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Strategic Planning using Business Anthropology

**AntropologĂ­a Business Anthropology de negocios** Issue EdiciĂłn No.4 5| |Noviembre December 2020 2020

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— Staff — Founders: Giovanna Manrique, Natalia Usme. Editor in Chief: Natalia Usme. Art Director: Camila Youngerman. Columnists: Jesús Contreras, Daniela Moreno. Translator: Natalia Usme. Proofreader: Carolina Serrano.

* Follow us on Social Media! Facebook: Flipa Consultora Twitter: @FlipaConsultora Instagram: @FlipaConsultora Youtube: Flipa Antropología de Negocios Web: Flipa Consultora Flípate © Magazine, December 2020. Issue No. 5. All rights reserved. Flípate Magazine is not responsible for the publication or distribution of international editions, unless the edition has been authorized by Flipa's administrative staff. Do you want to receive the magazine, or send us some comments? Please, email us at contacto@flipaconsultora.com

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Strategic Planning using Business Anthropology

EDITO�AL — Issue No. 05 —

* A chess game only becomes interesting when both players are able to analyze the strategic moves they are going to develop. If the whole scheme is well thought out, then the game can be won. Strategic planning is like playing chess: each one of the pieces on the board must be considered before doing any further moves. From the business perspective, each piece represents an element of the ecosystem: internal operations, clients, competitors, the business line, the industry, and the suppliers, amongst others. In this edition, we planned three strategic moves for three different industries. The first one, for the future of banking. The second move alludes to new perspectives on food production. The last one goes to the music industry. Are you ready to checkmate? *

Founder.

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RE AD ME p06

The Neo-Client: Designing the Future of Banking By Natalia Usme.

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Following the Lost Footsteps of Music By Jesús Contreras.

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Think About It, and Enjoy It! By Daniela Moreno.

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Strategic Planning using Business Anthropology

Our writers Natalia Usme. Business Anthropology Manager and Co-owner at Flipa Consultora. She is the pioneer of Business Anthropology in Colombia. Natalia has more than 8 years of experience. She focuses on designing present and future strategies for companies. She has a Master of Arts in Applied Cultural Analysis from Lund University in Sweden. At Flipa, she leads international and national projects. Natalia is part of the committee of the Global Business Anthropology Summit (GBAS) as a contributor. She is also an international speaker.

Daniela Moreno. Anthropologist from Universidad del Rosario in Colombia. Her work focuses on social innovation projects in the public and private sector. She aims at understanding citizens, unveiling existing gaps and problematizing inequalities to co-create and develop initiatives with stakeholders.

JesĂşs Contreras. Founder of the GOST Project, an initiative that uses photography as an instrument for change. He holds a B.A in Communication, Social and Cultural Anthropology. JesĂşs has more than 10 years of experience on media. He specializes in print journalism and photography. In 2008 he won the National Journalism Award in Venezuela with mention in Photography. He focuses on visual arts, culture and inclusive education.

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The Neo-Client: Designing the Future of Banking By Natalia Usme.

6 | FlĂ­pate Photo by Mirza Babic on Unsplash


Strategic Planning using Business Anthropology

Photo by Aleksandr Kotlyar on Unsplash

A few months ago, I saw a tweet about a public digital library containing books written solely by women. I found the idea so fascinating that I immediately decided to check on the literature they had. After a few months, I found Cypherpunk Women, a book that tells the adventures of a group of digital activists. One of these stories caught my attention: it was Allie Eve Knox’s, who is an erotic web model from the United States. In 2014, she tried to open a bank account to manage and protect her income. I say she “tried” because she did not succeed. No bank would take her as a client because of her profession. The reason? Her financial record did not seem “normal” for them. Allie sold products like lingerie and videos.

I would like to refer to three functions that money has within these exchanges to better understand Allie's case. The first is functional: a person offers an amount of money in exchange for a service. The second one is social: “person A” trusts that “person B” will honor an agreement between both parties, as money is at stake. Similarly, people use money to feel validated by others. In Allie's example, this validation works when it allows her to "be" within society. The third one is individual: money validates people’s sense of being, as it allows them to fulfill their needs and desires. If Allie did not have money to earn or spend, she would become invisible in the eyes of society and institutions.

