F RA N K I R K PA RT II
PROFILE FRAN KIRK, PART II ARCHITECTURAL ASSISTANT MArch, The University of Sheffield
I am a Part II graduate from The University of Sheffield with the belief that architecture can have the ability to improve quality of life through acknowledging the need to strive towards a better society. My experiences so far have encouraged me to adopt a creative and collaborative approach to design, working closely with other professionals and the local community. I began my studies at The University of Nottingham where I had the opportunity to build and present a student-designed ecohouse as part of the UK team in a global competition. This experience taught me the importance of integrating new sustainable systems from the inception of a design. It also allowed me to engage with teams from all over the world and acted as a platform for sharing and exchanging knowledge on different design approaches. Having developed a greater interest in the relationship between culture and design, I chose to pursue my Part I placement in Shanghai. I immersed myself in the challenge of an unfamiliar environment, language, and culture, and was given a high level of design responsibility. The experience was extremely rewarding and I gained an insight into differing approaches to urban design and designing for an increasingly large population. Before returning, I was fortunate to visit Japan and I began to establish a fondness for the sensitivity with which design is approached with an emphasis on the experience of a space. This influenced my design process throughout my Masters degree, enabling me to approach projects in new and interesting ways. I would now like to further explore the relationship between sustainability and conservation and how we assess the value of architecture through its connection to humanity.
PA RT I I
C O NT E NT S
The University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield
The University of Nottingham
The University of Nottingham
Y6 Live Project 13 Y5 Live Project 14
PA RT I
W&R Group 15
Nottingham H.O.U.S.E 16
A Key View up Victoria Road
Saltaire Community Case Study Booklet
SALTWELL HEALTHY LIVING CENTRE - SALTAIRE, SHIPLEY UK Year 6, The University of Sheffield (MArch)
A Model for Healthy Living: To what extent does fostering a sense of community help to encourage a healthy way of life? The changing live/work model and advances in healthcare have had substantial impact on Sir Titus Salt’s vision of Saltaire as a model community that embodies ‘a healthy working life’. There is now an increased awareness of the link between physical and mental health and the relationship between healthy living and work is viewed as critical not only locally, but globally. However, with increased pressures on the NHS and an uncertain future for funding, the current model is unsustainable. If Saltaire is to be preserved for future generations and continue as an example for ‘healthy living’, the model must be updated. This thesis project explores regeneration in the context of a WHS, understanding what is significant about the heritage of the site and applying it to sustainable development. This includes: exploring the positive effects architecture can have on the relationship between physical and mental health; how design can facilitate the creation of a support network within the community; how a mixed-use development can encourage a more self-directed and preventative approach to healthcare; how shared spaces can encourage community integration and ultimately how the community can take ownership over their sustainable future.
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The World Heritage Site of Saltaire
The Network of Community Buildings
Saltaire was created in 1851 by industrialist Sir Titus Salt, with the ambition to build a new industrial community that would benefit from a healthier working life. Saltaire achieved UNESCO WHS status in 2001.
In the original urban plan, the community buildings lined Victoria Road as the key axis through the site to Salts Mill. This has largely been retained with little change in use for the majority of the buildings.
Site Context and Programme The proposal aims to work with Lockwood and Mawsonâ€™s existing urban plan, strengthening the network of community buildings and providing a centre that combines healthcare, education and community support services. The building was principally designed around the interior spaces and their function, including the integration of a large central courtyard that contributes to both use and environmental performance. This is surrounded by both internal and external walkways that allow an immediate connection to the shared external space.
