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Fletcher

For Alumni and Friends of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University Fall 2015

Magazine

AMERICA’S

top GENERAL

How the son of a Boston cop became chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff


Envoy

STarting Up Rockford Weitz, F03, F08, is a serial entrepreneur, having started six enterprises, including two nonprofits. Now he’s donned another hat: entrepreneur coach at The Fletcher School, helping students, alumni, and faculty think through ideas, create business plans, and connect with potential customers and investors. He will soon offer The Fletcher School’s first course in entrepreneurship, with a focus on social enterprises. “I’m going to be an exemplar of failing fast and adjusting quickly,” he says with a laugh. Those traits, he notes, are key for entrepreneurs. “I define entrepreneurship as problem solving with limited resources. It’s about experimentation and then execution,” says Weitz, who’s 38. “Find what works and then scale, and do that before you run out of money and resources.” Given that many Fletcher students will land government jobs, he’s also focused on what’s called “intrapreneurship”—efforts to innovate within large organizations. Weitz, who grew up on a farm in Idaho, first came to Fletcher for the joint M.A.L.D./J.D. degree program with Harvard Law School, and then went off to work at a start-up. He came back a few years later, earning a Ph.D. in maritime affairs in 2008. That same year, he co-founded his most successful start-up, CargoMetrics, a Boston-based data analytics firm that grew into a technology-driven investment manager. Having passed the CargoMetrics CEO baton to a fellow co-founder, Weitz continues to advise several start-ups, including Boston-based Cardinal Wind—and focus on his latest venture at Fletcher. ­— Taylor McNeil

Photo: Alonso Nichols


Contents

Fa ll 2015 Vo l u m e 37, N o. 1

Features

04 Beyond Violence

A new effort aims to create a generation of peacemakers. by Heather Stephenson

08 A Few Good Men and Women

Fletcher’s first writer-in-residence, a veteran of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, argues that universities need veterans. by ELliot Ackerman, A03, F03

10 Justice to the World

Judge Joyce Aluoch, F08, helps decide the planet’s thorniest human rights cases. By Stephanie Thurrott

12 Put Down Your Dukes

Professor Jeswald Salacuse advises how and when to negotiate, and argues it’s the best way forward for individuals—and nations. By Gail Bambrick

16 Top Brass

 Cover Story The new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Joseph F. Dunford Jr., F92, is the “complete warrior-statesman.” By Taylor McNeil

12 In Every Issue 2 Letters 3 From the dean 4 Dispatches News from Around the Globe 19 connect Keeping Up with the Fletcher Community

About the Cover General Joseph F. Dunford Jr., F92, is now the nation’s highest-ranking military officer (page 16). U.S. Marine Corps photo by Corporal Lauren Whitney

24 Club News 28 Class Notes 60  In Memoriam

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64 Detail


Letters ALL IN THE FAMILY I was pleased to see Alison Erlwanger, F15, featured in the magazine (“Giving Back,” Fall 2014). I first met her about two years ago at a Fletcher Alumni of Color Association careers panel and got to know her better after FACA awarded her the Josephine Lukoma Memorial Scholarship. Her application for the scholarship was a standout, and we were glad to support her summer internship working on microloans through an HIV clinic in Rwanda. Now she’s volunteered to help FACA with our Web presence. Welcome to the “Fletcher Mafia,” Alison! Staying connected to Fletcher has helped me make friends who are like family; I recommend it. Kelly Smith, F03 FACA Executive Board Silver Spring, Maryland

CHANGING CLIMATE Both your Fall 2014 article, “Heating Up,” on the geopolitical implications of warming in the Arctic, and the response from Fletcher Adjunct Associate Professor of International Business Bruce Everett (Letters, Spring 2015) inter­ ested me greatly. Professor Everett, a former ExxonMobil employee, contends that “we don’t really understand the role of human[-caused] greenhouse gas emissions in observed changes in climate.” Yet the overall trend lines in global temperature rise and in the loss of Arctic ice are clear. Between 97 and 98 percent of climate scientists agree that climate change is a problem of human making. The world keeps breaking temperature records—the 10 hottest years on record have all happened since 1998, with 2014 breaking the record again. The prob­ lem extends far beyond rising temperatures, to other aspects of climate change, including “weird weather” such as the severe drought in the western United States. The risks from climate change are even greater for developing countries. The global business community, national security agencies, and foreign-policy makers around the world today now treat the reality of climate change as an urgent issue to be addressed. A new international climate agreement is widely anticipated in the Paris negotiations at the end of this year.

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Increasingly, the investment and insurance industries take climate risks into their calculations when evaluating long-term project sustainability and profitability, and calls for a global price on carbon have increased. The Department of Defense recognizes climate change as a “threat multiplier” in conflict regions of the world. Former Secretary of Treasury Henry Paulson (appointed by George W. Bush) is among those telling us that responding to climate change is necessary and prudent in business risk management. And every aspect of statecraft has begun to incorporate the changing global climate into negotiations and planning—whether the issues are humanitarian response, international trade, or security. In my work since Fletcher, I’ve seen that the impacts of climate change are huge for regions in the developing world. In the tropical Andes, numerous microclimates that provide habitats for different species are threatened. In addition, the melting of glacial icecaps threatens the water supplies of mega-cities like Lima. That’s undoubtedly one reason why Peru has come out as a leader with its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (essentially its climate action plan). The country has been working on this since I was in Lima during my Fletcher summer, working for the Peruvian government to examine ways to improve its public transit system, reduce ground-level pollution, improve public health, and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions.  The climate has changed, and is continuing to change, due to human-driven impacts. I hope that The Fletcher School, its professors and graduates, and its alumni magazine continue to play a crucial role in addressing climate change in the policy and business realms. Susan Williams, LA94, F00 Washington, D.C.

Fletcher Magazine welcomes your letters. Send them to fletcheralum@tufts.edu or Editor, Fletcher Magazine, Tufts Publications, 80 George Street, Medford, MA 02155. Letters are edited for length and clarity.

fletcher magazine  |  Fall 2015

v o l u m e 37, n o. 1 Fa l l 2 015 Editor Heather Stephenson Designers Margot Grisar, faith hruby, Laura McFadden Office of Development and Alumni Relations Kathleen Bobick, Administrative Assistant Tara DiDomenico, Director, The Fletcher Fund Lindsey Kelley, Coordinator, Alumni Relations and Stewardship Georgia Koumoundouros, Associate Director, Development Kate Ryan, Senior Director, Development and Alumni Relations Robert Sherburne, Associate Director, Development Cynthia Weymouth, Administrative Assistant Stay connected with Fletcher! Online Community: alumniconnections.com/fletcher LinkedIn: fletcher.tufts.edu/Alumni/LinkedIn Fletcher Magazine is published twice annually by The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. The opinions expressed in this publication are the authors’ own and do not necessarily represent those of The Fletcher School. Send correspondence to: Fletcher Magazine, Tufts Publications, 80 George Street, Medford, MA 02155 or email fletcheralum@tufts.edu. © 2015 TRUSTEES OF TUFTS UNIVERSITY

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Dean’s Corner

Preparing Future Leaders of our new strategic plan can be summed up in one word: relevance. To prepare our graduates for leadership on the international stage, The Fletcher School must have a relevant curriculum. We must equip our students with cutting-edge interdisciplinary knowledge and practical problem-solving skills to address the most significant global challenges of the 21st century. “Fletcher already does that,” you might say—and you would be right. But we can do it even better. That’s why we’ve set out to enhance the professional and academic preparation of our students as problem solvers, future leaders, and agents of change. We’ll do this in four ways: 1. Enhance and streamline the curriculum. We will introduce or strengthen courses in areas of strategic importance, such as cybertechnology, biology and health, and gender. We will sharpen our focus on Africa, Russia, India, and China. And we will integrate more opportunities for hands-on learning within courses. The first objective

2. Expand career-enhancing co-curricular offerings.

The School will offer noncredit workshops as well as other creative experiential learning programs, with topics ranging from professional writing to systems thinking and big data. 3. Diversify partnerships. We will continue the academic partnerships that provide opportunities for our students to deepen their regional, functional, and professional expertise, and we will expand nonacademic partnerships that offer internships, practica, and policy-oriented research projects. I’m particularly excited about our new partnership with the Atlantic Council, the foreign policy think tank in Washington, D.C. The partnership will involve faculty/scholar

exchanges, joint programs, cohosted conferences and workshops, and multimedia outreach, all to catalyze smart solutions to global challenges. 4. Encourage innovative uses of technology to

Whether it’s “flipped” classrooms, “connected” classrooms, or video links with external experts, we will harness the best practices of today and tomorrow to strengthen our teaching. Of course, even the best curriculum can’t succeed without outstanding faculty. This fall, we welcome two new distinguished faculty members who will strengthen our teaching team and expand our offerings: Kimberly Theidon, a medical anthropologist who specializes in transitional justice, gender, and human rights issues, with a focus on Latin America, and Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu, F92, former deputy governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria. Bill Richardson, A70, F71, H97, former U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and governor of New Mexico, had expected to join us as well, but was not able to, due to unforeseen circumstances. We hope to see him on campus again soon. Such faculty members are the epitome of relevant. If you’re an aspiring diplomat, policymaker, human security or Latin America expert, or global business leader, you can’t do better than study with folks like these. I’m thrilled that our students will be learning about global health, post-conflict reconstruction, drug policy, and emerging Africa in the world economy with such great mentors. Reinvigorating our teaching—making sure that we are offering the right courses and professional development experiences, led by the right people—is an ongoing process. But I can already taste the excitement in the air this fall as we align our offerings with our students’ interests and the world’s deep needs.

enhance learning.

Sincerely,

James stavridis, Dean

Photo: Kelvin Ma

Fall 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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Dispatches

Retired from telecommunications, Sidney Topol pursues activism and philanthropy.

Beyond Violence Sidney Topol’s bid to create a generation of peacemakers By Heather Stephenson

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lthough he volunteered for military service during World War II, Sidney Topol, J79P, doesn’t think the globe’s problems are best settled by force. “Wars have been notably disastrous failures,” he says. “Think of Vietnam, Iraq, Gaza, Lebanon—thousands of people killed, fortunes spent that could have been used for schools, infrastructure, health.” Today, he funds research and teaching on nonviolent resistance. His goal is as simple as it is ambitious. “I want to support a community of young people who will become leaders themselves and who will influence other leaders to work toward peace, reconciliation, diplomacy, and nonviolence,” he says, a note of urgency in his voice. “This isn’t research to write a paper. We have to reignite a peace movement.”

