Life Floranet

Page 1

edited by Fabio Conti and Luciano Di Martino


edited by Fabio Conti and Luciano Di Martino

Conserving plants of Community interest in the Central Apennines


Adonis distorta Ten. - (Photo F. Conti)

Conserving plants of Community interest in the Central Apennines Edited by

Fabio Conti and Luciano Di Martino

Authors

Claudia Alessandrelli, Fabrizio Bartolucci, Laura Biffi, Teodora Buccimazza, Marco Carafa, Giampiero Ciaschetti, Fabio Conti, Daniela D’Amico, Mirella Di Cecco, Valter Di Cecco, Luciano Di Martino, Marco Di Santo, Carmelo Gentile, Giuseppe Marcantonio, Savino Mastrullo, Elisa Proietti, Stefano Raimondi, Alessandro Stinca, Cinzia Sulli, Donatella Vitale.

PUBLICATION PRODUCED WITH A CONTRIBUTION FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION LIFE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENT.

Editorial coordination

Fabio Conti, Luciano Di Martino, Stefano Raimondi, Donatella Vitale

Graphic design

Marco Di Michele, Donatella Vitale

Layout

Marco Di Michele

Print

Poligrafica Mancini

Translation into English Sarah Gregg Coordinating beneficiary

Associated beneficiaries

Italian language version available on: www.floranetlife.it www.parcomaiella.it © 2021 Edizioni Parco Nazionale della Maiella November 2021 edition


CONTENTS Preface The Life Floranet project

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Monitoring the project species

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(Di Martino L., Conti F.)

(Bartolucci F., Ciaschetti G., Conti F., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Proietti E., Stinca A.)

In situ conservation

(Ciaschetti G., Alessandrelli C., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Cecco M., Di Martino L., Di Santo M., Gentile C.,41 Marcantonio G., Vitale D.)

Ex situ conservation

(Di Martino L., Di Cecco V., Di Cecco M., Di Santo M., Bartolucci F., Mastrullo S.)

The Natura 2000 network and the target species

(Carafa M., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Martino L., Gentile C., Sulli C.)

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Central Apennine plants deserving of protection (Conti F., Bartolucci F.)

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Environmental education

(Raimondi S., Vitale D., D’Amico D., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Martino L., Biffi L., Buccimazza T.)

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The project species

(Stinca A., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Cecco V.)

References

The peaks of the Maiella - (Photo L. Di Martino)

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PRESENTATIONS

The Maiella National Park - (Photo L. Di Martino)

The exceptional heritage of biodiversity contained in the Central Apennine mountains necessitates adoption of the necessary safeguarding measures inspired by environmental and economic sustainability. Through direct and indirect actions, the Life Floranet project has without doubt promoted concepts linked to “biodiversity” and “ecosystem services” as a guarantee of socio-economic well-being on a local and global scale. The species protected in the context of the project are associated with both primary habitats (high altitude crags and scree) and secondary habitats (pastures, scrub, woods and cultivated fields used to varying degrees). And it is these secondary habitats that provide an excellent basis for observing the environmental transformations occurring over the centuries (from the Neolithic to our times) for the purposes of arable and livestock farming. For centuries, these agroecosystems have represented a stable system of production and land occupation, with a floristic wealth that also fully expresses the history and culture of these lands. With its two botanical gardens, germplasm bank and native plant nursery and in synergy with the project partners, the Maiella National Park has successfully coordinated and implemented the numerous in situ and ex situ conservation measures, at the same time guaranteeing ample space for involving and listening to the local communities, focussing in particular on awareness-heightening and educational activities to promote knowledge of the conservation problems associated with habitats and species. Finally, the additional knowledge acquired confirms that the Central Apennines, and more generally the mountainous areas of Italy located right in the heart of the Mediterranean basin, are a “hot spot” for the diversity of life. Luciano Di Martino Acting Director, Maiella National Park

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The Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park is an area of very great biogeographical interest and strategically important for the conservation of animal and plant species. Bears, chamois and wolves are undoubtedly its strong points, but certain species of flora are no less worthy of mention, including those covered by the Life Floranet project of which the Park is a partner. Two of these can be considered the floristic “symbols” of the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park: - Iris marsica, which unites and identifies the entire Park area, not just through its species name, but also for its uniform distribution throughout the territory. - Cypripedium calceolus, which, although extremely limited both geographically and temporally, best represents the Park’s uniqueness through its beauty, rarity and elegance of form. The Floranet project and its actions have increased the significance and importance of these two species, enabled us to consolidate our knowledge of their presence and distribution and, above all, allowed us to deepen our understanding of the threats and pressures they face. The focus of Life Floranet is to improve the protection and valorisation of the species and to raise public awareness of the importance of flora, through interaction with other project partners and the experience gained. In the centenary year celebrating founding of the Park, it is more than ever important to make people understand the need to conserve ecosystems and all their components, because safeguarding bears means above all preserving their “home”. Luciano Sammarone Director, Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park

Sirente-Velino Regional Park - (Photo L. Di Martino)

The Sirente-Velino Regional Nature Park has participated in the Life Floranet project, aimed at the concrete protection and valorisation of certain plant species, often more difficult to protect and promote than the more charismatic wildlife that characterises our areas. The project involved implementing specific actions concerning the target species Klasea lycopifolia and Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica, found exclusively on our mountains, together with Iris marsica, an endemic symbol we share with the project’s other two partner parks. The activities carried out represented an opportunity to learn more about the particularities of these plants and the positive results were tangibly achieved through the involvement of local communities, widespread environmental education activities, silvicultural measures, population reinforcement and the stipulation of agreements with local authorities for protection and conservation measures involving delaying or eliminating mowing and grazing. The highlight of the project was the creation of a dedicated multimedia room at the Park’s headquarters in Rocca di Mezzo with an adjoining botanical garden and a further “Floranet Space” at the Park’s visitor centre in Rovere. Igino Chiuchiarelli Director, Sirente-Velino Regional Nature Park Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park - (Photo PNALM Archive)

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The University of Camerino’s participation in the Project derives from the fact that, for the last twenty years or so, in agreement with the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park, the San Colombo Monastery (Barisciano, AQ) has housed the Apennine Floristic Research Centre (CRFA), including Abruzzo’s largest herbarium (Herbarium Apenninicum). The Centre has given a considerable boost to floristic knowledge in the Central Apennines, with important repercussions for conservation of the flora, including through preparation of lists of plants to be protected in the region’s parks and reserves. In recent years, the CRFA has collaborated with the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) and the Italian Botanical Society in drafting the third and fourth National Reports on the conservation status of plant species of Community interest (under the Habitats Directive). Among the plants in the LIFE project, Klasea lycopifolia and Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica have been reported for Italy thanks to the activity of the CRFA's botanists, also responsible for finding Cypripedium calceolus on the Maiella, as well as several new sites of the other project species. Thanks to Life Floranet, scientific knowledge has contributed to the implementation of concrete actions to conserve important examples of Italy’s flora, recognised at European level. In promoting knowledge and protection of biodiversity, the combination of universities and protected areas has once again proved a winning strategy. Fabio Conti Director, Herbarium Apenninicum University of Camerino Androsace mathildae Levier - (Photo V. Di Cecco)

The Life Floranet project was born in the wake of the APE - Apennine Park of Europe strategy, centred around the idea of communicating the extraordinary relationship between the Apennines and the Park as an institution for conservation, but also for the cultural, economic and social redemption of areas marked by centuries of marginality. This has led to implementation of numerous projects for the safeguarding and enhancement of the extraordinary biodiversity of this vast territory. Many of the Floranet initiatives were, in fact also aimed at providing information to tourists, local operators and local communities and heightening their awareness about the importance of preserving the biodiversity of the Parks, always the main hub for virtuous land management policies in this sense. But that is not all: the project’s acronym itself indicates the desire to create a network of shared knowledge, in the awareness that the only way to achieve the grand goal of proper integration between protection and the aware and respectful use of the natural environment is through synergy between the best resources fielded by the local communities, assisted by the scientific world, associations and institutions. A theme to which, we believe, the volume we are presenting here can make a small but significant contribution. Stefano Ciafani National President, Legambiente Apennine Floristic Research Centre - (Photo R. Marchesan)

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Altopiano delle Rocche - (Photo F. Conti)


Cypripedium calceolus L. - (Photo L. Di Martino)

THE PROJECT Life Floranet (Di Martino L., Conti F.)


THE PROJECT Life Floranet

Di Martino L., Conti F.

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ogether with the University of Camerino and Legambiente, over a five year period and within the framework of the European Community's LIFE funding, the Parks in Abruzzo have developed and implemented a project to safeguard and valorise the plants found in Abruzzo and included in the annexes of the Habitats Directive. Specifically, the LIFE15 NAT/IT/000946 project (known as FLORANET) was promoted by the Maiella National Park (PNM) as beneficiary coordinator, with the University of Camerino (Apennine Floristic Research Centre, CFRA), Sirente-Velino Regional Park (PRSV), Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (PNALM) and Legambiente onlus as associate beneficiaries. The seven plant species covered by the project are extremely important as they are protected by the well-known Habitats Directive (Directive 92/43/EEC) as rare, endemic and endangered: 1) lady’s slipper (Cypripedium calceolus L.) is an orchid with a Eurasiatic distribution

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present in Italy in a few sites in both the Alps and Apennines. In Abruzzo it grows in just one site in the Maiella National Park, while in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park it is limited to the Camosciara and neighbouring areas, for a maximum total of a thousand individuals; 2) Apennine pheasant's eye (Adonis distorta Ten.) is a Ranunculaceae endemic to the Central Apennines, present on the high altitude scree of the Sibillini, Gran Sasso, Maiella, Sirente and Velino massifs; 3) Mathilda's rock jasmine (Androsace mathildae Levier) is a Primulaceae endemic to the Abruzzo Apennines, highly localised in rock cracks above 2400 m a.s.l. on the Maiella and Gran Sasso massifs; 4) Marsican iris (Iris marsica I. Ricci & Colas.), endemic to the Central Apennines, is localised in pastures and woodland margins in a few localities; 5) Aquila milk vetch (Astragalus aquilanus Anzal.) is a small leguminous plant endemic to Abruzzo and Calabria (where, however, it has not been reported for some time and the known site of this plant has

not been reconfirmed); 6) Serrated leafed sawwort (Klasea lycopifolia (Vill.) Á. Löve & D. Löve) is an Asteraceae found in humid grassland, rare throughout Italy and reported for Abruzzo in the Sirente-Velino Regional Park; 7) Gotland Island ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn. subsp. gotlandica (Neuman) B.Nord.) is a Eurasiatic species present in Italy only on the Gran Sasso and Velino massifs. The concrete actions foreseen by the project range from monitoring of the populations, collection and conservation of germplasm and nursery reproduction in the Maiella National Park's botanical gardens and germplasm bank, to in situ conservation (including through reinforcement of existing populations and creation of new sites) in the project areas within the Parks, reduction of the impact of tourists and specific awareness-heightening campaigns. Monitoring of the populations of the target species (known locations and new sites) was carried out by researchers from the University

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of Camerino and technicians from the protected areas who collected specific data for all the sites where the species was present: precise georeferencing of the site; site data (altitude, exposure, slope, type of substrate, type of habitat); area occupied by the population (real or

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estimated); number of individuals (real or estimated); actual and/or potential local threats according to IUCN coding; population health status; flowering/fruiting period and number of individuals flowering and fruiting within each population.

The large amount of data collected provided clear information on the population status of the project plant species and the same data was subsequently used during the 4th reporting cycle under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC, where it served to raise some of them, such as Androsace mathildae, Adonis distorta, Astragalus aquilanus and Iris marsica to a favourable conservation status (Ercole & Giacanelli 2021). In situ conservation actions focused on protection and reinforcement of existing populations threatened by human activities, the spontaneous evolution of natural vegetation or the increasing abundance of wild animals. For example, in the case of the Aquila milk vetch, the downy oak thickets were thinned in a number of known sites; similarly beech trees near the clearings where the Marsican iris grows were also thinned; in the case of the famous lady’s slipper orchid, the threat of trampling by wild and domestic animals and keen photographers was countered with physical barriers; while fences were erected to protect the serrated leafed saw-wort and Gotland Island ragwort from grazing and mowing, thus allowing the species to flower and fruit. The ex situ conservation actions (nursery reproduction, cultivation in botanical gardens, germplasm bank) were carried out in synergy with the in situ conservation actions (protective structures, population reinforcement, new sites, limitations on mowing). Seed conservation, germination tests and cultivation both from seed and from cuttings without doubt maintained a high genetic variability for the restocking actions implemented to ensure the populations retain an adequate reproductive fitness. Reinforcement of the populations of Androsace mathildae and Astragalus aquilanus took place during the project itself, while in the case of the lady’s slipper orchid (whose propagation included a comparison of techniques with Kew Garden’s Millennium Seed

Klasea lycopifolia (Vill.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (Photo F. Bartolucci) - page 17 Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn. subsp. gotlandica (Neuman) B. Nord. (Photo F. Bartolucci) - page 18 Astragalus aquilanus Anzal. (Photo F. Conti) - right

Bank in London), the material is currently being grown for reintroduction during the After-Life period. The various phases of the project have also led to scientific activity resulting in the production of numerous articles in specialist journals (Di Cecco et al. 2018, 2020, Bartolucci & Conti 2019, Bartolucci et al. 2021; Di Martino et al. 2020, De Castro et al. 2020, Di Musciano et al. 2020, Gargiulo et al. 2021). Another of the project’s objectives was to reduce the impact of tourism on the target species by reorganising tourist flows in the vicinity of the sites where they grow and

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Adonis distorta Ten. - (Photo L. Di Martino)


High altitude Floranet signs (Photo G.M. Monaco)

where problems derive from the presence of paths, roads and horse riding trails. This is the case of the Apennine pheasant’s eye where the proximity of heavily frequented high-altitude paths required specific communication actions, with erection of signs near the path identifying the species and express prohibition of the use of mountain bikes with the precise aim of safeguarding the species. The whole project has therefore been accompanied by a major communication campaign, from participatory processes to environmental education in the numerous schools in the project areas (including the creation of didactic flowerbeds) and organisation of more

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scientific conferences and seminars. The project is in synergy with Community sustainable agriculture policies and is integrated with the actions implemented by the three Parks under measure 3.2.3 of the Abruzzo Region Rural Development Plan (drafting of SCI management plans) . In this regard, it should be noted that a major phase of consultation has been initiated with the Abruzzo Region in order to adapt the populations of the target species to their actual presence in the Sites of Community Importance, now converted into Special Areas of Conservation following redaction of the management plans (DGR 877/2016 General conservation measures for the protection of Natura 2000 Network sites in the Abruzzo Region). Within the SCI “Maiella”, the municipalities of Pacentro, Campo di Giove and Cansano have decided in favour of adapting the site perimeters to include populations of Astragalus aquilanus: a major achievement of the project that will continue during the After-Life phase.

Documentation relating to the procedure to adapt the SCIs - top Cypripedium calceolus L. (Photo F. Conti) - right

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Iris marsica I. Ricci & Colas. - (Photo F. Bartolucci)


Iris marsica I. Ricci & Colas. - (Photo L. Di Martino)

MONITORING THE PROJECT SPECIES Floristic geodatabase and field surveys (Bartolucci F., Ciaschetti G., Conti F., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Proietti E., Stinca A.)


MONITORING THE PROJECT SPECIES Floristic geodatabase and field surveys

Bartolucci F., Ciaschetti G., Conti F., Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Proietti E., Stinca A.

A

Surveying Astragalus aquilanus Anzal - (Photo L. Di Martino).

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rticle 11 of the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC requires Member States to monitor the conservation status of the animal and plant species and habitats of Community interest listed in its annexes (Annexes I, II, IV and V) and present in their national territories. The directive, in fact, requires implementation of surveillance activities, activation of conservation measures and evaluation of their effectiveness (Art. 11) (Ercole et al. 2016). In the case of the seven target species included in the LIFE15 NAT/IT/000946 FLORANET project (Cypripedium calceolus L., Adonis distorta Ten., Androsace mathildae Levier, Iris marsica I.Ricci & Colas., Astragalus aquilanus Anzal., Klasea lycopifolia (Vill.) Á.Löve & D.Löve, Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn. subsp. gotlandica (Neuman) B.Nord.), monitoring was carried out in the project areas (Maiella National Park, Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park and Sirente-Velino Regional Park) and outside them, both within the Natura 2000 network (Gran Sasso and Monti della

Laga National Park) and outside it. Prior to the monitoring, an in-depth analysis of the relevant bibliography was carried out and herbarium samples from the following herbaria were studied: APP (Apennine Floristic Research Centre, University of Camerino - Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park), AQUI (University of L'Aquila), CAT (University of Catania), FI (University of Florence), GZU (Karl-Franzens University of Graz), NAP (University of Naples Federico II), P (National Museum of Natural History, Paris), PAL (University of Palermo), PRC (Charles University of Prague), WU (University of Vienna) (acronyms according to Thiers 2020) and the Maiella National Park Herbarium. The aim of this preliminary analysis was to establish the up-to-date distribution of the target species in order to plan the field surveys more accurately. All the data acquired relating to the target species were entered into a specific computerised floristic geodatabase.

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Floristic geodatabase (Action A2) The floristic geodatabase was created with FileMaker Pro 16 Advanced software integrated with QGIS. The database is subdivided into 8 main files/tables (Italian Flora, Target Species, Field Surveys, APP “Herbarium Apenninicum”, Herbaria, Bibliographic References, Localities). These in turn contain various display masks/formats. Specific buttons allow opening, closing and moving between files/tables and masks/formats. For the seven target species, the geodatabase contains bibliographic data (245 bibliographic records from 82 scientific articles), herbarium data (99 herbarium samples) and field survey data

(populations and subpopulations surveyed in 194 sites). The floristic geodatabase enables data on the presence of one or more species to be quickly and easily mapped using specially designed buttons. The table (Fig. 1) gives general information on the seven target species, each assigned a “unique code” to allow cross-referencing between the various tables. The nomenclature and regional distribution of the target species are in agreement with the recent Checklist of the Vascular Flora Native to Italy (Bartolucci et al. 2018).

(Fig. 1) Screenshot of the geodatabase Italian Flora table for the species Klasea lycopifolia.

Field surveys for the species Klasea lycopifolia - (Photo L. Di Martino) 30


(Fig. 2) Screenshot of the geodatabase Target Species table for the species Klasea lycopifolia.

The following information is shown in the table: • Family • Accepted name • Synonyms • Italian name • Regional distribution: Valle d’Aosta, VDA; Piedmont, PIE; Lombardy, LOM; Trentino-Alto Adige, TAA; Veneto, VEN; Friuli Venezia Giulia, FVG; Liguria, LIG; Emilia-Romagna, EMR; Tuscany, TOS; Marche, MAR; Umbria, UMB; Lazio, LAZ; Abruzzo, ABR; Molise, MOL; Puglia, PUG; Campania, CAM; Basilicata, BAS; Calabria, CAL; Sicily, SIC; Sardinia, SAR. • Life form • Endemic status • Chorotype • Regional Red Lists (Conti et al. 1997) • Red List of Italian Flora (Rossi et al. 2013) • IUCN Global Red List (https://www.iucnredlist.org/)) • International protection: Bern, CITES and Habitats Directive • Notes

• Site description (Fig. 4) • Sites/Populations • Species habitat • Pressures and Threats: the list of pressures and threats is in accordance with the official EC list available at http://cdr.eionet. europa.eu/help/habitats_art17 • Conservation Measures: the list of conservation measures is in accordance with the official EC list available at http://cdr. eionet.europa.eu/help/habitats_art17.

(Fig. 4) “Site description” mask in the Field Surveys table for the species Klasea lycopifolia.

For each of the target species, the table (Fig. 2) summarises the data present in the Field Surveys, Herbarium Apenninicum, Herbaria and Bibliographic References tables. Some data already present in the Italian Flora table are also present, including species name, synonyms, Italian name, conservation aspects, etc.. All the data relating to a species can be mapped using the “Create Shapefile” and “Open QGIS” buttons.

(Fig. 3) Screenshot of the geodatabase Field Surveys table for the species Klasea lycopifolia.

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The table (Fig. 3) shows all the data acquired during the field surveys with one record for each population or subpopulation surveyed. The information given in the table is in agreement with national monitoring protocols for species included in the Habitats Directive (Ercole et al. 2016): • Field surveys: taxon page, photos, gpx file (Fig. 3)

The survey data only can be mapped in QGIS using the buttons “Export survey data”, then “Open survey data in QGIS”. The table (Fig. 5) shows the data on the herbarium cards for the specimens studied in the Apennine Floristic Research Centre’s Herbarium Apenninicum. All herbarium data can be mapped using the “Create Shapefile” and “Open QGIS” buttons.

(Fig. 5) Screenshot of the geodatabase APP table for a herbarium specimen of the species Klasea lycopifolia.

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The table (Fig. 6) shows the data on the herbarium cards for the specimens studied in the following public herbaria: AQUI (L’Aquila), CAT (Catania), FI (Florence), GZU (Graz), NAP (Naples), P (Paris), PAL (Palermo), PRC (Prague), WU (Vienna), and in the Maiella National Park’s Herbarium Magellense. All herbarium data can be mapped using the “Create Shapefile” and “Open QGIS” buttons.

The table (Fig. 8) shows all the localities mentioned in the bibliography, herbarium samples or field surveys. Each locality is georeferenced and includes information on inclusion in SCIs or SPAs. Bibliographic data, herbarium specimens or field surveys mentioning that locality are also summarised.

(Fig. 6) Screenshot of the geodatabase Herbaria table for a herbarium sample of Androsace mathiladae.

The table (Fig. 7) shows the bibliographic data and unpublished observations for the seven target species. All herbarium data can be mapped using the “Create Shapefile” and “Open QGIS” buttons.

(Fig. 7) Screenshot of the geodatabase Bibliographic References table for the species Klasea lycopifolia.

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(Fig. 8) Screenshot of the geodatabase Localities table.

Astragalus aquilanus Anzal. - (Photo L. Di Martino)

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Field surveys (action A3) along the Scerto torrent, PNALM (Photo R. Visci)

Field surveys (Action A3) The target species were monitored by means of numerous field surveys that provided essential information on the distribution, size and conservation status of the populations. For each site monitored, information was collected on the precise location of the site, data on the site (altitude, exposure, slope, type of substrate, rockiness/stoniness, type of habitat), area occupied by the population (real or estimated), number of individuals (real or estimated), or presence of the species in a specially constructed 25x25 m grid (Fig. 9), population health and phenology, habitat conservation status, real and/or potential pressures and threats according to the official European Community coding (http://cdr.eionet.europa. eu/help/habitats_art17) (Fig. 10)

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(Fig. 9) Distribution of Klasea lycopifolia at Campo di Rovere, Sirente-Velino Regional Park. The monitoring allowed the perimeter of the population to be defined and the presence of individuals in the 25×25 metre grid cells (in orange) to be assessed. The population covers an area of 22.2 ha (EOO), 12.1 ha (AOO), in 193 25×25 m cells (Photo F. Bartolucci).

(Fig. 10) Mowing of secondary grasslands on the Altopiano delle Rocche, characterised by an extensive population of Klasea lycopifolia, Sirente-Velino Regional Park (top); terrain disturbed and dug up by wild boar in the population of Iris marsica at Terranera, Sirente-Velino Regional Park (bottom) (Photo F. Bartolucci).

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GPS survey of a site of Iris marsica in the PNALM (Photo C. Alessandrelli)

Fig. 11 Part of the field datasheet used to monitor the target species.

The monitored populations were analysed according to the monitoring protocols drawn up by the Italian Botanical Society (SBI) and Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) for the 3rd National Report ex art. 17 Plant Species of Community Interest Protected by Directive 92/43/EEC (Ercole et al. 2016, 2017), compiling a specific field datasheet adapted and revised for the Life project (Fig. 11). Monitoring also made it possible to find new and hitherto unknown sites for the target species (Fig. 12) and to verify the abundant bibliographic data, often not supported by herbarium samples. This enabled us to ascertain the real distribution of the target species (Fig. 13). In addition, the information obtained through monitoring provided a crucial and indispensable contribution to the 4th National Report ex art. 17 drafted by ISPRA and SBI, for the knowledge and protection of Plant Species of Community Interest Protected by Directive 92/43/EEC (Ercole et. al. 2020).

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(Fig. 12) Survey of Jacobaea vulgaris subsp gotlandica in the new site discovered during the project between Monte Rotondo and Colle del Nibbio, Sirente-Velino Regional Park. (Bottom photo F. Bartolucci, top photo V. Impiccini)

(Fig. 13) Distribution of Astragalus aquilanus in a 10×10 km grid according to the 3rd National Report on Plant Species of Community Interest Protected by Directive 92/43/EEC. Field surveys carried out during the project enabled the distribution of the species to be reviewed. In the blue cells, the presence of the species was confirmed, the yellow cells indicate new data, in the red cells the species was indicated erroneously and in the pink cell, the species is doubtful. (Top photo F. Bartolucci)

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IN SITU CONSERVATION Concrete actions to safeguard the project species

(Ciaschetti G., Alessandrelli C., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Cecco M., Di Martino L., Di Santo M., Gentile C., Marcantonio G., Vitale D.)

Klasea lycopifolia (Vill.) Á. Löve & D. Löve - (Photo F. Conti)


IN SITU CONSERVATION

Manual scrub clearance in favour of Iris marsica, PNALM - (Photo C. Alessandrelli)

Concrete actions to safeguard the project species

Ciaschetti G., Alessandrelli C., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Cecco M., Di Martino L., Di Santo M., Gentile C., Marcantonio G., Vitale D.

