Exibition Portfolio Thesis: Celebration and Presentation Alice Murphy
1.1 THEORY Anthropocentric “man is the aim of history and the end point of evolution, with
the right and obligation to manage and control nature’s resources.” (Grenstad and Wolleback, 1998:653) Biocentric “all life-forms are regarded as equal. Interdependent, and of inviolable intrinsic worth. Consequently, humans represent only one life-form of many” (Grenstad and Wolleback, 1998:653) The Anthropocentric Biocentric Condition Currently the anthropocentric biocentric condition is in a state of imbalance. The anthropocentric through its development has marked and utilised the biocentric for the benefit of man, without full regard to the consequences. “Man continues to mark the land, relentlessly shaping the surface from wilderness to cultivation. Strategies of mechanisation, the necessity of irrigation, and the demands of inhabitation introduce a new order. So the “countryside,” which has evolved over centuries, can be
described as under the influence of nature, but under the control of man. The “natural” landscape has taken on artificial pattination. Alien materials interrupt processes of growth and decay. New and evolving features created by man are, to an extent, absorbed by the fluid and yielding nature of our surroundings. What results is a hybrid environment, a utilitarian topography, a sustained artifice. This neo-nature has become a picturesque aesthetic, an often cherished rural environment where sentimental attitudes that inform our visual perception of the landscape become key.” (Smout & Allen, 2007:6)
01: Oil Fields #27 (Burtynsky, 2004) 02: Oxford Tire Pile #1(Burtynsky, 1999) 03: Oil Fields #2 (Burtynsky, 2003)
Anthro-biotone The notion of the Anthro-biotone developed from readings into ecotones. An ecotone is an interface between two ecologies described as ‘a transitional area of vegetation between two different plant communities, such as forest and grassland.’ (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013). An Anthrobiotone is therefore the transitional area between the anthropocentric and biocentric. Unlike an ecotone an anthro-biotone may not necessarily be defined by a physical location with a clear boundary. ‘An ecotonal area often has a higher density of organisms of one species and a higher number of species than are found in either flanking community.’ (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013). An ecotone is therefore high in diversity and considered heterogeneous. As a result, much like an ecotone, the interface between anthropocentric
and biocentric, the anthro-biotone is also heterogeneous. Readdressing the balanceThe creation of the anthro-biotone aims to address the imbalance in the current anthropocentric biocentric condition. This new interface relationship looks to manage the ‘transitional area’ utilising the biocentric for the benefit of the anthropocentric without compromising the biocentric. The anthro-biotone also seeks to be a productive interface.
Interface n.& v. -n. 1. a surface forming a common boundary between two regions 2. a point where interaction occurs between two systems, processes,subjects, etc. 3. an apparatus for connecting two pieces of equipment so that they can be operated jointly. An Anthro-biotone is an interface. It is the point of positive interaction between the anthropocentric and biocentric. Interfaces can be deemed negative or positive depending on the information or products being exchanged.
Synapse n. a gap between two nerve cells, across which impulses are conducted. A synapse enables the passing of information from one neuron to another, thereby allowing the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body. Crucial to the biological functions of perception and thought, the successfulness of these functions is
dependent on a synapses ability to pass on information. However, the synapse only allows for one way transmission of data and could therefore be considered a closer comparison with the current anthropocentric biocentric condition rather than the desired anthro-biotone.
02 Maquette demonstrating the idea of the interface. Interactions and crossing points can be identified between the two factors, this is where information is exchanged.
Illustrative representation of the synapse.
Digital Interfaces exist within all the digital products used by society today. They allow the transfer and display of information effectively. An example of a Digital Interface is the Integrated Circuit. Composed of a set of electronic circuits on one small plate or â€˜chipâ€™ the Integrated Circuit is used in virtually all electronic equipment, computing masses of information from one source to another successfully. Performance is high due to the components ability to transfer information quickly and consume little power. During the process of device fabrication
the following mechanisms are utilised, etch, pattern and deposit. To reprogram the interfaces within the landscape, with the ultimate aim of creating the anthro-biotone, the mechanisms which are used to successfully create the Integrated circuit, a Digital Interface, can be utilised.
The Digital Interface, an integrated Circuit.
1.2 PROPOSITION Heterogeneity can be the positive by-product of reprogramming the Anthropocentric Biocentric condition within the landscape through the creation of Anthro-biotones.
To etch is to cut or carve on a surface, marking it with design, causing it to stand out or be clearly defined.
1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
Identification of interfaces through research and survey of the location. Interfaces selected where imbalance between the anthropocentric and biocentric interests occur. Once identified these interfaces can be analysed thoroughly to examine the level of reprogramming required.
Taking each interface identified and analysing the data relating to the interface, thereby justifying the interface selection and as a tool to identify interesting correlations of information and possibilities for reprogramming.
After identification and analysis, reprogramming of the interfaces can begin. Using the mechanisms involved in the fabrication of the digital interface, etch, pattern and deposit, to explore the methods of creating the Anthro-biotone, that will emulate the success of the digital interface to transfer information productively.
Patterning is the process by which something is decorated with a recurring design, given a regular recognisable form or given form based on that of something else.
DEPOSIT To deposit is to place something in a specific place.
1.3 PLACE “It is widely acknowledged that Eden district offers attractive landscapes, characterful towns and villages and a good quality of life.” (Core Strategy Development Plan Document, 2009:4) The Eden Valley located in Cumbria, lies between the Lake District to the west, Yorkshire Dales to the south and Pennines to the east. The river Eden is a central feature within the landscape running from its source in the Mallerstang Valley to its mouth at the Solway Firth. The valley could be considered a transport corridor with both the M6 motorway and West Coastline railway running south to north. The city of Carlisle is the largest settlement with Penrith following as the second.