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Topol was a pioneering entrepreneur in satellite communications and cable television, working for Raytheon before becoming president, CEO, and then chairman of Scientific Atlanta. At 90, he directs his current effort from his Boston home office, which is filled with photos of him with Barack Obama, Harry Belafonte, and other liberal luminaries. His goal is peace, and he wants to see results. Topol made a gift to The Fletcher School last year to expand its commitment to the study of nonviolent resistance. His support has made possible a graduate student fellowship, student summer research stipends, and the introduction of a new course on nonviolent resistance. Benjamin Naimark-Rowse, the first graduate student to hold the Topol

Photo: John Soares


news from around th e globe

Fellowship, points to Fletcher’s longstanding support for scholarship on nonviolent resistance. “Sid’s gift provides the financial support for building out that community, so we can convene policy makers, academics, and activists and continue to be a hub for practice, teaching, and research on nonviolent resistance.” Topol has made similar gifts to Brandeis, Harvard, and two schools he attended: the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Boston Latin School. His connections to Tufts include his daughter and son-in-law, who both graduated in the Class of 1979, and his granddaughter, who graduated in 2014. The son of Polish immigrants who met at a sweatshop in New York City, Topol grew up in Boston’s Dorchester neighborhood in a Yiddish-speaking family. He worked on his father’s fruit and produce truck after school. His military training, which included attending radar school at Harvard and MIT, disrupted his college years but provided the technical foundation for his later business success. He authored several patents for antennas, including one that became the standard transportable radar used by NATO, and led Scientific Atlanta, the once-small telecommunications manufacturing firm, into the Forbes 500. Since his retirement, Topol has devoted himself to activism and philanthropy. He’s particularly inspired by those who’ve chosen the path of peace. One such person is Teny Gross, A94, a former Israeli army sergeant who now leads the Institute for the Study & Practice of Nonviolence, a Rhode Island organization that Topol supports. Gross will head to the streets at any hour to talk down gang members who are ready to fight, Topol observes. “That takes as much energy

Photo: Courtesy Reeta Roy

as it takes to be a sniper.” Fletcher has for 10 years hosted the Fletcher Summer Institute for the Advanced Study of Nonviolent Conflict, in partnership with the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict. The institute brings together scholars, journalists, observers, and participants in nonviolent resistance campaigns for rights, freedom, and justice. The study of nonviolent resistance is also woven into several courses at Fletcher. NaimarkRowse co-taught a class on the topic for undergraduates through Tufts’ Experimental College in fall 2014 and hopes to teach it again. The new graduate course on nonviolent resistance will be taught in the spring by the Topol Lecturer or Lecturers, whom the school is in the process of selecting. On top of that, Fletcher students can apply to be Topol Scholars in Nonviolent Resistance, receiving up to $5,000 each to support summer research or a summer internship focusing on nonviolent resistance. This summer, five Topol Scholars conducted research in Bangkok; Yangon (formerly Rangoon), Myanmar; Strasbourg, France; Freiburg, Germany; and East Jerusalem. The students will reflect together on their experiences and present their research this fall. Topol says he hopes the School’s graduates will carry forward the passion and skills to make a difference. “I’m motivated by my age,” he says. “When you’re 90, your long-term plan is what are you going to do next Wednesday. But I was always a long-term strategist.” Now his vision is to establish a cadre of leaders who will fight injustice without taking up arms.

Character Sk etch

Minding The Gaps NAME: Reeta Roy, F89

MISSION: To create opportunities for learning and prosperity in devel­ oping countries CHANCE OF A LIFETIME: Becoming president and CEO of the newly formed Master­Card Foundation in 2008. The Toronto-based nonprof­ it, with assets worth about $11 billion, expands access to financial services and education for people living in poverty, primarily in Africa. NOT A HANDOUT: Through one of its early projects, the foundation helped 1.4 million people in five African countries open savings accounts. It also funds scholar­ ships for poor youth. The goal is to help people transform their lives. “We may accompany them and offer them tools, information, and other support but, ultimately, people are agents of change in their own lives.” INSPIRATION: Her child­ hood in Malaysia, where her Chinese mother and Indian father worked on public health, and the energy and talent of Africa’s nearly 600 million people under the age of 30. “We see a window of opportunity to invest now in these young people, who will be Africa’s future inno­ vators, entrepreneurs, educators, scientists, and political leaders.”

Fall 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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Dispatches “It’s because these societies were under…pressure that they are exploding with such uncontrolled energy,” says Nadim Shehadi.

Pressure Points Understanding grievances in the Middle East can reduce violence, says new Fares Center director by Gail Bambrick

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he United States needs to better understand the complexities of Middle East politics and societies in order to have an effective policy in the region. That’s why institutions like the Fares Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies at The Fletcher School are important, says Nadim Shehadi, the center’s new director. “More than ever, those grappling with the questions posed by the Middle East need a place where they can take a step back, look at the larger picture, and do more in-depth thinking about the region’s issues,” says Shehadi,

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the former director of the Centre for Lebanese Studies at St. Antony’s College, Oxford, from 1986 to 2005, and most recently an associate fellow of Chatham House at the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London. Take the rise and spread of Islamic State, a current focal point of concern in the Middle East. One of the keys to understanding its success goes beyond simply recognizing the Sunni-Shia tension in Iraq and Syria, says Shehadi. “What we call Islamic State is sustained by several complex forces, including Sunni tribes from the western provinces of Iraq who feel excluded from what they perceive as their

fletcher magazine  |  Fall 2015

country’s Iranian-controlled government,” he notes. “They feel let down by the U.S. withdrawal from Iraq, abandoning them after many had collaborated with the surge in 2007 to 2008. “There are also the former Ba’ath Party officers from Saddam Hussein’s disbanded army,” he adds, “with over 30 years of military experience and detailed knowledge of the ground, and, of course, the remnants of Al Qaeda in Iraq—all working together under the cover of the so-called Islamic State.” The U.S. needs to engage with these “less savory” elements to understand the legitimate grievances driving the success of Islamic State, Shehadi says, and unless these are addressed, anger and violence will continue. “By seeming to join forces with Iran and Syria to fight Islamic State, the U.S. is sending an inflammatory message to these elements, who see the regimes of both countries as their enemies,” he says. Shehadi, who is 59, understands the region from experience. He grew up in Lebanon, living there until he was 19. He left two years after the start of that country’s brutal civil war. “The war was quite traumatic, and I’m sure it affected me in many ways, including my ongoing interest in the region,” he says. He still returns to see family and friends and has worked on projects with the Lebanese government. Shehadi says that a major factor to consider when viewing the turmoil today in the Middle East is the inevitable chaos as countries emerge from longstanding dictatorships. “These societies were under huge pressure from very heavy-handed governments led by people like Saddam Hussein, Assad, and Qaddafi. It’s because these societies were under that pressure that they are exploding with such uncontrolled energy,” he says. “It is like when you release pressure on a metal coil spring—there is no way you can tell which way it will jump.”

Photo: Kelvin Ma


“Mobilising a generation of Muslim women is an important Isis strategy, one that western powers haven’t begun to under­ stand, much less counter.” Farah Pandith, F95, in a February op-ed in The Guardian, responding to an unofficial Manifesto for Women linked to Islamic State

How to Feed Billions We share planet Earth with nearly 7.3 billion people. By 2050, there will be 9.6 billion of us, according to the United Nations. That’s a gain of one person every 15 seconds—or about 74 million more people each year—and each another mouth to feed. How can we avoid future food shortages with such a booming population? The answer isn’t just boosting production, says Timothy A. Wise, AG05, director of the Research and Policy Program at Tufts’ Global Development and Environment Institute. Wise has traveled the world on an Open Society Fellowship, most recently to Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, researching agricultural models that can feed a growing population in the developing world. “If we want to make more food available, there are two very clear areas where we can focus public policy—reducing biofuel production, which would make more land and food available for human consumption, and reducing food waste,” he says. Large-scale agriculture isn’t the solution because it has negative long-term environmental impacts and it does not usually help feed the world’s hungry, Wise says. “They are fed by increasing their own productivity and access to land, water, and technical support.”  —Gail Bambrick

Photos: Left, Depositphotos; right, Getty Images/Tom Cockrem

Can Tech Fix Traffic? Nairobi is the center of a burgeoning tech economy that’s earned Kenya the nickname Silicon Savannah. The city is also home to epic traffic jams. Dozens of local entrepreneurs are trying to help people navigate its clogged and dangerous streets, but a recent study by Fletcher graduates shows that there are still many unmet needs. The entrepreneurs’ projects include apps that crowdsource information about road congestion, display real-time location data about couriers for delivery companies, and allow users to book a taxi knowing the price and who else has recently used that driver. Other startups focus on food delivery and cashless payment systems for matatus, the 14- to 28-seat minibuses that are Nairobi’s main form of public transportation. While these private-sector efforts help people cope with an inefficient system, they don’t address the city’s fundamental transit problems, which include inadequate roads and a lack of standardized addresses, according to a study by Anisha Baghudana, F15, and Julia Leis, F14. They conclude that the digital innovations aren’t much good for commuters who walk—nearly half the city’s population—or don’t use apps. In addition, “the trust gap is a major barrier for digital services to succeed,” Leis says. “Certain consumers, for example, are going to prefer a taxi driver they know or one who is referred by a friend rather than hailing a taxi on the street.”  —Heather StePHenson

Fall 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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On Campus

A Few Good Men and Women Why universities need veterans  By Elliot Ackerman, A03, F03

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years as a Marine Corps officer, there was one question I must’ve been asked a thousand times. Up late on radio watch in the turret of a gun truck in Iraq’s barren Al-Anbar Province, or beneath a blanket of stars on a hilltop outpost in the Hindu Kush, the privates and lance corporals I led always wanted to know: “Hey, sir, what’s college like?” For most of these guys, college was the path not

uring my eight

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taken, the one they considered traveling once their enlistments were complete. Their question would usually lead to a bit of exposition from me— how to apply to university, liberal arts versus the sciences, and maybe a good story from a frat party on College Ave. to add some color. Among the older

photo: ilker gurer


Elliot Ackerman, photographed in Istanbul—his home base while reporting on the Syrian Civil War—hopes for dialogue between military and academic institutions.

noncommissioned officers, my enthusiasm for higher education became a bit of a running joke. If they knew one of the younger Marines was thinking of getting out of the Corps, their next question would be: “Did the lieutenant give you his college talk yet?” I practically begged the Marines in my command to go to college once they finished their enlistments: “I’m thinking of taking a job as a truck driver, sir.”

“Great, go to college first.” “My Dad’s got a construction company, sir.” “Great, go to college first.” “Some friends of mine are making a killing in Silicon Valley, sir.” “Great, go to college first.” At face value, my zeal for higher education stemmed from the doors I knew it would open, and the ones I knew would be closed without a degree. But I’ve since realized this desire to see my Marines go on with their education was not born solely out of a love for them, but also a love for the universities they’d attend. Our universities need students like my Marines. I came to Tufts in 1998 and left in 2003 with degrees from the College of Arts and Sciences and The Fletcher School. In those five years, we went from a nation at peace to a nation at war. Among more than 4,000 undergraduates, I was one of three students with any tie to the military: two of us were in Naval ROTC, and one was a former Marine. As Tufts grappled with issues of war and peace—whether to hold classes on September 12th, 2001, the debate surrounding the Iraq War— this important conversation felt incomplete. If a university is, at its most basic, a collection of voices educating each other, then one crucial voice seemed to be missing. The veteran. That man or woman who has borne the brunt of war, lost friends, spent long deployments away from loved ones, felt the interminable boredom of standing watch mix with the combustible terror and exhilaration inherent in his or her duties. During my time at Tufts, I lived off campus, near Harvard Square. Now and again, I would wander into Memorial Church, dedicated on Armistice Day in 1932. Flanking The Sacrifice, a sculpture by Malvina Hoffman of a shrouded woman cradling a fallen soldier’s head in her lap,

long lists were etched into the walls, the dead from the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Korean War. Then, clustered in a corner of the church, were other names, those few who died in Vietnam. As academic institutions removed military recruiters and ROTC from their campuses, a rupture occurred in that era, one that echoes to this day and is only now being repaired. America’s military and academic institutions may not always reflect one another’s values, nor should they, but both are the cradles of this country’s leadership. A dialogue must exist between the two. Just as the military provides every veteran with an opportunity to attend college through the G.I. Bill and other programs, our universities provide the military with the bulk of its officer corps through programs such as ROTC. The two feed each other. It’s a tie that binds. The strength of Tufts has always been its student body, attracting international and richly diverse classes. With the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan concluding, an impor-tant voice is returning, one in search of knowledge and, at the same time, able to dispense its own. A university that attracts such perspectives, along with many others, will thrive. These wars have been going on for 13 years. In 13 more, my four-year-old daughter will be applying to colleges. When she steps onto the campus of her choosing, I hope she’ll be able to sit in English 101, lean over to a classmate, and ask the reverse of the question I was asked those many years ago: “Hey, what’s the Marine Corps like?” ELLIOT ACKERMAN, A03, F03, served five tours of duty in Iraq and Afghanistan and is the recipient of the Silver Star, the Bronze Star for Valor, and the Purple Heart. His writing has appeared in The New Yorker, The Atlantic, and The New Republic, and he is the author of a new novel, Green on Blue. He was The Fletcher School’s first writer-in-residence last spring.