After being rejected, Allie began looking for alternatives that suited her needs. She started out using Coinbase, and then tried digital wallets. These options allowed her to easily manage her money. In fact, she obtained significant benefits: during the financial crisis of 2017, she was able to pull out her savings without any difficulties and buy a house. Her story points out several elements that I would like to highlight about the future of banking, money, and humans.

Hence, when we talk about money and banking, we are also talking about human needs such as belonging, feeling secure, having a sense of support, and being able to make decisions.

The Meaning of Money Now and in the Future As I mentioned before, Allie is an erotic web model. In exchange for her services, she earns an income (Knox, 2020). This indicates that money flows through social exchanges.

The Sense of Ownership According to Allie, one of the best non-traditional options was bitcoin, because she felt it was hers, and no one else's (Knox, 2020). This sense of ownership hints that the neo-client is looking for the decentralization of banking: it is no longer useful for people to depend on traditional institutions to manage their money. Now people want to be in the center of the operation, monitoring, using, and even investing without intermediaries. The idea of ​​decentralizing banking can be understood from two perspectives. The first one |7


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* Banks need to understand that money designs identities, and enhances social interactions. * focuses on offering new money management solutions to customers, and the second focuses on the bank's operations. In Latin America, companies like Rappipay or Nequi operate under the first model. For instance, Rappipay allows its customers to carry out transactions from their cell phones and withdraw money at ATMs. Similarly, Nequi allows people over the age of thirteen to open a bank account through their cell phones. Nubank digital bank has created one of the most robust offers, as it does not have analog offices but rather focuses –from its perspective– on a dual proposal between digital and human, with a customer service area managed by people, and a simple user experience. Although their value propositions are simplicity and speed based, one has to keep in mind that these business models also generate digital footprints. For example, in Nequi’s case, the person has to go through facial recognition software before being accepted as a client. In Rappipay, the client must provide personal data and images of their ID to access the platform, which generates traces that remain in these companies’ databases. Then we have the open-banking format. It relates to banking institutions’ digital transformation of internal operations. In this model, financial entities are allowed to share clients’ data with third parties to offer products and services that match customers’ consumption needs and purchasing power. These current models show a glimpse of “client autonomy”, but this is not enough for a customer like Allie. She wants to own her data and 8 | Flípate

her money; she does not want to go through facial recognition protocols, she does not want someone telling her whether or not she can be part of a system, and she does not want third parties to have the ability to track her transactions. In this sense, my first suggestion for strategic planning in the banking industry is that it should be built through a deep understanding of new human and, therefore, ethical practices in the digital world. People will no longer settle for easy-to-use technologies. They want empathic and ethically designed technologies that guide them towards money management independence. They want technologies that encompass the functional, social, and individual dimensions of money. Banks need to ask themselves, “How can we improve our operations, technologies, and relations with our customers to increase their involvement?” Banks should also allocate time to reflect on how they are storing clients’ data and the impact that the “digital footprint storage” is having in the customer's imagination. I argue that they should create digital-ethics teams to design roadmaps that contain enhanced data usage practices. Similarly, the arrival of digital banks such as Nubank serves as a compass towards what I call “empathic technologies”. This bank operates based on the premise that human agents (not machines) serve their customers. In the future, this “humanization” will perhaps be replicated with artificial intelligence specifically developed to understand –through signals such as tone of voice or non-verbal language– what people are looking for in customer service. To achieve this,


Strategic Planning using Business Anthropology

development and design teams must consider indepth research to develop empathic algorithms that can recognize human signals and that, above all, encourage clients to decide how and when their money circulates and not the other way around. The first trend that I spot in this sense is banks acting as facilitators –not regulators.