T

he strategies for in situ conservation of plant biodiversity involve a range of regulations and activities, from habitat protection or restoration, to the establishment of protected areas, regulations on the collection of plant material in the wild and measures for the introduction, reintroduction, translocation and reinforcement of populations. As far as Italy is concerned, while there is an extensive case history of regulations and actions involving habitats, instances of concrete interventions on single populations of rare species have so far been very sporadic (Pirrera 2001; Cogoni et al. 2013, 2018; Abeli et al. 2016, 2018; Orsenigo et al. 2016; Garfì et al. 2016; etc.). The actions to conserve the plant species in the Life Floranet project include measures implemented in the sites where the species are present, aimed at improving the state of health of the population. This result can be achieved either by acting directly on the population itself, for example, through restocking or by improving repro-

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ductive fitness, or indirectly, by improving the environment where the plants grow. Both strategies were implemented in the Life Floranet project. The concrete in situ conservation actions envisaged by the Life Floranet project can be summarised as: silvicultural interventions and elimination/reduction of competing species (action C5); protection of at risk populations (action C6) and elimination of mowing from certain areas (C9); restocking and creation of new populations (action C7); manual pollination of Cypripedium calceolus (action C8); elimination of mowing from certain areas (action C9-C10); management agreements between protected areas and local communities (action C10) and adaptation of SCI perimeters to the real distribution of the species (actions A8-C11).

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Silvicultural interventions (action C5) Iris marsica lives preferentially on rocky scree, sub-vertical walls and consolidated breccia, while Astragalus aquilanus is mainly associated with secondary grasslands near woodland environments. Both species often live naturally in forest clearings, in other words, meadows surrounded by woodland. Throughout Italy and Europe, the decline of the mountain economy in recent decades has triggered processes of secondary succession, namely the spontaneous reconstitution of woodland on abandoned or underused pastures. Grasslands are therefore becoming ever more covered with scrub and the forest tends to close the clearings as it advances. While in the case of large open spaces, this process is quite slow, clearings may close in as little as a few years. Within the framework of Life Floranet, silvicultural measures were carried out to slow down this process by checking the advance of woody species in clearings and other open spaces where there are populations of the two rare species. These measures were implemented in the Maiella National Park at Cansano (AQ) and Pescocostanzo (AQ) and in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park at Monte Mava (Civitella Alfedena, AQ), La Difesa (Pescasseroli, AQ), Vallocchie (Barrea, AQ), San Biagio (Bisegna, AQ), S.R. 83 Marsicana road (Gioia dei Marsi) and Bocche di Chiarano (Rocca Pia, AQ). Silvicultural interventions were also carried out in the Sirente-Velino Park, aimed at forest improvement and shrub removal to increase light levels in two sites where Iris marsica is present: Terranera (Rocca di Mezzo, AQ) and Prati del Sirente (Secinaro, AQ). A similar operation was carried out for the population of Cypripedium calceolus (lady’s slipper) along the Scerto torrent in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park. Here, painstaking light thinning of the foliage or branches was carried out to allow more light to reach the lady’s slipper plants to improve the rate of flowering and, thanks to the increased visits by insects to the flowers, also fruiting. In all cases, the work was entrusted to local companies and supervised in the field by technicians from the protected areas concerned, who made sure there were no adverse effects on the conservation status of the habitats and animal and plant species present.

Silvicultural interventions in favour of Cypripedium calceolus along the Scerto torrent, PNALM - (Photo C. Alessandrelli)

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Clearing opened in the Astragalus aquilanus site at Cansano (AQ), PNM - (Photo G. Ciaschetti)

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Elimination/reduction of competing species (action C5) Another operation implemented during the Life Floranet project under action C5 involved the elimination or reduction of competing plant species. In particular, at Colli di Valle Caprara at Pescocostanzo, a clearing, previously subjected to silvicultural interventions to ensure survival of Iris marsica, was massively invaded by another herbaceous plant, the asphodel Asphodelus macrocarpus, which had spread over the abandoned meadows, competing with the Marsican iris for soil nutrients and light. It was decided not to completely eradicate this native species, both to avoid damaging the Iris marsica during digging and also to avoid facilitating soil erosion, given that the site is on a steep slope. Targeted asphodel plants were cut at the base. The operation was performed during the flowering period to avoid dispersal and accumulation of reserve substances in the hypogeal parts of the plants. Fortunately, the cut plants have only partly regrown new shoots, but the situation is constantly monitored and, if necessary, further cutting will be carried out. In some localities in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park, not far from the natural populations of Iris marsica, there were reports of

Protection of at risk populations (action C6)

plants of Iris germanica, a naturalised, non-native and sometimes locally invasive species. Since there is a very high risk of hybridisation between the two species, it was decided to eradicate the “foreign” iris. This was carried out at Gioia Vecchio (Gioia dei Marsi, AQ), Terraegna, Pagliara and Colli dell’Oro (Pescasseroli, AQ), Verrello (Ortona dei Marsi, AQ) and along the S.P. 17 road in the vicinity of Bisegna (AQ).

Wild and domestic animals pose a widespread threat to all populations of Cypripedium calceolus: roe and red deer, chamois, hares and horses do not disdain grazing the flowers and fruits. Wild boars can dig up the rhizomes with their rooting and are also a potential trampling hazard. The location of some sites also makes them vulnerable to other threats. Widespread trampling, damage to flowers and leaves and collection and removal of the entire plant were observed in the sites most accessible to humans. One of the first protective actions was the erection of fences or paling designed to keep out domestic animals and visitors. To protect small plants from grazing, individuals were protected by structures made from wide-meshed wire netting to avoid jeopardising entomophilous pollination. The structures used in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park were stronger and more permanent, while those installed around the Cypripedium plants in the only population in the Maiella were lighter and more removable to prevent damage to the plants following heavy snowfall or excessive accumulation of leaf litter inside them Bank micro-reinforcement and fences to protect the nuclei of Cypripedium calceolus along the Scerto torrent, PNALM - (photo C. Gentile)

Natural phenomena may also pose a threat. Flooding of the Scerto torrent in the Camosciara in 2018 and to a lesser extent in 2019 severely eroded the banks where some small Cypripedium calceolus plants were growing and deposited a blanket of more or less coarse debris on the known sites. It was therefore considered necessary and expedient to remove the gravel accumulated on the known sites and to reinforce the banks with small stone structures to contain the erosive action of the water. A fence was also erected around a population of Iris marsica at Rocca Tre Monti (Civitella Alfedena, AQ) in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park to protect it from the horses grazing stably in the vicinity, while other short sections of fencing were erected to protect a small roadside site (Colle Ciglio - Barrea AQ), or simple to valorise the site itself (Colli dell’Oro - Pescasseroli AQ), also in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park.

Piles of cut Asphodelus macrocarpus plants in a site of Iris marsica on Monte Pizzalto (AQ), PNM - (Photo G. Ciaschetti)

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Eradication of nuclei of Iris germanica in the PNALM - (Photo C. Alessandrelli)

Metal structures to protect the nuclei of Cypripedium calceolus PNALM - (Photo C. Gentile)

In the Sirente-Velino Regional Park, mobile and permanent fences were erected to protect a number of populations of Klasea lycopifolia (Campo di Rovere in the municipality of Rocca di Mezzo, AQ; Prati del Sirente in the municipality of Secinaro, AQ; Campo Felice in the municipality of Lucoli, AQ) and Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica

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Restocking and creation of new populations (action C7) Part of the plant material reproduced within the Life Floranet project, through the activities of the germplasm bank (action C2) and nursery (action C3), was used to reinforce small populations of the target species and create new populations. The aim of both these operations is to increase the species’ chances of survival by reducing the risk of inbreeding and decline due to even accidental alterations to the environment. Specifically, in the Maiella National Park, these actions involved Astragalus aquilanus and Androsace mathildae. In the case of the former species, the only population present in the protected area, in the municipality of Cansano, was increased by 100 individuals, while a new population was created in a locality near Sulmona, where it had been reported in the past, but not observed during the survey carried out under action A3. With regard to Androsace mathildae, 35 individuals were planted at the summit of Pesco Falcone (2,646 m a.s.l.), where the species had been found recently (Ciaschetti et al. 2015). Unfortunately, while planting of Astragalus aquilanus met with great success, the plants of Androsace mathildae did not for the most part survive. On the Maiella, it is also planned to reinforce the only population of Cypripedium calceolus and create a new population, but given the time required to obtain reproductive material, these interventions will be implemented in the After-Life period. Plants of Cypripedium calceolus have already been obtained by in vitro reproduction (C2), using vegetative material from populations in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park. Once these have developed, they will be mainly used to reinforce the Maiella population which is at the greatest and most imminent risk of extinction, as confirmed by recent research (Gargiulo et al. 2021). The project also provides for restocking of the species in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park, but implementation will be subject to the availability of seedlings.

Permanent fences to protect the site of Klasaea lycopifolia at Prati del Sirente (Secinaro, project actions C6 and C9) - (Photo C. Alessandrelli)

(Piano di Pezza, municipalities of Rocca di Mezzo and Ovindoli, AQ) to eliminate mowing from the areas and reduce the impact of off-road vehicles and grazing by large domestic animals. To reduce the risk of downhill biking impacting on the populations of Adonis distorta on the summit plateaus of the Maiella, an aware-

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ness-heightening campaign was carried out, with installation of specific signs at high altitudes and distribution of an illustrative flyer explaining the mountain bike activities allowed in the Maiella National Park.

Reinforcement of the site of Klasaea lycopifolia at Campo Felice (Lucoli, action C7) - (Photo C. Alessandrelli)

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Manual pollination of Cypripedium calceolus (action C8)

At Rocca Tre Monti, in the municipality of Civitella Alfedena, the population of Marsica iris was reinforced, following damage and impoverishment by repeated trampling by heavy domestic animals, indiscriminate collection and eating of the rhizomes by porcupines. As well as by a fence, the newly introduced plants were also protected by an underground net to prevent porcupine damage. Again in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park, a small new site of Astragalus aquilanus (100 individuals) was created to enhance the existing populations. The site was delimited by a fence and a wire-netting tunnel to prevent the shoots being eaten. In the Sirente-Velino Regional Park, the populations of Klasea lycopifolia at Campo Felice (Lucoli, AQ) and Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica at Piano di Pezza (Ovindoli, AQ) were reinforced. Restocking was carried out within the same permanent fences erected to protect the populations (action C6).

Planting of Androsace mathildae seedlings - (Photo G. Ciaschetti)

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In light of the difficulty of obtaining seeds due to the low fruit production of Cypripedium calceolus, several flowers of the rare orchid were hand-pollinated by park technicians. The operation was carried out at several sites in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Scerto, Rifugio la Liscia, Vallone Iancino, Tre Mortari) and in the only site in the Maiella. A total of 122 flowers were pollinated over the four years 2017-2020, 108 in the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park and 16 in the Maiella National Park. Hand pollination had generally good effects in terms of increased fruiting, especially in the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park. However, in the Maiella, due to the very low number of flowers found and their poor condition due to heavy rain or prolonged drought, hand pollination did not produce the expected results. There was, in fact, an overall decrease in the number of flowers and their early wilting made it impossible to carry out the action.

Elimination of mowing from certain areas (actions C9-C10) The meadows where Klasea lycopifolia grows are generally mown in the first half of July. The phenology of this rare Asteraceae is later than most meadow species and at that time it is just coming into flower. Cutting the scapes by mowing prevents the species from fruiting and reproducing by seed and it reacts by spreading by vegetative means. This penalises the genetic diversity of the plant with possible tragic long-term consequences for the population’s survival. In order to encourage fruiting by the species and dispersal of the achenes (the fruits containing the seeds), the project envisages eliminating traditional mowing from a 5 ha area. Specifically, mowing is delayed on 4 ha and completely eliminated on 1 ha, in order to experimentally analyse the subsequent successional dynamics. These operations were made possible by a 20-year agreement between the Sirente-Velino Regional Park and the Amministrazione Separata of Rovere, providing monetary compensation for delayed mowing and renting of unmown areas.

Protection of nuclei of Astragalus aquilanus planted at Cansano (AQ), PNM - (Photo G. Ciaschetti)

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Manual fertilisation of Cypripedium calceolus PNALM - (Photo F. Conti)


Management agreements between protected areas and local communities (action C10) The participatory process activated within the framework of action C10 involved various categories of stakeholders, with the objective of obtaining management agreements aimed at conserving the target species. A long process and a moment for involving and listening to the local communities, with thematic meetings, workshops and social concertation, enabling opinions and contributions to be gathered to formulate the agreements reached. The participatory process made it possible to increase the positive consensus among the stakeholders involved, institutions, associations, arable and livestock farms, tourist operators, accommodation facilities etc., with the parallel aim of providing information, heightening awareness and strengthening the link with the communities and areas involved, where small groups have been formed to exchange views amongst themselves and with the park authorities. Three information days, eighteen meetings at intervals in the three protected areas involved and two meetings with the participation of about 670 people representing all the previously-identified categories of stakeholders, who supported the project activities by offering their collaboration. This took concrete form with signing of 75 agreements with arable and livestock farms and 11 memoranda of understanding listed below: • Agreement between the Sirente-Velino Regional Park and the Amministrazione Beni Usi Civici di Rovere in the municipality of Rocca Di Mezzo (AQ) for delayed mowing of Klasea lycopifolia meadows; • Memoranda of understanding between the PNM, PNALM and PRSV and the Abruzzo section of the Club Alpino Italiano, Abruzzo section of the Collegio delle Guide Alpine e Accompagnatori di Media Montagna, Associazione Italiana Guide Ambientali Escursionistiche, Associazione Fotografi Naturalisti, Federazione Italiana Associazioni Fotografiche, Unione Italiana Fotoamatori and Ente Nazionale Guide Equestri Ambientali; • Memorandum of understanding between the PNM and the Associazione di Promozione Sociale Majella and Associazione Ride Bocca di Valle; together with authorisations from the municipalities of Secinaro (AQ) and Lucoli (AQ) for construction of a fence to protect Klasea lycopifolia and the municipalities of Ovindoli (AQ) and Rocca di Mezzo (AQ) for construction of a fence to protect Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica. Each within its own territory, the protected areas also collaborate with those involved in information and awareness-heightening initiatives involving the protection of Floranet species and the floristic biodiversity of the partner parks. This contribution stems from the need to promote greater awareness of the importance of protecting and conserving natural resources, participation in nature monitoring and surveys, organisation of promotional and dissemination activities (competitions, exhibitions, awards), implementation of training courses on the ethics of nature photography and environmental education workshops. Finally, the park authorities signed six memoranda of understanding with the same number of schools in the respective territories, for the care and maintenance of Floranet flowerbeds, created as part of the educational programme (action E3).

Adaptation of SCI perimeters to the real distribution of the species (actions A8 and C11) The population census carried out under action A3 revealed the presence of populations of the plant species of Community interest outside Sites of Community Importance. As a number of these are located near the perimeters, the Life project aims to extend these perimeters to include these populations, together with other habitats and species of Community interest and rare species of flora and fauna. As specified in more detail below, the proposed extensions concern the SCIs “IT7140203 Parco Nazionale della Majella”, “IT7110206 Monte Sirente e Monte Velino”, “IT7110075 Serra e Gole di Celano-Val d’Arano”, “IT7110090 Colle del Rascito” and “IT7110205 Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo”. The proposals have been submitted to the Abruzzo Region and municipalities concerned for completion of the agreements and initiation of the necessary administrative procedures to implement the proposed changes.

First meeting in the participatory process - (Photo D. Vitale) 54


Adonis distorta Ten. - (Photo L. Di Martino)

EX SITU CONSERVATION Structures and techniques for reproducing the plant species (Di Martino L., Di Cecco V., Di Cecco M., Di Santo M., Bartolucci F., Mastrullo S.)


EX SITU CONSERVATION Structures and techniques for reproducing the plant species

Di Martino L., Di Cecco V., Di Cecco M., Di Santo M., Bartolucci F., Mastrullo S.

T

“D. Brescia” Botanical Garden, Sant’Eufemia a Maiella (PE), Maiella National Park - (Photo L. Di Martino)

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he pressure on biodiversity continues to increase, in tandem with the destruction and degradation of habitats. Climate change has now emerged as a major threat to biodiversity, especially in combination with the other threats (Bacchetta et al. 2014). Faced with this scenario, increasing attention is being paid to the conservation of plant biodiversity outside natural environments, involving both species of agronomic interest and wild flora and in implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro 1992). The latter encompasses three main objectives conserving the planet’s genes, species and ecosystems: in situ and ex situ conservation, sustainable use of biological diversity and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources (Piotto et al. 2010). In situ conservation (preservation of biodiversity through the creation of protected areas such as national parks, nature parks, reserves, wetlands, SPAs and SACs) and ex situ conser-

vation (which, conversely, involves removing threatened or rare species from their natural habitat and protecting them in places specifically designed to accommodate and conserve them) are therefore two key strategies for the protection of biodiversity. The primary objective of the ex situ conservation of wild populations is to help maintain threatened taxa, their genetic diversity and their habitat. Ex situ conservation programmes are always complementary to in situ programmes and represent an added value. Whenever possible, both in situ and ex situ populations should be part of integrated, multidisciplinary management plans in accordance with the CBD principles. Species at imminent risk of extinction should be prioritised and actions to safeguard them should be carried out with the consensus and support of groups of nations. The management of ex situ populations must be aimed at minimising all the effects inherent in this method that could undermine the genetic integrity and viability of the material, such as

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reduction of genetic diversity, artificial selection, transmission of pathogens and hybridisation. Particular attention must be paid to the collection techniques which should be designed to collect as much genetic variability as possible from the populations in the wild. Ex situ conservation of diversity takes place in gene banks, which can be divided into three main categories: • In vivo collections • Seed banks • In vitro banks

In vivo collections

In vivo plant collections are maintained in controlled environments (botanical gardens, greenhouses, arboretums, alpine gardens, nurseries, etc.). The preservation of wild species is mainly carried out by botanical gardens which have been accumulating numerous wild plants from different parts of the world since colonial times, initially for their collections and only subsequently for conservation. In vivo collections also play an important role in the protection of species or cultivars of economic interest. However, this type of conservation requires considerable space and as the demand for space for cultivated land increases, the space available is decreasing ever more. Another disadvantage is that these collections often contain groups of closely related species, with the possibility of hybridisation. Diseases can also spread easily. However, field gene banks have played an important role for some cash crop species such as rubber, mango and sweet potato and also for some wild species.

Seed banks

The main method for ex situ conservation is the seed bank, as this enables both intra-population and inter-population diversity to be adequately conserved quite cheaply and without major space requirements. A germplasm

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bank is a facility equipped for the collection and conservation of the germplasm of endemic, rare or endangered species, together with wild species or species of agronomic interest for the preservation of plant biodiversity. Germplasm banks were initially created in the agricultural sector, but we are now seeing the spread of germplasm banks dedicated to the conservation of rare, threatened, endemic and protected flora and all those entities considered important for the maintenance of biodiversity. The aim is not only to preserve genetic diversity itself, but also to make certified plant material available for restocking, rehabilitation, restoration and land management. For most seed species, storage in a germplasm bank will allow them to be returned to the wild if necessary, even after decades, as the seeds remain viable for a considerable length of time. One of the advantages of this technique is that the seeds of most species are small and compact and therefore require little space for storage. They can also be stored effectively for very long periods.

plants for restoration. Ex situ structures such as botanical gardens and seed banks can be very effective in achieving these objectives. The synergy of in situ conservation actions on individual species (protection, reinforcement, new sites, limitations on mowing) combined with ex situ support actions (nursery reproduction, cultivation in botanical gardens, germplasm bank) could be considered a best practice to be exported in cases of extremely rare species and small populations. This chapter reports on the actions of the LIFE Floranet project that have contributed to ex situ conservation.

In vitro storage

Preservation of plant tissue can often be used for recalcitrant species. Storage using this method has the disadvantage of being shortterm and labour-intensive. It is, however, also the only way to conserve species that have lost the ability to reproduce sexually and can therefore only be propagated vegetatively (e.g. banana). In vitro cultures can be placed under slow-growing conditions, but somaclonal variation may occur. Furthermore, as the best way to preserve tissue is to keep it in liquid nitrogen, further research is needed to prevent damage caused by freezing. Volis and Blecher (2010) have clearly identified the main roles of ex situ collections in conservation: to create a backup of genetic material when in situ conservation actions fail, to preserve a significant part of the genetic diversity of a species and to propagate

Collecting seeds of Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica in the Sirente-Velino Regional Park - (Photo L. Di Martino)

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The role of botanical gardens in ex situ conservation for the Floranet project NURSERY REPRODUCTION (action C3) The primary aim of reproduction is to produce plants for all the project’s activities (restocking, creation of flowerbeds in botanical gardens, creation of flowerbeds in the schools participating in the project), but at the same time it is important to create a reserve of plants (in vivo collection) for use if necessary.

Each facility (bank and nursery) was responsible for one phase to optimise the results, which were reported in a germination and cultivation protocol and summarised in the propagation datasheets for the target species giving information deriving from the experience gained during the project.

Although still little used in traditional nurseries, the reproduction of native plant species is of fundamental importance in a protected area. The introduction of non-native plant species from other geographical areas can threaten local biodiversity as these plants can act as invasive species, colonising natural environments. They can also hybridise with native populations thus endangering their genetic integrity, act as vectors for parasites and in some cases even pose a risk to human health. On the other hand, natural selection over thousands of years has produced native species that are well adapted and in harmony with their environment. Nursery reproduction gave results for 5 of the 7 species (all except Adonis distorta and Cypripedium calceolus). As there is no data in literature regarding the germination and propagation of these species, the activity is to be considered experimental. The activity started with collection of propagules (seeds, portions of rhizome, cuttings) of the species in their areas of occurrence. Subsequently, the quantities defined in the project were reproduced for each species, establishing the reproduction methods for the individual species (gamic or agamic) on the basis of experience and the existing bibliography. The activities took place in the Maiella National Park’s botanical gardens, where there are facilities such as the germplasm bank and nursery (the latter located in the “Daniela Brescia” botanical garden) where native plant species have been reproduced for years and used for different purposes (to limit the collection of material from nature in order to maintain the Garden’s own collection; to reinforce very small populations of rare and endangered species, thus improving their chances of survival; to encourage the use of native plants for ornamental purposes; to encourage the cultivation of native medicinal herbs and traditional fruit trees on farms and smallholdings within the Park; and to encourage the use of local species or ecotypes to restore and improve degraded environments).

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Example of a propagation sheet for the target species.

Plants grown in the nursery at the “D. Brescia” Botanical Garden. In the foreground, Klasea lycopifolia, PNM - (Photo M. Di Cecco)

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CULTIVATION IN BOTANICAL GARDENS OF PLANT SPECIES IN ANNEX II AND IV OF THE HABITATS DIRECTIVE (action E5) CREATION OF A VISITOR CENTRE FEATURING THE FLORA IN ANNEX II AND IV OF THE HABITATS DIRECTIVE IN THE SIRENTE-VELINO REGIONAL PARK (action E6)

Iris marsica in the nursery at the “D. Brescia” Botanical Garden, PNM - (Photo M. Di Cecco, L. Di Martino)

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To conserve endemic and non-endemic species, conservation structures such as botanical gardens are important for the ex situ preservation of plant diversity and can prevent extinction through an integrated conservation action (Mounce et al. 2017; Abeli et al. 2019). A number of the individuals grown in the nursery as part of the reproduction action were used for cultivation in the two botanical gardens in the Maiella National Park, in the botanical garden at the Pescasseroli visitor centre in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park and in the botanical garden in the Sirente-Velino Regional Park, created as part of action E6. At local level, cultivation in the botanical gardens and visitor centres allows the species to be preserved in their natural environment, in protected structures where they can also be observed and studied. The aim is also to reduce the risk of indiscriminate collection of plant species of interest and to disseminate the culture of conservation, respect for nature and aware tourism. In particular, dedicated flowerbeds were created with species able to survive the climatic conditions of the botanical gardens. In detail: in the structures in the Maiella National Park: Androsace mathildae, Iris marsica, Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica, Astragalus aquilanus and Klasea lycopifolia in the “Daniela Brescia” Botanical Garden at Sant’Eufemia a Maiella (PE) and Iris marsica and Astragalus aquilanus in the “Michele Tenore” Botanical Garden at Lama dei Peligni (CH); in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park, Iris marsica and Astragalus aquilanus in the visitor centre in Pescasseroli. The following species have been planted at the Sirente-Velino Regional Park visitor centre: Iris marsica, Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica, Astragalus aquilanus and Klasea lycopifolia. In addition to the educational aspects, cultivating species in botanical gardens constitutes a further form of ex situ conservation. The further sets of individuals grown “in the ground” represent additional nuclei of the species from which to collect seeds without depleting natural populations. The individuals were placed in a new dedicated area in each botanical garden where, in addition to the usual labels, explanatory panels were also installed describing the distribution and conservation characteristics of the species and main features of the project. This type of cultivation in the Parks’ botanical gardens and dedicat-

ed facilities is necessary in order to contribute, together with the germplasm bank, to the ex situ conservation of the target species beyond the duration of the project, in other words, when the nursery activities will be less intensive and aimed solely at the needs for cultivation in the gardens. The action is also essential to increase visitors’ knowledge of the project’s target species and awareness of the need for their conservation in protected areas, particularly in botanical gardens.