Fall 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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Law

Justice to the World Joyce Aluoch helps decide the planet’s thorniest human rights cases  by Stephanie Thurrott

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in Kenya, Joyce Aluoch, F08, wasn’t allowed to choose her own professional path—her father chose for her. “I had just completed high school and wanted to enjoy myself,” she said in a recent conversation at Tufts, where she was about to receive a distinguished achievement alumni award. Her father asked her one morning to accompany him on a mysterious errand in Nairobi. She had no idea where they were headed until they arrived—with no appointment—at the Kenya School of Law. “My father was a tall, towering man, and he went straight to the door of the principal’s office, with me trotting behind him,” Aluoch recounted. Now that she is Her Excellency Judge alumna told her all about GMAP—how Joyce Aluoch, first vice president of the it enables professionals around the International Criminal Court, in The world to earn a master’s degree with Hague, it appears her father knew what minimal disruption to their careers he was doing. Aluoch earned a diploma (requiring only three two-week sessions from the Kenya School of Law and a law in residence). Aluoch decided to enroll, degree from the University of Nairobi. focusing on international relations. She worked her way up in the profession, As she was finishing her studies in serving as a judge in the High Court July 2008, she received word that the of Kenya for more than 20 years before International Criminal Court (ICC) was earning a seat on the Court of Appeal. accepting applications. The timing was It was momentous work, to be sure. bad for her—she was preparing for her She trained judges, magistrates, and exams and thesis defense. “When you paralegals in international human rights. are finished with the GMAP, you cannot She served as vice chair of the United even see, as your eyes are heavy from too Nations Committee on the Rights and much reading,” she said. “I went to New Welfare of the Child. She also chaired a York for four days just to recover.” By similar committee in the African Union, the time she returned home, the ICC’s in which capacity she negotiated with the application period had closed. Sudanese government to secure chilBut another opportunity arose a few dren’s rights and went on a fact-finding months later, and Aluoch jumped on it. mission to northern Uganda to study the Her long experience as a judge and her effects of 20 years of war on children. But newly minted master’s degree helped despite those achievements, Aluoch was move her to the top of the list. She was not satisfied. She felt she could accomnominated for the position on the bench plish more if she broadened her training by the Kenyan government, and elected beyond law. by the ICC’s governing body. What drew her to The Fletcher School Aluoch’s tenure at the ICC has thrust was a chance encounter with a Kenyan her into the midst of the world’s highwoman who had completed Fletcher’s est-profile human rights cases. Since Global Master of Arts Program. The its founding by international treaty in

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2002, the ICC has prosecuted 22 cases, including ones against leaders of the violent Ugandan militia group known as the Lord’s Resistance Army and against Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi before his death in 2011. The court relies on member states for cooperation in arrests, investigations, and witness protection. “The ICC has no police force,” Aluoch said. And as a rule, it has jurisdiction only over crimes committed in the territory of its member states or by a national of such a country. This means that ISIS atrocities carried out in Syria and Iraq, which are not member states, fall outside the ICC’s purview (unless referred to the court by the UN Security Council). Aluoch hopes to see as many countries as possible join the ICC. Elected first vice president of the court in March 2015, she joined Silvia Fernández de Gurmendi of Argentina, president, and Kuniko Ozaki of Japan, second vice president, to make up the court’s first all-female presidency. She’s also a mother and a grandmother. Aluoch and her husband, Joseph (to whom she has been married since law school), have raised three daughters. “Being married and having children should never stop any woman from pursuing whatever she wants to pursue in her life,” she said. “It’s possible to juggle career and family and make a success of it.” Unlike their mother, the daughters—Brenda, a lawyer and banker; Sandra, an IT specialist; and Constance, a fashion stylist— all had the opportunity to choose their own careers.

Photo: Bob O’Connor


Judge Joyce Aluoch, photographed during her recent visit to The Fletcher School, believes more countries should join the International Criminal Court.


Jeswald Salacuse tells how and when to negotiate, and argues it’s the best way forward for individuals—and nations

Put Down Your Dukes

By Gail Bambrick illustr ation by Ale x nabaum if you think that negotiation is only for brokering international peace treaties and that deal making applies only to corporate mergers, you might consider this story from Jeswald Salacuse’s recent book, Negotiating Life: Secrets for Everyday Diplomacy and Deal Making (Palgrave Macmillan). A father left his estate equally to his daughters, Janet and Claire. There was just one problem: the diamond ring he had worn all his life. They both wanted it. Neither would budge. And since you can’t cut a ring in half, there appeared to be no solution. Tensions between the two sisters mounted. Finally, Claire asked her sister the critical question: “Why do you want the ring?” The answer broke the deadlock. Janet wanted just the diamond, perhaps for a pendant. Claire wanted the ring to remember her father and didn’t care about the diamond. Janet got the diamond, and Claire replaced it with her own birthstone and wore the ring.

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The lesson is a fundamental one in the art of negotiation: ask the right questions to fully uncover the motivations of all parties—including your own—because that’s where compromise may lie, says Salacuse, the Henry J. Braker Professor of Commercial Law at The Fletcher School. “When we think about negotiations, we think about grand strategies and diplomats sitting around a mahogany table in Geneva,” Salacuse says. “But the same dynamic takes place any time you sit down to solve a problem, be it getting your son to clean his room or a contractor to settle on a price. I try to translate the techniques that we read about in international relations and apply them to our everyday lives.” On the one hand, Salacuse writes, negotiation is simple: communication between people to advance their individual interests by agreeing on a course of action. But the dynamics and tactics can be complex. “For nearly everybody, negotiation is a mysterious black box that may result in agreements and decisions, but seems to follow no known rules or principles,” Salacuse writes. “The purpose of this book is to reveal the secrets

swim past the Sharks Want more strategies for successful negotiations? Check out How to SweetTalk a Shark by Bill Richardson, A70, F71, H97. The former U.S. ambassador to the United Nations describes high-stakes negotiations with infamous world leaders and provides lessons learned through experience.

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of that black box.” Negotiating Life is far more than a how-to manual. It extracts negotiating principles from a range of case studies—some historical, some from Salacuse’s own experiences as dean of both the Dedman School of Law of Southern Methodist University and The Fletcher School, as well as a consultant to multinational corporations, governments, international organizations, and foundations.

Building a Coalition “That ring story is true,” says Salacuse, who co-founded The Fletcher School’s Negotiation and Dispute Resolution Program and serves on the faculty of the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. He is also president of a World Bank arbitration tribunal. The same principle demonstrated in the ring story is at the core of how two Bush presidencies tried contrasting approaches to negotiate and build international coalitions, according to Salacuse. In 1991, George H. W. Bush led a coalition of 34 nations to war against Iraq in response to its invasion of Kuwait. His coalition was successful, Salacuse writes, because he used several elements critical to effective negotiations. He had longstanding relationships with all the world leaders. Nearly every day he talked with all those involved, a practice that led his staff to call him “the mad dialer.” And perhaps most importantly, Salacuse writes, he understood the other leaders’ interests and made certain they were accommodated. “George H. W. Bush’s leadership was based on persuasion before action,” Salacuse writes. This, he says, requires forming relationships, understanding interests, and finding ways to fulfill those interests in support of your goal. In this case, Bush senior promised United Nations involvement, new talks with the Israelis and Palestinians, and

fletcher magazine  |  FALL 2015

a clear statement that the international community would not tolerate the invasion of sovereign nations. When his son, George W. Bush, wanted to build a coalition to go to war against Iraq in 2003, things did not go as well. In fact, many countries that had participated in the first coalition refused. Bush assumed wrongly, Salacuse writes, that nations had no choice but to follow the U.S. because of its power and moral authority. Neither Bush nor his administration made any effort to forge relationships or to understand and integrate other countries’ interests into their coalition building. It has been called the if-youbuild-it-they-will-come doctrine, writes Salacuse.

There Are Always Alternatives “No one has to follow you,” Salacuse says. “They only will if their interests are being met—if there is something in it for them. Otherwise, there are different strategies they can use to meet their own needs. One of the main principles of negotiation is that there are always alternatives for either side. “Assuming people will just do what you say doesn’t really work,” Salacuse says. Whether you are leading a school or a company—or trying to get your spouse to help out on a home maintenance project—you have to be sure that what you are asking is in others’ interest, too. Then you can strike a deal in which everyone works toward a single goal. In the book, Salacuse offers advice about where to hold a negotiation, how to prioritize your goals, how to ask the right questions, how to close a deal, and how to prepare for a negotiation. “Lyndon Johnson…actually rehearsed his negotiations out loud,” Salacuse writes. It was how he tested his assumptions about others’ intentions and about the impact his statements would have on others. These are critical to successful outcomes, Salacuse says.


carrying out the deals were effectively denied access to the knowledge the negotiating teams gained and the relationships they forged. GM’s experience provides a lesson for us all: when agents or employees negotiate on your behalf, make sure they have strong incentives to plan for implementing the deal. Build relationships. A relationship is a “Asking the right kind of connection that usually implies a questions helps uncover degree of trust between the parties. Such motivations,” says trust is vital in making a deal work since, as Jeswald Salacuse. the Oslo Accords experience has shown, implementation always involves risks for somebody. Trust in the other side, based on a sound relationship, helps reduce perceived risks. One essential step in relationship building is to ensure that the parties are well acquainted. For companies planning a joint venture or a merger, a retreat in a relaxed setting might allow the two sides’ executives to discuss their respective organizaBY JESWALD W. SALACUSE tional visions and cultures. Joint training can also be effective. When the African National Congress and the white South The toughest challenge in any negotiation is not closing the African government sought détente, the leaders of the former deal, but making the deal work. The annals of negotiation are combatants came together for seminars on negotiation and littered with deals that somehow were never carried out. The peace building. world is still waiting for the permanent peace between Israel Establishing good communication is paramount. Too often, and the Palestinians promised by the 1993 Oslo Accords, for negotiators assume that communication between the two example. Closer to home, you may still be waiting for repaysides will happen naturally once they begin working together. ment of the thousand dollars you lent to your cousin five years Instead, they should set up a schedule of regular meetings to ago. Here are three guidelines to help increase the chances review progress. And in international arrangements, it is that your next negotiation will produce the outcome you want. crucial to minimize any language barrier. In one joint venture Plan methodically. Develop a list of questions about how between an American and a French company, the two sides, the deal will work, and prepare a tentative plan for implewhich had some knowledge of the other’s language, neverthementation, specifying who does what, when, and how. less agreed that they would use interpreters. Meetings were Negotiators fail to push hard on implementation for several twice as long as normal, but better communication paid off. reasons. Some just haven’t thought about it carefully. Others Above all, the parties working to build a relationship must fear that too great a focus on such concerns will slow the show respect for one another. Each side must recognize that process or stop it dead in its tracks. Still others work for the other brings something valuable to their common enterorganizations that inadvertently encourage them not to think prise. They need to treat one another as equals. To say—as about implementation. General Motors, for example, created one U.S. executive did to a partner from a developing counspecial teams for negotiating foreign joint ventures to try—“Let me do the thinking for both of us” only undermines manufacture vehicles and parts. Once a team had signed a relations. Consider involving a third party. Third parties can help deal, it would move on to the next negotiation, leaving to resolve conflicts, provide needed resources, and verify that other executives the difficult task of figuring out how to carry both sides are holding up their end of the bargain. For out the new joint venture. Some managers called the example, the United States, which helped broker a treaty practice “throwing the deal over the wall.” between Israel and Egypt in 1979, has been vital to maintainGM’s reliance on special negotiation teams slowed and ing peace between the two countries ever since. So think complicated the execution of the joint ventures. First, it gave about involving an appropriate outsider in the next tough deal negotiators, whose bonuses hinged on the number of deals you negotiate. they closed, every reason to downplay potential implementation problems, such as a partner’s questionable manufacturThis column first appeared in Tufts Magazine. ing experience. Second, the GM executives charged with