Banking Censorship is Old News Allie decided to use Coinbase and digital wallets because, at the time, her profession did not fit into traditional models. However, what seems strange today, might be normal in the future. Hence, this censorship on who may or may not be a customer has to completely fade if the industry wants to prosper. As an example, the year that changed everything: 2020. As a result of the pandemic, people searched for new jobs and new nontraditional roles. There are a plethora of examples: OnlyFans models, KOLs (opinion leaders) in China, who do live broadcasts to sell products on marketplaces like Taobao; digital life advisors, and digital chefs, among others. Banking will be able to adapt as long as it understands these new professions. People that lack traditional legal support and manage their finances in very specific ways, but, then again, who still have significant and sustainable economic income. My inference is that banks will at some point have to readjust their customer screening and onboarding processes to welcome these neocustomers. If banks use automated databases that only work on outdated and traditional

notions of who may or may not have purchasing power, then they will bypass a whole new digital generation. Thus, one of the steps in strategic planning will be to review the algorithmic biases in these models and redesign them so that they are more open to current and potential clients.

The Future of Banking is to Generate Communities (With the Competition) One of the great risks for Latin American banks is the fintech industry, which slowly but surely has come to offer people and also small, medium, and large companies a faster, fluid, and innovative service. This separates them from a slow banking system that is full of paperwork and with processes anchored in outdated notions. According to data from Finnovista (2020), Fintechs in Colombia grew 26% this year while, according to Revista Dinero (2020), Colombian banks’ profits plummeted from January to August by 53.22% compared to last year. This data hints at possible collaborations between fintechs and banks. The former could provide nuances of innovation and technology to the bank, while the latter could share its experience and reliability. From this “collaborative intelligence” and the strategic approaches that arise from it, new products, services, or experiences can be devised to provide real value to current customers. In April this year, we detected a trend we called origamization at Flipa, which implies a business model transformation where, using the essence of the business, the organization generates innovative proposals for its clients.

* Clients want empathic and ethically designed technologies. * |9


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A well-known case of origamization in Colombia is that of Cine Colombia, a film distribution company, which transformed its business model amid the pandemic. It went from selling movie tickets and having physical cinemas to home-delivering movie snacks1. Then, it moved to a drive-in cinema model2, and finally to a streaming platform3. From April to June 2020, the company went through different models, but it always kept its essence: a business model that seeks to entertain people through the senses. It understood how to provide value through its essence, while also surviving the pandemic. To achieve this, it looked for suppliers from other industries to develop new models.

their organizational culture, current human and technological capabilities, and leadership practices, among other factors. Finally, analyzing the external ecosystem: its macro-trends, and the organization’s ability to create communities with allies to innovate in diverse ways. Like everything else in life, the best strategic planning is to explore, iterate, and finally win over that neo-customer. �

Cine Colombia’s case serves as an inspiration for banks to strategically plan an origamization strategy. I recommend starting by zooming into the current state of the organization, analyzing its current and future customers, and mapping exactly what type of relationship it wants to establish with them. Only then banks will be able to create a valuable social, digital, and financial contract with their audiences. The second step is conducting an internal check on

PÉTIT NOTE

Please read, Pulzo, (2020). Please read, La República, (2020). 3 Please read, La Opinión, (2020). 1

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REFERENCES

Cine Colombia se reinventa en Cineco/plus. (June 6, 2020). La Opinión. Retrieved from https://www.laopinion.com.co/entretenimiento/cine-colombia-se-reinventa-en-cinecoplus-197560 Cine Colombia se reinventa y lanzará esta nueva oferta en tiempos de coronavirus. (April 27, 2020). Pulzo. Retrieved from https://www.pulzo.com/economia/cine-colombia-lanza-domicilios-epoca-cuarentena-PP887834 El número de startups Fintech creció un 26% en un año en Colombia, hasta las 200. (April 30, 2020). Finnovista. Retrieved from https://www.finnovista.com/radar/el-numero-de-startups-fintech-crecio-un-26-en-un-ano-en-colombia-hasta-las-200/ Ganancias de los bancos bajaron un 53,22 % a agosto de 2020. (October 22, 2020). Revista Dinero. Retrieved from https://www.dinero.com/economia/articulo/cuanto-ganaron-los-bancos-en-colombia-a-agosto-de-2020/304377 Knox, A. E. (2020). Why I Use Bitcoin. Cypherpunk Women. Retrieved from https://citapress.org/#books/cypherpunk-women López B., J. M. (September 5, 2020). El autocine de Cine Colombia en Bogotá ya abrió y puede operar de lunes a domingo. La República. Retrieved from https://www.larepublica.co/ocio/el-autocine-de-cine-colombia-en-bogota-ya-abrio-y-puede-operar-de-lunes-a-domingo-3056132

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| 11 Photo by Sean Foley on Unsplash


Issue No. 5

Following the lost footsteps of music By Jesús Contreras.