Area dedicated to the project’s target species at the PRSV headquarters - (Photo I. Chiucchiarelli)

Iris marsica in the dedicated flowerbed at the “D. Brescia” Botanical Garden, PNM - (Photo M. Di Cecco)

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Collecting Adonis distorta Ten. seeds at high altitudes in the Maiella National Park - (Photo PNM Archive)


The role of the germplasm bank in ex situ conservation for the Floranet project REPRODUCTION FROM SEED (action C4)

In accordance with the provisions of action C4 of the project and with the collaboration of the University of L’Aquila, reproduction from seed and the medium- and long-term conservation of the germplasm of the target species were carried out at the Maiella National Park germplasm bank (Maiella Seed Bank) at Lama dei Peligni (CH), situated within the “Michele Tenore” Botanical Garden. The Maiella Seed Bank is today a point of reference in the region as the only structure of its kind for the conservation of plant biodiversity and represents a tangible example of interaction between ex situ and in situ conservation in Italian national parks. The bank was officially inaugurated in 2005, on the occasion of the foundation of R.I.B.E.S., the Italian Network of Germplasm Banks (Rossi et al. 2006), of which it is a founding member. The main objective of seed banks is to preserve biodiversity, avert extinction and counteract genetic erosion of plant species (Chen & Sun 2018), employing long-term conservation measures (Williams & Davis 2003; Mattana et al. 2005) and in compliance with implementation of specific international conservation conventions and strategies (Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD, 1992; GSPC, Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, 2002; EPCS, European Plant Conservation Strategy, 2002). The ex situ conservation activities of the Maiella Seed Bank are aimed at rare and/or threatened, endemic and other species suitable for renaturalisation projects in particularly vulnerable or damaged ecosystems. The richness of the Park’s flora includes a high number of species and subspecies, for a total of 2,286 taxa (Conti et al. 2019), with 15 exclusive endemics and 201 taxa endemic to Italy. The Bank focuses on native endangered, endemic and rare species, species with a particularly fragmented distribution or of special phytogeographical interest, crop wild relatives and local crop varieties that are becoming rare. Currently, more than 180 taxa of cultivars and wild species are conserved, many included in the IUCN lists and/or protected by international conventions (Cites, Bern, etc.), in the annexes of Directive

Cypripedium calceolus grown by in vitro micropropagation (action C.2) - (Photo S. Magrini)

Androsace mathidae - (Photo V. Di Cecco) 69


LONG-TERM SEED STORAGE In germplasm banks, long-term storage and preservation under standard conditions (seeds dehydrated to 5 ± 2% humidity and stored at -20°C) is only possible for germplasm considered “orthodox”, namely seeds that can be significantly dehydrated and stored at temperatures below 0°C (Roberts 1973). A “recalcitrant” seed, such as those of many trees (chestnut, horse chestnut, walnut, maple, oak) cannot survive freezing and drying, as it must germinate rapidly and is therefore unable to survive the dehydration phase. The material to be dehydrated is placed in a chamber equipped with dehumidifiers and air conditioners able to guarantee relative humidity values of 15% and a temperature of 15°C, to prevent the seed teguments from undergoing abrupt fractures and/ or wrinkling. The duration of this treatment varies according to the characteristics of the seeds and can range from 30 to 180 days. Under these conditions, the batches are dehydrated in paper bags, breathable fabric bags or trays and weighed regularly to monitor weight loss.

Seeds stored in vials and glass jars for long-term storage at -20°C (Photo V. Di Cecco)

43/92 EEC “Habitat”, Regional Law no. 45/1979 for the protection of flora in Abruzzo and regional red lists of Italian plants. Studies on the germination of these groups of species have led to an abundant production of scientific articles, ranging from germination ecology to seed morphometry, dispersal, etc. (Frattaroli et al. 2013; Di Martino et al. 2014; Di Martino et al. 2015; Di Martino et al. 2016; Di Cecco et al. 2017a; Di Cecco et al. 2017c; Di Cecco et al. 2018, Di Cecco et al. 2019a). The quantity and origin of the conserved batches of seeds are growing constantly, in terms of both the number of species and area covered, which now extends beyond the Park's perimeters. At regional level, the Maiella Seed Bank provides concrete protection for the genetic resources of both wild and cultivated species of agricultural, culinary and ornamental interest. The studies and acquisition of knowledge in support of the conservation of plant germplasm carried out over the years by all the Park’s facilities (botanical gardens, germplasm bank, nursery) were fundamental to implementing the concrete project actions, from collection of seeds in the wild to in vitro propagation, reproduction of the seeds, reproduction in the nursery, restocking and the creation of new sites (action C7) which required a guaranteed supply of individuals of the target species with a high level of genetic variability. Where possible, a germination protocol was drawn up for each target species, listing all the conditions to which the seed should be subjected

to obtain the highest possible germination percentage. Good results were obtained with Astragalus aquilanus, Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica, Klasea lycopifolia and Iris marsica, while germination percentages were low for the high-altitude species Androsace mathildae and Adonis distorta. The lady’s slipper orchid (Cypripedium calceolus) deserves a special mention, as it was decided to use in vitro germination with the support of the University of Tuscia, Viterbo, given the known difficulty, mentioned in literature and subsequently experienced personally by the staff, of obtaining satisfactory results with classic germination tests. All germination test results have been published in scientific journals. At present, the Maiella Seed Bank has more than 85 accessions (seed batches) of the Life Floranet project target species, for a total of about 130,000 seeds currently undergoing long-and medium-term conservation.

All the information needed at the collection stage was recorded on a “collection sheet”. The data obtained from the collection sheets are summarised in the table below:

Iris marsica - (Photo V. Di Cecco) 71


I. marsica

01/07/2017

Di Cecco M.

PNM

B.G. Sant’Eufemia - PNALM Stazzo Monte Mare

-

MSB LIFE17A07

I. marsica

01/07/2017

Di Cecco M.

PNM

B.G. Sant’Eufemia - PRSV Terranera

-

PRSV

MSB LIFE17A08

I. marsica

01/07/2017

Di Cecco M.

PNM

B.G. Sant’Eufemia - PNALM Grottoni

-

San Colombo (Barisciano)

PNGSML

MSB LIFE17A09

I. marsica

22/07/2017

Gentile C.

PNALM

Difesa (Pescasseroli)

PNALM

PNM

Monteluco di Roio (L’Aquila)

-

MSB LIFE17A10

J. gotlandica

21/09/2017

PRSV operators

PRSV

Colle del Nibbio (Rocca Di Cambio)

PRSV

Ciaschetti G.

PNM

Monte Scuncole (Bussi)

-

MSB LIFE17A11

K. lycopifolia

31/08/2017

PRSV operators

PRSV

Altopiano delle Rocche

PRSV

19/08/2016

Di Cecco V.

PNM

Monte Acquaviva

PNM

MSB LIFE17A12

A. mathildae

22/09/2017

PNM operators

PNM

Monte Amaro

PNM

A. distorta

24/08/2016

Di Martino L.

PNM

Monte Acquaviva

PNM

MSB LIFE17A13

A. aquilanus

28/07/2017

Ciaschetti G., Di Cecco M.

PNM

Cansano - Campo di Giove

PNM

J. gotlandica

26/08/2016

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

Campo Imperatore

PNGSML

C. calceolus

17/09/2017

Gentile C., Luciano Guardiaparco

PNALM

PNM

PNM

Torrente Scerto - Camosciara - Civitella Alfedena (AQ)

PNALM

Ciaschetti G., Di Cecco M.

Colle di valle Caprara, Monte Pizzalto (Palena)

MSB LIFE17A14

MSB LIFE17A15

A. mathildae

13/09/2017

Di Martino L.

PNM

Start of Via Normale path to Corno Grande

PNGSML

MSB LIFE17A16

A. mathildae

13/09/2017

Di Martino L.

PNM

Corno Grande

PNGSML

MSB LIFE17A17

A. mathildae

13/09/2017

Di Martino L.

PNM

Passo del Cannone

PNGSML

MSB LIFE17A18

A. distorta

15/09/2017

Di Martino L., Carafa M.

PNM

Sella dei due Corni - Gran Sasso

PNGSML

MSB LIFE17A19

A. distorta

12/10/2017

Stinca A.

PRSV

Between Capanna di Sevice Refuge & M. Rozza

PRSV

MSB LIFE17A20

A. distorta

12/10/2017

Stinca A.

PRSV

Between Capanna di Sevice Refuge Fontana di Sevice

PRSV

MSB LIFE17A21

K. lycopifolia

17/09/2017

Stinca A.

PRSV

Altopiano delle Rocche

PRSV

MSB LIFE17A22

K. lycopifolia

22/09/2017

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

Colle Ciaccio

PRSV

MSB LIFE17A23

J. gotlandica

19/09/2017

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

Monte Briccialone

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A01

A. aquilanus

19/07/2018

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

Gioia dei Marsi

PNALM

MSB LIFE18A02

A. aquilanus

19/07/2018

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

Pescina

PNALM

MSB LIFE18A03

A. aquilanus

23/07/2018

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

San Colombo (Barisciano)

PNGSML

MSB LIFE18A04

A. aquilanus

20/07/2018

Di Martino L.

PNM

Monte Scuncole (Bussi)

-

MSB LIFE18A05

J. gotlandica

21/08/2018

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

Monte delle Canelle, Base North S.

PNGSML

SPECIES

DATE COLLECTED

COLLECTOR’S NAME

INSTITUTE

LOCALITY

PARK

MSB LIFE16A01

J. gotlandica

06/08/2016

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

M. Rotondo

PRSV

MSB LIFE16A03

A. aquilanus

27/07/2016

Di Cecco V.

PNM

Piano La Roma (Casoli)

-

MSB LIFE16A04

A. distorta

08/08/2016

Di Musciano M.

UNIVAQ

Valle Lupara

MSB LIFE16A05

A. aquilanus

11/08/2016

Conti, F.

UNICAM

MSB LIFE16A06

A. aquilanus

13/08/2016

Di Cecco V.

MSB LIFE16A07

A. aquilanus

18/07/2016

MSB LIFE16A08

A. distorta

MSB LIFE16A09 MSB LIFE16A10 MSB LIFE16A11

I. marsica

20/07/2016

MSB LIFE16A12

K. lycopifolia

06/09/2016

SIRVEL operators

PRSV

Rocca Di Mezzo

PRSV

MSB LIFE16A13

K. lycopifolia

13/09/2016

SIRVEL operators

PRSV

Rocca Di Mezzo

PRSV

MSB LIFE16A14

K. lycopifolia

13/09/2016

SIRVEL operators

PRSV

Rocca Di Mezzo

PRSV

01/10/2016

Ciaschetti G., Di Cecco M.

PNM

Monte Amaro, Crest Rava della Vespa

PNM

PNM

Monte Acquaviva

PNM

MSB LIFE16A15

72

MSB LIFE17A06

ACCESSION NUMBER

A. mathildae

MSB LIFE16A16

A. distorta

05/10/2016

Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Di Santo M.

MSB LIFE16A17

A. mathildae

05/10/2016

Di Cecco V., Di Martino L., Di Santo M.

PNM

Between Monte Focalone & M. Acquaviva

PNM

MSB LIFE17A01

A. mathildae

22/08/2017

Di Cecco V., Di Santo M.

PNM

Near Cima dell’Altare

PNM

MSB LIFE17A02

A. aquilanus

17/07/2017

Di Cecco V., Di Martino L.

PNM

Piano La Roma (Casoli)

-

MSB LIFE17A03

A. distorta

22/08/2017

Di Cecco V., Di Santo M.

PNM

Cima dell’Altare

PNM

MSB LIFE17A04

A. distorta

21/08/2017

Di Cecco V.

PNM

Upper Valle di Taranta

PNM

MSB LIFE17A05

A. distorta

22/08/2017

Ciaschetti G., Di Cecco M.

PNM

Monte Acquaviva

PNM

73


74

MSB LIFE18A06

J. gotlandica

25/08/2018

Bartolucci F.

UNICAM

Montagna Grande

PNGSML

MSB LIFE 19A03

A. aquilanus

27/07/2019

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Canetra Roio

-

MSB LIFE18A07

J. gotlandica

30/08/2018

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Monte Briccialone

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A04

K. lycopifolia

06/08/2019

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Altopiano delle Rocche

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A08

J. gotlandica

14/08/2018

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Colle del Nibbio (Rocca Di Cambio)

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A05

K. lycopifolia

07/08/2019

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Altopiano delle Rocche

PRSV

K. lycopifolia

07/08/2019

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Altopiano delle Rocche

PRSV

J. gotlandica

14/08/2018

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Monte Rotondo (Rocca di Cambio)

MSB LIFE 19A06

MSB LIFE18A09

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A07

A. distorta

31/08/2019

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Monte Velino

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A10

K. lycopifolia

16/08/2018

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Altopiano delle Rocche

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A08

A. distorta

12/08/2019

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Valle Lupara

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A11

K. lycopifolia

17/08/2018

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Altopiano delle Rocche

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A09

I. marsica

13/08/2019

Di Cecco V. - Ferlini F. Nucci L.

PRSV

Prati del Sirente

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A12

I. marsica

22/08/2018

Ferlini F. - Nucci L.

PRSV

Terranera

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A10

I. marsica

14/08/2019

Ferlini F.

PRSV

Prati del Sirente

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A13

I. marsica

23/08/2018

Ferlini F. - Nucci L.

PRSV

Terranera

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A11

K. lycopifolia

12/08/2019

Ferlini F.

PRSV

Sotto Santa Lucia

PRSV

PRSV

Monte Velino

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A12

K. lycopifolia

12/08/2019

Ferlini F.

PRSV

Pozzo Caldaio

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A14

A. distorta

31/08/2018

Di Cecco V. - Di Musciano M.

MSB LIFE18A15

A. distorta

13/08/2018

Di Cecco V. - Stinca A.

PRSV

Costone della Cerasa

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A13

J. gotlandica

21/09/2019

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Colle del Nibbio (Rocca Di Cambio)

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A16

A. distorta

05/09/2018

Di Cecco V.

PNM

Between Monte Focalone & M. Acquaviva

PNM

MSB LIFE 20A01

A. aquilanus

29/07/2020

Vitale L. - Trella E.

PNALM

Le Grette (Casali d’Aschi Gioa dei Marsi)

PNALM

MSB LIFE18A17

J. gotlandica

13/09/2018

Di Cecco V. - Di Martino L. - Bartolucci F. - Ferlini F. - Nucci L.

PRSV

Colle del Nibbio (Rocca Di Cambio)

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A18

J. gotlandica

19/06/2018

Di Cecco M.

PNM

Sant’Eufemia Botanical Garden

PNM

MSB LIFE18A19

J. gotlandica

05/07/2018

Di Cecco V. - Chiaverini G.

PNM

Lama dei Peligni Botanical Garden

PNM

MSB LIFE18A20

A. distorta

23/09/2018

Di Musciano M. - Ferretti R. - Di Cecco V.

PNM

Sella dei due Corni Gran Sasso

PNGSML

PRSV

Campo Felice

Table 1: Summary of information on the collections of target species. Accession codes, species, dates, collectors and localities of the seeds collected.

In order to assess the quality status of the seed batches, morphometric measurements were performed on the seeds in the germplasm bank. Analysing these data provides very useful information for cataloguing the seed batch. ACCESSION CODE

SPECIES

ACCESSION WEIGHT [G]

WEIGHT OF 100 SEEDS [G]

NO. SEEDS

70% FOR CONSERVATION WEIGHT [G] A

30% FOR STORAGE AT 5°C WEIGHT [G] B

MSB LIFE16A01

J. gotlandica

0.470

0.044

1068

0.295

0.126

PRSV

MSB LIFE16A03

A. aquilanus

16.124

0.271

5950

11.294

4.835

MSB LIFE16A04

A. distorta

14.739

3.758

392

10.313

4.428

MSB LIFE16A05

A. aquilanus

5.611

0.274

2048

3.929

1.684

MSB LIFE16A06

A. aquilanus

5.507

0.283

1946

3.858

1.653

MSB LIFE16A07

A. aquilanus

11.514

0.276

4172

7.901

3.389

MSB LIFE16A08

A. distorta

29.022

2.208

1314

20.311

8.716

MSB LIFE16A09

A. distorta

4.324

2.664

160

3.047

1.277

MSB LIFE16A10

J. gotlandica

0.389

0.033

1179

0.266

0.125

MSB LIFE16A11

I. marsica

9.427

3.328

237

5.895

1.867

MSB LIFE16A12

K. lycopifolia

9.69

0.256

3785

6.759

2.925

MSB LIFE16A13

K. lycopifolia

2.494

0.242

1031

1.741

0.748

MSB LIFE16A14

K. lycopifolia

15.426

0.445

3467

10.195

4.426

MSB LIFE16A15

A. mathildae

1.701

0.098

1736

1.153

0.506

MSB LIFE18A21

K. lycopifolia

09/10/2018

Di Cecco V. - Di Martino L. Bartolucci F. - Ferlini F.

MSB LIFE18A22

A. aquilanus

16/09/2018

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Monteluco di Roio

-

MSB LIFE18A23

K. lycopifolia

18/09/2018

Di Cecco V., Di Martino L. - Bartolucci F.

PRSV

Campo di Rovere

PRSV

PRSV

Prati del Sirente

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A24

K. lycopifolia

18/09/2018

Di Cecco V., Di Martino L. - Bartolucci F.

MSB LIFE18A25

A. aquilanus

17/09/2018

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Canetra Roio

-

MSB LIFE18A26

K. lycopifolia

12/09/2018

Ferlini F. - Nucci L.

PRSV

Prata Rocca di Mezzo

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A27

K. lycopifolia

03/09/2018

Ferlini F. - Nucci L.

PRSV

Prata Rocca di Mezzo

PRSV

MSB LIFE18A28

K. lycopifolia

06/09/2018

Ferlini F. - Nucci L.

PRSV

Prata (Pozzo Caldaio)

PRSV

no good seeds

K. lycopifolia

17/09/2017

Stinca A.

PRSV

Altopiano delle Rocche

PRSV

MSB LIFE 19A01

A. aquilanus

19/07/2019

Di Cecco V. - Tantalo F.

PNM

Piano La Roma (Casoli)

PNM

MSB LIFE 19A02

A. aquilanus

26/07/2019

Di Cecco V.

PRSV

Monteluco di Roio

-

75


76

MSB LIFE16A16

A. distorta

9.269

2.368

391

5.365

2.365

MSB LIFE18A10

K. lycopifolia

173.768

0.540

32179

121.638

52.130

MSB LIFE16A17

A. mathildae

0.097

0.096

102

0.066

0.031

MSB LIFE18A11

K. lycopifolia

67.789

0.489

13863

47.451

20.338

MSB LIFE17A01

A. mathildae

0.259

0.116

223

0.181

0.078

MSB LIFE18A12

I. marsica

0.729

2.083

35

-

-

MSB LIFE17A02

A. aquilanus

22.019

0.267

8247

15.413

6.606

MSB LIFE18A13

I. marsica

1.394

2.081

67

0.978

0.416

MSB LIFE17A03

A. distorta

4.646

0.418(20seeds)

222

3.252

1.394

MSB LIFE18A14

A. distorta

104.131

3.403

3060

72.904

31.227

MSB LIFE17A04

A. distorta

7.787

1.103 (50seeds)

353

5.457

2.322

MSB LIFE18A15

A. distorta

11.378

4.055

281

7.965

3.413

MSB LIFE17A05

A. distorta

3.288

3.255

101

-

-

MSB LIFE18A16

A. distorta

8.306

2.687

309

5.814

2.492

MSB LIFE17A06

I. marsica

0.861

2.609

33

-

-

MSB LIFE18A17

J. gotlandica

0.979

0.050

1958

0.685

0.294

MSB LIFE17A07

I. marsica

6.498

0.605 (20seeds)

215

-

-

MSB LIFE18A18

J. gotlandica

0.024

0.029

84

-

-

MSB LIFE17A08

I. marsica

1.095

3.532

31

-

-

MSB LIFE18A19

J. gotlandica

0.04

0.030

133

-

-

MSB LIFE17A09

I. marsica

12.59

1.268 (50seeds)

496

8.825

3.777

MSB LIFE18A20

A. distorta

42.014

3.433

1224

29.410

12.604

MSB LIFE17A10

J. gotlandica

0.053

0.023

226

0.037

0.016

MSB LIFE18A21

K. lycopifolia

0.628

0.551

114

0.440

0.188

MSB LIFE17A11

K. lycopifolia

2.992

0.415

720

2.094

0.898

MSB LIFE18A22

A. aquilanus

2.728

0.261

1045

1.910

0.818

MSB LIFE17A12

A. mathildae

0.703

0.127

553

0.492

0.211

MSB LIFE18A23

K. lycopifolia

1.103

0.444

248

0.772

0.331

MSB LIFE17A13

A. aquilanus

0.996

0.252

395

-

-

MSB LIFE18A24

K. lycopifolia

0.311

-

-

-

-

MSB LIFE17A14

C. calceolus

0.1035

-

-

0.072

0.031

MSB LIFE18A25

A. aquilanus

0.144

0.277

52

-

-

MSB LIFE17A15

A. mathildae

0.1204

0.127

95

-

-

MSB LIFE18A26

K. lycopifolia

3.247

0.479

678

2.273

0.974

MSB LIFE17A16

A. mathildae

0.187

0.132

142

-

-

MSB LIFE18A27

K. lycopifolia

6.71

0.414

1621

4.697

2.013

MSB LIFE17A17

A. mathildae

0.347

0.121

288

-

-

MSB LIFE18A28

K. lycopifolia

8.99

0.396

2270

6.293

2.697

MSB LIFE17A18

A. distorta

14.112

3.293

429

9.860

4.252

MSB LIFE 19A01

A. aquilanus

11.5555

0.2601

4443

8.089

3.467

MSB LIFE17A19

A. distorta

1.591

3.788

42

-

-

MSB LIFE 19A02

A. aquilanus

0.7198

0.2428

194

-

-

MSB LIFE17A20

A. distorta

0.266

3.800

7

-

-

MSB LIFE 19A03

A. aquilanus

0.4712

0.2432

296

-

-

MSB LIFE17A21

K. lycopifolia

1.5583

0.363

430

1.091

0.467

MSB LIFE 19A04

K. lycopifolia

7.8858

0.4368

1805

5.520

2.366

MSB LIFE17A22

K. lycopifolia

7.584

0.309

2454

5.309

2.275

MSB LIFE 19A05

K. lycopifolia

10.7653

0.398

2705

7.536

3.230

MSB LIFE17A23

J. gotlandica

0.3886

0.045

856

0.274

0.117

MSB LIFE 19A06

K. lycopifolia

2.2703

0.3739

607

1.589

0.681

MSB LIFE18A01

A. aquilanus

4.962

0.344

1442

3.468

1.494

MSB LIFE 19A07

A. distorta

13.8806

2.8513

487

9.716

4.164

MSB LIFE18A02

A. aquilanus

4.025

0.306

1315

2.818

1.208

MSB LIFE 19A08

A. distorta

15.742

3.105

507

11.0194

4.7226

MSB LIFE18A03

A. aquilanus

4.288

0.278

1542

3.002

1.286

MSB LIFE 19A09

I. marsica

3.396

2.136

159

2.3772

1.0188

MSB LIFE18A04

A. aquilanus

3.299

0.303

1089

2.309

0.990

MSB LIFE 19A10

I. marsica

2.142

1.067

201

1.4994

0.6426

MSB LIFE18A05

J. gotlandica

0.697

0.036

1936

0.488

0.209

MSB LIFE 19A11

K. lycopifolia

3.735

0.488

765

2.6145

1.1205

MSB LIFE18A06

J. gotlandica

0.381

0.038

1003

0.267

0.114

MSB LIFE 19A12

K. lycopifolia

0.851

0.328

259

0.5957

0.2553

MSB LIFE18A07

J. gotlandica

0.045

0.047

95

-

-

MSB LIFE18A08

J. gotlandica

0.263

0.036

731

0.184

0.079

MSB LIFE18A09

J. gotlandica

0.055

0.058

95

-

-

Table 2: Summary of the quantitative characterisation of the accessions. The accession code, species name, total weight of the accession, weight of 100 seeds, total number of seeds per accession and weight of lot A and B are given.

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The following images show the seeds prepared for long-term storage at -20°C and medium-term storage at 5°C.

GERMINATION TESTING The aim of laboratory testing is to identify suitable germination conditions by controlling as many variables as possible in order to understand which requirements influence the germination of seeds of a given species. The experimental design is based on a preliminary analysis of literature and consultation of germination algorithms and protocols already tested for similar taxa (Ellis et al. 1985; Liu et al. 2008) in order to identify the optimum temperature ranges and possible need

DUPLICATE COLLECTIONS AT KEW GARDEN’S MILLENNIUM SEED BANK In the case of some accessions, the activities in this action included making duplicates and sending them to the Millennium Seed Bank at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew (London - UK), the world’s most important facility for the conservation of wild plants. All the Life taxa were sent, with the exception of Cypripedium calceolus.

for pre-treatments (Baskin and Baskin 2004; ISTA 2006). The information gathered during the tests is used to identify the most suitable ecological parameters for germination (light, temperature, humidity, growing medium, etc.) and, finally, to prepare and validate the so-called “germination protocols”.

9 cm Petri dishes used for germination tests on sterile substrate (agar) (Photo V. Di Cecco)

The guidelines dictated by the protocols, indispensable for subsequent monitoring of the viability of the stored seed batches, also serve to limit the loss of valuable material and allow the regeneration of nursery plants to be planned. They represent the main tool for studying the species and for their ex situ and in situ conservation (Bacchetta et al. 2006). When working with populations of rare and/or endangered taxa, the choice of number of replicates and seeds per replicate was carefully considered, taking into account several parameters, including:

Diasporas of the 7 Floranet species: 1. Klasea lycopifolia; 2. Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica; 3. Adonis distorta; 4.Iris marsica; 5. Astragalus aquilanus; 6. Androsace mathildae; 7. Cypripedium calceolus - (Photo V. Di Cecco).

1. the taxon’s degree of criticality/threat; 2. the availability of material from other populations of the same taxon; 3. the availability of accessions of the test population from previous years. Germination tests were carried out in 90 mm diameter Petri dishes containing a 1% agar substrate. In order to obtain a reproducible germination protocol that provides the highest percentage of germinated seeds for each test, it is essential to perform the test in Petri dishes under sterile conditions, where values such as pH, agar concentration, concentration of other chemical substances, temperature etc. are measurable and therefore reproducible. For this purpose, the Bank is equipped with a laminar flow hood where sowing operations and subsequent periodic checks can be carried out under sterile biological conditions and three growth chambers with adjustable temperature and photoperiod (Panasonic, MLR-352 and MIR-154). Dark tests are carried out by wrapping the Petri dishes with two sheets of aluminium foil in order to avoid any exposure of the seeds to light, the final germination is therefore evaluated at the end of the test. At the end of the tests, the viability of the non-germinated seeds is estimated by shear testing. Tests carried out on batches of seeds stored at -20°C for several years have confirmed the validity of the storage method, which maintains the viability of the seeds even after long periods of storage. For Cypripedium calceolus which requires special germination techniques not present in the Maiella germplasm bank, all tests and procedures were carried out within action C2 and are therefore not reported below.