MakING THE DEAL Work

Photo: Alonso nichols

FALL 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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Top Brass The new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Joseph F. Dunford Jr., is the “complete warrior-statesman” by taylor McNeil Photogr aph by mark Wilson

G

rowing up in quincy, Massachusetts, General Joseph F. Dunford Jr., F92, knew he wanted to follow in his father’s footsteps and join the Marines. He didn’t plan on making it a career. Now, 38 years after he was commissioned fresh out of college, Dunford is the new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest-ranking military officer in the United States. During his two-year term, he will advise President Barack Obama and the person who succeeds him in the Oval Office on all aspects of military affairs in a world that has become increasingly perilous. “My role will be to assist the secretary of defense, the president, and the Congress in making decisions that will result in a Joint Force [all the branches of the military] that is properly prepared to secure our interests today—and tomorrow,” says Dunford. That will include “tough choices” about the limited dollars for defense spending. In his new job, Dunford faces a

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fletcher magazine  |  FALL 2015

formidable agenda, including Russia’s territorial ambitions, strife in the Middle East, and cybersecurity. During his Senate confirmation hearings, he called Russia the greatest threat to American security. “If you look at their behavior, it’s nothing short of alarming.” Yet he remains undaunted: “I believe the biggest challenge facing the military in the next few years will be to address existent challenges while simultaneously building the force our nation will need in the future.” Dunford, only the second Marine to chair the Joint Chiefs, rose swiftly through the ranks, serving most recently as commandant of the Marine Corps. He has commanded the 2nd Battalion, 6th Marines; worked as vice director for operations on the Joint Staff, reporting to the chairman of the Joint Chiefs; and led the 5th Marine Regiment during the Iraq war in 2003. In February 2013, he assumed command of American and coalition forces in Afghanistan, a position he held until August 2014.


General Joseph F. Dunford Jr. walks into the Rose Garden before his nomination as the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in May. Dunford, who was confirmed in July, received The Fletcher School’s Distinguished Alumni Award and addressed the School at convocation on 11 September.

Photo: Mark Wilson/Get t y Images

FALL 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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“What concerns me are people who think they know what the future is going to look like. Our experience tells us we don’t.” Trained to Lead Mid-career, Dunford earned a master’s degree from The Fletcher School, studying in the international security studies program and writing his thesis on humanitarian intervention. “The entire faculty and staff at Fletcher were truly world class,” he says. “Professor Dick Shultz and Professor Andy Hess were particularly helpful as mentors. I left Fletcher with a better understanding of the intersection of policy and strategy. That understanding has been invaluable in my recent assignments in Afghanistan and Washington.” Shultz, who was Dunford’s advisor at Fletcher and kept in touch with him over the years, says he was “really smart, an excellent student, and received the Stewart Prize for an outstanding first-year student—not an easy thing to do here.” He adds that Dunford “is a team builder—he will be very good at working with all the other chiefs. He will know all the issues quite well—he does his homework and has a lot of experience in Afghanistan and elsewhere. I’ve worked with a lot of four-stars, and he’s really exceptional.” Dunford, 59, is also a graduate of the U.S. Army War College, the Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School, and the U.S. Army Ranger School. He earned a master’s degree in government from Georgetown University. Dunford grew up in South Boston as well as Quincy, the son of a Boston police officer who was a Marine veteran of Korea. He worked his way through St. Michael’s College in Vermont, often putting in 30- to 40-hour weeks at the First National store in Burlington. “I learned many lessons from my dad, including the importance of integrity, treating people with dignity and respect, humility, and selfless service,” he says. “As a leader, I have tried to live up to his example.” When he was appointed

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commandant of the Marine Corps in 2014, he said, “I’m a Marine because of my dad. And I attribute any discipline I might have to the drill instructor in our family, my mother.” That homegrown leadership style has been recognized outside of the military. Dunford ranked number seven on Fortune magazine’s 2014 “50 Greatest Leaders” list; the magazine quoted a former Marine commandant as saying that Dunford “is probably the most complete warrior-statesman wearing a uniform today.” He stays as fit as any young Marine. He’s been known to go on seven-mile runs in the heat of the day and finished the 2012 Marine Corps Marathon in Washington with two of his three children at his side. He’s also a loyal Boston sports fan. “If you took a pin and pricked his hand, he’d bleed Red Sox red,” says Shultz, with a laugh. “He is a Red Sox guy, a real Boston guy.” Described as unflappable and a straight-talker, Dunford views both traits as “critical to success as a military leader.” In Iraq in 2003, General James N. Mattis, a retired commander of American forces in the Middle East, reported watching a rocket-propelled grenade strike 100 yards from Dunford’s Humvee, according to the New York Times. Dunford “barely glanced up and then went right back to writing his orders,” Mattis said.

A Tireless Strategist In nominating Dunford as chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Obama called him “one of the most admired officers in our military.” At a ceremony in the Rose Garden in May, the president said, “I know Joe. I trust him. He’s already proven his ability to give me his unvarnished military advice based on his experience on the ground.” Obama went on to say that Dunford is “one of our military’s most highly

fletcher magazine  |  FALL 2015

regarded strategic thinkers. . . . He’s also tireless. His staff has been known to carry around a voice recorder to keep up with his commands and new ideas.” At the Senate hearing on the nomination in early July, John McCain, the Arizona Republican who chairs the Armed Services Committee, noted that “the next chairman will have to prepare our military to confront the most diverse and complex array of global crises since the end of World War II.” He called Dunford “a warrior and a leader of the highest quality.” At the hearing, Dunford asserted that the armed forces need to focus on those who serve as well as technological advances. “Experience tells us that we need a balanced inventory of capabilities and capacities . . . to be successful,” he said. Dunford also noted that it is best to plan for multiple contingencies. “What concerns me are people who think they know what the future is going to look like. Our experience tells us we don’t.” The U.S. Senate unanimously confirmed Dunford as the Pentagon’s top general on July 29. He succeeded Joint Chiefs chairman General Martin E. Dempsey, who retired. The Joint Chiefs of Staff consists of the chairman, the vice chairman, and the heads of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and National Guard. Giving military advice to a president is never an easy proposition, especially in election years. “One of my most important responsibilities as the chairman will be to provide apolitical, best military advice,” Dunford says. “While I recognize that a presidential election year presents unique challenges, it won’t change the requirement for me to clearly articulate the military requirements associated with protecting our national interests.” Taylor McNeil can be reached at taylor.mcneil@ tufts.edu.


Connect

k eepi ng up with th e fletch er com munity

Patrick Meier

Mapping Disaster Patrick Meier, F12, helps the online community improve humanitarian responses  By Helene Ragovin was in his Boston apartment when the earth shifted 1,600 miles away. It was the afternoon of 12 January 2010, and a devastating 7.0 earthquake had struck Haiti. Meier’s fiancée and several friends were in the capital, Port-au-Prince, but it would be hours before he was able to get in touch with them. So Meier turned to the Internet. He began scouring social media and news reports to find out what was happening. Using an open-source software program, he and some Fletcher classmates began electronically mapping the damage in Haiti. They continued well after they learned Meier’s fiancée and friends were safe. Eventually, an international network of volunteers—including Tufts undergraduates and members of the Haitian diaspora—produced a map that was acknowledged by emergency responders as the most comprehensive picture of conditions on the ground in Haiti. That effort since has been replicated by others during disasters throughout the world, including the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan. After this year’s April earthquake in Nepal, people around the Patrick Meier, F12,

Photo: Kris KrÜg

world participated in an online project to analyze aerial photos and update digital maps. Such information can be critically important—producing accurate depictions of conditions immediately after a disaster tells rescue workers exactly where to find trapped or injured people, especially in areas that might not have been well mapped previously. For instance, the U.S. Marine Corps used the Haiti map to plan helicopter search-and-rescue operations around Port-au-Prince. “Most people want to help when they see bad news on TV,” Meier says. “Now, when they ask what they can do, they can actually act on that initial emotional reaction and support the efforts on the ground.” Since his experience with the Haiti earthquake, Meier has founded or co-founded several crisis response organizations, including the Digital Humanitarian Network, formed in cooperation with the UN, and the Standby Volunteer Task Force for Live Mapping. Earlier this year, he published Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response (CRC Press). The book examines what Meier calls “the democratization of digital response,” and how that’s adding new dimensions to humanitarian work—more tools for saving lives and a more tangible sense of worldwide engagement when disasters strike. Meier, 37, was born in West Africa to European parents, and lived in Kenya until he was 15. “One of the main reasons I wrote Digital Humanitarians is to make sure we don’t lose the human thread,” he says. “Technology lets us extend our humanity, not dehumanize us.”

Fall 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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Connect

Books Jones, Kent, F79

O’Neil, Henry V., F96

Unoki, Ko, F02

Reconstructing the World Trade Organization for the 21st Century: An Institutional Approach

Dire Steps

Perry, Brian, F09

Mergers, Acquisitions and Global Empires: Tolerance, Diversity and the Success of M&A

Oxford University Press, 2015

The Holiday Party

Routledge, 2014

Raynolds, Laura T. & Bennett, Elizabeth A., F08, eds.

Kumar, Prem, F02

First Edition Design Publishing, 2015

Waheed, Mian Abdul, F61

Handbook of Research on Fair Trade

The Learning Marketplace: East Meets West in Singapore

Russell, Alison Lawlor, F12

Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015

World Scientific Publishing, 2015

Alum ni

Adler, B. Ilene, F78

Read My Mind B. Ilene Adler, 2013

Emerson, Anne D., F69

Letters from Erastus: Field Notes on Grace

Harper Voyager Impulse, 2015

Cyber Blockades Georgetown University Press, 2014

Malley, Raymond, F56

My Life and Thoughts: The Formative Years

f a c u lt y

Taking Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Seriously in International Criminal Law

Killing a King: The Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin and the Remaking of Israel

Mirfendereski, Guive, F76, F78, F85

Cambridge University Press, 2015

The Privileged American: The U.S. Capitulations in Iran, 1856–1979

Ullman, Harlan, F72, F73, F75

W. W. Norton & Company, 2015

Mazda Publishing, 2014

Hatch, Angela, F08

Myka, Lenore, F99

Hope Lives Here

King of the Gypsies: Stories

A Handful of Bullets: How the Murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Still Menaces the Peace

Ambassador International, 2015

BkMk Press, 2015

Naval Institute Press, 2015

Ephron, Dan, F10

Jumhoori Publications, 2013

Schmid, Evelyne, F08

Xlibris, 2014

Levellers Press, 2015

Before Memory Fades: Emergence of Pakistan as a Nuclear Power

De Waal, Alex

The Real Politics of the Horn of Africa: Money, War and the Business of Power Polity Books, 2015 De Waal, Alex, Jennifer Ambrose, Casey Hogle, Trisha Taneja, and Keren Yohannes, eds.