Ground Floor Plan 1:500
1. Plant Room (extends below stairs) 2. Therapy Room 3. Waiting Area 4. Clean Room 5. Treatment Room
6. Main Waiting Area 7. Medical Centre Entrance Lobby 8. Staff Room 9. Medical Centre Reception 10. Shared Office
11. Main Reception 12. Entrance Hall and Main Stair 13. Main Entrance Lobby 14. Cafe 15. Kitchen
16. Selling Area 17. Community Dining Area 18. Art Therapy and Cafe Area 19. Nursery/Flexible Exhibition Space 20. Treatment Room
21. Outdoor Seating and Play Area 26. Potential Car Parking Area 22. Growing Planters 27. Bus Shelter 23. Central Meeting Area 28. Potential Use of Green Space 24. Therapy Garden 25. Sensory Garden
The Healthy Living Centre The proposal adopts a mixed-use approach to healthcare, considering developments within the field and creating a building that forms an essential hub for learning and adaptability as part of the approach to community care. The proposed phasing outlines the creation of both health centre and community centre facilities, overlapped by spaces that encourage wellbeing. Public areas are situated towards the front of the building, with openings corresponding to views of the World Heritage Site and features of the surrounding buildings themselves. In the Community Dining Area, (pictured on the front cover), the large double-height window allows light to flood into the full height of the space in addition to framing a view of the almshouses. Optimum privacy is towards the back of the site where the alternative therapy rooms and waiting areas are built into the ground. These sit below a therapy garden walkway that provides an external route between the health and community centre areas of the building while offering a connection to both the courtyard and pedestrian walkway along the back of the site.
Materiality and Detailing The materiality of the architecture echoes that of the WHS, in particular through the use of York stone - anchoring it within the model village and as part of the network of community buildings. Reclaimed oak is introduced as a natural and sustainable addition. Both materials are separated using a strip of architectural bronze that corresponds with the string course in the existing buildings and playfully suggests an extension to the WHS boundary. The timber structure takes inspiration from Japanese design, with inter-locking beams and columns, allowing for the integration of shelving and screens which divide and characterise the spaces. These unfolding elements can be customised by the user and allow for various uses of the space, enabling it to fulfil future requirements. The use of timber is prominent throughout the interior of the building due to extensive research into the benefits of wood within healthcare and community environments. Studies show that it is a â€˜restorativeâ€™ material, proven to reduce stress reactivity and promote healing and concentration. It is therefore used as an essential element of designing for wellbeing.
Designing an Alternative Therapy Room
Alternative Therapy Room
The design process included testing the daylight factor in rough models experimenting with various skylights and ratios of white wall to plywood.
The final design was further influenced by spatial collages and art installation precedents focusing on the experiential quality of a space through the use of light.
Construction Elevation and Section C-C 1:100 (orig. 1:20) Zinc Roof
Stone Clad Wall
0.7mm VM Zinc 18mm Structural Plywood 50x50mm Timber Battens Breather Membrane 150mm Kingspan Insulation between 300x50mm Timber Rafters with VCL 12mm Plywood
100mm York Stone Ashlar (215x500 blockwork) 50mm air gap 50mm PIR Insulation Breather Membrane (also on Primary Wall Construction)
Bronze â€˜String Courseâ€™ Detail
Timber Clad Wall
Primary Wall Construction First Floor Construction
75x100mm Reclaimed Oak Fins on 25mm Reclaimed Oak Panels 50x50 Timber Battens on 50x125 Timber Battens with 100mm PIR Insulation Breather Membrane (on Primary Wall Construction)
15mm OSB 200mm Rockwool Insulation between 50x200mm Timber Studs Vapour Control Layer 15mm OSB 25mm Service Void between 25x35mm Timber Studs
20mm Timber Floorboards 75mm Screed with UFH 100mm XPS Insulation Isolation Membrane 200mm Concrete Slab* Tanking Membrane 100mm Sand Blinding 200mm Hardcore
50x500mm York Stone paving slabs on 50mm Sand Blinding
5mm Architectural Bronze
York Stone Paving
20mm Timber Floorboards 25mm UFH with sand:cement drymix 1:8 between 25x50mm Timber Battens on 9mm Plywood with pipes fastened 150mm Rockwool insulation between 50x300mm Timber Joists 12mm Plywood
*Concrete Footing to Engineers Specifications
Castle Ceramics Section
Castle Ceramics Section facing West The journey of an Artefact can be seen through the points highlighted. The artefact is retrieved from an archaeological dig, it is then sifted and washed in the underground floor where the archaeological spaces are present, these consist of washing and sifting rooms; a drying room; a storing room; and a community learning space. Next the artefact is usually stored or goes on to be mended/pieced together, usually in a traditional manner . Kintsugi is used more commonly on ceramics brought in by the community or thought to have lost value. It gives them a new life and new worth. Mended artefacts are then displayed in the museum or sold at the makers market, again the pieces most commonly sold are not those to be studied by archaeologists or preserved in the museum/gallery. Each piece of ceramic must be analysed and its value must be carefully considered before choosing the journey it is to undertake. The whole process links back to the fundamental ideas of conservation and its continuing development.