Batches of dehydrated seeds packed for long-term storage at -20°C - (Photo V. Di Cecco)

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Catalogued seeds at 5°C for medium-term storage - (Photo V. Di Cecco)

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Ex situ conservation and ornamental flowerbeds IMPLEMENTATION OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMME (action E3) During the project, an educational programme was developed for primary and secondary school pupils in the project areas to promote knowledge of the target species and their conservation status and empower the pupils and local population. The process included information meetings with teachers, distribution of a didactic manual, classroom meetings, didactic workshops and guided visits to the botanical gardens of the parks involved, with the aim of deepening knowledge of the target species and the importance of their protection.

In the context of this action, didactic flowerbeds were created in the courtyards of the schools participating in the project. In particular, the programme involved 7 schools and 24 classes in the Central Apennine area. Over the course of the project years, the participating classes were able to follow cultivation of the flowerbed, helping to create and care for it directly, in order to observe at first hand the growth of the plants and their life cycle. In addition to their undoubted educational value, these flowerbeds in many Abruzzo schools also play an important ex situ conservation role, since cultivation of the Life species in the educational/ornamental flowerbeds also creates a reserve of the species’ genetic material.

Example of a flowerbed created for action E3 - (Photo D. Vitale)

Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica - (Photo V. Di Cecco) 80


Androsace mathildae Levier - (Photo L. Di Martino)

THE NATURA 2000 NETWORK AND THE TARGET SPECIES Updating of the distributions of the project species and adaptation of the Natura 2000 areas (Carafa M., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Martino L., Gentile C., Sulli C.)


THE NATURA 2000 NETWORK AND THE TARGET SPECIES Updating of the distributions of the project species and adaptation of the Natura 2000 areas

Carafa M., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Martino L., Gentile C., Sulli C.

I

The Maiella National Park - (Photo L. Di Martino)

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n the national territories of European Union countries, there are certain areas of particular naturalistic value due to the presence of habitats and animal and plant species that require a specific protection regime. Annex I of Directive 79/409/EEC “Birds” (implemented by Law no. 157/1992) and Annexes I and II of Directive 92/43/EEC “Habitat” (implemented in Italy by DPR no. 357/1997 and subsequent amendments in DPR no. 120/2003) list a series of bird species in the former and habitat types and plant and animal species in the latter whose conservation is considered a priority at European level. The lists of species and habitats of European interest in the six different annexes to the Habitats Directive are: - natural habitats of Community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation; - animal and plant species of Community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation;

- criteria for selecting sites to be identified as sites of community importance and designated as special areas of conservation; - animal and plant species of Community interest requiring strict protection; - animal and plant species of Community interest whose taking in the wild and exploitation could be subject to management measures; - prohibited methods and means of capture and killing as well as methods of transport. Areas where these habitats and species are found have been designated as Special Protection Areas (SPAs) under the Birds Directive and Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) under the Habitats Directive, the latter may be proposed (pSICs), final (SCIs), or approved (SACs). All these areas together make up the Natura 2000 Network, a coordinated and coherent system of areas where the conservation of biological diversity, implemented through proper land management, is a legal constraint for all member countries that have ratified

the reference directives. With signing of the El Teide Declaration “Natura 2000: A Partnership for Nature” in 2002, the network also became a genuine political commitment for the Member and Candidate States.

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The Life 15 NAT/IT/000946 Floranet project area includes 16 SCIs, all falling wholly or partially within the territories of the three national and regional protected areas in Abruzzo. However, in the official dataforms, the target species of the Life Floranet project are present in only four:

IT7110205 Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park Iris marsica Cypripedium calceolus Astragalus aquilanus

IT7140203 Maiella National Park Cypripedium calceolus Androsace mathildae Astragalus aquilanus Adonis distorta

IT7110202 Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park Androsace mathildae Adonis distorta

IT7110206 Sirente-Velino Regional Park

Astragalus aquilanus Klasea lycopifolia Adonis distorta Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica is not present in any of the dataforms for the sites of community interest considered, as it was discovered in the two SCIs IT7110202 Gran Sasso and IT7110206 Monte Sirente e Monte Velino in 2012, subsequent to designation of these areas (Conti & al., 2012). Gentiana lutea L. susp. lutea - (Photo F. Conti)

Cartographic elaborations Marco Carafa

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For this and other reasons, while representing a particular state of knowledge regarding the valuable biodiversity of a given site, the content of the dataforms can never be exhaustive. The list of species in the dataforms needs to be updated as new species may be reported as a result of research carried out more thoroughly, or using new methodologies, or some individuals may colonise an SCI when that particular species undergoes spatial expansion.

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With preparatory action A8, Life Floranet pursued the objective of providing updated data on the distribution of the target species listed in the Habitats Directive in relation to their presence within the SCIs. This fundamental operation was possible through development of action A3 “Field Surveys”, focussing on the evaluation and monitoring of the conservation status and numbers of the populations of the species, with detailed information on the extent of the areas in which the species are present, the number of individuals, the state of health and the impending threats.

The results of these two actions, which take the form of an updated distribution of the species included in Annexes II and IV in a regional context, provide an important tool for formulating a proposal for correctly modifying the perimeters of the SCIs/SACs in light of the recently updated knowledge on the distribution of the species in the Directive. In the Abruzzo Region, the general conservation measures for SPAs and SCI/SACs (DGR 877/2016) and site-specific conservation measures for SCI/SACs (DGR 279/2017, 492/2017, 493/2017, 494/2017 and 562/2017, 477/2018, 478/2018, 479/2018) are currently in force.

Among the conservation actions for a number of the SCIs, the approved site-specific measures include study for adaptation of the perimeter of the SCIs to the presence of habitats and species of Community interest in areas close to the current perimeter.

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Considering the presence of sites of the Life Floranet target species (all included in Annex II and IV of Directive 92/43 EEC) in areas bordering SCIs/SACs, adapting these is a significant measure for improving the conservation status of these species, thanks to the important regulatory tool of the Environmental Impact Assessment, provided for by art. 6 of the Habitats Directive, for application to any plan or project proposed within the site.

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But the Life Floranet project also went beyond plant species to consider further conservation aspects characterising the SCI extension areas, namely the presence of habitats and animal species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive, together with bird species considered in the Birds Directive, to produce a comprehensive document in support of the proposal to extend the SCIs.

This is undoubtedly a lengthy process, but one that is indispensable if all populations of the seven plant species targeted by the Life Floranet project are to be included under a protection regime adequate for conservation of the species and biodiversity in general.

Himantoglossum adriaticum H.Baumann - (Photo F. Conti)

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Adonis distorta Ten. in the Maiella National Park - (Photo L. Di Martino)


SPECIES

SITES ALREADY INCLUDED IN SCIS

SITES OUTSIDE SCIS

SITES IN THE EXTENSION AREA

Iris marsica

25

10 (8*)

2

Cypripedium calceolus

15

-

-

Androsace mathildae

5

-

-

Astragalus aquilanus

-

2*

12

Klasea lycopifolia

18

-

4

Adonis distorta

14

-

-

Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica

3

-

6

Table 1: The number of sites inside or outside the SCIs and in the proposed extension is indicated for each species.

Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park - (Photo PNALM Archive) 94


EXTENSION OF SIC IT7140203 Maiella National Park The areas involved in the extension are located one on the eastern side of the Maiella and the other on the western side. a) “Piano La Roma” site in the municipalities of Palombaro and Casoli, characterised by the presence of Astragalus aquilanus, between the SICs IT7140203 “Majella”, IT7140118 “Lecceta di Casoli” and IT7140215 “Lago di Serranella”. Surface area: 81 ha + 22 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 91AA* Eastern white oak woods • Annex II animal species: - 1352 Canis lupus - 1354 Ursus arctos • Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A246 Lullula arborea - A224 Caprimulgus europaeus b) “La Canale” site in the municipality of Cansano, characterised by the presence of Astragalus aquilanus, near the SCIs IT7140203 “Maiella” and IT7114204 “Maiella Sud Ovest”. Surface area: 1256 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 91AA* Eastern white oak woods • Annex II animal species: - 1352 Canis lupus - 1354 Ursus arctos - 1279 Elaphe quatuorlineata • Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A246 Lullula arborea - A224 Caprimulgus europaeus

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91AA* - Eastern white oak woods

Thermophilous deciduous woodland dominated by downy oak (Quercus pubescens), in the transitional climate zone between the Mediterranean and temperate macrobioclimates, on various lithotypes (soil indifferent) and often in a xeric-edaphic position. In the SCIs, the oak woodland formations are a habitat of priority interest whose need for conservation is essential, not least because they represent reservoirs of biodiversity for wildlife, due to the presence of numerous species listed in the Habitats and Birds Directives. Given their location in the colline-submontane belt, they are the forest formations most ecologically threatened by the numerous human activities and it is therefore extremely important to establish forms of management compatible with the ecological needs of the species living there and thus to achieve and maintain an adequate ecosystem quality.

Canis lupus

The wolf population in the Maiella National Park has been monitored systematically on an annual basis since the winter of 2004-2005. In summer, wolf howling is used to identify breeding units and the approximate location of den and rendezvous sites, while in winter, snow tracking (intensive and extensive) is used to collect information on the number of individuals per pack and an indication of territorial organisation. Since 2009, these methods have been accompanied by intensive monitoring using photo-video-trapping and, since 2010, also through use of GPS/GSM collars. This has provided important information on the exact location of the den and rendezvous areas of the monitored packs, size, shape and stability of the home ranges and core areas of the various packs, demographic structure, activity rhythms and, through analysis of location clusters, feeding ecology and the characteristics and utilisation patterns of the refuge/resting sites.

Elaphe quatuorlineata

Data have been collected regarding the presence of the four-lined snake along the eastern side of the Maiella massif, where most of the reports of this species in the Park are concentrated in an area between Palena, Lama dei Peligni and Fara San Martino. The species is also found around Campo di Giove and Cansano, in the middle and lower Orfento valley and at the foot of the Peligno side of the Morrone massif. In the Natura 2000 sites included in the PNM, the distribution of the four-lined snake covers an altitude range of from 300 m in the Peligno valley to 1000 m a.s.l. in the Campo di Giove area.

Lullula arborea

In the PNM, the species is a sedentary and migratory breeder, present in the hill and montane zones throughout the area, with a marked preference for ecotonal belts with a prevalence of heath and scrub mixed with secondary pastures and broadleaf forests, both with a fragmented presence. Most of these areas, which provide a suitable nesting habitat, are located at altitudes below 1500 m a.s.l. and consist of ecotonal zones with scrub or woodland margins.

Caprimulgus europaeus

The species is a migratory breeder, present in areas of grassland in the hill and montane belt throughout the area at altitudes between 400 and 1000 m a.s.l., in open spaces where farm crops alternate with small patches of broadleaf woods and secondary pastures.

Ursus arctos

The presence of the plantigrade is particularly significant in the “Piana Cerreto” area, located between the municipalities of Cansano and Campo di Giove, where bears have also been breeding for the last few years. Since 1996, the areas most frequented by bears have been the S-SW sector (an area between the Monti Pizi, Monte Pizzalto and Monte Rotella) and NW sector, in particular the area between Passo San Leonardo, the Morrone Massif and the western Maiella. Based on the characteristics of the bears’ presence, since as early as 2009 (PATOM, AA.VV. 2009), the above-mentioned NW sector has been classified as a “peripheral bear range”, while the S-SW sector, corresponding to “Piana Cerreto” is the only area outside the PNALM and buffer zone classified as part of the “central bear distribution area”.

Archaeophytes - (Photo F. Conti)

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EXTENSION OF SIC IT7110206 “Monte Sirente e Monte Velino” The proposed extension of the SCI’s perimeters concerns three separate areas: a) “Fosso Spedino - Canetra di Mezzo” site in the municipality of L’Aquila, characterised by the presence of Astragalus aquilanus*. As the area is not included in any N2000 site or other protected area, it is without protection. Surface area: 582 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 91AA* Eastern white oak woods - 6210* Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia) (* important orchid sites) • Animal species in Annex II and IV: - 1352 Canis lupus - 1363 Felis silvestris - 1344 Hystrix cristata - 5670 Hierophis viridiflavus (Coluber viridiflavus) - 5179 Lacerta bilineata (Lacerta viridis) • Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A338 Lanius collurio - A412 Alectoris graeca saxatilis - A103 Falco peregrinus b) “Vado di Pezza-Monte Rotondo-Monte delle Canelle” site in the municipalities of Ovindoli (AQ) and Rocca di Mezzo (AQ), characterised by the presence of Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica Surface area: 845 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 6170 - Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands - 6210 (*) Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites) - 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex - 4060 Alpine and Boreal heaths - 8120 Calcareous and calcshist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii)

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• •

Annex II animal species: - 1352 Canis lupus Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A412 Alectoris graeca saxatilis

c) “Monte Briccialone” site in the Municipality of Gagliano Aterno (AQ), characterised by the presence of Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica Surface area: 58 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 6210 (*) Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites) - 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex - 6170 - Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands • Annex II animal species: - 1352 Canis lupus - 1374 Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata • Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A412 Alectoris graeca saxatilis

91AA* - Eastern white oak woods

Thermophilous deciduous woodland dominated by downy oak (Quercus pubescens), in the transitional climate zone between the Mediterranean and temperate macrobioclimates, on various lithotypes (soil indifferent) and often in a xeric-edaphic position. In the SCIs, the oak woodland formations are a habitat of priority interest whose need for conservation is essential, not least because they represent reservoirs of biodiversity for wildlife, due to the presence of numerous species listed in the Habitats and Birds Directives. Given their location in the colline-submontane belt, they are the forest formations most ecologically threatened by the numerous human activities and it is therefore extremely important to establish forms of management compatible with the ecological needs of the species living there and thus to achieve and maintain an adequate ecosystem quality.

9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex

Thermophilous beech forests with yew and holly in the upper shrub and shrub layers of the supratemperate bioclimatic zone with ingressions into the upper mesotemperate, on both calcareous and siliceous or marly substrates, distributed throughout the Apennine chain and part of the Maritime Alps. They are generally floristically rich, with

participation of mesophilous tree, shrub and herbaceous species from the bioclimatic zones below, with mainly south-eastern European (Apennine-Balkan), southern European and Mediterranean elements. Beech forests are the most extensive forest formation in the Park. The exact correspondence with the habitat requirements (presence of Taxus and Ilex) requires investigation with targeted surveys as the absence of the guide species indicates a poor state of conservation.

6170 - Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands

The plant communities included in this habitat represent the most typical aspects of the high-altitude grassland formations of the Apennine massifs (grasslands with Carex sp. pl. and Sesleria sp. pl.), with well evident floristic and ecological characteristics. The sometimes stable coenoses have more or less continuous vegetation cover, dominated by the grasses Sesleria juncifolia, Poa alpina, Festuca violacea and Brachypodium genuense. The subalpine and alpine sectors of the Natura 2000 sites above the tree line include large expanses of primary grasslands attributable to this habitat and these are the most characteristic aspects of the high-altitude vegetation, rich in diverse flora and plant communities.

4060 - Alpine and Boreal heaths

Shrub communities of the subalpine zone, in the central and southern Apennines developing on calcareous mountains between 1500 and 2300 (2400) metres a.s.l., on moderately-steep slopes, on soils generally rich in coarse rock fragments and along ridges. Scrub with Juniperus communis and Arcostaphylos uva-ursi fall under this heading. Dwarf juniper scrub occupies large areas of the uplands, often in a mosaic with primary grasslands. In favourable ecological conditions, it also descends to very low altitudes of about 1500 metres, in the context of zonal vegetation associated with beech forests. The habitat is well represented in the sites.

8120 Calcareous and calcshist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii) Unconsolidated calcshist, calcareous and marly screes from the montane to the alpine level with perennial pioneer herbaceous communities. The habitat includes montane and subalpine screes.

6210 * Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites)

Polyspecific, perennial, generally secondary, grasslands dominated by hemicryptophytic grasses, from arid to semi-mesophilous, widespread

predominantly in the Apennine sector, but also present in the Alpine province of the submeso-, meso- and supratemperate bioclimatic zones, referable to the Festuco-Brometea class and sometimes with a rich presence of Orchidaceae species, making it a priority habitat (*). In the case of the Italian Apennines, these are endemic communities, from xerophilous to semi-mesophilous, mainly hemicryptophytic, but with a possible chamaephytic component, developing on various types of substrate.

Canis lupus

The wolf monitoring activities carried out by the Park Authority via wolf howling, snow tracking and photo-traps have led to identification of a certain minimum number of six different packs in the Sirente-Velino Regional Park and neighbouring areas, with an average composition of about 4.5 - 6.5 individuals/pack. The widespread distribution of the species in the area includes all the areas covered by the proposed extension of the SCI/SAC IT71102016 sites. This is a priority species listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata

The Apennine chamois has recently been reintroduced on Monte Sirente in the Sirente-Velino Regional Park as part of the actions envisaged by the LIFE Natura project LIFE09NAT/IT/00183 COORNATA “Development of coordinated protection measures for Apennine chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata)”, in accordance with the conservation measures provided for in the National Action Plan for the species. The reintroductions began in 2014 with individuals from the Apennine populations in the Maiella, Gran Sasso Monti della Laga and Monti Sibillini National Parks. To date, a total of 25 founder individuals have been released and the new population, with a positive demographic trend, is estimated at around 50-55 individuals in the reintroduction area on M. Sirente. The activities provided for by the After-Life Conservation Plan are still ongoing. The total area explored/ frequented by the chamois after the release includes the entire summit of Monte Sirente, mainly at altitudes above 1700 m a.s.l.. The Monte Briccialone area comprises the easternmost part of the area frequented by the newly reintroduced population on Monte Sirente. This is a priority species listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Felis silvestris

With an estimated density of 0.03-0.04 individuals per 100 ha, the Sirente-Velino wildcat population is distributed in areas characterised by environments particularly suitable for the species. In particular, the wildcat prefers rocky intermediate altitudes, between 800 and 1500 m a.s.l., with forest cover and warm exposures. The characteristics of the

99


proposed extension area of Fosso Spedino-Canetra di Mezzo are highly suitability for the species and traces of its presence were detected during surveys. The species is listed in Annex IV of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Hystrix cristata

In the Sirente-Velino area this species is widespread in the more thermophilous areas, particularly in the low altitude oak woods and farmland on the floor of the Aterno River valley; there are also some observations for SCI/SAC IT7110075. In the proposed Fosso Spedino-Canetra di Mezzo extension areas, where the characteristics are suitable for the species, abundant traces of its presence were detected during the surveys carried out in the area. The species is listed in Annex IV of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Lacerta bilineata - in Annex IV Lacerta viridis

Associated with scrub environments and woodland margins, but also found on open sunny slopes, in meadows, wetlands and cultivated land. The species is widely distributed in suitable habitats throughout the SCI extension areas. The species is listed in Annex IV of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Hierophis viridiflavus - in Annex IV Coluber viridiflavus

A thermophilous species, widely distributed in suitable habitats in all the SCI extension areas. The species is listed in Annex IV of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Lanius collurio

The red-backed shrike population in the Sirente-Velino area is of particular conservation value due to its abundance and therefore the representativeness of the site for conservation of this species in its global distribution area, where the population is showing a global decline and generalised rarefaction. The red-backed shrike was identified during surveys of the proposed Fosso Spedino-Canetra di Mezzo extension area. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

Alectoris graeca saxatilis

The surveys carried out in suitable areas of the Sirente-Velino confirm the environmental value of the territory, with a population in a good state of conservation and minimum numbers estimated at 383 pairs. Not isolated within a wide distribution area, the Sirente-Velino rock partridge population constitutes an important population in the central Apennine area. The geographical and environmental location of the massif favours continuity of the populations, reducing the risks of their isolation. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

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Falco peregrinus

EXTENSION OF SIC IT7110075 “Serra e Gole di Celano – Val d’Arano”.

In the Sirente-Velino area, there are five breeding pairs of peregrine falcon and another four pairs nest near the borders. The species is reported as breeding in the proposed Fosso Spedino-Canetra di Mezzo extension area. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

“Le Sode di Rovere” site in the municipality of Rocca di Mezzo (AQ), characterised by the presence of Klasea lycopifolia.

Other species

Surface area: 99 ha

Among the relevant species, surveys carried out in the Fosso Spedino-Canetra di Mezzo area revealed the presence of Empusa pennata (Thunberg 1815). Although not listed in the Habitats Directive, this is a rare insect in the Mantoidea order for which the Mediterranean distribution is known, but with limited reports and still scarce knowledge. In the Vado di Pezza extension area there are communities with a predominance of Sesleria uliginosa Opiz. In central Italy, this species is present only in Abruzzo, in a few localities in the Sirente-Velino and Gran Sasso Monti della Laga parks. Artemisia atrata Lam. is also present in this area, a very rare species in Italy, known in peninsular Italy for only two sites in the Sirente-Velino Park (Piani di Pezza and Campo Felice) (Conti et al. 2006). The Monte Breccialone SCI extension area includes the only Italian site of Geum heterocarpum Boiss. (Bartolucci & Conti 2013). This is a very rare species, with a highly fragmented distribution area in Europe. It is known for a very few localities in Albania and Greece, uncommon in Spain and very rare and endangered in France. The single Italian site is at risk of extinction and considered, according to the IUCN criteria, as Critically Endangered (CR) (Bartolucci & Conti 2013).

Ecological connectivity

The proposed Fosso Spedino-Canetra di Mezzo extension area is of interest in the context of ecological connectivity within the system of protected areas and the N2000 network. Due to its central position in the system of large protected areas in the Central Apennines, the Sirente-Velino plays a strategic connecting role for ecosystem continuity in the Apennines. In particular, certain areas bordering the Park have been highlighted as potential ecological corridors for the functionality of the Natura 2000 network, as well as potential links with the northern parts of the Apennine distribution area of the bear, and therefore important for functioning of the ecological network for protection of the Marsican brown bear.

Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 6510 • Annex II animal species: - 1352 Canis lupus • Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A338 Lanius collurio - A246 Lullula arborea

The red-backed shrike population in the Sirente-Velino area is of particular conservation value due to its abundance and therefore the representativeness of the site for conservation of this species in its global distribution area, where the population is showing a global decline and generalised rarefaction. The red-backed shrike was observed during surveys of the proposed “Sode di Rovere” extension area. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

Lullula arborea

The woodlark population is widespread on the Sirente-Velino high plateaus. For the Italian population, numbers are in decline, with contraction of the distribution area accompanied by local stability or fluctuation, partly linked to abandonment of traditional areas of extensive farmland which offer a suitable environmental mosaic for this species, as well as conversion of these areas to intensive farming. The woodlark is present in the proposed “Piana di Rovere” extension area. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

6510 Lowland hay meadows (Alopecurus pratensis, Sanguisorba officinalis)

Mesic to rich hay meadows, regularly mown and fertilised non-intensively, floristically rich and distributed from the lowlands to the low montane belt. They include meadows-pastures with a similar floristic composition. These vegetation types can only be maintained through mowing, as the potential vegetation is represented by tree formations. Fertilisation is also decisive. Even if regular mowing were guaranteed, without fertilisation, other types of grassland would develop, depending on the characteristics of the different sites, mesoxerophilous grassland in particular. Rare and/or endemic species worthy of conservation are found there. They include the hay meadows located in the flat portions of the Altipiani high plateaus, on fine alluvial deposits originating deep, moist or periodically flooded brown soils, often with a weak acid reaction, at least on the surface.

Canis lupus

The wolf monitoring activities carried out by the Park Authority via wolf howling, snow tracking and photo-traps have led to identification of a certain minimum number of six different packs in the Sirente-Velino Regional Park and neighbouring areas, with an average composition of about 4.5 - 6.5 individuals/pack. The widespread distribution of the species in the area includes all the areas covered by the proposed extension of the SCI/SAC IT71102016 sites. This is a priority species listed in Annex II of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Lanius collurio

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EXTENSION OF SIC IT7110090 “Colle Rascito”. “Monte della Selva and Valle di Carrito” site in the municipalities of Pescina, Ortona dei Marsi and Cocullo (AQ). The area is not included in any N2000 site or other protected area and is therefore without protection. Although none of the target species has been identified in the area, it does include floristic sites of particular conservation importance, such as Ranunculus lateriflorus DC. and Pedicularis friderici-augusti Tomm. The proposed extension is also particularly significant for the coherence of the N2000 network. Surface area: 967 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 91AA* Eastern white oak woods - 6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites) • Animal species in Annex II and IV: - 1352 Canis lupus - 1250 Podarcis siculus - 6091 Zamenis longissimus (Elaphe longissima) • Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A338 Lanius collurio - A246 Lullula arborea - A255 Anthus campestris - A379 Emberiza ortulana

91AA* - Eastern white oak woods

Thermophilous deciduous woodland dominated by downy oak (Quercus pubescens), in the transitional climate zone between the Mediterranean and temperate macrobioclimates, on various lithotypes (soil indifferent) and often in a xeric-edaphic position. In the SCIs, the oak woodland formations are a habitat of priority interest whose need for conservation is essential, not least because they represent reservoirs of biodiversity for wildlife, due to the presence of numerous species listed in the Habitats and Birds Directives. Given their location in the colline-submontane belts, they are the forest formations most ecologically threatened by the numerous human activities and it is therefore extremely important to establish forms of management compatible with the ecological needs of the species living there and thus to achieve

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and maintain an adequate ecosystem quality.

- 6210* natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites) Polyspecific, perennial, generally secondary, grasslands dominated by hemicryptophytic Poaceae, from arid to semi-mesophilous, widespread predominantly in the Apennine sector, but also present in the Alpine province of the submeso-, meso- and supratemperate bioclimatic zones, referable to the Festuco-Brometea class and sometimes with a rich presence of Orchidaceae species, making it a priority habitat (*). In the case of the Italian Apennines, these are endemic communities, from xerophilous to semi-mesophilous, mainly hemicryptophytic, but with a possible chamaephytic component, developing on various types of substrate.