Advocacy in Conflict: Critical Perspectives on Transnational Activism Zed Books, 2015

Commanding Words Fighting the Cold War: A Soldier’s Memoir is a brilliant new book by Jack Galvin, former dean of The Fletcher School (1994–1999) and supreme allied commander at NATO (1987–1991). Beginning with his New England roots, General and Dean Galvin takes the reader through his long military career, the majority of which was spent in Cold War operations one way or another. Along the way, he came to The Fletcher School as a fellow in mid-career, commanded U.S. Southern Command in Panama (responsible for all military activity south of the U.S.), and led the NATO Alliance as the Berlin Wall fell and the Soviet Union crumbled. His postArmy work as dean at Fletcher is briefly covered, although his real legacy at the School lives on through the strategic planning he built into our ethos. Throughout this highly readable book, one senses the humanity, humility, and common sense of one of America’s finest 20th-century generals.  —James Stavridis, Dean

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fletcher magazine  |  Fall 2015

Khan, Sulmaan Wasif

Muslim, Trader, Nomad, Spy: China’s Cold War and the People of the Tibetan Borderlands (The New Cold War History) The University of North Carolina Press, 2015 Salacuse, Jeswald W.

The Law of Investment Treaties, 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, 2015

Have you published a book this year? Let us know by emailing fletcheralum@tufts.edu.


Reunion Weekend 2015

1.

2.

1. Members of the Class of 2010 enjoyed

the “wines around the world” reception 2. Members of the Class of 2000 met for

an alumni lunch in the Reading Room of the Ginn Library 3. Members of the Class of 2005 joined Dean Stavridis at Friday evening’s clambake 4. Golden Graduates from the Class of 1965

gathered at Saturday’s reception

3.

4.

SAVE THE DATE

5. Paul Hsu, F65, Brooke Barton, F05, and Mike Balaban, F75, reflected on their time since Fletcher

5.

20–21 May 2016 | Members of the classes of 1966, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 are invited to join us in Medford for Reunion Weekend 2016. For more information, please visit fletcher.tufts.edu/alumni/ events/reunion2016 or email fletcheralum@tufts.edu.

Fall 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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Connect New Facult y

Repairing societies after war War leaves behind shelled-out buildings, but also men, women, and children who struggle to rebuild their lives and sense of community in the aftermath of armed conflict. Kimberly Theidon, recently appointed the Henry J. Leir Professor of International Humanitarian Studies at The Fletcher School, examines how to heal people and societies forever changed by war. One of her current research projects involves children born as a result of wartime rape and sexual exploitation. Through attending survivor network meetings in Peru and Colombia, where she has heard from women who became pregnant as a result of rape, she has gathered qualitative evidence that the mothers and their children experience high levels of stigma, discrimination, rejection, and abandonment. But she also has witnessed some families and communities accepting the children. “The question of how we help these children and their mothers is a complex policy issue, but how can we make

policy when we know virtually nothing about them?” says Theidon, who began teaching at The Fletcher School this fall. “One of my goals is to gather empirical data that can assist in developing policy that can help these children, their mothers, and the communities that help raise them.” Theidon, a medical anthropologist who was most recently a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, said she was drawn to The Fletcher School because of its strength across disciplines and commitment to developing real-world solutions. At The Fletcher School, Theidon will teach courses on aspects of human security, including global health and post-conflict reconstruction. Her position is funded by the Leir Foundation, which gave $6 million to support cross-disciplinary research and teaching about human security at The Fletcher School and the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts. 

Alumna Heads Alumni Office The Fletcher School welcomed a new senior director of development and alumni relations, Kathleen (Kate) Cooke Ryan, F87, in March. Ryan worked with Professor John Curtis Perry to develop Fletcher’s North Pacific Program and has deep experience working with constituents around the globe on behalf of U.S. universities and colleges, including Tufts and Harvard.

Professor Perry Retires In May, the School said a fond farewell to a treasured faculty member who retired after 35 years of scholarship and service: John Curtis Perry, Henry Willard Denison Professor of Japanese Diplomacy. Perry founded the North Pacific Program and the Maritime Studies Program at Fletcher. A celebration on campus brought together more than 300 faculty, students, staff, alumni, family members, and distinguished guests, including the consul general of Japan and the consul general of Korea.

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fletcher magazine  |  Fall 2015

—Abigail Klingbeil

GMAP Visits Belgium Pierre Vimont, the former French ambassador to the United States and the executive secretary-general of the European External Action Service, met with Global Master of Arts Program (GMAP) students during their August residency in Brussels. GMAP also celebrated its 15-year anniversary with an alumni reunion weekend during the residency. Alumni met with the current students, toured Waterloo and Ghent, and took advantage of executive education offerings in European security issues and the euro. GMAP’s next residency will be in Rome in January 2016.

Photos: top, K aveh Sarvardi; middle, Kelvin Ma


VIP Visitors The Honorable Kevin Rudd, former prime minister and foreign minister of Australia, delivered the Charles Francis Adams lecture on “China and the Future Regional and Global Order” in April. Later the same month, Amory B. Lovins and Paul Polman were among the speakers at the third annual Fletcher Inclusion Forum, organized by Fletcher’s Institute for Business in the Global Context. Lovins, a 1993 MacArthur Fellow, is an expert on energy efficiency, sustainability, and the design of superefficient buildings, factories, and vehicles. He is chief scientist and chairman emeritus of the nonprofit Rocky Mountain Institute. Polman is chief executive officer of Unilever, chairman of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, and a member of the International Business Council of the World Economic Forum. Also in April, Roberta S. Jacobson, F86, U.S. Department of State Assistant Secretary, Bureau for Western Hemisphere Affairs, spoke on “The View from Washington: How U.S. Foreign Policy is Made/Hot Topics in Western Hemisphere Affairs.” Jacobson has held her current post since 2012 and helped restore diplomatic ties with Cuba. In June, President Obama nominated her to be the next ambassador to Mexico.

Talloires Focuses on Global Economy More than 80 Fletcher staff, alumni, and faculty met to discuss “The Global Economy: Markets, Prospects, and Structural Challenges” at the 14th Annual Talloires Symposium, held from 5 to 7 June. Speakers discussed contemporary competition among the major international currencies, trade policy agendas with the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, the European crisis and the dilemma for monetary policy, policy challenges for emerging market economies, and markets in the “new normal” environment. The weekend was set at the Tufts European Center, a restored 11th-century monastery in the idyllic village of Talloires on Lake Annecy in the RhôneAlpes region of southeastern France. Speakers included C. Fred Bergsten,

F62, F69, senior fellow and director emeritus at the Peterson Institute for International Economics; Marcel Fratzscher , president of the German Institute for Economic Research; Maria Gordon, F98, senior fellow with the Council on Emerging Markets Enterprises at The Fletcher School; and Benjamin Jerry Cohen, the Louis G. Lancaster Professor of International Political Economy at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and the former William L. Clayton Professor of International Economic Affairs at The Fletcher School. Fletcher’s 15th Annual Talloires Symposium will take place at the Tufts European Center, 10–12 June 2016.

Africa’s Emerging Markets Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu,

F92, former deputy governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria, has been appointed professor of the practice in international business and public policy for the 2015–16 academic year. Moghalu founded and serves as president of Sogato

Strategies, an emerging markets strategy and risk advisory firm; he is also a partner in the U.S. law firm Cooke Robotham. He will teach a course on emerging Africa in the world economy, participate in public events and private engagements with faculty and students, and support research into emerging markets through the School’s Institute for Business in the Global Context. During his five-year term at the central bank, from 2009 to 2014, Moghalu led the implementation of far-reaching reforms in Nigeria’s banking sector in the wake of the global financial crisis. He is the author of four books, including Emerging Africa: How the Global Economy’s ‘Last Frontier’ Can Prosper and Matter (Penguin, 2014) and a forthcoming book on global banking reform.

Fall 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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Connect

Dhaka

Boston

Club News Boston, Massachusetts The Fletcher Club of Boston had a wonderful winter and spring. We hosted a number of happy hours around the city, a student-alumni networking evening at the Greek Consulate, which nearly 80 people attended, and an event showcasing a panel of senior Fletcher alumni with significant for-profit and nonprofit board experience, which was attended by more than 50 alumni. We have also increased our Facebook and LinkedIn connectivity to more than 550 people.

Seattle, Washington The Fletcher Club of Seattle continues to add members! We welcome alums to find us on LinkedIn at the Fletcher Club Seattle to connect with others in the area. We celebrated our most recent happy hour in downtown Seattle, with alums from the classes of 1985 through 2017.

Buenos Aires, Argentina The Fletcher Club of Buenos Aires hosted a lively alumni reception with Dean James

24

Stavridis, F83, F84, on 27 January at the Plaza Hotel.

Dhaka, Bangladesh The Fletcher Club of Bangla­ desh had its annual dinner in December 2014 at the restaurant Angaar. Alumni attending included Masihur Rahman, F78, F81, advisor to the prime minister; several ex-ambassadors; an ex-UN director; UN and U.S. embassy officials stationed in Dhaka; university teachers; and corporate officials. It was a well-attended and enjoyable event. For the second year in a row, the ambassador of the State of Kuwait invited all Fletcher alumni in Dhaka to Kuwait’s national day reception. The event was held on 19 February at the Westin Hotel Dhaka, and many alumni attended. A few alumni met with prospective Fletcher students at a local cafe in March.

Brussels, Belgium The Fletcher Club of Brussels bid farewell to Katrina Cochran Destree, F95, who stepped down as the club’s contact

fletcher magazine  |  Fall 2015

Brussels

person, as she returned to the United States in December 2014. We thank her for her outstanding support and hard work over the years, and wish her all the best as she starts a new phase in San Francisco. Mark Baker, F95, took over as the club contact person. Thanks to Marcia Kammitsi, F10, the Fletcher Club of Brussels has a new Facebook page. Check it out and “like” us! The Brussels club began the new year with a social cocktail at Mark Baker’s home in February. Alex Bucens, F07, and James Mackey, F00, the guest speakers, offered their views on the Ukraine crisis from different NATO perspectives. Mark Storella, F83, hosted a Fletcher Club of Brussels event at his home on 27 May.

Berlin, Germany On 25 January, the Fletcher Club of Berlin organized a

lunch discussion with Ambassador Dr. Klaus Sharioth speaking on the topic “U.S.-German Relations Against the Background of New Challenges for Europe and Germany.” It was kindly hosted by Peter Conze, F76.

Mexico City, Mexico Spring 2015 gave birth to a new tradition at Fletcher Club of Mexico: the Fletcher Globe Award. The first of many cocktail receptions was held with great success at Club de Industriales, with the attendance of nearly 50 Fletcherites. Claudio X. González, F91, F92, president of Mexicanos Primero, a think tank that champions education reform, received the Fletcher Globe Award and gave a very inspiring talk on the significant challenges that Mexico faces to improve the quality of education and


Madrid

Seattle

Buenos Aires

access to education. In September, Enrique Hidalgo, F98, F01, president of ExxonMobil Ventures Mexico, gave a talk on Mexican energy reform. We look forward to ending this year with a bang!