Castle Ceramics and the Market Tavern, Exchange Street
Castle Ceramics Museum Gallery and Making Spaces
CASTLE CERAMICS, CASTLE MARKET - CASTLEGATE, SHEFFIELD UK Year 5, The University of Sheffield (MArch)
This project looked at the themes of conservation and regeneration, focusing on the existing Castle Market building, soon to be demolished due to plans to uncover Sheffield Castle ruins. This was a decision made by Sheffield council and highlighted some friction within the local community - while some supported the decision, others were in opposition, believing the market to be an important part of Sheffield and its history. In order to understand this further the history of the site and of markets within Sheffield was explored, and surrounding buildings were analysed in terms of historical value. Similar precedents were also researched to uncover varying approaches to conservation. It appeared that the site itself contained many layers of Sheffield’s past, not least within the archaeological remains, many of which were still left to be discovered. The proposal considers conserving part of Castle Market, exploring the idea of memory connected to artefact and of adding value through ‘mending’. This relates to the making culture within the city of Sheffield and preserves elements of the past to enrich the city. The proposed building is mixed-use, offering a museum gallery and archive, alongside a makers market and making spaces. Ceramics are an important part of the architecture and its use, relating to the layers of history uncovered through historical research including the archaeology of the castle itself.
Architectural Approach and Development ‘Kintsugi’ is a Japanese method of mending ceramics that was used as a concept for the development of the design. It allows an object to convey a sense of the passage of time as well as simultaneously speaking of rupture and continuity. Mended ceramics teach us the lesson of nagori, ‘the intense beauty of a communal impulse to cherish and to share that which remains’. I believe this to be a poignant idea within the field of conservation, using new material to not only ‘mend’ but also to add value to the existing. Through understanding the various forms of Kintsugi I was able to develop an architectural approach that would consider differing levels of intervention focusing on the concept of ‘mending’.
Complex Material Assembly (CMA) ‘Mending’ was initially explored within the connection between the 1958 Castle Market building and The Market Tavern (1910) on Exchange Street, both dis-used and falling into dis-repair. Part of my proposal was to create a new piece of architecture that would become a transitional entrance space, using steel, a material valuable to the city of Sheffield, as the defining element. The design was adapted and reduced for the final proposal, becoming a defining steel piece within the architecture as if expressing the break between the two buildings while simultaneously allowing them to interact with one another and the wider site.
Bridge Connection The bridge between the buildings acts as a structural beam. 1. steel L beam 70x70x70mm 2. steel T beam 70x70x70mm 3. steel diagonal member 35x10mm 4. steel T support member 100x130x10mm 5. steel bracket (2.5mm thickness) 6. 15mm dia. bolts at 35 and 32.5 lengths, 16x5mm bolts Fixing the handrail The existing handrail in Castle market is partially kept as an artefact and continued with a new stainless steel handrail, following the curve of the existing handrail and ascending into a more lightweight framework of stairs and platforms. 1. existing wooden handrail 2. steel support frame 3. 15mm dia. stainless-steel cables Ceramic tiles on stairs Steel edges are fixed to the stair structure allowing for terracotta tiles to be secured in place using an adhesive such as epoxy resin. 1. terracotta tile (sizes for terracotta tiles throughout are variable) 2. steel edge 3. 10mm steel stair 4. steel spine support
Construction Section Original scales altered for portfolio layout 1. terracotta tile 2. steel plate welded to steel 3. steel panel (removable/attachable) 5412x1382x20mm 4. 50mm steel frame 5. steel brackets and fixings 6. large steel bolts connecting through vertical steel and insulation to steel plates and building: 185x25mm 7. 15mm steel vertical 8. 20mm sheathing with vapour barrier 9. 120mm insulation panels 10. 30mm compact foam insulation strips to go below steel verticals 11. 125mm timber end to vertical insulation 12. 120x50mm horizontal timber battens 13. 120x50mm vertical timber battens 14. 20mm wall board with vapour barrier 15. 200x95x10mm steel plate 16. precast concrete sandwich panel: 100mm external concrete, 75mm insulation, 150mm internal concrete 17. mechanical ventilation ductwork 18. galvanised steel shutter box with wooden shutter and insulation 19. steel shutter ceiling system