Podarcis siculus

It is associated with sunny environments at medium-low altitudes or well-exposed slopes with the presence of scree, dry stone walls, meadows and scrub. The species is widely distributed in suitable environments in the proposed extension area. The species is listed in Annex IV of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Zamenis longissimus - in Annex IV Elaphe longissima

farmland which offer a suitable environmental mosaic for this species, as well as conversion of these areas to intensive farming. The woodlark has been reported in the proposed “Monte della Selva and Valle di Carrito” extension area. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

Anthus campestris

The tawny pipit nests in open environments, on dry and sunny ground with scattered rocks and bushes. The species is in slight overall decline in Italy. It has been reported in the proposed “Monte della Selva and Valle di Carrito” extension area. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

Emberiza ortulana

The ortolan bunting nests in warm, open grassland environments interspersed with bushes and trees. Although there is no evidence of a decline in the species in Italy, cases of severe decline are documented locally and the conservation status and population dynamics at national level require further investigation. It has been reported in the proposed “Monte della Selva and Valle di Carrito” extension area. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

Ecological connectivity and coherenceof the N2000 network

In establishing the Natura 2000 network, the Habitats Directive includes among the expected conservation objectives improvement of the network’s ecological coherence, relative to the role of connectivity in the geographical distribution and genetic exchange of wild species. Extension of SCI IT7110090 “Colle Rascito” in a south-southeasterly direction in the “Monte della Selva and Valle di Carrito” area, would be significant in terms of ecological-functional connectivity, with extension of SCI IT7110205 “Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo” in a north-northwesterly direction in the “Valle del Giovenco” area. The proposed extension of the two SCIs includes the area of the natural tunnel under the A25 motorway (Carrito-Cocullo Tunnel), an area with a high degree of naturalness and a potential connecting area, but without protection, despite being located between neighbouring protected areas. Priority species such as bears and wolves have also been documented in the area, confirming the area’s suitability as an ecological corridor. The proposed “Monte della Selva and Valle di Carrito” extension area is in continuity and synergy with extension of SCI IT7110205 “Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo” and, taking a wider view, represents an important intervention to protect a significant potential ecological corridor in the system of protected areas in the Central Apennines, one of the vast wilderness areas of importance for the conservation of biodiversity in the European Union.

The habitat of the Aesculapian snake consists of vegetation rich areas with scree and stones, or ecotonal zones and clearings with fallen trunks; it can also be found in farmland with hedges or stone walls and ruins. The species is present in suitable habitats in the proposed “Monte della Selva” extension area. The species is listed in Annex IV of Directive 92/43 EEC.

Lanius collurio

The red-backed shrike population in the Sirente-Velino area is of particular conservation value due to its abundance and therefore the representativeness of the site for conservation of this species in its global distribution area, where the population is showing a global decline and generalised rarefaction. The red-backed shrike was observed during surveys of the proposed “Monte della Selva and Valle di Carrito” extension area. The species is listed in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 EEC.

Lullula arborea

The Italian woodlark population is currently declining, with contraction of the distribution area accompanied by local stability or fluctuation, partly linked to abandonment of traditional areas of extensive

Lilium bulbiferum L. subsp. croceum (Chaix) Jan at Campo Felice (Photo F. Conti)

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Sirente-Velino Regional Park - (Photo: PRSV archive R. Salustro)


EXTENSION OF SIC IT7110205 Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park

species of the Floranet project (Astragalus aquilanus and Iris marsica). Further extensions of the site concern the central-eastern sector of the SCI and are aimed at incorporating a number of sites of Iris marsica found here.

SCI IT7110205 “Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo” is located in the south of the province of L’Aquila and Abruzzo Region, bordering on the regions of Lazio (west and south-west) and Molise (south-east). It belongs to the alpine biogeographic region. The site covers 58,880.00 hectares and involves 19 municipalities, all in the province of L’Aquila. About 49% of the SCI (a total of 28,837.9 ha) falls within the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park and is partially included in the SPA IT7120132. The site has an elongated NW-SE shape with two large massifs at the north-western end, the Monte Labbrone - Monte Ara dei Merli - Monte Marcolano ridge overlooking the Fucino basin, and the ridge on the hydrographic left of the Roveto Valley (Rocca d’Abate, Monte Ciammettella, Serra Lunga and Monte Cornacchia). These two ridges then continue south-eastwards with the mountains constituting the border between Abruzzo and Lazio (Monte Serrone, Monte La Rocca, Serra Traversa, Serra delle Gravare and the Monte Petroso - Monte Meta ridge). At the north-eastern end, the site embraces the whole of Montagna Grande, extending on one side towards the edge of the Sagittario river and on the other along the banks of the Sangro river. It then continues in two directions, towards the south with the Monte Marsicano massif and towards the south-east with Monte Serra Chiarano - Monte Greco - Monte Rotondo, until it merges again with the Monte Petroso - Monte Meta ridge, forming an extroflection near the municipality of Scanno to incorporate the area up to the summit of Serra Sparvera - Colle d’Acero and Serra del Monte Paradiso.

a) “Valle del Giovenco” site in the municipalities of Bisegna, Ortona dei Marsi, Gioia dei Marsi and Pescina.

To all intents and purposes, this represents the entire “historic” area of the Park in Abruzzo, with extensions towards the north-west (Serra Lunga and Ara dei Merli) and north-east (Monte Chiarano and Monte Greco). The entire area included in the Park at the beginning of the 2000s (Valle del Giovenco) remains outside the SCI, together with the entire ridge forming the south-eastern rim of the Fucino basin. Extension of SCI IT7110205 therefore needs to cover this sector (known for simplicity as Valle del Giovenco), in order to create a genuine corridor linking it with the Natura 2000 network sites located in the Sirente-Velino area, because of the unquestionable ecological values represented by the grasslands with high biodiversity and conservation priority and, finally, because of the presence of some of the target

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Total surface area: 8852 ha Priority habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (with important orchid sites - 9210 Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex • Animal and plant species in Annex II: - Canis lupus - Ursus arctos - Astragalus aquilanus - Himantoglossum adriaticum • Plant species in Annex IV - Iris marsica • Other plant species of conservation interest - Peonia officinalis subsp. italica - Astragalus exscapus - Crocus variegatus - Pedicularis friderici-augusti - Festuca valesiaca The grasslands around Monte Tricella and Monte Olmo di Bobbi are an area of exceptional floristic and phytogeographical importance, with an extraordinary concentration of species that can be interpreted as steppe relicts from the last glacial phase, often with a disjunct distribution with respect to other known European sites. The most emblematic of these species is Astragalus exscapus, rare and endangered at European level and discovered only recently (Cancellieri et al. 2017) in a single site in the Apennines. Festuca valesiaca (Poaceae) has also been found in this area. This is the first time the species has been reported in the Central Apennines and its presence is probably linked to the ancient steppe flora from the last glaciation (Filibeck et al. 2020). The contemporary presence of numerous relict species (e.g. Androsace maxima, Salvia aethiopis and Stipa capillata) makes the site a survival hotspot for herbaceous species of the ancient Pleistocene grasslands, at

least as important as the much better known sites in the L’Aquila basin (famous for the presence of Goniolimon tataricum subsp. italicum). Finally, for their composition, structure and great orchid richness, the grasslands in the area are clearly a splendid example of the priority variant of Habitat 6210. Pedicularis friderici-augusti Tomm. has been found near “Olmo di Bobbi”. This Illyrian endemic has its locus classicus on Monte Tajano Ne(Slavnik) and is reported for Italy only in Friuli Venezia Giulia. Along the slope facing the southern quadrants of Monte Truscino, there is a Quercus ilex formation of about 50 ha, a relict from past climatic conditions deriving from the former presence of the Fucino lake basin.

Canis lupus italicus

The presence of wolves is confirmed by repeated predation on domestic livestock. A rendezvous site has been identified on the valley floor. Remote monitoring of a wolf captured in the Maiella National Park showed that it reached the Abruzzo Park, then the Velino Sirente area through the Valle del Giovenco.

Ursus arctos marsicanus

Repeated remote monitoring of a number of Marsican brown bears fitted with tracking collars has shown recurrent use of the Valle del Giovenco area, both for hibernation (on the Argatone - Rosa Pinnola ridges and the ridges overlooking the Fucino basin) and as an important feeding area, thanks to the widespread distribution of trophic resources (herbaceous plants, wild or cultivated fruit trees) during the spring period after hibernation and the summer-autumn period of hyperphagia. The Valle del Giovenco thus represents a natural link with the potential northern Apennine distribution area for the Marsican brown bear population, four reproductive females of which have been found in the area over the last 10 years.

Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata

Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex • Animal and plant species in Annex II: - Orso bruno marsicano • Plant species in Annex IV - Iris marsica

Ursus arctos marsicanus

Characterised by poor accessibility and the presence of numerous ravines, the wooded slopes of Monte Greco are an ideal habitat as a hibernation and breeding area for the Marsican brown bear, whose presence has been ascertained by repeated reports of females with cubs during the spring in the Colle Sant’Angelo - Le Coste area, currently outside the Natura 2000 network. The scree in the “Vallone Rosso” also represents a late-summer feeding area for the Marsican brown bear due to the presence of alpine buckthorn scrub. There are systematic reports of the short-toed snake eagle, red kit, eagle owl and eagle (including a nest in the Foce area) in the open areas between Villetta Barrea and Barrea (outside the Natura 2000 sites and the PNALM protected area). c) “Aia della Forca” site in the municipality of Barrea Surface area: 37.5 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 6210 Natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia) • Plant species in Annex IV - Iris marsica

Chamois have been reported on the ridges of Monte Argatone, which thus represents the northernmost source-area of this species. Although the ridge continuing northwards from Monte Argatone and defining the right orographic boundary of the Valle del Giovenco does not seem particularly suitable for chamois, it does, nevertheless, represent a natural corridor connecting the much more suitable areas of the Sirente massif. b) “Monte Greco” site in the municipality of Barrea Surface area: 280 ha

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Ecological connectivity The Valle del Giovenco, proposed as an extension of SCI IT7110205, is of strategic interest in the context of ecological connectivity within the system of protected areas and the N2000 network. The Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park is a source area for a number of fauna species of Community interest and, thanks to its position and “history” of protection, plays a strategic connecting role for ecosystem continuity in the Apennines. The Park Plan already highlights a number of ecological corridors to contribute to the functionality of the Natura 2000 network, including the Valle del Giovenco, as a potential link with the northern portions of the Marsican brown bear’s distribution area. Identification of species covered by the Directive (in particular, Astragalus aquilanus) along this corridor therefore amplifies its role, making extension of the SCI of fundamental importance.

EXTENSION OF SIC IT7140203 Maiella National Park The areas involved in the extension are located one on the eastern side of the Maiella and the other on the western side, both characterised by the presence of Astragalus aquilanus. The former corresponds to the “Piano La Roma” site in the municipalities of Palombaro and Casoli, while the later, known as “La Canale”, is located between the municipalities of Cansano, Campo di Giove and Pacentro. In both areas, habitat 91AA* (Eastern white oak woods) and animal species of Community interest such as the Apennine wolf, Marsican brown bear, four-lined snake, woodlark and nightjar were found to be present. Surface area: 81 ha + 22 ha | Surface area: 1256 ha

EXTENSION OF SIC IT711020 “Monte Sirente e Monte Velino” The proposed extension of the SCI’s perimeters concerns three distinct areas. The “Fosso Spedino - Canetra di Mezzo” area in the municipality of L’Aquila is characterised by the presence of Astragalus aquilanus. The surveys also revealed the presence of habitats such as 91AA* Eastern white oak woods and 6210 * Natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia) (* important orchid sites). Among the species covered by the Community directives, the presence of the Apennine wolf, wild cat and porcupine have been reported among the mammals, together with the red-backed shrike, rock partridge and peregrine falcon among the birds. Surface area: 582 ha The “Vado di Pezza-Monte Rotondo-Monte delle Canelle” site in the municipalities of Ovindoli (AQ) and Rocca di Mezzo (AQ) is of particular importance for the presence of Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica, a species with a Eurasiatic distribution and, in Italy, exclusive to the flora of Abruzzo. The area includes a number of habitats in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: 6170 Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands, 6210 (*) Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites), 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex, 4060 Alpine and Boreal heaths and 8120 Calcareous and calcshist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii).

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Surface area: 845 ha • •

Annex II animal species: - 1352 Canis lupus Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A412 Alectoris graeca saxatilis

The “Monte Briccialone” site in the municipality of Gagliano Aterno (AQ), characterised by the presence of Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica Surface area: 58 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 6210 (*) Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites) - 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex - 6170 - Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands • Annex II animal species: - 1352 Canis lupus - 1374 Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata • Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A412 Alectoris graeca saxatilis

EXTENSION OF SIC IT7110075 “Serra e Gole di Celano - Val d’Arano” “Le Sode di Rovere” site in the municipality of Rocca di Mezzo (AQ), characterised by the presence of Klasea lycopifolia. Surface area: 99 ha Habitats and species reported: • Habitats included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC: - 6510 • Annex II animal species: - 1352 Canis lupus • Bird species in Annex I of Dir. 2009/147 - A338 Lanius collurio - A246 Lullula arborea Geum rivale - (Photo L. Di Martino)

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Iris marsica in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park - (Photo M. Dorigo)


Astragalus aquilanus Anzal. - (Photo F. Conti)

CENTRAL APENNINE PLANTS DESERVING OF PROTECTION Proposal for a list of plants of conservation interest (Conti F. - Bartolucci F.)


CENTRAL APENNINE PLANTS DESERVING OF PROTECTION Proposal for a list of plants of conservation interest

Conti F., Bartolucci F.

T

he flora, namely the inventory of plants present in a given area, represents the basic information for numerous other studies and enables its conservation interest to be assessed. With 8,237 native taxa (Bartolucci et al. 2021), Italy is the richest European country in terms of plants and the second richest in the Mediterranean after Turkey. The great floristic richness of the peninsular regions and high number of endemic entities are closely linked to the presence of the Apennine chain. There is as yet no flora dedicated to this geographical region, but floristic knowledge has greatly increased, particularly for the Central Apennines, with creation in 2001 of the Centro Ricerche Floristiche dell’Appennino (Apennine Floristic Research Centre), born from an agreement between the University of Camerino and the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park. Many endemic taxa new to science have, in fact, been described (Gallo & Conti 2005; Conti 2007, 2010; Conti

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& Peruzzi 2006; Peruzzi et al. 2007; Conti & Uzunov 2011; Conti & Bartolucci 2017; Conti et al. 2018, 2019b, 2020). Data of use for assessing the state of the flora can be obtained from the red lists of Italian plants published on several occasions by the Conservation Group of the Società Botanica Italiana (Italian Botanical Society) which assessed the degree of threat to which the Italian plants are exposed (Orsenigo et al. 2021). The threatened endemic plants of the Italian mountains are the subject of a volume published by the Club Alpino Italiano (Conti et al. 2019a), with descriptions of the species and the threat categories established in the red lists. The entries are organised by geographical sector, with 24 dedicated to the Central Apennines. At regulatory level, the protection of flora is entrusted to regional laws and, above all, to the European Community through the Habitats Directive (HD). In 1992, the HD established the protection of a list of plants at Euro-

pean level. The plants listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive and present in the Central Apennines are: Adonis distorta, Androsace mathildae, Astragalus aquilanus, Cypripedium calceolus, Himantoglossum adriaticum, Ionopsidium savianum, Thesium ebracteatum, Jacobaea vulgaris subsp. gotlandica and Klasea lycopifolia. This list is very incomplete and does not take into account current knowledge and the complexity of our floristic wealth. Italian transposition of the HD dates from 1997. The lists of vascular plants have never been updated. The only changes made since the Directive came into force relate to species described deriving from the protected species. For example, taxonomic reviews could result in a plant in the Directive being divided into several entities. In these cases, the Directive’s protection also extends to these species. In Italy, protection has been extended to Centranthus amazonum, a species described on a population previously included in C. trin-

Anthyllis apennina F. Conti & Bartolucci - (Photo F. Conti)

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Pinguicula vallis-regiae F. Conti & Peruzzi - (Photo F. Conti)

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ervis, and Aquilegia reuteri, previously included in A. bertolonii (Ercole et al. 2020). The most endangered species in the Central Apennines include Pinguicula fiorii, P. vallis-regiae, P. vulgaris subsp. anzalonei and P. vulgaris subsp. ernica, insectivorous plants endemic to punctiform rock environments with dripping water in the Central Apennines. By extending or accentuating the summer drought, current climate change could lead to their extinction. Another taxa, Genista pulchella subsp. aquilana, is seriously threatened by the expansion of an afforestation of Austrian pine. The species is a point endemic of the Gran Sasso massif, known only in the vicinity of Passo delle Capannelle with an extremely small population. Goniolimon tataricum subsp. italicum, endemic to the L’Aquila basins, is threatened by many factors: quarries, invasion by non-native plants, afforestation, trampling and even archaeological excavations. Sedum aquilanum, endemic to Campo Felice (L’Aquila) where it grows in a few dozen square metres of humid environment, is currently seriously threatened by alterations to the water balance of the plain. The list of these genuine gems of the Apennine mountains could be much longer, testifying to their characteristic great wealth and naturalistic value. Unfortunately, the threats are also numerous and current. In addition to those already mentioned for individual plants, the most common threats include expansion of ski resorts, parcelling-out of the land and infrastructure construction. We have not yet managed to reverse this trend and we continue to disfigure one of the richest and most beautiful areas in the Mediterranean basin. We have therefore drawn up a list of important examples of the central Apennine flora (from the Sibillini massif to the Maiella and the Abruzzo National Park), grouping them into six categories according to conservation interest:

0 = extremely rare, endemic and endangered taxa, known in one or a few point locations. Extinction in the Central Apennines would result in extinction from Italy, or taxa in any case endangered at national Italian level. 1 = extremely rare, endangered and exclusive taxa, or taxa at the limit of their distribution area, known for a few point locations. If not threatened, then extremely rare. 2 = endemic, but not endangered taxa 3 = rare and exclusive taxa, or taxa at the limit of their distribution area, not endangered, but sometimes in decline. 4 = uncommon taxa liable to collection. 5 = extinct or unconfirmed taxa. For each taxon, we report the category (Cat.), accepted name (Taxon), endemicity (E), and IUCN status (Rossi et al. 2016, Orsenigo et al. 2018, 2021) with the following categories: EX, Extinct; EW, Extinct in the Wild; EN, Endangered; CR, Critically Endangered; VU, Vulnerable; LC, Least Concern; DD Data Deficient.

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CAT. TAXON

E

RED LIST

0

Adonis distorta Ten.

Endem. C. App.

EN

0

Alyssum cuneifolium Ten.

Endem. Abr. (Maiella)

NT

0

Androsace mathildae Levier

Endem. Abr.

LC

0

Aquilegia magellensis F.Conti & Soldano

Endem. Abr. (Maiella)

NT

0

Astragalus aquilanus Anzal.

Endem. Abr. E Cal.

EN

0

Cardamine apennina Lihová & Marhold

Endem. C. App.

EN

0

Cerastium thomasii Ten.

Endem. C. App.

LC

0

Crepis magellensis F.Conti & Uzunov

Endem. Abr. (Maiella)

NT

0

Gagea tisoniana Peruzzi, Bartolucci, Frignani & Minut.

Endem. C. App.

NT

0

Genista pulchella Vis. subsp. aquilana F.Conti & Manzi

Endem. Abr. (Passo delle Capannelle)

CR

0

Goniolimon tataricum (L.) Boiss. subsp. italicum (Tammaro, Pignatti & Frizzi) Buzurović

Endem. Abr. (Conche aquilane)

EN

0

Lathyrus apenninus F.Conti

Endem. C. App.

NT

0

Orobanche ebuli Huter & Rigo

Endem. C. App.

LC

0

Oxytropis ocrensis F.Conti & Bartolucci

Endem. Abr. (M. Ocre)

VU

0

Phyllolepidum rupestre (Sweet) Trinajstić

Endem. Abr. (Maiella, Morrone, Sirente)

NT

0

Pinguicula fiorii Tammaro & Pace

Endem. Abr. (Maiella)

EN

0

Pinguicula vallis-regiae F.Conti & Peruzzi

Endem. Abr. (Camosciara)

EN

0

Pinguicula vulgaris L. subsp. anzalonei Peruzzi & F. Conti

Endem. Lazio (Simbruini)

CR

0

Pinguicula vulgaris L. subsp. ernica Peruzzi & F.Conti

Endem. Abr. (Zompo Lo Schioppo)

CR

0

Pinguicula vulgaris L. subsp. vestina F.Conti & Peruzzi

Endem. Abr. (Gran Sasso, Altopiano delle Rocche)

EN

0

Poa magellensis F.Conti & Bartolucci

Endem. Abr. (Maiella)

NT

0

Ranunculus bariscianus Dunkel

Endem. Abr. (Gran Sasso)

DD

0

Ranunculus giordanoi F.Conti & Bartolucci

Endem. C. App. (Monti della Laga)

VU

0

Ranunculus marsicus Guss. & Ten.

Endem. Abr. e Mol.

DD

0

Ranunculus multidens Dunkel

Endem. Abr. (Pescocostanzo)

DD

0

Ranunculus pedrottii Spinosi ex Dunkel

Endem. C. App.

DD

0

Ranunculus seguieri Vill. subsp. seguieri var. praetutianus Pamp.

Endem. C. App.

Corydalis densiflora C. Presl subsp. apennina F. Conti, Bartolucci & Uzunov - (Photo F. Conti) 119


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0

Saxifraga italica D.A.Webb

Endem. C. App.

NT

1

Carex canescens L.

0

Sedum aquilanum L.Gallo & F.Conti

Endem. Campo Felice

CR

1

Carex capillaris L. subsp. capillaris

0

Soldanella minima Hoppe subsp. samnitica Cristof. & Pignatti

Endem. Abr. (Maiella)

NT

1

Carex davalliana Sm.

0

Stipa aquilana Moraldo

Endem. Abr. (Gran Sasso)

DD

1

Carex disticha Huds.

0

Taraxacum glaciale É.Huet & A.Huet ex Hand.-Mazz.

Endem. C. App.

LC

1

Carex elata All. subsp. elata

1

Adonis vernalis L.

EN

1

Carex firma Host

1

Allium angulosum L.

1

Carex olbiensis Jord.

1

Allium permixtum Guss.

1

Carex ornithopodioides Hausm.

1

Allium schoenoprasum L. subsp. schoenoprasum

1

Carex pseudocyperus L.

1

Allium siculum Ucria

1

Carex punctata Gaudin

1

Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. subsp. arundinaceus

1

Carex rostrata Stokes

1

Alyssum desertorum Stapf

1

Carex tomentosa L.

1

Anacamptis laxiflora (Lam.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase

1

Carex vesicaria L.

1

Andrachne telephioides L.

1

Carex vulpina L.

EN

1

Androsace maxima L.

1

Centaurea stenolepis A.Kern. subsp. stenolepis

NT

1

Artemisia atrata Lam.

1

Ceratophyllum submersum L. subsp. submersum

1

Artemisia eriantha Ten.

1

Cirsium monspessulanum (L.) Hill

1

Asparagus tenuifolius Lam.

1

Cladium mariscus (L.) Pohl

1

Astragalus exscapus L. subsp. exscapus

1

1

Barbarea intermedia Boreau

Colchicum bulbocodium Ker Gawl. subsp. versicolor (Ker Gawl.) K.Perss.

1

Barbarea stricta Andrz.

1

Crepis paludosa (L.) Moench

1

Bidens cernua L.

1

Crepis zacintha (L.) Loisel.

1

Botrychium matricariifolium (A.Braun ex Döll) W.D.J.Koch

1

Cypripedium calceolus L.

1

Bupleurum tenuissimum L.

1

Cytisus spinosus (L.) Lam.

1

Butomus umbellatus L.

VU

1

Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó subsp. incarnata

1

Campanula alpestris All.

LC

1

Dactylorhiza romana (Sebast.) Soó subsp. romana

1

Cardamine parviflora L.

1

Dianthus nudiflorus Griff.

1

Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb.

1

Dictamnus albus L.

1

Draba dubia Suter subsp. dubia

VU

DD

EN

EN

EN

LC

NT

LC

121


1

Draba tomentosa Clairv. subsp. tomentosa

1

Dryopteris dilatata (Hoffm.) A.Gray

1

Elatine alsinastrum L.

1

Eleocharis quinqueflora (Hartmann) O.Schwarz

1

Epilobium palustre L.

1

Epipactis distans Art.-Touv.

1

Epipactis palustris (L.) Crantz

1

Epipogium aphyllum Sw.

1

Equisetum variegatum Schleich. ex F.Weber & D.Mohr

1

Erica scoparia L. subsp. scoparia

1

Erigeron atticus Vill.

1

Erinus alpinus L.

1

Eriophorum latifolium Hoppe

1

Euphorbia corallioides L.

1

Euphorbia esula L. subsp. tommasiniana (Bertol.) Kuzmanov

1

Festuca lachenalii (C.C.Gmel.) Spenn.

1

Festuca valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin subsp. valesiaca

1

Frangula alnus Mill. subsp. alnus

1

Gagea luberonensis J.-M.Tison

LC

1

Gentiana pneumonanthe L. subsp. pneumonanthe

VU

1

Geranium lanuginosum Lam.

1

Geum heterocarpum Boiss.

1

Geum rivale L.

1

Gratiola officinalis L.

1

Groenlandia densa (L.) Fourr.

1

Hornungia alpina (L.) O.Appel subsp. brevicaulis (Spreng.) O.Appel

1

Hornungia pauciflora (W.D.J.Koch) Soldano, F.Conti, Banfi & Galasso

NT

LC

CR

Adonis vernalis L. - (Photo F. Conti) 122


124

1

Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart. subsp. selago

1

Hylotelephium anacampseros (L.) H.Ohba

1

Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn. subsp. gotlandica (Neuman) B.Nord.

1

LC

1

Myrtus communis L.

1

Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir.

1

Oenanthe fistulosa L.

Juncus alpinoarticulatus Chaix subsp. alpinoarticulatus

1

Oenanthe lachenalii C.C.Gmel.

1

Juncus arcticus Willd.

1

Ononis rotundifolia L.

1

Juncus filiformis L.

1

Ophioglossum vulgatum L.

1

Juncus triglumis L. subsp. triglumis

1

1

Juniperus macrocarpa Sm.

Ophrys exaltata Ten. subsp. archipelagi (Gölz & H.R.Reinhard) Del Prete

1

Klasea lycopifolia (Vill.) Á.Löve & D.Löve

1

Ophrys lacaitae Lojac.