Madrid, Spain On 12 May, the recently created Fletcher Club of Spain celebrated its first event. Professor Emeritus Dr. Arpad Von Lazar, of IEBusiness School, Madrid, spoke about “Spain and the Global Geo-Strategic Challenges of the 21st Century.”

The Fletcher women’s network In February the Fletcher Women’s Network (FWN) in D.C. showcased the talents of local Fletcher alumnae, beginning with the annual FWN-Global Women (GW)

panel, where Lisa Errion, F88, Cindy Ray, F02, Rhonda Shore, F89, Kirsten Wallerstedt, F12, and Alissa S. Wilson, F05, provided advice on careers, networking, and work-life balance. An extra bonus this year was a FWN-GW potluck brunch at the home of Deborah Eisenberg, F03, and Raymond Linsenmayer, F01. In March, FWN-D.C. and the Fletcher Club of Washington, D.C., co-hosted a panel: “How to Serve on a Nonprofit Board.” The panel featured New York–based nonprofit expert David LaGreca of the Volunteer Consulting Group, along with Karen Hendrixson, F83, F89, FWN-D.C. chair, and Maggie Riden, F09, executive director of the DC Alliance of Youth Advocates. The following month, FWN-Boston undertook a similar collaboration with the

Fletcher Club of Boston. The panel featured Fay Donohue, F73, A03P, M10P, president and CEO, DentaQuest; Ivka Kalus-Bystricky, F90, senior vice president and portfolio manager, Boston Advisors; Ellen Richstone, F74, board director, former CEO, and former CFO of private and public companies; and Azita Sharif, F01, founder and CEO, Daedalus Software Inc. In early April, FWN-D.C. hosted its first community service activity, helping the nonprofit Bikes for the World prep and load bikes into a container destined for shipment to Morocco, where they will help at-risk women and youth. Later that month, FWN-D.C. co-hosted—in conjunction with the Fletcher Club of Washington, D.C., and Fletcher Women in International Security—a panel discussion by Peter Ackerman, F69, F71,

Fletcher Women’s Network

F76, A03P, F03P, and Maria Stephan, F02, F05, on “Civil Resistance and Authoritarianism.” In May, more than 30 alumnae and graduating Fletcher women students gathered to expand and reinforce network ties. Led by Laurie Gagnon, F08, with new graduates Abby Fried, F15, and Lauren Spink, F15, Fletcher women discussed ambitions and anxieties and proffered new ideas for the FWN. The FWN has updated its communications system with a MailChimp listserv that should include all alumnae. To be sure you are on it, email fletcheralumnae@gmail.com. Meanwhile FWN-D.C. has launched a FWN LinkedIn group that is open to Fletcher women regardless of location and will be used for online networking and to post job/ board openings. This is an opt-in group.

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Connect

Club Contacts United States Arizona

Morgan Lerette, F13 morgan.lerette@gmail. com Ca l i f o r n i a

Los Angeles* Mark Nguyen, F98 mark@planetlarecords. com San Diego* Bob Steck, F81 robert.steck@ml.com San Francisco Meredith Ludlow, F03 meredithludlow@yahoo. com Color ado*

Carl Delfeld, F80 cdelfeld@mac.com Distr ict of Columbia

Raymond Linsenmayer, F01 raymond_linsenmayer@ hotmail.com fletcherclubofdc.org Flor i da

Miami Saba Haq, F08 saba.i.haq@gmail.com Stephanie HanfordHass, F04 stephaniehanford@ yahoo.com Georgia

P e n n sy lva n i a

Philadelphia Tommy Heanue, F90 thenu73@gmail.com Pittsburgh Tom Etzel, F11 etzelcpa@comcast.net Elisabet Dennehy, F89, F90 erodriguezd@comcast. net Texas*

Houston Samina Jain, F08 saminajain@gmail.com Wa s h i n g t o n

Seattle Julie Bennion, F01 Brianna Dieter, F13 seattle_fletcher@yahoo. com

International A f g h a n i sta n *

Kabul Needs new leadership Argentina

Buenos Aires Luis Rosales, F98 lrosal@hotmail.com Armenia

Arusyak Mirzakhanyan, F04 arousiakm@yahoo.com Austr alia

Atlanta Tim Holly, F79 ceo@redalertgroup.com

Melissa Conley Tyler, F96 m.conleytyler@gmail. com

Ha w a i i

Austr ia

Gregg Nakano, F01 gmnakano@gmail.com Illi nois

Chicago Gregg Baker, F85 greggrbaker@yahoo. com Ma s s a c h u s e t t s

Boston Adria Chamberlain, F08 Mike O’Dougherty, F87 fletcherboston@gmail. com New York

NYC & tri-state area Matt Hoisington, F12 fletchernyc.org Oregon

Portland Edie Millar, F85 millarhk@hotmail.com Kristen Rainey, F06 rainey@alumni. princeton.edu

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Brazil

São Paulo Paulo Bilyk, F92 pbilyk@riobravo.com.br Alberto Pfeifer, F02 pfeifer@ceal-int.org Bulgaria

Nadja Milanova, F12 nadia.milanova@skynet. be Radka Betcheva, F11 radka.betcheva@gmail. com Ca m b o d i a

Sarah Sitts, F09 sarah.sitts@gmail.com Ca n a d a

Toronto Aziza Mohammed, F12 aziza.mohammed@ gmail.com Chile

Andres Montero, F85 amontero@intertrust.cl German Olave, F97 germanolave@gmail. com China

Beijing Stephane Grand, F98 sjgrand@gmail.com Hong Kong Dorothy Chan, F03 dmychan@yahoo.com Alicia Eastman, F04 alicia@apcinvestors. com Shanghai* Jay DOng, F00 jaydong2000@yahoo. com

Rainer Staub, F96 rstaub@nextra.at Jonathan Tirone, F00 jtirone@gmail.com

Colombia

Ba n g l a d e s h

Mariano Batalla, F11 batalla@alumni.tufts. edu

Dhaka Sarwar Sultana, F98 sarwar_sultana@ hotmail.com Belgium

Brussels Mark Baker, F95 mark.baker@diageo. com Bosnia and Herzegovi na

Sarajevo Haris Mesinovic, F00 harismesinovic@ hotmail.com

Stella Cuevas, F95 stcuevas@ymail.com Costa R i c a

Ecuador

Quito Genevieve Abraham, F11 genevieve.abraham@ gmail.com England

London Tannaz Banisadre, F06 fletcherclublondon@ gmail.com France

Paris William Holmberg, F05 fletcherclubofparis@ gmail.com fletcher.tufts.edu/ fletcherclubofparis

fletcher magazine  |  Fall 2015

Germany

Berlin Paul Maidowski, F13 paulmaidowski@gmail. com Tihomir Tsenkulovski, F09 ttsenkulovski@gmail. com Frankfurt* Joel El-Qalqili, F15 joel.el_qalqili@alumni. tufts.edu Greece

Gregory Dimitriadis, F06 gregory@alumni.tufts. edu Thomas Varvitsiotis, F99 tv@vando.gr Hungary

Budapest Anita Orban, F01 orban_anita@yahoo. com India

Delhi John Floretta, F11 john.floretta@ifmr.ac.in Mumbai Vikram Chhatwal, F01 vikram.chhatwal@gmail. com Iraq

Baghdad Needs new leadership Israel

Cecilia Sibony, F13 cecisibony@gmail.com Jordan Herzberg, F98 jordan@herzbergmanagement.com I ta ly *

Rome/Milan Chiara Di Segni, F15 chiara.di_segni@tufts. edu Ja pa n

Tokyo Mariko Noda, F90 mlh11461@nifty.com K e n ya

Nairobi Anne Angwenyi, F02 anne_angwenyi@ alumni.tufts.edu Kosovo

Needs new leadership Lebanon*

Needs new leadership Ma l a y s i a

Shahryn Azmi, F86 shahryn.azmi@gmail. com

Mexico

Gustavo E. Aceves Rivera, F12 gustavo.aceves@ritch. com.mx Enrique Alanis, F12 enriqueraul.alanisd@ cemex.com N e pa l

Ram Thapaliya, F02 ram_thapaliya@yahoo. com Netherlands

Jennifer Croft, F99 jcroft2@gmail.com Pa k i s t a n

Mumtaz Baloch, F13 mumtaz@mfapk.org Philippines

Catherine HartiganGo, F92 cathartigango@hotmail. com Poland

Warsaw Nicolas Fierens Gevaert, F09 nfierens@hotmail.com Romania

Sinziana Frangeti, F07 sinzianaf@gmail.com Rwa n da*

Kigali Imad Ahmed, F11 imad.ahmed@alumni. tufts.edu Sa u d i A r a b i a

Jamil Al Dandany, F87 jamil.dandany@aramco. com Singapore

Kim Odhner, F03 kodhner@alumni.tufts. edu South Africa

Jacques Roussellier, F01 jacques_roussellier@ alumni.tufts.edu South Korea

Seoul Sukhee Han, F94 shan65@yonsei.ac.kr S pa i n

Madrid Alberto Lopez San Miguel, F96 fletcher.spain@gmail. com

Switzerland

Geneva Anand Balachandran, F02 swissfletcherclub@ gmail.com Zurich* Joachim Jan Thraen, F12 joachimthraen@gmail. com Ta i w a n

Ted I, F64 ted@icf.com.tw Thailand

Bangkok Ekachai Chainuvati, F03 ekachai@siam.edu Turkey

Nesli Tombul, F12 nesli.tombul@gmail.com Uganda

Hilda Birungi, F02 hildah.birungi@gmail. com Ukraine

Kiev Valeria Scott Laitinen, F98 valeria_laitinen@ hotmail.com United Arab E m i r ate s

Dubai Paul Bagatelas, F87 Christine Lauper Bagatelas, F87 bag@eim.ae

Shared Interest Fletcher Alumni of Color A s soc i at i o n *

Kelly Smith, F03 kellymillersmith@gmail. com Fletcher PhD Alumni

William Lawrence, F90, F04 lawrencewa@gmail.com Jon Rosenwasser, F02 jon_rosenwasser@ alumni.stanford.edu Fletcher Women’s Network

Marcia Greenberg, F91 megreenberg@hotmail. com *Change or addition since the last edition of Fletcher Magazine


T h e A u s t i n B.

“My parents knew how much my education at Fletcher meant to me. It was their idea to start a scholarship, and it is my aspiration to grow it.”

Fletcher Society

In 1965, Sherry Mueller, F66, FG77, attended the opening of the Edward R. Murrow Center of Public Diplomacy at Fletcher, which launched her lifelong love of public diplomacy. She took the first courses in public diplomacy ever given at Fletcher and later taught the first class on the subject at American University. Her passion for the field has driven her career. Co-author of Working World: Careers in International Education, Exchange, and Development, she has managed professional exchange programs and served as president of the National Council for International Visitors (now Global Ties U.S.). She now teaches cultural diplomacy and international exchange.