a, 85mm polished concrete floor onto existing concrete floor b, sliding door system (floor), 20mm plywood with 50mm internal insulation and batten panel system. Steel runner in floor. c, timber floor: 15mm plywood, 20mm screed, 50mm insulation onto existing concrete floor
d, 200mm existing concrete floor e, aluminium stud wall with 15mm plasterboard coating and 10mm external ceramic cladding, 15mm internal gallery plasterboard extra layer, 100mm insulation f, suspended timber ceiling for gallery: 50mm insulation and battens, 15mm timber slats
a, triple glazing to existing concrete floor join with insulation b, galvanised steel shutter box with insulation containing 10mm thick rolled wooden shutter c, 5mm thick steel shutter
a, sliding door system top connection to aluminium stud wall b, top of aluminium stud wall revealing door frame
WENTWORTH CASTLE GARDENS - BARNSLEY, UK
Year 6 Live Project, The University of Sheffield (MArch) Wentworth Castle and Stainborough Park Heritage Trust are an independent charitable trust responsible for the operation of Wentworth Castle Gardens. There is a total of 26 English Heritage listed buildings on the Wentworth Castle Estate and Wentworth Castle Park and Gardens is also a Grade I listed landscape. The trust have restored much of the landscape and buildings on the site, including an award-winning restoration of the Victorian conservatory. The walled garden is one of the only remaining parts of the site left in disrepair. The clientâ€™s principal concern with the existing site was the lack of access for visitors with physical disabilities. The walled garden project presents an opportunity to resolve this issue and address a broader vision for the redevelopment of the site. This includes relocation of visitor accommodation such as the cafe and ticket office as these existing spaces were designed for 30,000 less visitors per year than currently experienced. The site was analysed in terms of history, materials, existing fabric condition, environment and existing building users. Precedents of restored walled gardens were studied and architectural approaches to working with historic buildings were evaluated. The opportunities and limitations of existing key spaces on and around the site were also assessed. All work was presented to the client in the form of a document hoping to help achieve funding for the project, and a Participation Toolkit that could be used for further community engagement.
Left to Right: Visitor and Volunteer locations for on-site engagement, Participation Toolkit Collages from Community Consultation Ideas and Organising those ideas into Key Themes
ONE GREAT WORKSHOP, PORTLAND WORKS - SHEFFIELD, UK
Year 5 Live Project, The University of Sheffield (MArch) ONE
1. Make a mixture of two parts sawdust from Linthorpe Woodworks, one part newspaper from Colin and one part water
2. Remove the wedge from one side
3. Fill the briquette press with as much mixture as possible
1. Measure structural opening (from wall to wall)
2. Measure and cut timber to create the new window frame. Make the frame 40mm shorter and 40mm narrower than the brick opening. This compensates for uneven brickwork
3. Fix galvanised plates with screws
4. Place the wedge back in
5. Lower the beam down
6. Remove the wedge from the other side
7. Again, fill the briquette press with as much mixture as possible
4. Drill holes and then insert bolts
5. Layer foam strips, offsetting slightly from inner edge
6. Pre-drill holes and attach perspex with screws and washers. Take care not to crack the perspex
8. Place the wedge back in
9. Find a friend and see-saw
10. Carefully remove each briquette
11. Take the briquettes to dry in a warm place (eg. Andy’s forge)
7. Lift window into position and place timber packers between the brickwork and the bolt head. Now tighten the bolts to secure the window into the gap.
8. Slot the repaired reclaimed bike inner tubes into the gap between new frame and brickwork. Fix timber strips to contain tubes and inflate. This creates the airtight seal
9. Repeat for other windows
Leave for approximately two days Burn in a rocket stove (eg. Mark’s or Stuart’s)
Notes. If storing outside, place on bricks to elevate from standing water.This will help to prevent rot.