1

Koeleria spicata (L.) Barberá, Quintanar, Soreng, & P.M.Peterson subsp. ovatipaniculata (Hultén ex Jonsell) Barberá, Quintanar, Soreng, & P.M.Peterson

1

Ophrys speculum Link

1

Ophrys tenthredinifera Willd. Subsp. neglecta (Parl.) E.G.Camus

1

Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench

1

Orchis quadripunctata Cirillo ex Ten.

1

Lathyrus pannonicus (Jacq.) Garcke subsp. asphodeloides (Gouan) Bässler

1

Orobanche salviae F.W.Schultz

1

Lathyrus pannonicus (Jacq.) Garcke subsp. varius (Hill) P.W.Ball

1

Pedicularis rostratospicata Crantz

1

Lathyrus tuberosus L.

1

Peplis portula L.

1

Leontopodium nivale (Ten.) É.Huet & A.Huet ex Hand.-Mazz.

1

Phleum phleoides (L.) H.Karst.

1

Leucojum vernum L.

1

Poa palustris L. subsp. palustris

1

Lonicera nigra L.

1

Potamogeton gramineus L.

1

Lycopsis arvensis L.

1

Potamogeton lucens L.

1

Lysimachia punctata L.

1

Potamogeton nodosus Poir.

1

Malus florentina (Zuccagni) C.K.Schneid.

1

Potamogeton perfoliatus L.

1

Mentha arvensis L.

1

Potamogeton polygonifolius Pourr.

1

Menyanthes trifoliata L.

1

Potentilla nitida L.

1

Molinia arundinacea Schrank

1

Pseudathyrium alpestre (Hoppe) Newman

1

Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench

1

Ranunculus alpestris L.

1

Montia arvensis Wallr.

1

Ranunculus lateriflorus DC.

1

Myosotis speluncicola (Boiss.) Rouy

1

Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill.

1

Myosurus minimus L.

1

Ranunculus sceleratus L.

1

Ranunculus trilobus Desf.

NT

NT

NT

LC

NT

LC Endem. Alpi-App.

LC LC

VU

125


1

Rorippa amphibia (L.) Besser

1

Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser

1

Rumex confertus Willd.

DD

1

Salvia aethiopis L.

EN

1

Scutellaria galericulata L.

1

Sedum monregalense Balb.

1

Serapias cordigera L. subsp. cordigera

1

Sesleria uliginosa Opiz

1

Silene bellidifolia Jacq.

1

Sparganium emersum Rehmann

1

Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.

1

Sporobolus alopecuroides (Piller & Mitterp.) P.M.Peterson

1

Staphisagria macrosperma Spach

1

Staphylea pinnata L.

1

Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC.

1

Struthiopteris spicant (L.) Weiss

1

Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Börner

1

Succisa pratensis Moench

1

Taraxacum sect. Palustria (H.Lindb.) Dahlst.

1

Thymelaea passerina (L.) Coss. & Germ.

1

Tofieldia calyculata (L.) Wahlenb.

1

Traunsteinera globosa (L.) Rchb.

1

Triglochin palustris L.

1

Tulipa pumila Moench

1

Tulipa sylvestris L.

1

Vaccinium uliginosum L. subsp. microphyllum (Lange) Tolm.

1

Valeriana dioica L.

1

Vallisneria spiralis L.

NT

Centaurea scannensis Anzal., Soldano & F.Conti - (Photo F. Conti) 127


128

1

Veronica anagalloides Guss. subsp. anagalloides

2

Helleborus viridis L. subsp. bocconei (Ten.) Peruzzi

Endem. Alpi Marittime-App.-Si

LC

1

Viburnum opulus L.

2

Herniaria bornmuelleri Chaudhri

Endem. Abr.

LC

1

Ziziphora graveolens (M.Bieb.) Melnikov

DD

2

Hieracium cavallense Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Acer cappadocicum Gled. subsp. lobelii (Ten.) A.E.Murray

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Hieracium contii Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Adenocarpus complicatus (L.) J.Gay subsp. samniticus (Brullo, De Marco & Siracusa) Peruzzi

Endem. C. App.

LC

2

Hieracium exilicaule Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Alchemilla marsica Buser

Endem. Abr. e Laz.

DD

2

Hieracium galeroides Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Anthemis cretica L. subsp. petraea (Ten.) Greuter

Endem. Abr.

LC

2

Hieracium latilepidotum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Anthyllis apennina F.Conti & Bartolucci

Endem. C. App.

LC

2

Hieracium marsorum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Aubrieta columnae Guss. subsp. columnae

Endem. C. S. App.

NT

2

Hieracium montis-florum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Bunium petraeum Ten.

Endem. C. App.

LC

2

Hieracium montis-porrarae Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Bupleurum rollii (Montel.) Moraldo

Endem. C. S. It.-Si.

EN

2

Hieracium nubitangens Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Campanula reatina Lucchese

Endem. Lazio

NT

2

Hieracium orodoxum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Cardamine monteluccii Brilli-Catt. & Gubellini

Endem. C. S. App.

NT

2

Hieracium permaculatum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Centaurea scannensis Anzal., Soldano & F.Conti

Endem. Abr. (Gole del Sagittario)

EN

2

Hieracium picenorum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Centaurea tenoreana Willk.

Endem. Abr. (P. N. Maiella)

LC

2

Hieracium pietrae Zahn

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Corydalis densiflora C.Presl subsp. apennina F.Conti, Bartolucci & Uzunov

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Hieracium pratorum-tivi Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Hieracium profetanum Belli

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Cymbalaria glutinosa Bigazzi & Raffaelli subsp. glutinosa

Endem. C. It.

LC

2

Hieracium pseudopallidum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Cymbalaria pallida (Ten.) Wettst.

Endem. Abr. e dintorni

LC

2

Hieracium simbruinicum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Dianthus guliae Janka

Endem. C. S. App.

EN

2

Hieracium thesauranum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Dianthus vulturius Guss. & Ten. subsp. vulturius

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Hieracium venticaesum Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Echinops siculus Strobl

Endem. App.-Si

LC

2

Iris marsica I.Ricci & Colas.

Endem. C. App.

NT

2

Epipactis meridionalis H.Baumann & R.Lorenz

Endem. C.S. App.

VU

2

Knautia gussonei Szabó

Endem. Abr. (Gran Sasso, Monti della Laga)

LC

2

Erodium alpinum (Burm.f.) L’Hér.

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Lathyrus odoratus L.

Endem. C. S. It-Si.

LC

2

Euphorbia gasparrinii Boiss. subsp. samnitica (Fiori) Pignatti

Endem. C. App.

LC

2

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Festuca imperatrix Catonica

Endem. Abr.

LC

Leucanthemum coronopifolium Vill. subsp. tenuifolium (Guss.) Vogt & Greuter

2

Helleborus viridis L. subsp. abruzzicus (M.Thomsen, McLewin & B.Mathew) Bartolucci, F.Conti & Peruzzi

Endem. C. App.

LC

2

Mcneillia graminifolia (Ard.) Dillenb. & Kadereit subsp. rosanoi (Ten.) F.Conti, Bartolucci, Iamonico & Del Guacchio

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Melampyrum variegatum (Porta & Rigo) Huter

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

129


Gagea tisoniana Peruzzi, Bartolucci, Frignani & Minut - (Photo F. Bartolucci)


2

Minuartia glomerata (M.Bieb.) Degen subsp. trichocalycina (Ten. & Guss.) F.Conti

Endem. Abr.

LC

2

Ononis cristata Mill. subsp. apennina Tammaro & Catonica

Endem. C. App.

LC

2

Ophrys passionis Sennen ex Devillers-Tersch. & Devillers subsp. majellensis (Helga Daiss & Herm.Daiss) Romolini & Soca

Endem. Liguria-C. S. App.

LC

2

Ophrys promontorii O.Danesch & E.Danesch

Endem. C. S. It.

LC

2

Pilosella cepitina (Gottschl.) Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Pilosella corvigena (Gottschl.) Gottschl.

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Pilosella macranthiformis (Zahn) S.Bräut. & Greuter

Endem. Abr.

DD

2

Ranunculus magellensis Ten.

Endem. C. App.

DD

2

Ranunculus pedrottii Spinosi ex Dunkel

Endem. C App.

DD

2

Ranunculus thomasii Ten.

Endem. Alpi Apuane-C. S. App.

LC

2

Saxifraga exarata Vill. subsp. ampullacea (Ten.) D.A.Webb

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Sempervivum riccii Iberite & Anzal.

Endem. C. App.

LC

2

Silene cattariniana Ferrarini & Cecchi

Endem. C. App.

LC

2

Silene notarisii Ces.

Endem. C. App.

DD

2

Silene roemeri Friv. subsp. staminea (Bertol.) Nyman

Endem. C. S. App.

DD

2

Verbascum argenteum Ten.

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Verbascum magellense Ten.

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

2

Verbascum niveum Ten. subsp. garganicum (Ten.) Murb.

Endem. C. S. It.

DD

2

Verbascum niveum Ten. subsp. niveum

Endem. C. S. It.

2

Viola magellensis Porta & Rigo ex Strobl

Endem. C. App.

3

Abies alba Mill.

3

Achnatherum virescens (Trin.) Banfi, Galasso & Bartolucci

3

Adonis aestivalis L. subsp. aestivalis

3

Adonis annua L.

3

Adonis flammea Jacq. subsp. cortiana C.H.Steinb.

3

Adonis flammea Jacq. subsp. flammea

3

Adonis microcarpa DC. subsp. microcarpa

LC

Sedum aquilanum L.Gallo & F.Conti - (Photo F. Conti) 132


Genista pulchella Vis. subsp. aquilana F. Conti & Manzi - (Photo F. Conti)

3

Agrostemma githago L. subsp. githago

3

Agrostis gigantea Roth subsp. gigantea

3

Agrostis rupestris All. subsp. rupestris

3

Ajuga pyramidalis L.

3

Alchemilla flabellata Buser

3

Allium calabrum (N.Terracc.) Brullo, Pavone & Salmeri

3

Allium carinatum L.

3

Allium ochroleucum Waldst. & Kit.

3

Allium rotundum L.

3

Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.

3

Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.

3

Anthriscus nitida (Wahlenb.) Hazsl.

3

Apera interrupta (L.) P.Beauv.

3

Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. subsp. spica-venti

3

Arabis ciliata Clairv.

3

Asarum europaeum L.

3

Asphodeline liburnica (Scop.) Rchb.

3

Asphodelus ramosus L. subsp. ramosus

3

Asplenium lepidum C.Presl subsp. lepidum

3

Astragalus australis (L.) Lam.

3

Astragalus onobrychis L.

3

Astragalus penduliflorus Lam.

3

Athamanta sicula L.

3

Aurinia sinuata (L.) Griseb.

3

Betula pendula Roth

3

Biscutella cichoriifolia Loisel.

3

Blackstonia acuminata (W.D.J.Koch & Ziz) Domin subsp. acuminata

3

Brassica gravinae Ten.

NT

LC

135


136

3

Bufonia paniculata Dubois ex Delarbre

3

Cerastium cerastoides (L.) Britton

3

Buphthalmum salicifolium L.

3

Cerastium sylvaticum Waldst. & Kit.

3

Bupleurum petraeum L.

3

Ceratocephala falcata (L.) Cramer

3

Callitriche brutia Petagna

3

Ceratophyllum demersum L.

3

Callitriche obtusangula Le Gall

3

Chamaeiris foetidissima (L.) Medik.

3

Caltha palustris L.

3

Chamaeiris lorea (Janka) Peruzzi, F.Conti & Bartolucci

3

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz subsp. microcarpa (Andrz. ex DC.) Bonnier

3

Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop.

3

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz subsp. sativa

3

Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

3

Campanula cervicaria L.

3

Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop.

3

Campanula rapunculoides L. subsp. rapunculoides

3

Convallaria majalis L.

3

Cardamine resedifolia L.

3

Coronilla valentina L.

3

Carduus collinus Waldst. & Kit. subsp. collinus

3

Cotinus coggygria Scop.

3

Carex acutiformis Ehrh.

3

Crocus imperati Ten.

3

Carex brachystachys Schrank

3

Crocus variegatus Hoppe & Hornsch.

3

Carex depressa Link subsp. basilaris (Jord.) Cif. & Giacom.

3

Crucianella angustifolia L.

3

Carex echinata Murray

3

Cuscuta palaestina Boiss. subsp. palaestina

3

Carex ericetorum Pollich

3

Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus

3

Carex flava L.

3

Cynoglossum cheirifolium L.

3

Carex hostiana DC.

3

Cystopteris dickieana R.Sim

3

Carex lepidocarpa Tausch subsp. lepidocarpa

3

Cytinus ruber Fourr. ex Fritsch

3

Carex mucronata All.

3

Cytisus nigricans L. subsp. nigricans

3

Carex parviflora Host

3

Daphne sericea Vahl

3

Carex pilosa Scop.

3

Delphinium pubescens DC.

3

Carex rupestris All.

3

Dryopteris borreri (Newman) Newman ex Oberh. & Tavel.

3

Carum carvi L.

3

Dryopteris mindshelkensis Pavlov

3

Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P.Beauv.

3

Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) Schult.

3

Centaurea rupestris L.

3

Ephedra major Host subsp. major

3

Centranthus angustifolius (Mill.) DC. subsp. angustifolius

3

Epilobium alsinifolium Vill.

Endem. C. S. It.

LC

137


3

Epipactis exilis P.Delforge

3

Epipactis leptochila (Godfery) Godfery

3

Epipactis muelleri Godfery

3

Epipactis purpurata Sm.

3

Equisetum fluviatile L.

3

Equisetum hyemale L.

3

Erica multiflora L. subsp. multiflora

3

Erucastrum nasturtiifolium (Poir.) O.E.Schulz subsp. nasturtiifolium

3

Festuca stricta Host subsp. sulcata (Hack.) Patzke ex Pils

3

Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl subsp. oxycarpa (M.Bieb. ex Willd.) Franco & Rocha Afonso

3

Gagea ramulosa A.Terracc.

3

Galium rotundifolium L. subsp. rotundifolium

3

Genista pilosa L.

3

Genista radiata (L.) Scop.

3

Gentiana orbicularis Schur

3

Gentiana verna L. subsp. tergestina (Beck) Hayek

3

Geocaryum capillifolium (Guss.) Coss.

3

Geranium tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum

3

Geropogon hybridus (L.) Sch.Bip.

3

Goodyera repens (L.) R.Br.

3

Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman

3

Gymnocarpium robertianum (Hoffm.) Newman

3

Gypsophila vaccaria (l.) Sm.

3

Hesperis matronalis L. subsp. matronalis

3

Hieracium chlorelloides Zahn

3

Hieracium neomalyi Zahn

3

Himantoglossum adriaticum H.Baumann

LC

LC

Phyllolepidum rupestre (Sweet) Trinajstic - (Photo F.Conti) 138


Lathyrus apenninus F. Conti - (Photo F. Conti)

3

Hypericum androsaemum L.

3

Hypericum hyssopifolium Chaix

3

Hypochaeris glabra L.

3

Inula helenium L.

3

Iris lutescens Lam.

3

Isatis apennina Ten. ex Grande

3

Isolepis cernua (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.

3

Isolepis setacea (L.) R.Br.

3

Juncus acutiflorus Ehrh. ex Hoffm.

3

Juncus conglomeratus L.

3

Juncus subnodulosus Schrank

3

Juniperus sabina L.

3

Laburnum alpinum (Mill.) Bercht. & J.Presl

3

Lamium bifidum Cirillo subsp. balcanicum Velen.

3

Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L. subsp. galeobdolon

3

Laserpitium gallicum L. subsp. gallicum

3

Lathraea squamaria L.

3

Limniris pseudacorus (L.) Fuss

3

Linaria pelisseriana (L.) Mill.

3

Linum decumbens Desf.

3

Luzula alpina Hoppe

3

Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr.

3

Lysimachia nummularia L.

3

Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W:Schmidt

3

Malcolmia orsiniana (Ten.) Ten. subsp. orsiniana

3

Mcneillia graminifolia (Ard.) Dillenb. & Kadereit subsp. clandestina (Port.) Dillenb. & Kadereit

3

Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire subsp. valesiaca (Boiss.) P.W.Ball

3

Medicago scutellata (L.) Mill.

141


142

3

Medicago tornata (L.) Mill.

3

Moenchia erecta (L.) G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb. subsp. erecta

3

Molinia arundinacea Schrank

3

Moneses uniflora (L.) A.Gray

3

Myosotis scorpioides L. subsp. scorpioides

3

Myosotis stricta Link ex Roem. & Schult.

3

Myricaria germanica (L.) Desv.

3

Nepeta nepetella L. subsp. nepetella

3

Nigritella widderi Teppner & E.Klein

3

Oenanthe silaifolia M.Bieb.

3

Ononis ornithopodioides L.

3

Ophrys bombyliflora Link

3

Ophrys dinarica Kranjčev & P.Delforge

3

Ophrys insectifera L.

3

Ophrys lutea Cav.

3

Orchis militaris L.

3

Orchis provincialis Balb. ex Lam. & DC.

3

Orchis spitzelii Saut. ex W.D.J.Koch

3

Orlaya daucorlaya Murb.

3

Orobanche flava Mart. ex F.W.Schultz

3

Papaver alpinum L. subsp. alpinum

3

Papaver apulum Ten.

3

Pedicularis friderici-augusti Tomm.

3

Pedicularis petiolaris Ten.

3

Pentanema bifrons (L.) D.Gut.Larr., Santos-Vicente, Anderb., E.Rico & M.M.Mart.Ort.

3

Pentanema britannicum (L.) D.Gut.Larr., Santos-Vicente, Anderb., E.Rico & M.M.Mart.Ort.

EN

LC LC LC

3

Pentanema spiraeifolium (L.) D.Gut.Larr., Santos-Vicente, Anderb., E.Rico & M.M.Mart.Ort.

3

Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre

3

Peucedanum officinale L. subsp. officinale

3

Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass.

3

Phalaris aquatica L.

3

Phalaris truncata Guss. ex Bertol.

3

Phleum alpinum L.

3

Phlomis fruticosa L.

3

Pinguicula vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris

3

Pinus mugo Turra subsp. mugo

3

Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold subsp. nigra var. italica Hochst.

3

Polygala alpina (Poir. ex DC.) Steud.

3

Polygala amarella Crantz

3

Polygala comosa Schkuhr

3

Polygala serpyllifolia Hosé

3

Polygaloides chamaebuxus (L.) O.Schwarz

3

Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All.

3

Potamogeton berchtoldii Fieber

3

Potamogeton pusillus L.

3

Potamogeton trichoides Cham. & Schltdl.

3

Potentilla brauneana Hoppe

3

Potentilla calabra Ten.

3

Potentilla supina L. subsp. supina

3

Pseudorchis albida (L.) Á.Löve & D.Löve

3

Ptychotis saxifraga (L.) Loret & Barrandon

3

Pulsatilla montana (Hoppe) Rchb. subsp. montana

3

Pyrola chlorantha Sw.

3

Pyrola rotundifolia L. subsp. rotundifolia

NT

Endem. Abr.

Endem. C. S. It.-Si.

LC

143


Crepis magellensis F. Conti & Uzunov - (Photo F. Conti)


Oxytropis ocrensis F. Conti & Bartolucci - (Photo F. Conti)

146

3

Quercus ×crenata Lam.

3

Quercus frainetto Ten.

3

Quercus robur L. subsp. robur

3

Ranunculus alpestris L.

3

Ranunculus flammula L.

3

Ranunculus paludosus Poir.

3

Ranunculus platanifolius L.

3

Ranunculus polyanthemoides Boreau

3

Rhinanthus glacialis Personnat subsp. glacialis

3

Rosa montana Chaix

3

Rumex hydrolapathum Huds.

3

Rumex nepalensis Spreng.

3

Salix breviserrata Flod.

3

Salix cinerea L.

3

Salix foetida Schleich. ex DC.

3

Salix hastata L.

3

Salix herbacea L.

3

Salix pentandra L.

3

Salvia verticillata L. subsp. verticillata

3

Sanguisorba officinalis L.

3

Saponaria bellidifolia Sm.

3

Saxifraga glabella Bertol.

3

Saxifraga marginata Sternb.

3

Saxifraga sedoides L. subsp. sedoides

3

Scandix pecten-veneris L. subsp. brachycarpa (Guss.) Thell.

3

Schenkia spicata (L.) G.Mans.

3

Scleranthus uncinatus Schur

3

Scorzonera aristata Ramond ex DC.

EN

DD


3

Scorzonera humilis L.

3

Sedum alpestre Vill.

3

Sedum annuum L.

3

Sedum caespitosum (Cav.) DC.

3

Senecio sylvaticus L.

3

Seseli peucedanoides (M.Bieb.) Koso-Pol.

3

Sibbaldia procumbens L.

3

Silene baccifera (L.) Durande

3

Silene catholica (L.) W.T.Aiton

3

Silene saxifraga L.

3

Sison segetum L.

3

Sium latifolium L.

3

Sorbus chamaemespilus (L.) Crantz

3

Sorbus hybrida (L.) L.

3

Sorbus intermedia (Ehrh.) Pers.

3

Spergularia diandra (Guss.) Heldr.

3

Stachys thirkei K.Koch

3

Staehelina dubia L.

3

Stellaria aquatica (L.) Scop.

3

Sternbergia colchiciflora Waldst. & Kit.

3

Sternbergia lutea (L.) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng.

3

Takhtajaniantha austriaca (Willd.) Zaika, Sukhor. & N.Kilian

3

Taxus baccata L.

3

Thalictrum foetidum L. subsp. foetidum

3

Thalictrum simplex L. subsp. simplex

3

Thesium alpinum L.

3

Thesium humile Vahl

3

Thymus zygiformis Heinr.Braun

DD

Pinguicula vulgaris L. subsp. ernica Peruzzi & F. Conti - (Photo F. Conti) 149


150

3

Tolpis staticifolia (All.) Sch.Bip.

4

Lilium bulbiferum L. subsp. croceum (Chaix) Jan

3

Trifolium badium Schreb.

4

Lilium martagon L.

3

Trifolium dubium Sibth.

4

Paeonia officinalis L. subsp. italica N.G.Passal. & Bernardo

3

Trifolium leucanthum M.Bieb.

5

Anacamptis palustris (Jacq.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase

3

Trifolium sebastiani Savi

5

Arctium tomentosum Mill.

3

Trifolium spadiceum L.

5

Arenaria biflora L.

3

Trifolium spumosum L.

5

Asyneuma trichocalycinum (Ten.) K.Malý

3

Trifolium suffocatum L.

5

Carex elongata L.

3

Tripleurospermum inodorum (L.) Sch.Bip.

5

Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh.

3

Trisetaria aurea (Ten.) Banfi & Galasso

5

Centaurea melitensis L.

3

Trisetaria panicea (Lam.) Paunero

5

Cirsium alsophilum (Pollini) Soldano

3

Trollius europaeus L.

5

Comarum palustre L.

3

Typha minima Funk ex Hoppe

EN

5

Crucianella latifolia L.

3

Utricularia australis R.Br.

NT

5

Daphne gnidium L.

3

Vaccinium myrtillus L.

5

Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rydb.

3

Valeriana saliunca All.

5

Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub

3

Verbascum alpinum Turra

5

Echium asperrimum Lam.

3

Verbascum phoeniceum L.

5

Eriophorum angustifolium Honck. subsp. angustifolium

3

Veronica fruticans Jacq.

5

Erodium alnifolium Guss.

3

Vicia laeta Ces.

5

Erythronium dens-canis L.

3

Vicia pisiformis L.

5

Gentiana pumila Jacq. subsp. pumila

3

Viola tricolor L. subsp. saxatilis (F.W.Schmidt) Jan

5

Helosciadium repens (Jacq.) W.D.J.Koch

CR(PE)

4

Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia

5

Hippuris vulgaris L.

EN

4

Cyclamen hederifolium Aiton subsp. hederifolium

5

Illecebrum verticillatum L.

4

Cyclamen repandum Sm. subsp. repandum

5

Juncus gerardi Loisel. subsp. gerardi

4

Eryngium amethystinum L.

5

Juncus subulatus Forssk.

4

Gentiana lutea L. subsp. lutea

5

Lactuca tenerrima Pourr.

4

Ilex aquifolium L.

5

Lathraea clandestina L.

LC

NT

Endem. C. App.

LC EN

Endem. C. S. App.

LC

DD

151


5

Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) Heywood subsp. alpina

5

Lycopodium clavatum L.

5

Lysimachia nemorum L.

5

Mandragora autumnalis Bertol.

5

Mentha cervina L.

5

Minuartia rubra (Scop.) McNeill

5

Moenchia mantica (L.) Bartl. subsp. mantica

5

Muscari commutatum Guss.

5

Myosotis sicula Guss.

5

Oenanthe globulosa L.

5

Oreopteris limbosperma (All.) Holub

5

Origanum vulgare L. subsp. viridulum (Martrin-Donos) Nyman

5

Osmunda regalis L.

5

Persicaria mitis (Schrank) Assenov

5

Phagnalon sordidum (L.) Rchb.

5

Platanthera algeriensis Batt. & Trab.

5

Pleurospermum austriacum (L.) Hoffm.

5

Pseudodictamnus hispanicus (L.) Salmaki & Siadati

5

Pteris cretica L.

5

Ranunculus aconitifolius L.

5

Ranunculus chius DC.

5

Ranunculus circinatus Sibth.

5

Ranunculus fluitans Lam.

5

Ranunculus lingua L.

5

Rorippa prostrata (J.P.Bergeret) Schinz & Thell.

5

Rosa stylosa Desv.

5

Salix rosmarinifolia L.

5

Scutellaria hastifolia L.

LC

LC

NT

EN

CR

Pinguicula vulgaris L. subsp. vestina F. Conti & Peruzzi - (Photo F. Conti) 152


5

Selaginella denticulata (L.) Spring

LC

5

Silene muscipula L. subsp. muscipula

5

Siler montanum Crantz subsp. garganicum (Ten.) Iamonico, Bartolucci & F.Conti

5

Teucrium marum L.