In 1988, Sherry’s parents, LeRoy and Lucille Mueller, established the Sherry Mueller Scholarship Fund for students with an interest in cultural diplomacy and international education. Sherry has continued to support the fund and created a gift in her estate plans to further enhance the scholarship’s impact. Sherry’s gift allows her to pass on her family’s values while developing her own legacy of giving. Friedman School students at Jumbo’s Kitchen teach elementary school children about cooking. To learn how you can support Fletcher through your estate plans, contact our gift planning office 888.748.8387 | giftplanning@tufts.edu www.tufts.edu/giftplanning Fall 2015  |  fletcher magazine

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Connect

In Memoriam 1940s George Little, F41, on 18 December 2014, following a short illness. He was born 28 July 1918, in Portland, Maine. He married Virginia Lyle Cole in 1942. She predeceased him in 1984. His second marriage was on 6 May 1989, to Elizabeth Born Sproston, who survives him. He is also survived by his three children and four grandchildren. He graduated from Bowdoin College with a B.A. in 1940; The Fletcher School with an M.A. in 1942; Columbia University with an M.A. in 1948; and Yale University with a Ph.D. in 1948. During World War II, he was employed at the Board of Economic Warfare (1942) and in Civilian Public Service (1942–46). He taught political science and international law at Yale (1947), Swarthmore (1948), University of Connecticut (1950), and the University of Vermont (1950–1984), retiring as professor emeritus of political science. He was instrumental in establishing the Vermont Council on World Affairs, serving in many roles for more than 50 years. He was a co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union of Vermont. He was a lifelong member of the American Friends Service Committee and a founding member of the Burlington Friends Meeting. He found recreation in international travel, visiting all continents except Antarctica, and living abroad for several years while on sabbatical. Thomas Edmiston Norpell, F42, longtime resident of Newark, Ohio, on 27 October 2014 at

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Kendal, Granville, Ohio. He was born in Newark, 18 July 1920, the son of Max Bradley and Dorothy (Edminston) Norpell. A respected attorney in Newark, he practiced law for 50 years in the firm founded in 1876 by his grandfather, retiring in December 1991. A 1937 graduate of Newark High School, he received a B.A. with honors from Denison University in 1941, an M.A. from The Fletcher School in 1942, and a Juris Doctor degree with distinction from the University of Michigan School of Law in 1948. He enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserve in April 1942. He remained in the Marine Corps Reserve, retiring as a major in 1957. He was a life member of the Licking County Bar Association, serving terms as its secretary and president. A life member of the Ohio State Bar Association, he served on its board of governors and its council of delegates. He also held membership in the American Bar Association and was a fellow of the Ohio State Bar Foundation. He served for two decades on the board of directors of Licking County Building and Loan, including a term as its chairman. He was a member of the board of directors of the Ohio Bar Liability Insurance Co., serving a term as vice president. He was active in the Newark Kiwanis Club, on the board of the Red Cross of Licking County, and the Licking County Board of Developmental Disabilities. He was on the board of the NewarkLicking County YMCA for 33 years, retiring after two years as its president. He also served on the

fletcher magazine  |  Fall 2015

boards of the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Building, the Newark Area Chamber of Commerce, the old Newark Hospital, and the Welsh Hills Symphony Orchestra. He was a member of the Newark School District Task Force to Resolve Religious Practices. He served as president of the Denison University Alumni Council, was on Denison’s board of trustees, and a recipient of the Alumni Citation. In addition to his wife, Elizabeth Pressprich Norpell, the light of his life, whom he married 14 August 1948, he is survived by four children, eight grandchildren, three great-grandchildren, a brother, and one niece and one nephew. David Ernst, F43, F54, on 19 January 2015 at The Terraces in Orleans, Massachusetts, after a lengthy illness. He was predeceased by his loving wife, Rachel Ernst, with whom he shared 63 years of marriage. He was born in 1920 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to Charles F. and Edith M. Ernst. He attended high school in Washington State, received a B.A. from Reed College in 1942, and a doctorate from The Fletcher School. After serving in the U.S. Army in Germany during World War II, he became a career Foreign Service officer. His posts included Cairo, Athens, Bombay, Paris, Suva, and New Delhi. In 1980, he retired to Wellfleet, Massachusetts. He served as a Wellfleet selectman for 14 years, as a member of the Cape Cod Commission for 10 years, and on numerous boards and committees. He put most of the Wellfleet prop-

erty he inherited into conservation with the Audubon Society and the Wellfleet Conservation Trust, which he helped establish. In his spare time, he enjoyed sailing and shell fishing. He is survived by his three children. Jerrold Scoutt, F44, at his home in Bethesda, Maryland, on 27 February 2015. He is survived by his wife of 63 years, Nancy Howard Scoutt; three daughters; five grandchildren; and two step-grandchildren. Janet L. Norwood, F46, F49, former U.S. Commissioner of Labor Statistics, on 27 March 2015 in Austin, Texas. Having entered the Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics as a part-time junior economist in the early 1970s, she rose to head the agency for 13 years upon Senateapproved four-year appointments. She was charged with explaining the bureau’s findings to the U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee every month. She developed a reputation for what the committee cited as her “integrity, professionalism, and impartiality.” She is survived by her husband of 71 years, Bernard; two sons; and three grandchildren. Edward J. Bloch, F47, at his home in Latham, New York, on 24 August 2014. He was a man of many passions; the central core of all of his works was working for peace and fighting for the underdog, equal rights, and veterans. After degrees from Williams, Officers V12 School at Dartmouth, and The Fletcher


School, and teaching at Robert College in Istanbul, he worked with UE (United Electrical and Machine Workers of America), first as an international organizer in the New York City regional area, then with Local 332 in Hudson Falls. His titles and causes included executive director of the New York State Interfaith Alliance, Solidarity, Veterans for Peace, past president of the New York State Council of Veterans Organizations, and moderator for the Presbyterian Church in the Capital District area. He ran for Congress in 1984 and 1986. He served in the Marines during World War II in Okinawa, Japan, receiving a Purple Heart and Bronze Star. Influenced by Edward Tick’s work with veterans and post-traumatic stress disorder, he returned to China after 66 years to seek judgment for his actions as a 21-year-old Marine. Bloch loved family, writing, humor, the theater, singing Gilbert and Sullivan, traveling, political activism, playing the piano, canoeing, reciting Winnie-the-Pooh, sailing, and dancing. Born in New York City on 17 April 1924, he was the son of the late Henry and Sylvia (Marks) Bloch. He married Naomi Finkelstein on 9 January 1972. Survivors include Naomi, four children, five grandchildren, two great-grandchildren, and many nieces and nephews. Charles Edwards, F47, F54, of Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, on 24 January 2015. For his family and friends, there couldn’t have been a more loving, loyal, and true husband, father, and friend. He served his country during World War II as an American Field Service ambulance driver attached to the British 8th Army, spending the next four years saving lives

without carrying a weapon. In the early 1950s, he began work as a political science professor and department head at Westminster College in New Wilmington, Pennsylvania. He headed the Citizens for Kennedy Committee in Western Pennsylvania and then joined the U.S. Agency for International Development. He served in Africa and Washington, D.C., for the next 20 years. He enjoyed a long, active retirement living in his summer home in Hyannis Port and in Sun City Center, Florida. He served as the class secretary for the Fletcher Class of 1947 for many years and also greatly enjoyed writing and reading poetry. He is survived by his wife, Licia; their children and grandchildren; and many nieces, nephews, grandnieces, and grandnephews. François Dickman, F48, a retired U.S. ambassador, Army veteran of World War II and Korea, and a professor at the University of Wyoming (UW), on 12 April 2015 in Laramie, Wyoming, at age 90. In July 1943, at age 18, he entered service in the U.S. Army and was ultimately assigned to the Pacific Theater for the invasion of Japan. He was with the 6th Army in the Philippine Islands in August 1945 when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. He joined the Foreign Service in October 1951 and his career spanned 33 years, with seven foreign assignments and two assignments in the Department of State in Washington, D.C. He was best known for his work on economic issues, including U.S. agricultural aid to countries such as Egypt, the Sudan, and Tunisia as a means of expanding U.S. influence in Africa, as well as his

extensive reporting on petroleum, the diplomatic measures leading to the Arab oil embargos, and the emergence of OPEC as a global influence. He was the first UW alumnus to be appointed to an ambassadorial position. He was privileged to serve as ambassador under Presidents Ford, Carter, and Reagan, first in the United Arab Emirates (1976–79), followed by four years as ambassador to Kuwait. In addition to his wife of 67 years, Margaret Hoy Dickman, he is survived by his two children, five grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. Herman T. Skofield, F48, on 14 March 2015, in Keene, New Hampshire. He was born in Manchester, New Hampshire, on 18 November 1921, son of Frank T. and Margaret C. Skofield of New Boston, New Hampshire. He grew up in New Boston and graduated from New Boston High School in 1938. After working for two years, he entered the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in the class of 1944. He graduated magna cum laude from UNH in 1947, following more than three years of service in the U.S. Army during World War II, during which he reached the rank of captain. He obtained his master’s degree from The Fletcher School in 1948 and then continued graduate studies for two more years, during which time he taught part-time at a girls school in Boston and was an instructor in international relations at MIT. He entered the U.S. Foreign Service in 1950 and served in Berlin, Karachi, Vienna, and Bern, as well as in Washington, D.C. His last overseas position was as political counselor at the American Embassy in Bern. Before retiring in 1971, he served as deputy

director of the Office of European Affairs, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, in the Department of State. Survivors include his wife of 67 years, the former Jane G. Phipps; four children; six grandchildren; three great-grandchildren; his brother-in-law; and a nephew.

1950s Jacquelyn Foster, F50, on 28 December 2014 at Riverside Methodist Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Born 28 January 1928 in Cleveland, Ohio, she was the daughter of Dwight R. and Mary Ruth (Dedrick) Smith. In 1949, she graduated from Baldwin Wallace in Berea, Ohio, as the valedictorian, receiving a bachelor’s degree. She was a medical records librarian at Grace Hospital in Cleveland while attending John Marshall High School and Baldwin Wallace, where she was also the assistant to the director of admissions. She attended The Fletcher School in 1949, where she was awarded a full scholarship. She went on to receive her master’s degree in history from Case Western Reserve in Cleveland in 1952. In June 1951, she married her childhood sweetheart, Lt. Robert L. Foster, who was stationed with the United States Marine Corps in Quantico, Virginia. While in Fredericksburg, she worked at Mary Washington Hospital. In 1960, she took a position at Lexington (Ohio) High School, where she taught history, retiring in 1988. She was named a Martha Holden Jennings Scholar in Education. She dealt with polio at age three and as an adult was diagnosed with post-polio syndrome and spent the last 10 years in a wheelchair. She traveled extensively. She was a member of the Western Reserve Colony of the

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Connect Society of Mayflower Descendants in the State of Ohio, the Retired Teachers of Richland County, and the Ohio Retired Teachers Association. She is survived by a son, a daughter, a daughter-inlaw, four grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren. Luke T. Lee, F50, FG54, J77P, a lawyer, college professor, and State Department officer who specialized in refugee and displaced persons rights, on 7 January 2015 at a hospital in Bethesda, Maryland. The cause was complications related to Parkinson’s disease, said a daughter, Sharon Lee. A Bethesda resident, he was born in Fuzhou, China, and came to the United States after World War II. In 1961, he published Consular Law and Practice, which was the first systematized analysis of consular law. In 1977, he was appointed director of planning and programs for refugee affairs at the State Department, where he served for 20 years before retiring. Earlier he was professor of international law at The Fletcher School. He had written books on consular law, law and the status of women, and population and the law. His first marriage to Pokow Choy ended in divorce. His second marriage to Denise Massardier lasted 48 years until his death. Survivors include his four children, including Hsueh-tze Lee, J77, two grandsons, and two sisters. Bahman Amini, F54, most recently of Rockville, Maryland, at Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, on 2 April 2015. He was born in Langaroud, Iran, on 28 January 1928 and attended high school at Alborz College in Tehran before arriving in the United States, where he obtained