12 | Flípate Photo by Vova Krasilnikov on Pexels


Strategic Planning using Business Anthropology

Without music, life would be a mistake. — Friedrich Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols

Music reminds us of who we are. A few days ago, I asked my friends to name ten bands that were meaningful to them. This experiment allowed me to further grasp on their identity, and to confirm why we remain friends after 30 years. If we thought of creating the soundtrack of our longstanding friendship, we could not miss Metallica, especially because we associate it with our rebellious years. At the end of last year, Metallica announced their 2020 South American Tour. I bought the tickets with no hesitation. Why? Because I would be able to tick off “going to a Metallica concert” from my bucket list. However, that dream vanished when the World Health Organization (WHO) classified COVID-19 as a global pandemic back in March.

The Quarantine and the Signs The social confinement brought a silence-scape. Life’s fast pace was replaced by a global mute for which we were unprepared. This new dynamic made me wonder: “How will the pandemic impact the forms of production and distribution within the music industry? How to rethink this business line? Will we ever have the opportunity to return to a live concert?” My wife and I tried to answer these questions. The first challenge we identified for this sector is the need to create a business model that intimately connects with fans. New ways of enjoying soundscapes will define new contexts with the potential to strike the deepest and most sensitive chords of our inner beings. In this sense, Business Anthropology can help us imagine possible futures to shape a new era of the entertainment industry through accurate and forceful strategic planning. Now, how do we do that?

First of all, we must identify the change signs that this industry has experienced in the past and the present. This will serve as a basis for making projections of the future. From these elements, we can determine where the business is headed and what it can become. Let's review the first sign. Thirty years ago, recorded music was expensive and rare. Customers carefully chose the records they bought, creating collections that reflected the evolution of their tastes and their life stories (I was one of them). For me, owning a vinyl record or a cassette was an act of communication and expression of my identity. At the end of the last century, with the arrival of the digital age, practices such as collecting records or buying them lost importance. That was the first sign hinting that the industry had to change. The new consumers wanted to access music easily and quickly. The model based on the appropriation of a physical object –call it a vinyl record, CD, or cassette– was replaced by that of a service that offered everyone access to their favorite songs.

Metallica vs Napster: A New Hope In the late 90’s Napster transformed our ideas about the music industry, paving the way for streaming. It made it possible for people to use the internet to exchange music files in MP3 format. This business model was the cornerstone of the current one. However, back then, the music industry was reluctant to this paradigm shift. It did not want people to acquire music at zero cost. Napster’s debacle happened when Metallica’s song I Disappear was released on the platform before the album was available on the market. This caught the attention of the RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) and of course the band itself. The legendary metal group was one | 13


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of the promoters of taking an offensive against Napster; They even requested a ten million dollars compensation and shared a list of names of approximately 330,000 fans who shared their songs through this platform (Vega, 2020). In 2020, a virtual reality company acquired Napster. Interestingly, this technological resource could be the answer for bands like Metallica, transforming their show into an immersive and sensory experience. Just as it did at the turn of the last century, Napster is again sending us a signal –our second one– to evaluate and rethink the music industry. Pablo Munguía, a Mexican producer and engineer, winner of seven Emmy awards and MIT graduate, argues that virtual reality opens the way for authors and performers to defend their intellectual property, offering more powerful and multi-user experiences that are difficult to hack (Serrano, 2018). This brings us to our latest sign: COVID-19 accelerated the frequent use of ICTs. In its Digital Report from October 2020, the agency We are Social Hootsuite revealed that more than half of the world's population is using social media. This means that 4.66 billion people are connected nowadays, which accounts for nearly 60% of the world's population (Kemp, 2020).

In response to this new circumstance, well-known artists and emerging bands are experimenting with technology. On one hand, in April this year, Travis Scott streamed a live concert through Fortnite, a video game platform. More than 12.3 million people saw the show in real time, increasing the streaming numbers for some of his songs by over 50% (Bedoya, 2020). On the other hand, independent bands chose Zoom as their streaming platform. In my opinion, having bands interacting from their own home with fans adds a sense of intimacy to the experience. This trend suggests that when fans go to a concert or listen to the new single by their favorite group, they look for an immersive, emotional, and –especially– sensory experience.