5

Thelypteris palustris Schott

VU

5

Thesium ebracteatum Hayne

CR(PE)

5

Thysselinum palustre (L.) Hoffm.

5

Tolpis umbellata Bertol.

5

Trifolium ligusticum Balb. ex Loisel.

5

Trifolium squamosum L.

5

Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr.

5

Ulex europaeus L. subsp. europaeus

5

Utricularia minor L.

EN

5

Utricularia vulgaris L.

EN

5

Viola biflora L.

5

Viscaria vulgaris Bernh. subsp. vulgaris

5

Woodsia alpina (Bolton) Gray

Pinguicula vulgaris L. subsp. anzalonei Peruzzi & F. Conti - (Photo F. Bartolucci) 155


Ranunculus giordanoi F. Conti & Bartolucci - (Photo F. Conti)

Poa magellensis F. Conti & Bartolucci - (Photo F. Conti)


Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn. subsp. gotlandica (Neuman) B.Nord. - (Photo F. Bartolucci)

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Communicating and educating on floristic biodiversity (Raimondi S., Vitale D., D’Amico D., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Martino L., Biffi L., Buccimazza T.)


ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Communicating and educating on floristic biodiversity

Raimondi S., Vitale D., D’Amico D., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Martino L., Biffi L., Buccimazza T.

I

Creating a Floranet flowerbed in schools - (Photo L. Di Martino)

160

n order to convey to individuals and communities what is now known as an “environmental culture” (namely all the information, relationships, knowledge, values and skills associated with both environmental protection and people’s health and quality of life), one of the most valid tools in the current context is environmental education. This discipline is today transversal to all areas and issues and is aimed not only at the younger generations, but also at all citizens without distinction, with information, awareness-heightening and training actions. It is also the main way to educate for diversity where this term has, unfortunately, a predominantly negative semantic connotation. At first glance, diversity is unlikely to be perceived as an asset. Among the students, “different” is everything that goes against young people’s need to identify with a group, so different (meaning opponent, enemy etc.) can also be a wild species. The environment offers a unique opportunity to enable children and young people to make

this term their own and perceive diversity as a richness, be it cultural or ecological. Environmental education is the main way to educate people about diversity. This does not mean merely stating its definition, but attempting to change the young people’s mental representations, which are what actually determine their ways of thinking and acting. Biodiversity, one of the most typical objects of study in environmental education, also offers cognitive obstacles and pitfalls, presenting itself in such a variety of forms with unpredictable changes and reactions that it makes it difficult to recognise common characteristics and regularities. Natural systems are in fact structured as functional systems at all levels of organisation, where causes and effects are linked in complex ways.

161


Setting up a Floranet planter - (Photo D. Vitale)

162

Environmental education, which as explained above today involves all ages of life and all formal or non-formal educational paths, manages to make these connections perceptible by encouraging experiences that make this world less apart from the observer. The most important educational message today is that nature, the biological reality, the landscape and ecosystem complexes must be protected, cared for or restored, not only for reasons we could define as “selfish” (in other words, because the continuous and serious destruction of the environment we are perpetrating threatens our health and our very security), but also for their own intrinsic value as elements precious because they are unique, for reasons that are also ethical and aesthetic. Because of the issues it tackles, a project such as Life Floranet lends itself well to this type of approach, which aims to implement a series of actions to safeguard, enhance and improve the conservation status of the plant species of Community importance identified. And while it is true that pressure from tourists, forest fires and indiscriminate collection are among the main threats identified for the seven target species, the importance of accompanying concrete conservation actions with a far-ranging educational action capable of affecting individual behaviour and hopefully changing it for the better is immediately clear. Among the main project outcomes on the theme of communication as a response to the indicated threats are: - creation of dedicated flowerbeds in visitor centres and botanical gardens with thematic paths in the parks involved; - production of information and educational material and thematic gadgets; - classic communication activities such as press conferences and press releases; - creation of a dedicated website with photo gallery and related social media pages; - creation of a specific mailing list for mailing periodic newsletters; - production of basic communication tools

including a final Layman’s Report; - organisation of photo competitions; - creation of protected flora trails in the Apennines; - production of short videos about the project, the parks and the target species; - networking at European level; - creation of an environmental education course for schools in the areas involved. The dissemination and awareness-heightening activities among stakeholders, consisting of joint actions to raise awareness of the importance of conservation by reducing the knowledge gap among local communities concerning the species and the need for their conservation, have in general been aimed at both local populations and visitors to the parks, who may obviously come from various backgrounds. With regard to these stakeholders, the most pertinent information concerned, in particular, dissemination aimed at the general public relating to the area involved and species concerned, in parallel with more scientific dissemination of the concrete conservation measures addressed mainly to a technical public. Within these contexts, one of the main issues to be tackled is certainly that of correct information for accurate management of the area and the species present there, in this case, the flora. Precisely the lack of information, indications and dialogue is one of the causes of the low perception of biodiversity as a central theme in policies to protect natural resources. In this project, particular attention was paid to education in schools, including through the creation of didactic flowerbeds featuring the species concerned. Alongside measures to manage the flora, activities were also carried out to promote knowledge of the species concerned and their conservation status and of Apennine flora in general, helping to develop the level of awareness, sensitivity and responsibility among the young people towards the safeguarding of biodiversity as a whole. This was achieved by means of an educational pro-

Visit of technicians from the “Conservatoire Botanique National Alpin” to the project areas (Photo PNM Archive)

Training course in the Alps for Floranet technicians - (Photo PNM Archive)

163


gramme aimed at the final cycle of primary schools and secondary school classes in the areas involved in the Life project (Table 1). Table 1 MUNICIPALITY OF THE PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS

NUMBER OF CLASSES INVOLVED

TOCCO DI CASAURIA (PE)

1

PALENA (CH)

6

GUARDIAGRELE (CH)

4

MANOPPELLO (PE)

5

TRASACCO (AQ)

7

PESCASSEROLI (AQ)

2

OVINDOLI (AQ)

4

The project was carried out over three consecutive years, providing all participating classes with a didactic-informative booklet specially created for the occasion to act as a useful aid for teachers and a work guide for students with games, simulations, proposals for activities and didactic ideas to deepen their knowledge of the species considered, their habitat and the importance of safeguarding the biodiversity of the Apennine mountains. The three-year programme included: - In the first school year, educational meetings with teachers and environmental education with classes, to increase their knowledge of the target species, the importance of their preservation and the problems the Life project aims to tackle. In some cases, classroom activities were also accompanied by field trips to botanical gardens in protected areas or to species observation sites. This phase coincided with the first, fundamental step in any educational process, namely identification of the problem, implemented through a preliminary phase of survey, definition and discussion of the students’ existing knowledge and mental representations of the main theme identified. - These first year activities were preparatory to and in support of the second year activity involving creation of didactic flowerbeds. Planting of these flowerbeds, in the school courtyard or specially identified public spaces, was carried out by Legambiente in collaboration with the individual protected areas involved, which provided support, technical assistance and specialised personnel for their creation and care. Educational information panels about the species and the project were erected in all the areas created. In this case, the fieldwork represented the concretisation of the relationship between the school and its geographical environment, to reinforce each individual’s sense of belonging to the environmental richness of their territory. - In the third school year (and in those to come), the pupils in the

164

classes will continue to cultivate, care for and monitor the flowerbeds in order to observe the growth and life cycle of the plants at close quarters, including on the basis of a cooperation protocol between the school and the individual parks, which provide technical advice on their maintenance. At the end of the educational programme, organisation of a final day to share the experiences gained among a number of classes selected and invited from among those taking part in the educational programme represents not only the conclusion of a cycle, but also consolidation of an experience that could lead to the beginning of a new period of awareness in schools regarding the increasingly urgent and topical issues of the conservation of nature and the ecosystem services it provides to man and which must therefore be preserved at all costs. The issue is far from minor, given that, on one hand, it is essential to spread awareness of the protection of biodiversity as one of the main objectives to be achieved and, on the other and in parallel, the equally strategic importance of informing people as to the role of bodies such as the European Union in nature conservation. But it is also important to raise awareness of the objectives and value that the Natura 2000 network and, more generally, the National Ecological Network can have in this respect, underlining the importance of protected areas in their role as a driving force for the rural development of sometimes even marginal realities. Lastly, making local communities aware of their role in protecting natural areas, while at the same time creating virtuous circuits for the local economy, are important concepts to be conveyed as early as school age, in the knowledge that in the long term, it is only by providing correct information and education to schoolchildren that we will be able to build the “park users” of tomorrow.

Floranet day with class IV of the “M. Della Porta” Primary School, Guardiagrele (CH) - (Photo: PNM Archive)

165


Valle dell’Avello, Pennapiedimonte Maiella National Park - (Photo M. Anselmi)

THE PROJECT SPECIES (Stinca A., Bartolucci F., Conti F., Di Cecco V.)


Name

Adonis distorta Ten.

Corso Bot. Lez. 4(1, 1): 448. 1823. (Adonanthe distorta (Ten.) Sennikov; Chrysocyathus distortus (Ten.) Chrtek & Slavíková)

Family

Ranunculaceae

Common name

Apennine pheasant's eye

Locus classicus

Maiella (Habitat in Magella) (Tenore 1823).

Typus

Aprutii. The Maiella. In pascuis glareosis montium supra “la Valle Mandrella”; 2500-2600 m; 25 VII 1899, G. Rigo 87 (neotype FI barcode FI063903, Fig. 1; isoneotypes FI barcode FI063902, LY barcode LY0030898, MPU barcode MPU446746, P barcodes P02559108, P02818999, UPS No. V-946879) (designated by Bartolucci et al. 2021)

Description

(Photo F. Conti)

168

Perennial herbaceous plant, up to 20 cm high. Blackish-brown rhizome, covered with the remains of dry leaves and with elongated roots. Stem prostrate or erect, flexuous, simple or sparsely branched, striped, pubescent with short white hairs, brown at the base and green above. Basal leaves alternate, petiolate, sheathing, generally deltoid in shape, 2-3 pinnatisect, with segments of the last order lanceolate-linear, acute, mostly upward facing giving the leaf a three-dimensional appearance, pubescent with short white hairs. Cauline leaves progressively smaller and sessile. Flowers terminal, solitary, actinomorphic, monoclinous, usually carried on a short peduncle. Calyx gamosepalous, with 5 ovate sepals, obtuse at the apex, greenish-brown, with often evident longitudinal veins, pubescent on the lower surface with short white hairs. Corolla dialypetalous, with 8-18 petals, arched and erect-patent, 2-2.5 times longer than wide, obovate-spatulate, obtuse-truncate or slightly crenulated at the apex, yellow or rarely tending to white, with often evident longitudinal veins, pubescent on the lower surface with short white hairs, longer than the sepals. Androecium with numerous free stamens with yellow filaments and anthers. Gynoecium multicarpellate, apocarpous, with numerous pistils with superior ovary and spirally arranged on a convex receptacle. Fruit subspherical polyachene, consisting of numerous ovoid-trigonal achenes, pubescent with short

white hairs, beak pointing outwards, monospermous.

Chorotype

Endemic orophile of the Central Apennines.

Distribution

Species known in Marche and Umbria on the Monti Sibillini (M. Vettore), in Lazio on the Monti della Duchessa (Grotta dell’Oro) and in Abruzzo on the Gran Sasso (Corno Grande, M. Corvo, M. Intermesoli, M. Prena, Sella dei Due Corni, Colle Andreole, Cresta delle Malecoste), Maiella (M. Amaro, Valle di Femmina Morta, Grotta Canosa, Pesco Falcone, M. Focalone, I Tre Portoni, Valle Cannella, Rava del Diavolo, Piano Amaro, Cima dell’Altare, Alta Valle di Taranta Peligna, between Monte S. Angelo and Cima Pomilio), Monte Velino (between the Capanna di Sevice Refuge and Monte Rozza, between the Capanna di Sevice Refuge and the Fontana di Sevice, between the Capanna di Sevice Refuge and Vallone di Teve, Monte di Sevice, Valle dei Briganti, Val Inserrata, summit of M. Velino, Monte Cafornia, Costa delle Tavole) and Monte Sirente (Val Lupara) (Conti 2001; Ballelli et al. 2010; Iocchi et al. 2010; Bartolucci et al. 2012, Conti & Bartolucci 2016; Conti et al. 2019c).

Biology

Scapose hemicryptophyte flowering from (May) June to July (August), fruiting from (June) July to August, dispersal from (July) August to September. Gamic reproduction by entomophilous pollination and barochorous dispersal (Stinca et al. 2016). At the highest altitudes of its distribution area, the duration of the vegetative cycle, assessed from resumption of vegetative growth to the senescence of the epigeal part (end of May-beginning of October), can be quantified as about 128 days (Di Cecco et al. 2016). The low germination rates and accentuated morphological and physiological dormancy of the seeds (Frattaroli et al. 2013) make this species critical from a conservation point of view.

Ecology

Heliophilous, microtherm species. It grows at altitudes between 1845 and 2675 m a.s.l., on calcareous screes with diverse exposures and slopes, where the clasts are small and there is low availability of soil and nutrients in the substratum, less frequently on more stabilised rocky slopes. It forms glareicolous, perennial, successionally stable pioneer phytocoenoses with generally sparse coverage and low floristic diversity (Stinca et al. 2016). These populations can be ascribed to the alliances Linario-Festucion dimorphae Avena & Bruno 1975 and Leontopodio nivalis-Elynion myosuroidis (Blasi & Di Pietro in Blasi, Di Pietro, Fortini & Catonica 2003) Di Pietro & Mucina 2015. On the Maiella,

169


Protection measures (national and re- IUCN risk category gional laws, Habitats Directive, inter- Endangered (EN, criteria: B1ab(i,ii,iv)) (Rossi et al. 2013; Orsenigo et al. 2018). national conventions) Abruzzo Regional Law no. 45/1979 and s.a.a.. Umbria Regional Law no. 27/2000. Habitats Directive 92/43 EEC ann. II and IV. Berne Convention ann. I. The known populations fall within the perimeters of the Monti Sibillini National Park, Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park, Maiella National Park, Sirente-Velino Regional Nature Park and Montagne della Duchessa Regional Reserve.

(Photo L. Di Martino) it is a characteristic species of the association Ranunculo seguierii-Adonidetum distortae Di Pietro, Pelino, Stanisci & Blasi 2008 (Di Pietro et al. 2008).

Reference habitats (Natura 2000)

8120 “Calcareous and calcshist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii).

Monitoring

Monitoring of the species, preceded by fieldwork aimed at identifying new sites, was carried out between 2017 and 2019 in accordance with the “Manuals for monitoring species and

170

habitats of Community interest (Directive 92/43/EEC) in Italy: plant species” (Stinca et al. 2016). The characteristics of each population (total number of individuals, number of fruiting individuals, impacts) were analysed between July and September, applying two different sampling protocols in relation to the size of the populations. The structure of small, sparse populations was assessed by direct counting of all the individuals (genets) present. In the case of very large populations with a high number of individuals, the size was estimated by means of 5×5 m test plots. These plots were randomly distributed within the population in a number congruent with

the observed population density variability. Twenty four sites were surveyed/monitored.

collection, however, represent the main direct pressure factors (Stinca et al. 2016).

Pressures and threats

Conservation actions taken

As the populations generally consist of a small number of individuals relatively isolated from each other, partly due to the poor dispersal capacity of this endemic species, they are susceptible to inbreeding. In the long term, this leads to reduced genetic variability in the populations and an increased risk of extinction. The particular autoecology of the species also makes it sensitive to climate change. Human activities such as trampling, triggering of landslides and indiscriminate

Seed collection (C1), reproduction from seed (C4) and nursery reproduction (C3) in the botanical gardens of the Maiella National Park. Its presence near popular high-altitude trails in the Maiella National Park led to development of specific communication actions, with erection of signs identifying the species along the trails, together with the express prohibition of mountain biking with the precise aim of protecting the species (C10).

(Photo F. Conti)

171


Name

Androsace mathildae Levier

Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 9(1): 43(-45, pl. 2). 1877. (Aretia apennina A.Huet ex Nyman)

Family

Primulaceae

Common name

Mathilda's rock jasmine

Locus classicus

Corno Grande (in alpinis editioribus montis Cornu, Gran Sasso d’Italia) (Levier 1877).

Typus

In alpinis editioribus montis Cornu (Gran Sasso d’Italia), Prima salita ripida del Corno Grande, sopra Campo Pericoli, rarissima!, 20 Aug. 1875, Mathilde Levier s.n. (lectotype FI code FI002428, sample at lower right) (designated by Bartolucci & Conti 2019).

Description

Perennial herbaceous plant, up to 3 cm high. Taproot system. Woody stems, mostly underground and usually forming a dense cushion. All leaves in rosettes at the apex of the stems, sessile, simple, linear-lanceolate to sub-spatulate (1-3×10-23 mm), margin entire or rarely slightly incised in the upper half, acute at the apex, veins scarcely evident, glabrous and glossy green on both surfaces, with scattered hairs at the apex margin. Flowers axillary, solitary, actinomorphic, monoclinous, borne on a peduncle generally longer than the leaves, green and pubescent with simple, branched hairs. Calyx gamosepalous, about 2.5 mm long, green, pubescent with simple, branched hairs and with 5 acute teeth, larger than the tube. Corolla rotate, 5-6 mm in diameter, with 5 obovate and obtuse-emarginate lobes at the apex, tube slightly narrowed at the fauces and contained in the calyx, white or less frequently pinkish and yellowish at the fauces. Androecium with 5 epipetalous stamens, contained in the tube, with filaments shorter than the anthers. Gynoecium 5-carpellate, syncarpous, forming a pistil with unilocular superior ovary and short style. The fruit is a capsule, ovoid, brownish, contained in the calyx, polysperm, dehiscent at maturity into 5 valves.

Chorotype

Endemic orophile of the Central Apennines.

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Distribution

Species only known in Abruzzo on the Gran Sasso (Corno Grande, Corno Piccolo, valley between the two Corni, M. Aquila, M. Camicia, Calderone glacier, M. Prena, Cresta del Duca, Pizzo Cefalone, M. Infornace) and Maiella (M. Amaro, M. Acquaviva, M. Femmina Morta, Cima Murelle, Alta Val Cannella, M. Focalone, Pesco Falcone) (Levier 1877; Conti 1987, 2001; Conti et al. 2008, 2019; Ciaschetti et al. 2015; Conti & Bartolucci 2016).

Biology

Pulvinate chamaephyte flowering from the end of June to the end of July, fruiting from July to August, dispersal from August to September. Reproduction is both gamic via entomophilous pollination and barochorous dispersal and vegetative through the formation of underground stems terminating in leaf rosettes (Stinca et al. 2016). In the extreme environmental conditions in which the species grows, seed germination occurs thanks to the presence of organic material derived from leaf decomposition (Fasciani & Pace 2015).

Ecology

Heliophilous, microtherm species. It grows at altitudes between 2,350 and 2,900 m a.s.l., in cracks in crags and calcareous rocky slopes, rarely on scree, mainly north facing, with very scarce soil and nutrient availability. It forms rupicolous, perennial, successionally stable pioneer phytocoenoses with very sparse coverage and low floristic diversity (Stinca et al. 2016). These populations can be ascribed preliminarily to the alliances Saxifragion australis Biondi & Ballelli ex Brullo 1984 and Violo magellensis-Cerastion thomasii Biondi, Blasi & Allegrezza in Biondi, Allegrezza, Casavecchia, Galdenzi, Gasparri, Pesaresi, Vagge & Blasi 2014.

Reference habitats (Natura 2000)

8120 “Calcareous and calcshist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii)”. 8210 “Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation”. 8240* “Limestone pavements”.

Monitoring

Monitoring of the species, preceded by fieldwork aimed at identifying new sites, was carried out between 2017 and 2019 in accordance with the “Manuals for monitoring species and habitats of Community interest (Directive 92/43/EEC) in Italy: plant species” (Stinca et al. 2016). The characteristics of each population (total number of individuals, number of fruiting individuals, impacts) were analysed between July

(Photo F. Conti)

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and September. As the populations are small in size and number, their structure was assessed by direct counting of all the individuals (genets) present. Eight sites were surveyed/monitored.

Pressures and threats

As the populations consist of a small number of individuals and are relatively isolated from each other, partly due to the poor dispersal capacity of this endemic species, they are susceptible to inbreeding. In the long term, this leads to reduced genetic variability in the populations and an increased risk of extinction. The particular autoecology of the species also makes it sensitive to climate change. Human activities such as trampling, triggering of landslides, the presence of equipped climbing routes and indiscriminate collection, however, represent the main direct pressure factors (Stinca et al. 2016).

Conservation actions taken

(Photo F. Conti)

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Seed collection (C1), reproduction from seed (C4) and nursery reproduction (C3) in the botanical gardens of the Maiella National Park. Planting of a new site with 35 individuals at the summit of M. Pesco Falcone (C7) with the plants obtained from action C3. During monitoring (D1) of the newly planted site, only two surviving individuals were observed in summer 2021.

(Photo F. Conti)

Protection measures (national and re- National Park and Maiella National Park. gional laws, Habitats Directive, interIUCN risk category national conventions) Least Concern (LC) (Rossi et al. 2013; OrseniAbruzzo Regional Law no. 45/1979 and s.a.a.. Habitats Directive 92/43 EEC ann. II and IV. Berne Convention ann. I. The known populations fall within the perimeters of the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga

go et al. 2018).

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Name

Astragalus aquilanus Anzal.

Webbia 24(2): 726(-733, fig. 1, pls. 38-39, map). 1970.

Family

Fabaceae

Common name Aquila milk vetch

Locus classicus

Colle di Roio (Origine probabiliter ex agro Sulmonensi; hodie in monte di Roio, non procul ab Aquila, inventa, m 800-1000 s. m., praecipue in herbidis) (Anzalone 1970).

Typus

Colle di Roio (L’Aquila) - 980 s.m., July 1969, B. Anzalone s.n. (holotype FI code FI001519) (Anzalone 1970).

Description

(Photo F. Conti)

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Suffruticose, up to 50 cm high, more or less covered with short, white, centrifixed hairs. Woody stem, generally up to 20 cm long, more or less erect, with ascending, grey-pubescent, herbaceous branches. Leaves alternate, petiolate, with brown stipules (2-4 mm long), usually lanceolate, up to 11 cm long, imparipinnate, with 17-21 linear or narrowly elliptical segments (2-4×9-17 mm), obtuse, mucronate, pubescent especially on the underside. Flowers zygomorphic, monoclinous, subtended by bracts about 2 mm long, erect-patent, grouped in a raceme (up to 8.5 cm long), multifloral and located at the apex of pubescent axes up to 3 times as long as the axillary leaf. Calyx gamosepalous, 10-12 mm long, whitish-green and often suffused with pink, pubescent with blackish and white hairs, with 5 linear teeth 1/3-1/4 the length of the tube and oblique fauces. Corolla dialypetalous, papilionaceous, with pale yellow

vexillum (20-24 mm long) wings and keel. Androecium with 10 diadelphous stamens (9 fused via the filaments and 1 free) contained in the corolla. Gynoecium monocarpellate, forming a pistil with superior ovary. The fruit is a legume, cylindrical in shape (3-4×1725 mm) and slightly curved, erect-patent, hairy, polysperm, dehiscent at maturity into 2 valves.

Chorotype

Endemic to the central and southern Apennines.

Distribution

This species is known in Abruzzo in several localities in the macroareas of the Gran Sasso (M. della Selva, between Santo Stefano di Sessanio and Calascio, Vallicella, Piano Locce, Valle Cupa, M. Cocozzo) and Maiella (Cansano, between Pacentro and Sulmona, Palombaro in loc. Piano La Roma), but also indicated for numerous other localities in the L’Aquila area (Colle di Roio, near L’Aquila, Capestrano, San Pio delle Camere, San Demetrio ne’ Vestini, between Poggio Picenze and Barisciano, Gole di Popoli, M. Scuncole, Valle del Giovenco near Casale d’Aschi, Colle Truscino holm oak wood, Pescina, between Gioia dei Marsi and Gioia Vecchio, M. Tricella and Colle Biferno) (Anzalone 1970; Conti 2001; Conti et al. 2002, 2019; Conti & Bartolucci 2015, 2016). A highly disjunct site has also been reported in Calabria on the southern slope of the Pollino massif (Morano Calabro between Vallone Cornale and Vallone Torta) (Bernardo 1996) where, however, it has not been subsequently confirmed (Bartolucci et al. 2018).

Biology

Suffruticose chamaephyte flowering from late April to June (July), fruiting from June to early August, dispersal from July to early August. Gamic reproduction by entomophilous pol-

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lination and barochorous dispersal (Stinca et al. 2016). The different environmental and microclimatic conditions in which the species lives explain the high variability of the morphological traits and chemical content of the seeds (Di Cecco et al. 2019b).

Ecology

A tendentially heliophilous species. It grows at altitudes between 450 and 1200 m a.s.l., on calcareous substrate, preferably in dry and stony south-facing secondary meadows. Less frequently it is found in sparse thermophilous woodland formations of Quercus pubescens Willd. subsp. pubescens and Quercus ilex L. subsp. ilex, as well as in afforestations of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold subsp. nigra and on roadsides (Stinca et al. 2016). It therefore participates in forming variously structured and biodiverse phytocoenoses with varying degrees of naturalness and ascribable to the alliance Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza & Zuccarello ex Biondi & Galdenzi 2012 and the orders Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae Klika 1933 and Quercetalia ilicis Br.Bl. ex Molinier 1934.

Reference habitats (Natura 2000)

6210* “Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites)”. 91AA* “Eastern white oak woods”.

Monitoring

Monitoring of the species, preceded by fieldwork aimed at identifying new sites, was carried out between 2017 and 2019 in accordance with the “Manuals for monitoring species and habitats of Community interest (Directive 92/43/EEC) in Italy: plant species” (Stinca et al. 2016). The characteristics of each population (total number of individuals, number of fruiting individuals, impacts) were analysed between June and early August. As the populations are small in size and number, their structure was assessed by direct counting of all the individuals (genets) present. Eleven sites were surveyed/monitored.

dumping of rubbish and indiscriminate collection are, however, the main direct pressure factors (Stinca et al. 2016).