The Eden district is the most sparsely populated in England with only 24 people per km2. Tourism is of high value along with agriculture which has long tradition within Cumbria. Positioned on the border with Scotland leads to the area having a significant number of historical features most famous of these is Hadrians Wall which runs along the northern edge of the location.
01 R.Eden Catchment
Lake District National Park
Despite being a landscape cherished for its picturesque idle, there exists many Anthropocentric - Biocentric clashes within it. Flooding has become a more frequent problem, causing cast amounts of damage and even a small number of fatalities.
03 Agriculture, an industry which dominates the larger landscape and provides a living for a large percentage of the Eden’s rural population, has become more intensive causing large scale issues such as water course pollution and erosion.
Yorkshire Dales National Park M6 WCM
Eden Valley Data Visualisation Till Limestone Clay, Silt, Sand
More intense pasture on Solway Plain
Peat Sandstone Settlement
Eden Valley characterised by gently sloping rolling topography
Pennine Escarpment steeper in character Lake District
High quality grazing pasture, predominantly beef and dairy
Less intense hill farming, predominantly sheep
Lake District Less intense hill farming, predominantly sheep
Gradient of River Eden and main tributaries River Caldew
River Irthing 700
River Eden 600
River Eamont River Irthing
River Roe River Petteril River Caldew
200 100 00
River Lowther 00
100 120 140 Distance along Eden from Low Sandsfiels (m)
River Leith River Lyvennet River Belah Scandal Beck
Identify Through the examination of the Eden Valley, the following interfaces have been identified, some feature within the valley more prominently than others and therefore a hierarchy has been developed. The Interfaces stem from one
anthropocentric factor and three biocentric. The valley will be viewed through an anthropocentric lens, as the processes of man dominate the landscape and influence the processes of the biocentric.
Soil Habitat Destruction
Biodiversity Habitat Destruction
Dairy Cattle 2007
2007 2010 0
Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Non-agricultural Urban
at risk of flooding
Total Agricultural grade land
Data Visualisation of the Agriculture/Flooding Interface demonstrating the comprehensive area that agriculture dominates within the Eden Valley. Most widespread is that of sheep farming which is carried out throughout the valley, although concentrated tot he lower grade soil. The Fact that such a large proportion of farmland is susceptible to flooding (85%) shows the vastness of the Agriculture/ Flooding Interface.
Flooding Average Rainfall Carlisle (mm)
Data Visualisation of the Settlement/Flooding Interface illustrating how the settlements of the Eden Valley interact with flooding. The location of most interaction is in Carlisle, where 90% of properties at risk of flooding are located. Illustrated is one such interaction which in 2005 caused large amounts of damage (ÂŁ400million worth of damage) and 3 fatalities
90% of the properties at risk in the Eden catchment are located in Carlisle.
Warwick Bridge Carlisle
0 Average Rainfall Days Carlisle
Lazonby 980 Armathwaite 288 Alston 1,136
Extent of Flooding 2005
Kirkby Stephen 1,832
Penrith 14,900 Appleby
Flooding from River Eden
8% Source of flooding January 2005
Flooding from surface water drains Flooding from Tributaries Flooding from sewerage infrastructure
AGRICULTURE & FLOODING
Dairy & Beef Cattle
Repeated saturation from flooding causes fields to unusable for cattle grazing
In the Eden Valley Catchment
Total Agricultural grade land
Eutrophication = response by an ecosystem to the addition of substances such as
these cause a great increase in photoplankton due to the great levels of nutrients this causes...
Using the mechanisms of, deposit, etch and pattern to reprogram the Agriculture/Flooding Interface over time. It has been identified that there needs to be a separation of the Agriculture/Flooding interface as currently the interaction between the two is producing negative consequences. In order to separate them a physical barrier will be deposited, this can then be etched to form a secondary channel which will offer opportunities for new types of agriculture, such as aquaculture, pods to separate and organise these new agricultures will pattern the landscape. Finally a vegetation layer will be deposited to act as a pollutant capture layer, to prevent the pollutants from entering the water course. As these mechanisms progress overtime some will possibly be repeated when and where they are needed.
at risk of flooding
hypoxia = depletion of oxygen = decreased biodiversity Deposit
Concept Development Pollutant Capture Coppice
Productive Pods Rivers Eden, Caldew, Petteril & Irthing
Traditional Agriculture Retaining the traditional methods of farming but removing them from direct contact from the river. As the landscape evolves to the new intervention so too will agricultural practices
Pollutant Capture Coppice Introducing a ‘living barrier’ between the river and the agriculture through the use of willow coppicing. Benefits of this ‘living barrier’ are - The production of a PRODUCT, willow can used in cottage industries for weaving etc and also as a biomass fuel -Willow can survive wetter conditions. They are a common component of wet woodlands and water can be retained here in times of flood. -These coppices act as an absorption barrier, up taking the excess nutrients of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium before they reach the river and become pollutants. - The extra nutrients enhance growth making it a more profitable crop.