Signs for the future What to do with all these signals and how to design possible futures for the music industry? We should think of the strategic moves we want to unfold in the medium and long term during the post-pandemic era. In this way, we will be able to develop market-oriented goals in which clients are no longer just passive consumers of the product but co-creators of their musical experience. We could use the Futures Wheel for this purpose. This tool is one of the best and easiest

� Back in the 90's, Napster changed the music industry, paving the way for streaming. �

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ďż˝ We can use the Futures Wheel to imagine possible futures for the music industry. ďż˝

| 15 Photo by Ashutosh Sonwani on Pexels


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known to apply prospective techniques. We could use it to analyze the signs I have mentioned throughout this article to imagine the future of the industry. It has two exercises that can be developed with our clients and even with our teams.

virtual reality concerts? As I have highlighted before, a possible outcome is that, by using technology, artists –and even producers– are able to offer unique, innovative, and personalized experiences for music lovers.

The first step is to facilitate a structured brainstorming. Let's think about Travis Scott’s concert: Astronomical. We can explore all possible ideas no matter how far-fetched they seem to us. For example, the idea of enjoying ​​ a concert in our living rooms to enter surreal worlds with virtual reality singers may end up becoming a standard expectation for fans.

Thus, the music industry should focus on creating immersive and context-based products and services. The key is to generate personalized and interactive online experiences that offer continuous, unrepeatable, and irreplaceable value for fans. In this way, clients will hold power over the value proposition.

The second exercise is to take these ideas and create a mind map to analyze the impacts that these trends or ideas might have on the market and our client. This map is usually circle-shaped to better visualize how all the ideas from the previous phase connect. Let's keep reviewing the Astronomical experience: what are the consequences of hosting

The transformation of this industry will go hand-in-hand with the digital revolution during the post-pandemic era. The future is before our eyes, we just need to keep them wide open. �

REFERENCES

Bedoya, L. (May 11, 2020). La industria de la música en tiempos de pandemia. PuntoEdu. Retrieved from https://puntoedu.pucp.edu.pe/opinion/industria-musica-en-tiempos-de-pandemia/ Nietzsche, F. (s.f). El ocaso de los ídolos. Retrieved from http://juango.es/files/El-Ocaso-de-los-Idolos.pdf Serrano, N. (May 28, 2018). El futuro de la música pasa por la Realidad Virtual. ABC. Retrieved from https://www.abc.es/cultura/musica/abci-futuro-musica-pasa-realidad-virtual-201805281316_noticia.html Vega, G. (August 26, 2020. La nueva vida de Napster: de cambiar la industria de la música a valer apenas 60 millones. Retina. Retrieved from https://retina.elpais.com/retina/2020/08/26/tendencias/1598469139_125227.html Kemp, S. (October 20, 2020). Los usuarios de las redes sociales superan los 4 mil millones a medida que aumenta la adopción global. [Blog Article]. Retrieved from https://wearesocial.com/blog/2020/10/social-media-users-pass-the-4-billion-mark-as-global-adoption-soars

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| 17 Photo by SaĹĄo TuĹĄar on Unsplash


Photo by cottonbro

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Think about it, and enjoy it!

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Co-authors: Daniela Moreno and Natalia Usme


Strategic Planning using Business Anthropology

"Do you know what is your diet’s carbon footprint? What about the miles your food travels to reach your plate?" I read these questions on an Instagram post. To be honest, I had never thought about it. I was not mindful of the social and environmental impact that our food has.

results that could be obtained by mixing the wisdom of the farmer with the technology and processes of these areas. Opportunities for innovation would be envisioned in matters such as agricultural technology, or plastic-free package design, among others.

Until then, I had only focused on the simple act of eating, without reflecting on the entire process that a product goes through before reaching my hands. In fact, the social, economic, and sanitary crisis unleashed by the COVID-19 pandemic made me aware of how important this process is, and that there is a strategic role that companies in the food industry can adopt.

Why Should the Business Focus on People's Identities?