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a bachelor’s degree in history from Southwestern College, a master’s degree in law and diplomacy from The Fletcher School, and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Maryland. He married Parvin Merat in 1953 and returned to Iran in 1960. There he played an early role in the establishment of the National University and went on to become its dean of students, and later established Ghazali College, a liberal arts college, in Ghazvin. He returned to the United States in 1979 and, in addition to teaching at junior colleges, was the internship coordinator at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars until his retirement. He is survived by his wife, four children, and seven grandchildren. Robert White, F54, a former U.S. ambassador to El Salvador and strong critic of U.S. policy in the region during the Central American wars, of cancer on 13 January 2015. White was born 21 September 1926, in Melrose Heights, Massachusetts. He served in the U.S. Navy from 1944 to 1946 and received a master’s from The Fletcher School in 1954. He joined the Foreign Service in 1955. Appointed to the El Salvador post by former President Jimmy Carter, he was best known for refusing a demand from the U.S. government to cover up the killing of three nuns and a church worker by the Salvadoran military in 1980, just before Ronald Reagan became president. His focus on Latin America began in 1963, when he was named deputy principal officer in Guayaquil, Ecuador, and he was later chief of the political section in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. He also held posts in Nicaragua

fletcher magazine  |  Fall 2015

and Colombia and was appointed ambassador to Paraguay in 1977. White was also Latin America director of the Peace Corps and deputy permanent representative to the Organization of American States. He joined the Center for International Studies as president in 1989. He is survived by his wife, brother, three children, and three grandchildren. Gisela Fort, F56, on 23 December 2014 after a long illness. She was born in 1933 in Frankfurt, Germany, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Walter von Scheven. The family moved to New York City in 1948 and she enrolled at the High School of Music and Arts. From there she went to Barnard College, where she earned a bachelor’s degree and was senior class president, and then went on to The Fletcher School, where she received her master’s degree. After graduation she worked for Standard Oil of New Jersey and then the editorial research department of Reader’s Digest, where she specialized in financial and political articles. She married Frederick L. Fort in 1961. They resided in New York City until 1965, when they were transferred to Venezuela for six years. Following their return to the United States they settled in Wilton, Connecticut. She became quite active in town activities and was prominent in the establishment of the school bus safety program. She was also elected to several terms on the town Board of Education. She was a long-time member of The Wilton Riding Club and an avid participant in Barnard College alumni activities. In addition to her husband, daughters, and granddaughter, she is survived by her brother.

The Honorable George Jones Jr., F56, a former U.S. Ambassador to Guyana whose career in the Foreign Service spanned almost 40 years, on 20 April 2015 of a heart attack. A specialist in Latin American affairs, he served as U.S. ambassador to the Republic of Guyana from January 1992 to August 1995. He worked closely with former President Carter to support free and fair elections in Guyana in October 1992, which resulted in the first transfer of power from an incumbent to an opposition party. He previously served as deputy chief of mission in Chile, 1985–89, and in Costa Rica, 1982–85. He was twice senior advisor on Latin American affairs to the U.S. delegation to the UN General Assembly in New York. After retiring from the Foreign Service in 1995, he became a specialist in support for democratic election processes and election observation. From 1996 to 1999 he was director of programs for the Americas at the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES), and in 2000–05 he was director of democracy and governance programs for Development Associates Inc. He chaired international observer missions to elections in Paraguay (1996), Honduras (1997), and Guyana (1997), and was a member of observer missions to Ecuador, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. He was born in San Angelo, Texas, and raised in Washington, D.C., and Austin, Texas. He received master’s degrees from The Fletcher School in 1956 and from Stanford University in 1967. He graduated from the National War College in 1978, where he received the U.S. Army Association prize for “excellence in research


and writing.” Among his other honors was a Superior Honor Award from the State Department in 1989 for “persistence, dedication, and courage in promotion of the national interests of the United States” in Chile. He married Maria Rosario Correa in Quito, Ecuador, in 1960. In addition to his wife, survivors include three sons, a daughter, and seven grandchildren. Kwan Ha Yim, F58, F63, F93P, on 28 March 2015 after an illness. Born in North Korea in 1929, he was forced to flee to South Korea. He fought for the South Korean Army in the Korean War and was awarded a U.S. Bronze Star for Valor. He came to the U.S. in 1954 and attended Dartmouth College, graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1957. He then attended The Fletcher School, receiving his Ph.D. in 1963. For 50 years, he was a professor at Manhattanville College in Purchase, New York. He was devoted to the peace and human rights movement in Korea. An avid writer, he wrote books on Asian politics and contributed letters to the editor regarding Korean politics to the New York Times for more than 25 years. He acted as special assistant to former South Korean opposition leader Kim Young-Sam, who later became president of Korea. A grateful husband and proud father and grandfather, he is survived by his beloved wife of 53 years, Elizabeth; his four sons, including Richard, F93; two daughters-inlaw; and four grandsons.

1960s Dennis York, F65, on 4 June 2014 at the home of his son in Vermont. He was born in Vick, Arkansas, on 15 June 1924 to

the late Leonard Dennis York and Hattie Louella Pope York. He received his Bachelor of Science in business administration, Bachelor of Laws, Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy, Doctor of Juridical Science, Juris Doctor, and Doctor of Law, graduating from the United States Army War College, Command and General Staff College, Judge Advocate General School, and passing the bar in Georgia and Arkansas. He had a long and distinguished career serving in the United States Army. Entering in 1942, he served in the WWII Army Air Corps, surviving 35 missions over Germany in a B-17. He served in Korea, then became a JAG Officer. Following his retirement in 1972, he worked for the Supreme Court of Georgia, served as dean of Woodrow Wilson Law School, and maintained a private practice in Roswell, Georgia. He was active in women’s shelters and literacy groups. He was a 32nd degree Mason member of Yonah Lodge #382 F&AM, as well as an active member of Cleveland United Methodist Church. He was preceded in death by his sister and brother. Survivors include his wife, Rosemary York of Clermont; three sons; a daughter; and nine grandchildren. Stanley McClure, F67, on 8 April 2015 from complications related to cancer. A retired Air Force lieutenant colonel, he specialized in military intelligence. He served in the Vietnam War, on the political science faculty at the Air Force Academy in Colorado, as an instructor at the Defense Intelligence School in Maryland, and as a politico-military affairs officer in the Pentagon. Among other military honors, he was awarded the Bronze Star, the Joint

Service Commendation Medal, the Vietnam Service Medal with four bronze stars, and the Meritorious Service Medal. Born 22 March 1936 to Hazel Chaplin McClure and George Francis McClure, in Spokane, Washington, he remained in the Pacific Northwest region until graduating with Phi Beta Kappa honors from Washington State University. Then he was selected as a two-year Fulbright Scholar for postgraduate study at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He later attended The Fletcher School. Overall, he earned three master’s degrees and specialized in the Southeast Asia region. He is survived by his wife of 57 years, Ann; two sons; a brother; and six grandchildren.

1970s John R. Pate, F71, F72, was killed in his apartment in Caracas, Venezuela, on 9 August. Pate, 71, was a well-known lawyer at De Sola Pate & Brown, where he chaired the international corporate and business transactions practice. He was also a member of the editorial board of the Caracas Daily Journal, the predecessor of the Latin American Herald Tribune. Pate received an A.B. from Brown University and his J.D. from Boston University in 1969. He also received an M.A. and an M.A.L.D. from The Fletcher School in 1971 and 1972. He was active in the American Bar Association, the Inter-American Bar Association, the American Society of International Law, the Association of International Petroleum Negotiators, the Latin American Studies Association, and the Advisory Committee of the Tulane Latin American Law Institute. Pate wrote many articles

and spoke at various conferences, mostly on Venezuelan and Andean business topics. Friends recalled his calm demeanor and his love for Venezuela’s tropical climate. Pate is survived by his son. His first wife, Gertie Paez Pate, died in 2007. His girlfriend was wounded in the attack on their home.

1990s So-il Hong, F90, on 2 October 2014, in Seoul after a three-year battle against cancer. She was head of the overseas business department at the Korea Cadastral Survey Corporation, helping to expand the government-owned company’s surveying, mapping, and land information services to overseas markets. Previously, she was a senior coordinator at the Asian Institute for Policy Studies and a research fellow at Ilmin International Relations Institute, both in Seoul, and a senior researcher and policy advisor to the Korean Minister of Unification. She also worked at the Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. After completing studies at The Fletcher School, she went on to earn a doctoral degree from Korea University in Seoul. A condensed version of her thesis was published in February 2008 in the Ilmin International Relations Institute’s Journal of International Politics as “KEDO as a Semi-Institutionalized Security Organization in Northeast Asia.” Before Fletcher, she earned a master’s degree in Russian and East European studies from Yale University and a bachelor’s degree from Rutgers University. Besides her native Korean, she was proficient in a number of languages, including English, German, and Russian. She is survived by her parents, two brothers, a sister-inlaw, a niece, and a nephew.

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Detail

From “stand outs” to “stall outs,” the Digital Evolution Index ranks nations on their digital maturity and current rate of growth.

Digital Dominance How the pace of technological progress in different countries is redrawing the political map By Gail Bambrick

F

rom power stations to smartphones, information to entertainment, the world is driven—and controlled—by digital technology. So it’s no surprise that political and economic success, for businesses and nations, depends on how current they are with advances in technology. That’s why Bhaskar Chakravorti and colleagues at The Fletcher School have created the Digital Evolution Index, a first-of-its-kind map of how, where, and at what speed the use of digital technologies is spreading across the globe. “The transformation from the physical world to the digital world is a profound change that we’re all experiencing at every stratum of society in every part of the world,” says Chakravorti, senior associate dean of international business and finance at Fletcher and executive director of the School’s Institute for Business in the Global Context. “And many places are not converting to this new world fast enough, which can limit a country’s ability to compete economically and to efficiently govern its people. This affects their position and well-being in the world community.” The map and an accompanying report focus on 50 countries, half so-called advanced countries and half developing countries, ranking them on their digital chops. Leading the pack is Singapore. It ranks highly on four main areas encompassing the more than 80 different variables that the Fletcher team deemed critical: it has

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a well-developed digital and business infrastructure, its consumers have the education and finances to engage in the digital environment, its government and institutions facilitate creating digital systems for both commerce and social tasks, and innovation is encouraged and supported in both the private and public sector. Singapore is also among the 12 countries that compose the “stand out” category in the report, which groups countries according to their current state of digital growth. The stand outs, including Sweden, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and the United States, have historically achieved high levels of digital transactions and continue to maintain that standing. Another dozen, including China, Malaysia, Mexico, and Thailand, are “break outs.” They have low but rapidly growing scores. “Watch outs” like Russia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Spain have great opportunities to advance but also face substantial challenges in terms of government support, technological infrastructure, or consumer use of the digital world. Finally, there are the “stall outs,” which include Japan, Finland, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. They have a history of strong growth that the report says is withering away, putting them at Read more about the Digital Evolution risk of slipping in their Index at bit.ly/FletcherDigital digital development.­

Illustration: Ingimage


“ I am so grateful to the generous donors who helped provide me with the Fletcher experience. The people here are vibrant, driven, and intensely interested in how to make the world better. I chose Fletcher because of the community here—how we not only support each other and collaborate, but challenge each other to be better. I am so lucky to be here.” JennIFer Brown, F16

Help more students like Jennifer join the Fletcher community and train to be tomorrow’s global leaders. You won’t just be changing their lives. You’ll be changing the world.

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