Conservation actions taken

Seed collection (C1), reproduction from seed (C4) and nursery reproduction (C3) in the botanical gardens of the Maiella National Park. Silvicultural interventions aimed at preventing woody vegetation from closing the clearings and pastures where the species occurs (C5). Planting of a new site near Sulmona, strengthening of the site near Cansano in the Maiella National Park and planting of a new site in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park at Salcone near Ortona dei Marsi (C7) with plants obtained from action C3. Proposed extension of SCIs in the Maiella and Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Parks (C11). Within the “Maiella” SCI, the municipalities of Pacentro, Campo di Giove and Cansano have decided in favour of adapting the site perimeters to include populations of Astragalus aquilanus (C7)

Protection measures (national and regional laws, Habitats Directive, international conventions)

Abruzzo Regional Law no. 45/1979 and s.a.a.. Habitats Directive 92/43 EEC ann. II and IV, priority species. Berne Convention ann. I. Many known populations fall within the perimeters of the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park, Maiella National Park, Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park and Sirente-Velino Regional Nature Park.

IUCN risk category

Endangered (EN, criteria: B1ab(i,ii,v) +B2ab(i,ii,v)) (Rossi et al. 2013; Orsenigo et al. 2018).

Pressures and threats

As the populations generally consist of a small number of individuals and are relatively isolated from each other, partly due to the poor dispersal capacity of this endemic species, they are susceptible to inbreeding. In the long term, this leads to reduced genetic variability in the populations and an increased risk of extinction. Alterations in environmental conditions due to the natural evolution of woody vegetation, especially in areas where there is currently grassland, could cause rarefaction of the species. Human activities such as trampling,

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(Photo F. Conti)

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(Photo F. Conti)


(Photo F. Conti)

Name

Chorotype

Sp. Pl. 2: 951. 1753 (Cypripedilon marianus (Crantz) Rouy)

Distribution

Cypripedium calceolus L.

Europe, Asia and North America (Habitat in Europae, Asiae, Americae septentrionalibus) (Linnaeus 1753).

The species ranges over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal gradient, from the Iberian Peninsula to Scandinavia, eastern Siberia and Japan. In Italy it is present very discontinuously in the Alps and pre-Alps (Valle d’Aosta, Piedmont, Lombardy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia) and Central Apennines (Abruzzo). Relatively frequent in the Eastern Alps, especially in the Dolomites, it is found in isolated populations in the Western Alps and the Abruzzo Apennines, where it is listed for only three localities representing the southern limit of its distribution in Italy: the Maiella at Vallone di Macchia Lunga, Marsica in the Camosciara and Val Fondillo (Conti & Bartolucci 2015; Conti et al. 2019c).

Typus

Biology

Family

Orchidaceae

Common name

Lady's slipper orchid

Locus classicus

Iconography: Calceolus marianus in Dodoëns 1616, Stirp. Hist. Pempt., ed. 2: 180, figure on left (designated by Baumann et al. 1989, corrected by Jarvis et al. 1993).

Description

Perennial herbaceous plant, up to 60 cm high. Brownish rhizome, more or less horizontal, with elongated roots. Stem erect, sometimes flexuous, simple, cylindrical, pubescent, enveloped in brown sheaths at the base. Leaves 3-5, all cauline, alternate, sessile, sheathing, simple, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate (4-10×10-20 cm), margin often loosely undulate, acute at the apex, parallel venation, green and slightly hairy. Flowers zygomorphic, monoclinous, subtended by leaf-like bracts, carried on a curved peduncle, often solitary, sometimes grouped in a 2-3-flower raceme. Perigonium apparently composed of only 5 tepals on 2 whorls. One of the two outer tepals points upwards, the other points downwards, resulting from the fusion of two tepals: both are ovate-lanceolate and arched forward. Of the 3 inner tepals, 2 are subhorizontal and linear-twisted, while the forward-facing tepal is known as the “labellum” and is slipper-shaped, namely swollen and with the edges folded inwards. Except for the labellum (3-4 cm long) which is completely yellow, all the other tepals (4-6 cm long) are more or less purplish-brown or rarely completely greenish-yellow. Androecium and gynoecium (style and stigma only) are fused together to form a structure known as the “gynostemium”, with a dorsal red dotted petaloid staminode, clearly visible at the base of the labellum and covering 2 stamens. The fruit is a capsule, deriving from a tricarpellate inferior ovary, ovoid, erect, hairy, polysperm.

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Euro-Siberian.

Rhizomatous geophyte flowering from May to July, fruiting from June to August, dispersal from June to September. Reproduction both gamic by entomophilous pollination and barochorous dispersal and vegetative by forming new stems from the rhizome.

Ecology

A tendentially sciaphilous and microtherm species. It grows at altitudes between 380 and 2430 m a.s.l., preferably on calcareous substrate, in sparse broadleaf (e.g. beech) and coniferous (e.g. pine, dwarf mountain pine, spruce and larch) forests, scrub (rhododendron and willow scrub) and humid grassland. It is sometimes found on the edge of streams and screes. It therefore participates in the establishment of variously structured and biodiverse phytocoenoses.

Reference habitats (Natura 2000)

9210* “Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex”.

Monitoring

Monitoring of the species, preceded by fieldwork aimed at identifying new sites, was carried out between 2017 and 2021 in accordance with the “Manuals for monitoring species and habitats of Community interest (Directive 92/43/EEC) in Italy: plant species” (Orsenigo et al. 2016). The characteristics of each population (total number of individuals, number of fruiting individuals, impacts) were analysed between May and July. As the populations are small in size and number, their structure was assessed by direct counting of all the individuals (genets) present.

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Seven sites were surveyed/monitored.

Pressures and threats

Where the populations consist of a small number of individuals isolated from each other, partly due to the poor dispersal capacity of this species, there is a high risk of inbreeding. In the long term, this leads to reduced genetic variability in the populations and an increased risk of extinction. Alterations in environmental conditions due to the natural evolution of woody vegetation could locally cause the species to become rare. Human activities such as indiscriminate collection, incorrect silvicultural management and trampling of young shoots and new seedlings are, however, the main direct pressure factors.

Lombardy Regional Law no. 10/2008. Friuli Venezia Giulia Regional Law no. 34/1981. Bolzano Provincial Law no. 13/1972. Trento Provincial Law no. 11/2007. Habitats Directive 92/43 EEC ann. II and IV. Berne Convention ann. I. Washington Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The known populations in Abruzzo fall within the perimeters of the Maiella National Park and Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park.

IUCN risk category

Least Concern (LC) (Rossi et al. 2013).

Conservation actions taken

Seed collection (C1) and in vitro reproduction (C2). Silvicultural interventions in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park to prevent woody vegetation from closing clearings and pastures where the species occurs (C5). Small fences were erected to protect isolated plants or groups of individuals from grazing and trampling, as well as small bioengineering works, with construction or reinforcement of stone banks along the edges of the Scerto torrent to prevent erosion and undermining of the plants (C6). The 100 plants obtained from in vitro reproduction will be used in the After-Life period to reinforce the only known site in the Maiella National Park (C7). Manual fertilisation of flowers to increase fruiting and consequently the number of seeds (C8) (Gargiulo et al. 2021).

Protection measures (national and regional laws, Habitats Directive, international conventions) Aosta Valley Regional Law no. 45/2009. Piedmont Regional Law no. 32/1982.

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(Photo F. Conti)

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Name

Chorotype

Ann. Bot. (Rome) 32: 218(-232, 217-235, figs. 1-3, tabs., pls. 1-7, 9-11, map). 1974. [1973 publ. December 1974].

Distribution

Iris marsica I.Ricci & Colas. Family

Iridaceae

Common name Marsican iris

Locus classicus

Val di Rose (in calcareis montibus Marsicis (Val di Rose) Civitella Alfedena, Abruzzi) (Ricci & Colasante 1974).

Typus

In calcareis montibus Marsicis (Val di Rose) Civitella Alfedena, Abruzzi, s.d., Ricci et Colasante s.n. (holotype RO) (Ricci & Colasante 1974).

Description

Perennial herbaceous plant, up to 65 cm high. Gnarled, brownish, more or less horizontal rhizome with elongated roots. Erect, simple or scarcely branched, subcylindrical stem, longer than the leaves. Leaves alternate, sessile, sheathing, simple, basal leaves linear (up to 5×50 cm), falcate, smooth margin, with acuminate apex, parallel venation, green-glaucous, erect. Cauline leaves reduced to bracts. Actinomorphic, monoclinous flowers, subtended by bracteoles (5-6 cm long) suffused with purple, borne on 2-6 cm long peduncles, scented, grouped in a 3-4-flowered raceme. Perigonium consisting of 6 tepals on 2 whorls: 3 outer tepals (“wings”) pointing downwards, 3 inner tepals (“standards”) facing upwards and conniving. Wings obovate-spatulate (2-4×6-8 cm), obtuse and crenulated at the apex, bearded with whitish multicellular hairs at the base, more or less purplish and hairy over the rest, often with darker veins. Standards spatulate (2.3-4.5×5.5-9 cm), obtuse at the apex, whitish at the base, more or less purplish and hairy over the rest, often with darker veins. All tepals are conspicuously narrow at the base and fused together to form the so-called “tube”, which is shorter than the corresponding bracteole. Androecium with 3 stamens, filaments longer than the anthers, white to purple. Gynoecium tricarpellate, syncarpous, forming a pistil with a trilocular inferior ovary and style with 3 petaloid branches (about 1.7×3 cm) more or less suffused with purple. The fruit is a capsule, oblong-ovoid (2.5-3.5×5-8 cm), polysperm, dehiscent at maturity into 3 valves.

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Endemic to the Central Apennines. The species is known in Marche (M. Sibillini), Umbria (M. Cucco, M. Maggio), Lazio (M. della Duchessa, M. Ernici, M. Sabini at M. Tancia, Valle dell’Inferno), Abruzzo (Secinaro, Tione degli Abruzzi, Val di Sevice, Terranera, Fontavignone, near Lucoli, Prati del Sirente, Petrella Liri, M. Pizzalto, Cansano at Coppo del Diavolo, M. Porrara, Prato di Zocca, Villavallelonga, Valle Ciavolara, Val di Rose, Mainarde at M. La Rocca, M. Mattone, M. Castelnuovo, Valle di Fonte d’Appia) and Molise (M. Mattone, M. Castelnuovo) (Ricci & Colasante 1973; Colasante & Altamura 1986; Conti 1998; Conti et al. 2006; Ballelli et al. 2010; Gubellini & Pinzi 2010; Anzalone et al. 2010).

Biology

Rhizomatous geophyte flowering from May to June, fruiting from the end of June to July, dispersal from July to August. Reproduction is both gamic via entomophilous pollination and barochorous dispersal and vegetative through the formation of rhizomes terminating in leaf rosettes (Stinca et al. 2016).

Ecology

Heliophilous species. It grows at altitudes between 825 and 1800 m a.s.l., on calcareous substrate, preferably rocky slopes, pastures and dry secondary grassland, less frequently in scrub and forest clearings (Stinca et al. 2016). It therefore participates in the establishment of variously structured and biodiverse phytocoenoses with different degrees of naturalness.

Reference habitats (Natura 2000)

6210* “Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites)”.

Monitoring

Monitoring of the species, preceded by fieldwork aimed at identifying new sites, was carried out between 2017 and 2020 in accordance with the “Manuals for monitoring species and habitats of Community interest (Directive 92/43/EEC) in Italy: plant species” (Stinca et al. 2016). The characteristics of each population (total number of individuals, number of fruiting individuals, impacts) were analysed between the end of June and August. As the populations are small in size, their structure was assessed by direct counting of all the individuals (ramets) present.

(Photo F. Conti)

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Thirty four sites were surveyed/monitored.

Pressures and threats

Although locally abundant, as the populations are relatively isolated from each other and given the clonal reproduction and poor dispersal capacity of this endemic species, they are susceptible to inbreeding. In the long term, this leads to reduced genetic variability in the populations and an increased risk of extinction. Alterations in environmental conditions due to the natural evolution of woody vegetation could cause rarefaction of the species. Human activities such as trampling and indiscriminate collection, as well as overgrazing and reforestation of open areas,

are, however, the main direct pressure factors (Stinca et al. 2016).

Conservation actions taken

Seed collection (C1), reproduction from seed (C4) and nursery reproduction (C3) in the botanical gardens of the Maiella National Park. Silvicultural interventions to prevent woody vegetation from closing clearings and pastures where the species grows, in the Maiella National Park at Cansano (AQ) and Pescocostanzo (AQ), in the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park at Monte Mava (Civitella Alfedena, AQ), La Difesa (Pescasseroli, AQ), Vallocchie (Barrea, AQ) and San Biagio

(Bisegna) and in the Sirente-Velino Park at Terranera (Rocca di Mezzo, AQ) and Prati del Sirente (Secinaro, AQ) (C5). In order to reduce competition with other species, the asphodel Asphodelus macrocarpus (C5) was cut in the clearing at Colli di Valle Caprara in Pescocostanzo, where silvicultural measures had already been implemented. In the context of this action, individuals of Iris germanica, a non-native naturalised and locally invasive species, were observed in some localities in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Gioia Vecchio, Terraegna, Pagliara and Colli dell’Oro near Pescasseroli, Verrello di Ortona dei Marsi and near Bisegna). Since there is a high risk of hybridisation

(Photo F. Conti)

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between the two species, the “foreign” iris was eradicated. Fences were erected in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park at Rocca Tre Monti (Civitella Alfedena, AQ) to protect from horses grazing stably nearby, to protect a small roadside site (Colle Ciglio - Barrea AQ) and to highlight the importance of the site (Colli dell’Oro - Pescasseroli AQ) (C6).

Many known populations fall within the perimeters of the Monti Sibillini National Park, Maiella National Park, Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park and Sirente-Velino Regional Nature Park.

IUCN risk category

Near Threatened (NT) (Rossi et al. 2013; Orsenigo et al. 2018).

Protection measures (national and regional laws, Habitats Directive, international conventions) Habitats Directive 92/43 EEC ann. IV. Berne Convention ann. I.

(Photo F. Bartolucci)

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Name

Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn. subsp. gotlandica (Neuman) B.Nord.

Sver. Fl.: 26. 1901. (Senecio jacobaea L. subsp. gotlandicus (Neuman) Sterner; Senecio jacobaea L. var. gotlandicus Neuman)

Family

Asteraceae

Common name

Gotland Island ragwort

Locus classicus

Gotland Island (Neuman 1901).

Typus

Exsiccatum: Gotland, Klinteberget, 2 Aug 1890, F. Ahlfvengren s.n. (LD code 1173500) (designated by Hodálová et al. 2015).

Description

Perennial herbaceous plant, up to 10 dm high. Brownish rhizome with elongated roots. Stem erect, branched, striated, sparsely arachnoid with white hairs, green and often reddened. Basal leaves alternate, petiolate, ovate, lobed, with lobes larger at the base of the lamina, obtuse, pinnate, green-glaucous. Cauline leaves sessile, amplexicaul, pinnatipartite, with irregularly toothed and acute lobes, sparsely arachnoid with white hairs, erect, green-glaucous, becoming progressively smaller towards the top. Flowers grouped in terminal heads, with an expanded receptacle enveloped by bracts (involucre), on which numerous sessile flowers are inserted; flowers tubulous at the centre (disc florets) and ligulate at the periphery (ray florets). Involucre sub-cylindrical, with two series of bracts, 2-3 outer erect-patent and 13 inner erect, outer bracts much

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smaller than inner bracts, all linear-acuminate, green and ending in a brown apex. Flowers tubulous, actinomorphic, erect, 4.76.1 mm long; corolla gamopetalous terminating in 5 acute lobes, tube much larger than the lobes, yellow-orange; calyx transformed into pappus of whitish hairs; androecium with 5 epipetalous stamens 5, synantherous; gynoecium bicarpellate syncarpous, pistil with unilocular inferior ovary and long protruding bifid stigma. Flowers ligulate, zygomorphic, patent and arched, 13-20 mm long; corolla gamopetalous ending in a ribbon-like structure known as “ligula”, tridentate at the apex, tube smaller than the ligula, yellow; calyx absent; androecium and gynoecium aborted. The fruit is an achene, densely pubescent, surmounted by a whitish, monosperm pappus.

Chorotype Eurasiatic.

Distribution

The species has a highly disjunct distribution area. Initially described for Gotland Island in Sweden, it was later reported on the neighbouring island of Öland, in Russia, Austria, Greece, Montenegro and Italy. The Italian populations are located in Abruzzo on the Gran Sasso (slopes of Montagna Grande, Lago di Barisciano), Velino (Piani di Pezza, M. delle Cannelle, M. Rotondo, Colle del Nibbio) and Sirente (M. Briccialone) (Conti et al. 2012; Conti & Bartolucci 2016).

Biology

Biennial or perennial hemicryptophyte flowering from June to July, fruiting from late June to July, dispersal from July to August. Gamic reproduction by entomophilous pollination with anemochorous dispersal (Stinca et al. 2016). (Photo F. Bartolucci)

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Ecology

Heliophilous species. It grows at altitudes between 1260 and 1920 m a.s.l., on calcareous substrates, in pastures with various exposures and slopes (Stinca et al. 2016). It participates in forming variously structured, secondary phytocoenoses ascribable, preliminarily, to the class Festuco valesiacae-Brometea erecti Br.-Bl. et Tüxen ex Br.-Bl. 1949.

Reference habitats (Natura 2000)

6210* “Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco -Brometalia) (* important orchid sites)”.

Protection measures (national and regional laws, Habitats Directive, international conventions)

Habitats Directive 92/43 EEC ann. II and IV. The known populations in Italy fall within the perimeters of the Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga National Park and the Sirente-Velino Regional Nature Park.

IUCN risk category

Near Threatened (NT) (Orsenigo et al. 2021).

Monitoring

Monitoring of the species, preceded by fieldwork aimed at identifying new sites, was carried out between 2017 and 2021 in accordance with the “Manuals for monitoring species and habitats of Community interest (Directive 92/43/EEC) in Italy: plant species” (Stinca et al. 2016). The characteristics of each population (total number of individuals, number of fruiting individuals, impacts) were analysed between June and August. As the populations are small in size and number, their structure was assessed by direct counting of all the individuals (genets) present. Ten sites were surveyed/monitored.

Pressures and threats

As the populations generally consist of a small number of individuals relatively isolated from each other, despite the relatively good anemochorous dispersal of this endemic species, they are nevertheless susceptible to inbreeding. In the long term, this leads to reduced genetic variability in the populations and an increased risk of extinction. Alterations in environmental conditions due to the natural evolution of woody vegetation could cause rarefaction of the species. Overgrazing in sites where the species is present is, however, the main direct pressure factor (Stinca et al. 2016).

Conservation actions taken

Seed collection (C1), reproduction from seed (C4) and nursery reproduction (C3) in the botanical gardens of the Maiella National Park. Construction of two fences at Piani di Pezza (C6) to eliminate mowing in the areas and reduce the impact of off-road vehicles and grazing by large domestic animals and thus allow fruiting. Expansion of one of the two sites (C7) with 105 new plants from nursery reproduction (C3). In summer 2021, there were 102 surviving plants. Proposed extension of the Velino-Sirente SCI (C11). (Photo F. Conti)

192

193


(Photo F. Bartolucci)


Name

Chorotype

Prosp. Hist. Pl. Dauphiné: 30. 1779. (Carduus lycopifolius Vill.; Serratula lycopifolia (Vill.) A.Kern.)

Distribution

Klasea lycopifolia (Vill.) Á.Löve & D.Löve

Serrated leafed saw-wort

The species covers a wide, albeit discontinuous, distribution area from south-eastern France to European Russia. In Italy, it is present at the south-western limit of its distribution, with populations in Emilia-Romagna (Val Lardana, Valle del Torrente Liscato), Marche (M. Finiglia, M. Cardosa), Umbria (M. Faeto, M. Pennino) and Abruzzo (Altopiano delle Rocche including Piana di Ovindoli and Campo di Rovere, Prati del Sirente, Campo Felice) (Conti & Manzi 1997; Gigante et al. 2014).

Locus classicus

Biology

Family

Asteraceae

Common name

Not indicated.

Typus

Not designated.

Description

Perennial herbaceous plant, up to 10 dm high. Brownish rhizome often present. Stem erect, simple or rarely branched, striate, sparsely pubescent or glabrous, green and often purplish, normally leafy only in the lower half, monocephalous. Basal leaves alternate, petiole larger than the lamina, lanceolate, acute apex, equilateral base, toothed-mucronate with larger teeth at the base of the lamina, pinnate, green, pubescent with white hairs especially on the underside. Cauline leaves progressively sessile and becoming smaller towards the top, lower leaves pinnatipartite and lyrate, middle leaves pinnatisect, upper leaves reduced to linear laminae, all pubescent and with acuminate-mucronate lobes and apices. Flowers all tubulous, actinomorphic, monoclinous, grouped in terminal heads, with an expanded receptacle enveloped by bracts (involucre), on which numerous sessile flowers, all tubulous, are inserted. Involucre subspherical (20-30 mm), with 8-6 series of imbricate bracts, progressively larger from outside to inside, ovate-lanceolate, green-purplish, with a slightly raised, brownish acuminate apex. Corolla gamopetalous terminating in 5 linear, acute lobes, tube slightly smaller than the lobes, pinkish. Calyx transformed into a pappus of brownish hairs. Androecium with 5 epipetalous stamens, synantherous. Syncarpic bicarpellate gynoecium, pistil with unilocular inferior ovary and long protruding bifid stigma. The fruit is an achene surmounted by a brownish pappus, pappus larger than the achene, monosperm.

196

South-east European.

Scapose, rhizomatous hemicryptophyte flowering from mid-June to mid-July, fruiting and dispersal from July to August. Reproduction is both gamic via entomophilous pollination with both anemochorous and barochorous dispersal and vegetative through the formation of rhizomes terminating in leaf rosettes (Stinca et al. 2014).

Ecology

Heliophilous species. It grows at altitudes between 850 and 1545 m a.s.l., both in xeric continental steppe type grasslands and in mesophilous montane grasslands, normally managed as hay meadows or pastures, with various exposures and slopes (Stinca et al. 2016). In Emilia-Romagna, it is found on rocky substrate, mainly consisting of serpentine lithotypes, in two distinct ecological contexts: at the foot of an ophiolite cliff, at the edge of an area of humid grassland (Val Lardana); at the edge of a sparse beech forest, with intense soil erosion, in contact with a plant community with distinctly hygrophilous characteristics (Valle del Torrente Liscato; Bracchi et al. 2003). In Umbria and Marche, it is present on calcareous soils with a medium to low content of coarse rock fragments (Ballelli et al. 2012; Gubellini et al. 2014). In Abruzzo, it grows in wet and seasonally flooded hay meadows, on humus-rich brown soils (Altopiano delle Rocche, Campo Felice), or in more xerophilous herbaceous communities, on calcareous brown rendzina (Prati del Sirente, Rocca di Cambio) (Conti & Manzi 1997; Ciaschetti 2003; De Santis & Soldati 2011). It therefore participates in the formation of variously structured and biodiverse secondary phytocoenoses, generally ascribable to the classes Festuco valesiacae-Brometea erecti Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex Br.-Bl. 1949 and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea Tüxen 1937 (Gigante et al. 2014). On the Altopiano delle Rocche in Abruzzo, it is a characteristic species of the association Lathyro asphodeloidis-Klaseetum lycopifoliae Ciaschetti & Pirone 2019 (Ciaschetti & Pirone 2019).

(Photo F. Conti)

197


Reference habitats (Natura 2000)

6510 “Lowland hay meadows” (Alopecurus pratensis, Sanguisorba officinalis)”.

Monitoring

Monitoring of the species, preceded by fieldwork aimed at identifying new sites, was carried out between 2017 and 2021, partially in accordance with the “Manuals for monitoring species and habitats of Community interest (Directive 92/43/EEC) in Italy: plant species” (Stinca et al. 2016). The characteristics of each population (total number of individuals, number of fruiting individuals, impacts) were analysed between April and August, namely before or after mowing of the hay meadows or flowering of the natural coenoses, applying two different sampling protocols in relation to the size of the populations. The structure of small, sparse populations was assessed by direct counting of all the individuals (ramets) present. In the case of very large populations with a very high number of individuals (Altopiano delle Rocche, Campo di Rovere, Prati del Sirente, Piana di Ovindoli, Piano di Campo Felice), the number of individuals was estimated in terms of presence/absence within a georeferenced 25×25 m square grid. Six sites were surveyed/monitored.

Pressures and threats

(Photo F. Bartolucci)

198

Where the populations consist of a small number of individuals isolated from each other, despite the relatively good anemochorous dispersal of this species, there is a high risk of inbreeding. In the long term, this leads to reduced genetic variability in the populations and an increased risk of extinction. Alterations in environmental conditions due to the natural evolution of woody vegetation could locally cause the species to become rare. Human activities such as mowing before dispersal, excessive grazing and trampling of young shoots and new seedlings are, however, the main direct pressure factors (Stinca et al. 2016).

Conservation actions taken

Seed collection (C1), reproduction from seed (C4) and nursery reproduction (C3) in the botanical gardens of the Maiella National Park. Construction of three fences at Campo Felice, Prati del Sirente and Campo di Rovere (C6) to eliminate mowing in the areas and reduce the impact of off-road vehicles and grazing by large domestic animals and thus allow fruiting. Reinforcement of a site at Campo Felice (C7) with 140 plants obtained from action C3. In summer 2021, there were 136 surviving plants. A 20-year agreement between the Sirente-Velino Regional Park and the Amministrazione Separata of Rovere provides for monetary compensation for delayed mowing and renting of unmown areas (C9). To encourage fruiting and consequent dispersal of the seeds, the agreement involves eliminating mowing from 5 ha (mowing is delayed on 4 ha, while on 1 ha it is eliminated altogether).

Protection measures (national and regional laws, Habitats Directive, international conventions) Habitats Directive 92/43 EEC ann. II and IV, priority species. The known populations in Abruzzo fall within the perimeters of the Sirente-Velino Regional Nature Park.

IUCN risk category

Near Threatened (NT) (Rossi et al. 2013).

199


(PNALM photographic archive)


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