‘One Great See-saw’ Sawdust Briquette Maker
‘Another Great Window’ Bespoke Secondary Glazing Design
Portland Works is a Grade II* listed former cutlery works situated in the heart of Sheffield. In 2013, the building was bought by over 500 community shareholders, saving it from a future deflecting from its industrial past. It currently relies on volunteer efforts for the renovations to allow it to continue providing affordable workspaces for small manufacturing businesses, independent artists, and craftsmen. It has been the focus of two live projects within the school in 2009 and 2013, and is also linked with the on-going project Stories of Change. One Great Workshop echoes the name given to Sheffield in the 19th century due to the network of factories in the city, alongside the tradition of specialist craftsmen referred to as ‘Little Mesters’. The project looks at the history of energy and making in Sheffield with specific reference to the site. Working closely with the clients, tenants, volunteers and shareholders at Portland Works, One Great Workshop has explored potential energy strategies for the building, focusing on preserving the culture of making for the future. Further information on the project can be accessed via our blog: onegreatworkshop.wordpress.com
W&R GROUP - SHANGHAI, CHINA
No.2 Shipping Container, Shanghai Sculpture Space, Red Town, Shanghai My experience within practice was based in Shanghai where I was involved with a variety of projects at different design stages. This in-company shipping container project was very small compared to the multiple storey buildings and masterplan developments I had previously been working on, yet it allowed me to reflect on what I had learned from living and working in another country. The first shipping container had already been developed into a small cafe frequented by the staff and public, encouraging interaction within the local arts community. This was to be developed further through an alternative use for the second shipping container, with the brief being to find a use that relates to the existing completed container, to the site, and to the company. I explored a number of ideas relating to Chinese culture and activities within the sculpture space that I had observed, considering relevant user groups throughout.
Worth Garden Supplies HQ Company Render
Gemdale Development Lighting - System Design and Structure, Humen, Dongguan The project was to create two lit â€˜treeâ€™ structures within a retail development, with one to house a lift and a shop. My tasks involved developing a bespoke lighting design system that was presented to the lighting consultants. This would allow them to see how the lighting design may be achieved and find out how to apply the necessary technologies.
Worth Garden Supplies HQ Shanghai This was my initial project and involved working closely with the client, a supplier of garden tools and accessories, to design a new headquarters for the company. The total area was 18,000m2 over 9 floors. I produced second and third stage design proposals for the building and landscaping which I presented to the client. I was involved in this project throughout my time spent with the company and across a number of design stages. The project itself was considerably complex, allowing me to develop my knowledge of Chinese building regulations alongside my approach to commercial architecture.
1. ETFE 2. Lighting frame insert 3. Structure 4. Diffuser 5. L.E.D. strip 6. L.E.D. panel
No.2 Shipping Container Design Development
Gemdale Development Lighting System
On-site Sketchbook excerpts showing the building process: I regularly referred to my sketchbook for details I had noted on how to construct various elements of the building, alongside adjustments we had made.
On-site construction in Nottingham and Madrid
The Nottingham H.O.U.S.E Team
THE NOTTINGHAM H.O.U.S.E - UK AND MADRID, SPAIN
Year 2, The University of Nottingham (BArch) The Nottingham H.O.U.S.E is a student-designed and built Code Level 6 Passive House, created as the UKâ€™s first entry into the Solar Decathlon in 2010. The Solar Decathlon is a biennial academic competition organised by the US Department of Energy. It allows universities from around the world to compete to build a 75m2 ecohouse that relies on solar energy. The teams present their ecohouses to the public after assembling them on site. They are then judged against a set of 10 criteria including the architecture of the house, energy efficiency, and user comfort. I was chosen as one of 25 students to be on the construction and presentation teams for Nottingham, Ecobuild in London, and for the final competition in Madrid.
A Route towards the City Centre (South)
BORDERS, BOUNDARIES AND THRESHOLDS - CORK, IRELAND Year 3, The University of Nottingham (BArch)
This project aims to explore architecture through letter writing and consider how derelict or ‘leftover’ space can be enhanced as ‘space to write’ through its embodied characteristics. Leftover space offers the chance for a narrative to be re-written, adding a level of complexity and enrichment in addition to the layers of history ‘written’ before. Time, or more specifically ‘thinking time’, plays an important part in the act of letter writing, relating strongly to the choice of site and the notion of travel. On choosing to situate the building alongside Kent Station, the project hopes to develop the tensions and qualities of the site and allow them to inform the architectural vocabulary defining both form and space. The building itself will primarily focus on the process of creating paper and ink, while providing writing spaces to make creative use of time spent waiting. It shall also consider the shortcomings of Kent Station, offering space for refreshments and necessary facilities and an improved waiting area extending into a shop and exhibition space. The scheme will help direct users towards the city centre, strengthening the route across the River Lee.
Front Cover Image: ‘Community Dining Space’ Saltwell HLC Year 6 Thesis Project