Walkway Precedent - Development Bank of the Meurthe - France - by Atelier Cite Architecture
Productive Pods Inspired by the Room for the River project an idea involving the etching of an alternative channel adjacent to the river allowing for excess water in times of heavy flow developed. This then progressed into the possibility harnessing the water to evolve into a productive system, diversifying the agriculture by introducing new aqua-crops whilst also acting as a flood-water storage system. Created from this is a new agriculture/flooding interface relationship and the possible creation of an Anthrobio-tone. Possible options for these pods could have both positive effects on the agriculture/flooding interface relationship as well as increasing the biodiversity by introducing new ecological relationships. The introduction of reed beds, as well as producing a crop, also cleanses the water and acts as habitat to a great variety of species. Illustrated to the right is the possibility of these productive pods working as systems, their processes linked as the water filters through. The location of these pods would be subject to the right topographical conditions, these being the flatter floodplains as the Eden meanders towards Carlisle, and also the areas most prone to flooding. Pods could be located on one or both sides of the river and not just applied to the Eden but also the other larger tributaries such as the Caldew, Petteril or Irthing.
Freshwater fish (such as salmon, trout and tilapia, pictured here) are most commonly farmed however, freshwater crayfish and prawns are also farmed in this way. Grown under controlled conditions it provides an alternative to sea fishing and has been used to diversify traditional farming practices.
Hydroponics is the method of cultivating plants without the use of soil, instead the roots of the plant are immersed in nutrient rich water. There are a variety applications for using this system of crop growth. A great variety of plants can be grown in this way, those with the potential to grow in the Eden Valley are, watercress, radish, peas (all pictured here) beans, onions, turnips, strawberries, sweet potatoes and a number of herbs.
Pods of Reed Beds cleanse and filtrate the water that passes through, as well as creating new habitats, increasing the biodiversity of the river corridor.
Effluents, produced by the aquaculture, accumalate in the water increasing the toxicity for the fish
The water flows to the hydroponics, where the by-products of the aquaculture are broken down and then used as plant nutrients.
The water is then cleansed by the reed bed system before returning to the river or circulating to an aquaculture pod.
Aquaculture Hydroponics Reed Bed
Cleansed water returned to river
Product = Edible fish
Product = Crops
Product = Biomass Fuel, Cleansed Water
SETTLEMENT & FLOODING
“Despite being overwhelmingly rural, the city region is widely percieved as being grimy, grey and post-industrial. Somehow the city has become divorced from in people’s minds from the landscapes that surround and run through it.” (Rebanks Consulting Ltd:,37)
floodplain of both the Eden and its significant tributaries of the Caldew and Petteril. This settlement/flooding relationship was truly tested in July 2005 when significant rainfall over a two day period combined with already heavily saturated ground culminated with extensive flooding Carlisle and the fatalities of three people. Since these events the Environment Agency have developed flood alleviation schemes for both the Eden/Petteril and Eden/Caldew
Carlisle, regional capital and historic city located in the north of the Eden Valley, many of the areas main services are located here and the city offers alternative employment opportuites to agriculture. Being the largest settlement within the Eden Valley, the biggest settlement/flooding interface therefore exists here. As Carlisle has grown as a city, particularly during the Industrial Revolution, development has continued to encroach onto the
areas of the city. Heightening the negative view of flooding both the schemes favour the building of higher and more substantial flood defence through the utilisation of flood walls, flood banks and flood gates. In some cases a very definite barrier is formed between the settlement and river.
Morphology of Carlisle, demonstrating that as the settlement has grown it has occupied more of theland adjacent to the Rivers Eden, Caldew and Petteril.
Carlisle Timeline Exploring the past to understand the present, and design the future. Carlisle’s history is one of turbulence and change remaining a relatively small strategically defensive town until the industrial revolution when an expanding wool industry increased the population size and wealth of the Carlisle. Swelling in size the settlement engulfed satellite villages and encroached further onto the natural flood plain. Carlisle has a history of flooding with flood events recorded as far back as the 1700s. In recent years there have been significant floods in 1963, 1968, 1979, 1980, 1984, and recently in 2005.
Celtic Carlisle ‘Caer Luel’
Roman Carlisle ‘Luguvallium’
Saxon capture of Carlisle Vikings capture and ransack Carlisle
Scots hold Carlisle Carlisle re-built and revived by King William, people encouraged to settle in Carlisle.
Black Death decimates population
Severe outbreak of Plague Civil War, Carlisle remains loyalist and is under siege from 1644-1645
Population Population 9,555 25,000
Industrial Revolution begins to transform Carlisle as the wool industry booms, improved roads increases trading.
Biscuit making, engineering, printing and brick making also boom
Future of Carlisle? Sewers dug under Carlisle
January Flood, City boundaries extended to include Stanwix and Botcherby
Ring road constructed
Heavy rainfall for a period of two days following a month of high rainfall caused the death of 3 people and the flooding of 1,844 homes, costing ÂŁ400 million in damages.
8% 25% 67%
Sewerage and infrastructure Surface water Rivers and watercourses
Carlisle By Numbers Carlisles climate, along with the rest of Cumbria and the North West, has experienced a moderate change, in recent years drier summers and wetter winters have been experienced, with a rise in the average temperature. Carlisle experiences an oceanic climate, and due to Cumbrias diverse topography experiences the negative effects of heavy rainfall in the upland areas which surround the Eden Valley to the east and west. The data displayed here illustrates the average values experienced over a year.