To dive into this topic, I decided to analyze a business case from an agroecological food company. The name of the company is Campesino Millennial [Millennial Farmer]; I discovered it on Instagram. Its branding strategy showcases the food production process end-to-end. For example, it shows how to produce honey and obtain fresh milk step by step, alongside other farming activities. Additionally, it uses a man in its visual communication, symbolizing the relationship between humans and nature: he is always depicted showing respect and taking good care of the animals.

Strategic Planning Meets Context Why is the branding strategy of this account so valuable? Because the new consumer has been questioning the dynamics of food production and its environmental impact for a while, and Campesino Millennial knows it. The renewed reflections and discussions derived from the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are a clear sign of this. In particular, those demanding society to adopt healthier behaviors, and those that call out on the environmental detriment induced by the constant use of disposable personal protection items (such as face masks and gloves). Hence, the strategic planning for the food industry could focus on developing alliances between rural communities and research and product development areas within organizations. Doing so would allow us to return to our origins –the land, and come up with innovative ideas based on benefiting the environment. For instance, imagine the conversation and the

The type of interaction that @campesino_millennial establishes with its consumers, as well as its business model, reveals the construction of a lifestyle that this organization seeks to sell to its customers. By using the "human meets nature" archetype, the company resonates with audiences who find value in this message. Why? Because food is an indicator of our belonging and our individuality; In fact, eating is a political act that reaffirms identities. In line with the above, companies can start by mapping who the new customers are and what they will be like in the future. Vegetarian activists, millennial farmers, and nostalgic consumers, among others, are examples of them. When doing so, organizations should remember that each of these archetypes navigates in human environments that cannot be reduced to labels. However, tools like this could help companies develop informed strategies, as long as they count on anthropologists, sociologists, and other social scientists working alongside the research and design process.

People and the Company Learning Hand-in-Hand Companies can also start awareness campaigns regarding consumption practices.CampesinoMillennial, the organization that I have taken as my starting point, uses videos, pictures, and text in their posts to teach people how to develop a deeper relationship with nature and the product. But one should be very cautious when analyzing these posts. Although they seem like simple tutorials, they have a more profound meaning. With phrases such as "MILKING implies getting up at dawn, PUTTING ON boots that feel damp from the cold..." (Campesino Millennial, 2020), the company seeks to validate ancestral behaviors to sell them to the new customer. It tries, for instance, to help the customer understand that they must put a little bit of effort to get a hold of the food they usually take for granted. | 19


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� Choosing what to eat reaffirms our identity. Companies must think about emerging social identities, such as the millennial farmer, or the vegetarian activist, to create strategies. � That same post goes on like this: "Greet the cows ... then reward them for giving us food" (Campesino Millennial, 2020). This indicates the need for a dialogue, an intimate moment between human and animal that does not go unnoticed and that is co-created. Neither has power over the other, they simply are. Although these practices were the norm (not the exception) in the past, contextual movements –such as people from the countryside migrating to cities, industrialization, and the digitalization of processes– have made us forget about the "old days". Once upon a time, humans were able to expose themselves and be one with nature. Perhaps it is time to return to this, and perhaps the food industry companies are the chosen ones to lead the way. One way to achieve this is through digital channels. Organizations could arrange "field trips" for their customers using tools such as Zoom or virtual reality, among others, and conduct

farm-tours. Customers would then understand what happens at 5 am when the day begins. Or perhaps, companies could create what-to-do-withthe-packaging circular consumption tutorials, just like @campesino_millennial is already doing. Businesses need to understand the power they yield, and how they create collective conscience within their ecosystem. That is the real road to positive strategic planning. Now, I want you to think about how your food gets to the plate; Once you have tasted every step of the process, you will mindfully enjoy it. �

PÉTIT NOTE

By nostalgic consumers, the co-authors refer to people who, as a consumption pattern, are oriented to buy food that makes them think of their childhood or happy moments in their lives.

REFERENCES

Campesino Millennial. [@campesino_millennial]. (September 4, 2020). [Instagram Profile] Retrieved on December 3, 2020, from https://www.instagram.com/p/CEuWENFJGkB/

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| 21 Photo by Daniel Salcius en Unsplash


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— Issue No. 5 —

— Business Anthropology —


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