his normal title of “Emperor”  In doing this Ras Tafari placed himself in the legendary line of King Solomon  It also reminded Marcus Garvey’s followers of his famous parting words that seemed to fulfill the biblical prophecy of Revelation 5: 2-5

◦ Rastas reject nearly all chemically processed goods (do not use soap, shampoo) the use herbs for washing. ◦ Rarely eat mean- do not drink liquor, milk, or coffee ◦ Smoke ganja (marijuana) originally gave Rastas a sense of communitas (cohesive unity). Education and Religion

Rastafarian Americans 

Started in Jamaica ◦ Colonialism and poverty

3 major themes dominated the early phase ◦ 1) Innate wickedness of Whites ◦ 2) racial superiority of Blacks ◦ 3) Eventual revenge of Blacks against Whites by enslavement

Belief that working for taxpayers of social instruction implied recognition / approval of existing social structure ◦ Lived off land and refused to work. ◦ Endogamy ◦ Developed a bad reputation as criminals until the University of the West Indies (the Harvard of Jamaica) did an impartial investigation of their movement ◦ This rehabilitated the Rastafarian reputation in Jamaica Education and Religion

Rastafarian Americans

In summary:

◦ The Rastafarians are a misunderstood religious minority that frequently experiences prejudice and harassment  Stereotype of: Pot, Dreads, and Reggie

◦ Although some Rastafarians do not wear their hair long, most do as a symbol of unity, power, freedom, and defiance to out-groups and in accordance with biblical tradition ◦ Contemporary- exact numbers are difficult to find. Mostly poor, unskilled workers, tend to live in low-rent areas. ◦ Strong in group solidarity, adaptability and social distance (with both Whites and Blacks) = persistent sub culture.

Education and Religion


Santerian Americans 

A fairly new religion in the United States is Santería or La Regla Lucumí, which originated in the region of West Africa now divided between Nigeria and Benin ◦ Based on Oral tradition (no written scripture) ◦ Belive in one god Olorun who is the source of ashe, the spiritual energy that makes up the universe

Was brought over with African slaves to Cuba- due to prohibition practice was hidden and blended with Catholicism ◦ Flourishes in Cuba today ◦ In U.S. New York and FLA- difficult to tell numbers because secretive

Difficulty with local officials and activists over animal sacrifices Education and Religion


Hindu Americans 

Most people think of it as a religion but more accuratly Hinduism is a set of practices and a range of philosophical concepts

Does not have a single founder, specific theological system, or even a single religious organization

Has grown to become the world’s third largest religion 914 million believers

Most important Hindu text is Bhagavad Gita

Because Hindu is not a religion in the strict sense it does not have converts.You can be a Catholic, Jew, Muslim etc and still practice. (Budist also work this way) Education and Religion

Hindu Americans  

Hinduism is based on the monotheistic principle of Brahman, that all reality is unity. The deity is a triad of ◦ Brahman = the Creator ◦ Vishnu = the Preserver (sustains new creations) ◦ Shiva = the Destroyer

Cattle slaughter is sacrilege – Hindus revere the cow as mother to all humankind because of nourishing milk it provides.

Perceive humans as being trapped in samasara- a meaningless cycle of birth, life, death & rebirth.

Karma is accumulated sum of one’s good and bad deeds, which determines how you will live your next life Education and Religion

Hindu Americans 

Eventually one can escape samsara (the cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth) by achieving enlightenment. ◦ Bad deed cause a person to be reborn at a lower level or even as an animal ◦ Hindus accept society’s unequal distribution of wealth, prestige and suffering as natural and just consequences for people’s previous actions both in this life and in previous lives. ◦ The pottu (a dot on the forehead) is an ethno religious symbol for Hindus (just like cross for Christians).  Black = unmarried female  Red = married female

Education and Religion

Hindu Americans The Rigveda defined five social castes

Maintained via Endogamy •Dictated jobs •Formally abolished in India in 1949 – still a significant social force. •

Education and Religion

Chapter 13 Education and Religion Soc 2010 Henslin  

Chapter 13, Henslin 2010, Education and Religion

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