Average Rainfall Carlisle (mm)
Average High Temp (ËšC)
0 Average Rainfall Days Carlisle
Average Low Temp (ËšC)
Average Sunshine (Hours) 200
Introducing Willow Holme Three main rivers confluence within Carlisle. During periods of heavy rainfall these areas are the first at risk of flooding. These areas neither cope successfully with the flood water or have particularly productive functions on a day to day basis. One such area is Willow Holme (identified on the diagrams), which lies within the Castle Ward of Carlisle. Willow Holme has few residential properties it contains a declining industrial estate, Carlisleâ€™s sewage treatment facility
and a large area of recreation space adjacent to the river. The River Caldew is heavily culverted and following Environment Agency schemes is increasingly segregated from the settlement it threatens to flood. Recreational paths follow the bend of the Eden one of which is the Hadriansâ€™ Wall Trail, the wall itself once ran across Willow Holme but no trace is now visible. Willow Holme will be used as a test site for the reprogramming of Carlisle.
Willow Holme â€˜A large area of low lying flood plain situated in the loop of the River Eden, west of its confluence with the Caldew.â€™ Etterby 01
Willow Holme 09
Carlisle Castle 08
Willow Holme a Settlement/Flooding Interface Looking at survey data reveals an obvious connection between topography and flood areas. The majority of Willow Holme is a particularly flat area, lying between the 5 and 10m contour lines. Land use is varied, with many major public
infrastructures and services located nearby, including Carlisles sewage treatment plant. Although being almost adjacent to Carlisles cultural â€˜centreâ€™ there is little sign of this in Willow Holme itself and the combination of rail
and road networks leave the area disconnected and partially abandoned. Recent works by the environment agency on the River Caldew could result in a speeding up of flow as the water heads towards Willow Holme, although the recreational
New Flood Plain
areas can accommodate a percentage of this water, a more intelligent reprogramming is required to successfully turn Willow Holme into an Anthro-biotone.
Principle Protection Zone
More Environment Agency Flood alleviation schemes upstream
01 Environment Agency River Caldew Flood Defence Scheme
01, 02 Overlay diagrams showing the relationship between, topography and flood, and how the flood effects the land uses present within Willow Holme
Diagramming location of current flood alleviation measures and how reprogramming can alter the flood pattern.
Industrial Urban Agriculture New Water Course
RE-PROGRAM The 3 mechanisms will be utilised across the Willow Holme area, reprogramming to create 4 identifiable areas. Each area has its own function but work with other functions to regenerate Willow Holme as an Anthrobio tone within the city of Carlisle. These new functions are informed by previous programs. For example the Black Water area contains the Carlisle Sewage treatment plant which will
continue to work as before but new infrastructure will be deposited to maximise and profit from the energy created during the treatment of sewage through a bio-gas boiler. The industrial agriculture area looks to revitalise the industrial estate and Willow Holmes economy and promote more experimental industries to relocate here.
Willow Holme Make Up
Grey Water treatment
Black Water treatment
Using a system of constructed wetlands to filter and cleanse grey water so that it can be reused within homes, in industry, for urban agriculture or be returned to the river. Different wetland structures are used which perform different functions in the filtration system increasing performance. Wetlands also act as water storage during times of flood.
The existing site of the Carlisle Sewage treatment plant will continue to function however development of new methods for dealing with black water, using existing infrastructure and developing new technologies will be explored over time.
Re-purposing redundant industrial buildings, no longer suitable to previous uses. Refurbishment and revitalisation is required as â€˜most of Carlisles available employment premises are unsuited to modern needs due to their size, type and location.â€™(Carlisle City Council, 2011:13) The units could be re-purposed into experimental units for urban agriculture.
Offering an alternate route for water, in times of heavy rainfall. Water is partially diverted from the Caldew, reliving pressure on the Caldew/Eden confluence. Water is transported through the channel to rejoin Eden further downstream where there are fewer anthropocentric interests at risk of being flooded. A system of weirs and sluice gates control the release of water.
Willow Holme Phase 1
Constructed Wetland System
Anaerobic Biogas Settler Traditional Sewage Treatment
Black Water Grey Water
Wet Swale System
Seperation of Water
The potential of the processes on the Willow Holme site to expand across Carlisle, creating a settlement more intelligent at dealing with its waste, producing food within
the city and allowing for the flood instead of building barriers against it. A city reprogrammed.
The Channel â€˜In the urban environment, the performance requirements and constraints placed on infrastructure can rarely be met with truly natural, or unremediated systems. Living systems infrastructure presents a model of thinking and designing hybrid, high performance systems which use an ecosystem ecology perspective to construct and manage environments.â€™ (Carlisle, 2013:online)
Large scale SUDs system
Deals with storm water run-off from the neighbouring area, cleasing and filtering the water before it enters the Eden.
Diversion for the Caldew in times of heavy flow, diverting the water away from the centre of Carlisle, and the proposed Willow Holme area and allowing the water to re-enter the Eden downstream.
Living Systems Infrastructure
A History of Willow Holme + its Leat ‘Willow Holme Leat is certainly artificial, however, being created in the 1820’s to provide the Carlisle Navigation Canal with additional water.’ (Weigel, 2010:6) Looking at the history of the selected site of Willow Holme, the relationship between settlement and the Rivers Eden and Caldew, the main causes of the flooding, can be seen to develop. As Carlisle has expanded it has surrounded the flood plain at Willow Holme on all sides but one. The maps demonstrate that which is typical of most towns and cities throughout England, the increase in size and density of the urban fabric. On areas such as Willow Holme this puts pressure on the Settlement/Flooding relationship. The shrinking of Willow Holme Leat can also be identified as the area becomes more built upon.
PATTERN: Form and Shape Caldew to where the channel enters the Eden, ensures the water does not become stagnant. Increasing the total surface area of the water allows a greater number of marginal cleansing plants to interact with the water. The small islands that are created by the characteristic form of the braided channel have the potential to sustain more established vegetation that are productive at
Form and shape are dictated by function. For the majority, the channels function is that of an urban drainage and cleansing system, slowing down the flow, increasing the surface area whilst lowering the depth of water, maximising absorbtion and transpiration are all key requirements. The braided river form allows slower flow which in turn lengthens the time the water has to be cleansed, however the fall of the channel from the
01 Movement of Water
02 Vegetation Islands
[01,02]Diagrams demonstrating the way in which the channels form allows maximum performance
absorbing and transpiring water. The form of the channel also looks to slow rising waters in times of flood. By not offering a direct route for the water to flow, the momentum will be reduced, allowing for the flood waters to be held for a longer period of time in the channel.
Willow Holme Leat SOURCE. Connection with the Caldew. Smaller channels, higher than the average water levels in the Caldew, only in more intensive rainfall periods does water enter the channel from Caldew. Therefore planting here will be designed to withstand prolonged periods of dryness.
03 02 MIDDLE
MIDDLE. SUDs channels enter the main channel draining the adjacent regenerated industrial zones and other existing areas surrounding the channel. The vegetation islands and channels increase in size, increasing water capacity and planting numbers. This increases the channels ability to cleanse and filtrate the water before being returned to the Eden. A vegetation structure will be developed to support this function. DELTA. The channel widths widen further as they get closer to the Eden again to facilitate larger volumes of water, a weir system with sluice gates is used to control water levels within the channel, to prevent drying out but retaining flow of water.
Precedent - Qunli Storm Water Park, China Town is a new urban district, still growing, with an expected population of over 750,000. Positioned in the centre of this new town is the Qunli Storm water Park. A regional wetland under threat after being disconnected from its water sources, the new parks task primarily concerned preserving the wetland however this developed into an urban storm water park capable of collecting, cleansing and storing storm water which
can then be infiltrated into the aquifer, restore native habitats as well as providing attractive public green space.
â€œStorm water parks,which can be connected and integrated into an ecological infrastructure across multiple scales,are the key, ecological sponges that cleanse and store urban storm water. In addition, storm water parks provide many other ecosystem services, as well as life-enhancing amenities and cultural and aesthetic experiences.â€? (Yu, 2011: 73) Located on the outskirts of Haerbin in Northern China, Qunli New
1. Path networks, viewing platforms and an elevated walkway offer the visitor a dynamic experience of the storm water pools.
2. Path networks weave through out the storm water pools. 3. Clear visible contrast between the residential building and neighbouring wetland.
4. Concept drawing for the storm water park which surrounds the regional wetland and now promotes its survival. 5. Aerial view of storm water pools.
Water and The Channel
Illustrating the channels capacity to deal with water at varying levels and from varying sources. The vegetation structures are designed to accomplish a variety of tasks, which include transpiration, absorption and filtration. These work together to deal with water and create a living system that can work as both a widespread SUDs system for the area and as a flood alleviation system, diverting and
holding a proportion of the water flowing down the Caldew after heavy rainfall. A path network is overlayed over the system to add extra anthropocentric benefit. As as well as the channels per-formative role it can also act as a green space creator, providing recreational trails and connecting the centre of Carlisle with the greater Willow Holme area.
Water and The Channel
03 03 01
01 Stormwater runoff 02 Rainfall 03 Vegetation Islands 04 The Channel 05 Outlet to the Eden
Visualisations to demonstrate the channel with the variant water levels that it can adapt to accommodating.
Diagram to demonstrate the various ways that water enters the channel and how it then moves through towards the Eden.
The mechanisms of deposit, etch and pattern continue to occur after intial build phase, as the water in the channel continues to carry the processes on. This results in a contually evolveing changing landscape.
Annual Cut to control invasive species
Preventing succession by management. Dashed lines indicate numbers if succession was not prevented. Preventing succession ensures the productivity of the Shallow Swamp zone of planting which is key to the productivity of the channel.
9.4m 9.1m 8.5m
7.9m 7.3m Average Water Line
7.3m Average Water Line
For full scale drawing see Drawing 1.3
Zone 1 - External Edges
Zone 2 - Wet Woodland
Zone 3 - Shallow Swamp
Planting - A Philosophy The philosophy of the planting follows function. Willow Holme Leat has two primary functions, the channel acts as an urban drainage system and also less frequently to divert and slow flood waters. Developed around these functions, the philosophy focuses on performance, planting being at the forefront of delivering the desired functions. Performance dictates the choice of plants and planting structures and led to the creation of three distinct
vegetation zones each with an alternative purpose and character. Each of the vegetation zones is an important Arrangement of the wetland planting needs many a design consideration “Beside water depth and nutrient conditions, plant sociability has to be a consideration in the way that plants are arranged, drawing guidance from the way plants arrange
themselves in nature.” (Kircher, 2008:222) The arrangement of plants is not purely based on the aesthetic but the effect arrangement can have on the performance of the plant. Performance is key to the success of my planting design and therefore the sociability of the chosen mixes is key. The character and composition of wetland communities is closely related to water depth. 3 different zones have been identified.
Zone 1 - External Edges
Zone 2 - Wet Woodland
Zone 3 - Shallow Swamp
Here a sharp transition is experienced between the drier, urban fringe and the wetter, softer channel system. The plant selection needs to be able to withstand dryer conditions as the moisture will drain and be retained in the lower areas of the channel in periods of dryness. Zone 1 also acts as a filter, or interface, between the different characters of the vegetated channel and the industrial units. A wetland edge wild flower mix has been selected which fulfils both of the above criteria. The selected mix, EPF1 wild flowers for pond edges, from Emersgate seeds is 100% wild flower to prevent the potential dominance grass can have when included in the mix.
A periodically flooded zone, characterised by small groupings of trees and larger shrubs that have a high transpiration rate and are able to drain soggy soil in prolonged periods of wetness. As well as having a high transpiration rate the small clumps of trees add dynamism, diversity and structure. A Birch/Pine(Betula pubesens/Pinus sylvestris) mix has been designed to: - maximise the transpiration rate through the choice of Pinus sylvestris an evergreen tree therefore able transpire year round. - maintain low nutrient soil lower biomass compared to other wet woodland combinations, furthermore Betula pubesens is non nitrogen fixing compared to Alnus glutinosa(a possible wet woodland alternative)
More susceptible to prolonged periods of wetness and fluctuating water levels, zone 3 is the most productive in terms of its ability to cleanse the water, as well as promoting wildlife and heterogeneity. The vegetation choices look to challenge Phragmites australis’ position as the ‘go to’ plant for water purification. Although it is the most effective purifying species, because its thick aerenchym-containing rhizomes optimise the site as a habitat for micro-organisms that aid the reduction of pollutants and nutrients (Wissing 1995) Phragmites australis is, however, a monoculture forming plant, an invasive competitor it forms an extensive population which suppresses other species. As heterogeneity is one of the desired by-products of the productive channel system, developing an alternative plant community, consisting of plants chosen for their water cleansing properties and sociability was a more desired outcome. A mix has therefore been developed with careful consideration to firstly the productive value of a plant, secondly its sociability and finally its aesthetic qualities.
Zone 1 - External Edges, Emorsgate EPF1 Percentage 2% 10% 1% 2.5% 12% 2.5% 20% 2.5% 5% 7.5% 15% 1.5% 2.5% 1% 5% 10%
Latin Name Achillea ptarmica Angelica sylvestris Caltha palustris Eupatorium cannabinum Filipendula ulmaria Hypericum tetrapterum Iris pseudacorus Lotus pedunculatus Lycopus europaeus Lythrum salicaria Ranunculus acris Scrophularia auriculata Silene flos-cuculi Succisa pratensis Thalictrum flavum Vicia cracca
Specification Ground preparation Low nutrient soil from the location that does not have a problem with perennial weeds is required. Open ground needed for seeds to germinate and establish successfully.
Common Name Sneezewort Wild Angelica Marsh Marigold Hemp Agrimony Meadowsweet Square-stalked St Johnâ€™s Wort Yellow Iris Greater Birdsfoot Trefoil Gypsywort Purple Loosestrife Meadow Buttercup Water Figwort Ragged Robin Devilâ€™s-bit Scabious Common Meadow-rue Tufted Vetch
Sowing Sowings on ground prone to winter flooding are safest either in spring or summer once the land has drained. Most plants need time to grow mature enough to withstand flooding. The seed must be surface sown and can be applied by machine or broadcast by hand. To get an even distribution and avoid running out, divide the seed into two or more parts and sow in overlapping sections. Do not incorporate or cover the seed.
01 Vicia cracca 02 Angelica sylvestris 03 Ranunculus acris 04 Achillea ptarmica 05 Silene flos-cuculi 06 Lycopus europaeus 07 Succisa pratensis
Zone 2 - Wet Woodland Percentage Trees 2.5% Conifers 0.8% Shrubs 75.4% 2.5% 5.0% 1.3% 12.6%
Betula pubesens Betula pubesens
2x; Feathered 5brks 2x; Feathered 2brks
2x; Leader with laterals
Calluna vulgaris Frangula alnus Ledum palustre Salix aurita Vaccinium uliginosum
300 10 20 5 50
0/1; Cutting; branched; 3brks
01 Betula pubesens 02 Pinus sylvestris 03 Calluna vulgaris 04 Frangula alnus 05 Ledum palustre 06 Salix aurita 07 Vaccinium uliginosum
Zone 3 - Shallow Swamp
1 Alisima plantago aquatica
01 Iris pseudacorus 02 Pontederia lanceolata 03 Butomus umbellatus 04 Iris laevigata 05 Lysimachia thyrsiflora 06 Nasturtium officinale 07 Veronica beccabunga 08 Alisma plantago aquatica 09 Sagittaria sagittifolia
Readings into the plant arrangements and associations of herbaceous perennials informed how the mix developed “The structure of planting is determined by dominant perennials that are scattered rhythmically throughout and impose order on the planting. These ‘theme’ or emergent plants determine the character of the planting. Secondary plants fill-in spaces between the more dominant plants, according to their ‘sociability,’
Note: The numbers within the symbols note the number of plants planted each time the symbol is used.
whether they be aggregated companion perennials or scattered perennials.” (Dunnett et al, 2008:250) Ensuring this sociability promotes a more successful plant community which will perform to its full which is the desired aim. “Applying scientific principles can actually guide the way that
plants are arranged to achieve a fully naturalistic effect, but one that also actually works as a functioning plant community into the indefinite future.” (Dunnett, 2008:98)
Zone 3 Schedule Percentage Dominants 10%
Plug; established root 2-3 months minimum; Sept to April planting; native British origin
5x groups of 5= 25
8% Companion 19%
6x groups of 3 = 18
Iris laevigata Lysimachia thyrsiflora
110-125cc 50cc min
Plug; established root; June to Sept planting; native 15x groups of 3 = 45 British origin Root Trainer; well rooted 9 x group of 1 = 9
Groundcover 20% Nasturtium officinale
Alisma plantago aquatica
Plug; established root 2-3 months minimum; Sept to April planting; native British origin
10x groups of 3 = 30
Plug; established root 2-3 months minimum; Sept to April planting; native British origin Plug; established root 2-3 months minimum; Sept to April planting; native British origin
8m2 x 6 = 48
Plug; established root 2-3 months minimum; Sept to April planting; native British origin Root Trainer; well rooted; Sept to April planting; native British origin
13 x group of 1 = 13
8m2 x 5 = 40
12 x group of 1 = 12
Re-inforced Grass, Bioengineering and Slope Stabilisation
Precedent - Materiality
Introducing a reinforced grass pathway system has allowed the softness of the channel to continue throughout. Inspiration came from seeing the relationship between wild-flower planting and reinforced grass, seen in image 01, from the National Wild-flower Centre, Liverpool. The relationship is subtle yet contrasting, they
compliment each other well. is Choosing reinforced grass also has a practical the BodPave85 system in mid construction. productive benefit, its permeability allowing it to These images demonstrate the ease of construction drain especially well, makes it perfect for the system and the limited amount of groundwork needed. being created. Ease of maintenance is also a key decision maker, plus as the footfall is predicted to be low it suits this situation well. Also depicted (02,03)
Precedent - Bioengineering
Using a bioengineering system has many favourable advantages. Simple to construct with automatic impact without the need for any type of footings. As well as ease of construction this Coir Roll system also allows the growth of vegetation on it, maximising the area for cleansing and absorption. Another advantage is its natural appearance which compliments the overall design character. The images selected demonstrate varying elements
from the process, 05 illustrates how the faggot and stake system are applied before the soil is filled in and coil roll added. Systems such as these are also great for increasing the level of biodiversity.
Precedent - Concept
Inspired by the hard to soft relationship seen below at The High Line (Image 01) the development of the SUDs channel as a bespoke detail began to develop. Other inspirations included the braided river pattern which was the inspiration for the main forms within the main channel and also patterns left in the sand when the tide recedes, these particular images (02 & 03)
are taken from the nearby Solway Firth. The SUDs channels will act as storm water collectors, bringing storm water from the surrounding area into the channel, where it can there be cleansed then absorbed, transpired or returned to the Eden.
self compacting concrete which allows for the intricacy of the shapes and the smoothness of finish.
Precedent - Design
Precedent - Design
Demonstrated here are other precedents which have informed the design of the SUDs channels. (04-07)The Princess Diana Memorial Fountain, Hyde Park, London designed by Gustavson Porter. Here granite has been used to create a variety of textured pieces through which the water flows. (08-11) Crushed Wall, Heartlands, Cornwall by Walter Jacks, a precedent for both the materiality and the forms created. This structure is created with
General Arrangement Drawing 1.0
Materiality SUD’s Channel
Pre-cast Self Compacting Concrete structure (see drawing 1.5) Self compacting concrete, supplied by Aggregate Industries: Bardon Cemflow A, architectural grade with high quality finish with recycled aggregate produced in UK. Adheres to BS EN 206-1:2001, BS8500-1 and BS 8500-2 2006.
Pre-cast bridge components (see drawing 1.8 for arrangement) White architectural concrete, supplied by Lafarge: Snowcrete (CEM I), a white Portland cement which complies with BS EN 197-1 CEM 152, 5R, finished with an acid etch.
General Arrangement : The Channel : Materiality : Drawing 1.0
Reinforced grass pathway (see drawing 1.7) supplied by Terram®: BodPave®85, 100% recycled polyethylene in black. Paver dimension 500mm x 500mm x 50mm. Rigid walled, flexible semiclosed cell combination.
Stabilisation system involving planted Coir rolls, wooden faggots and stakes (see drawing 1.4 for construction) All materials supplied by A.G.A Group : Pre-planted Coir Rolls - 300mm dia x 3m long, 6 plants per linea metre, netting - synthetic multi strand fibre 50mm diamond mesh. Hazel Faggots - 400mm dia x 4m long, tied with biodegradable twine made from coir, 6 ties per bundle. Fixing Stakes - Untreated Chestnut 80mm dia x 1.6m long.
Vegetation Zone 1 - External edges
Zone 2 - Wet Woodland
Zone 3 - Shallow Swamp
(See Portfolio for mixes and specifications.)
NO RT H
General Arrangement : The Channel: Levels and Drainage: Drawing 1.1
Drainage and Levels Drawing 1.1
NO RT H
Cross Section with Details
Average Water Level
Average Water Level
Long Cross Section with Details: The Channel: Drawing 1.3
1 - Re-enforced grass pathway, BodPave 85 units (see specification sheet) 2 - Bedding layer consolidated root zone free draining blend sand:soil 60:40 (150mm) 3 - Sub-base layer, MOT Type 3 Sub-base reduced fines aggregate, not zero fines. (250mm) 4 - Compacted native soil 5 - Vertical edging - in-situ white concrete, Snowcrete (CEM I) white Portland cement (40mm) 6 - Compacted low nutrient soil from site. (150mm) 7 - Terram T700 Geotextile Liner. 8 - Compacted Clay (100mm)
1 - Coir Roll (300mm dia x 3m) 2 - Hazel Faggot (400mm dia x 6m) 3 - Chestnut Stake (80mm dia x 120mm length) 4 - Low nutrient compacted soil from location (50mm) 5 - 20mm Recycled Gravel/Shingle made from crushed concrete and reclaimed gravel, screened to remove dust and fines. (50mm) 6 - 75mm-40mm Clean crushed concrete, recycled subbase, screened to remove dust and fines. (150mm) 7 - Compacted native soil 8 - Compacted low nutrient soil from location (150mm) 9 - Terram T700 Geotextile Liner 10 - Compacted Clay (100mm) 11 - Zone 3 planting on Coir roll.
6 1 - 20mm Recycled Gravel/Shingle made from crushed concrete and reclaimed gravel, screened to remove dust and fines. (50mm) 2 - 75mm-40mm Clean crushed concrete, recycled sub-base, screened to remove dust and fines. (150mm) 3 - Compacted native soil 4 - In-situ concrete footing ST1 standard concrete mix. 5 - Sand bed, soft building sand. (50mm) 6 - 75mm-40mm Clean crushed concrete, recycled sub-base, screened to remove dust and fines. (150mm) 7 - Pre-cast SUDâ€™s System, self compacting concrete, Bardon Cemflow A.
9.4m 9.1m 8.5m
7.9m 7.3m Average Water Line
8.5m 7.9m 7.3m Average Water Line
LEDGER - Vegetation Zone 1 External edges
Zone 2 Wet Woodland
Zone 3 Shallow Swamp
Scale 1:50 @A1
Construction Detail :SUDs Channel : Drawing 1.5
Scale 1:50 @A1
Scale 1:50 @A1
1 - Pre-cast SUDâ€™s Block, Self compacting concrete Bardon Cemflow A. 2 - Stabilising galvanised steel rods 100mm dia, driven till refusal, length therefore varies. 3 - Sand bed, soft building sand. (50mm) 4 - 75mm-40mm Clean crushed concrete, recycled subbase, screened to remove dust and fines. (150mm) 5 - Pre-Cast Concrete Slab, White cement, Snowcrete (CEM I) Acid etch finish. (l 1000m x w 500mm x h 200mm) 6 - Sand bed, soft building sand. (50mm) 7 - 75mm-40mm Clean crushed concrete, recycled subbase, screened to remove dust and fines. (150mm) 8- Compacted native soil 9 - Compacted low nutrient soil from location (150mm) 10 - Compacted Clay (100mm) 11 - In-situ concrete footing ST1 standard concrete mix.
Bespoke SUDâ€™s Channel
Construction Detail :SUDs Channel : Drawing 1.6
Section 1 1:10@A1
Design development of the relief of the SUDs channel, designed to reflect the main Willow Holme Leat channel, which takes inspiration from braided rivers. Due to the properties of self compacting concrete intricate moulds can be used to create the design which includes channels
for water and potential areas for planting. The design has been worked so that each 4m block matches the next to reduce costs so each block mould, of which there are 4, can be repeatedly reused.
“Any acceptance of an ecologically informed approach to planting must fully embrace the concept of change.” (Dunnett,2008:98) “When changes to the channel, floodplain, vegetation-flow or sediment supply significantly affect this equilibrium, the stream may become unstable and start adjusting towards a new equilibrium state.” Although the management plan does allow for a certain amount of change, at the heart of its design is the need to maintain the function of Willow Holme Leat. The plan is divided into two sections(Fig 01) one side concentrating on the General management of the channel as it ages and develops and the other the Emergency management, which is needed after a major flood event.
AIM: To manage the landscape in order to promote the productivity of the vegetation to ensure the functions of cleansing, absorbing and transpiring water is maintained.
AIM: To re-establish an equilibrium after a 1 in 75 year flood event, when the channel is used as a water diverter. Management is needed to return the channel to its primary function as a large SUD’s system for the Willow Holme area of Carlisle.
resulting in the maintenance of Willow Holme Leat as an
Anthro-Bio Tone Fig 01
For wild flower establishment weed growth needs to be cut back to develop a good perennial cover. NOTE: Establishing wild flower mix on sites prone to flooding means establishment mey be patchy and take several years to fully collinise
Removal of any invasive weeds or dominanting species such as Phragmites australis so as to retain designed productive planting community. In order to retain low nutrient levels in the soil removal of biomass required.
As the canopy develops the shade tolerant plants will thrive
Salix aurita may begin to spread away from the Zone 2 area potentially drying out the soil, changeing conditions and limiting performance of the Zone 3 plant community. Removal of larger specimens required.
5 Year Management
To form a variety of vegetation structures that increase habitat value, a rotation of the annual cut will be introduced meaning each section will be cut every 2-3 years. Removal of this biomass is crucial to retain low nutrient level of soil.
Again removal of any invasive weeds or dominanting plants. Observation of whether any of the plants from the Zone 3 mix are becoming dominant and perhaps need to be controlled. Collinisation futher into stream to be expected.
Dense canopy now developed meaning a high transpiration rate. Selected trees Removal of any may need to be spread vegetation removed to keep from Zone 2 which the biomass down could potentially and allow younger damage the specimens to productivity of thrive. Zone 3. Too much shading could also cause loss in productivity.
10 Year Management
5 Year Management
Annual cut rotation still carried out, removal of individual dominating species also required.
Removal of any collinising trees which manage to seed in undesirable locations. This is done to maintain productivity.
Zone 3 planting community may need to be thinned to allow flow of water and discourage stagnation.
Larger, older trees dry out the soil too much and therefore need to be felled. Although this will drop the transpiration and absorbtion rate younger species will thrive thanks to less competition.