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UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 /

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IT IS GOOD TO KNOW

The assurance that you have eternal life is based on God’s unchanging Word. The Bible provides this assurance to those who believe on Him. “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” John 3:16 God does not lie. He has promised everlasting life to those who believe on Him as Savior. “In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began.” Titus 1:2 "He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him." John 3:36

NOW THAT YOU KNOW

Now that you’ve received Jesus Christ as your Savior, what’s next? You can begin growing spiritually by… Reading the Bible. A good place to start is in the New Testament book of John. Try reading a chapter a day!

HEAVEN: do you know for sure?

Praying. Prayer is talking to God. Take time daily to thank God for what He has done for you and ask Him to help you live for Him. Going to church. Find a Bible-preaching church and attend faithfully. Telling others about Jesus Christ. Share what Jesus Christ has done for you with your family and friends!

"For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved." Romans 10:13 Once you have received Jesus Christ as your Savior it is forever settled. You cannot lose eternal life. “He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life.” 1 John 5:12 6/8/12 11:40 AM

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Volume 10 . Number 1 Senior Editor: Dr. Bill Duttry Managing Editor: Tommy Thompson Graphic Design: John the Baptist Publications Milford, OH

Some of the authors and their material featured in the UW Journal are not necessarily in agreement with the theological position of the UW Journal. Their writings are included because of their insight into the particular subject matter published in the UW Journal. The Unpublished WORD Journal is a quarterly publication of firstBible International. All correspondence should be sent to the editorial offices at: firstBible International 1367 Woodville Pike Milford, OH 45150 513.250.6925 info@firstbible.net www.firstbible.net

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Unpublished WORD Journal

5 8 10 12 17

CHANGE:

Rethink or Redirect?

with Dr. Bill Duttry

Pastor, First Baptist Church of Milford

ORIGIN

Where did the Hebrew Old Testament come from?

with Jerry Rockwell firstBible International

THE IDENTITY

OF THE TEXTUS RECEPTUS part 2

with Dr. Bill Patterson Missionary/Bible Translator

The Local Church and Her

Worldwide Mission with Tommy Thompson

Managing Editor, First Baptist Church of Milford

DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE OR FORMAL EQUIVALENCE?

with Rex Cobb

Director, Baptist Bible Translators Institute

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AND THE

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ANSWER

UTTERMOST with Dr. Charles Keen Founder, firstBible International

THE CALL

with Pastor Rick Adams Greater Portland Baptist Church


BPS

MINISTRIES Bearing Precious Seed

Scripture Printing Ministry www.bpsmilford.org

BPS Seedline

Local Church Involvement in Bible Publishing www.bpsmilford.org

BPS El Paso

Mission Trips into Mexico and the Navajo Nation www.bpsmilford.org

firstBible International

Bible Translation for Unreached People Groups www.firstbible.net

EDITORIAL with Dr. Bill Duttry Senior Pastor, First Baptist Church of Milford, OH

The Unpublished Word Journal is a collection of articles distributed quarterly for the purpose of instruction, edification, and enlightenment regarding our attitudes toward the most foreign of mission endeavors. It is our goal to highlight the responsibility of local churches to minister among the neglected regions of the world. Furthermore, we desire to be an encouragement by providing field reports about the work that firstBible International is accomplishing in the areas of Bible translation, church-planting, and training nationals on foreign soil. These encouraging pages have been compiled because the Uttermost truly represents the most difficult peoples of the world to reach. It is well-understood that due to the barriers of language, culture, and geography, these are also among the most costly peoples to reach. We, as Christians, have strived to do our best work in reaching out into our Jerusalem. Likewise, there have been marked advances in our efforts to reach out into our Judaea and Samaria. However, when we consider the work done toward evangelizing the Uttermost, we must admit that the unreached peoples found in restricted access areas have been neglected far too long. The Unpublished Word Journal highlights these areas in order to draw our attention to the overlooked and least-reached people of the world. Our goal is to promote a common burden, calling us to prayer and purpose as we work collectively toward the same cause. I so appreciate the God-given wisdom that our contributors have felt to share with us. These articles are well-written and well-researched to ensure their accuracy and credibility. Please enjoy this issue of the Journal as we continue to help you reach the unreached for Christ.

First Baptist Church Dr. Bill Duttry, Senior Pastor 1367 Woodville Pike Milford, Ohio 45150 513.575.1705 info@fbcm.org www.fbcm.org

Bearing Precious Seed Al Braley, Director 1369 Woodville Pike Milford, Ohio 45150 513.575.1706 info@bpsmilford.org www.bpsmilford.org

MONGOLIA TRIP with firstBible International

FIRSTBIBLE INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL 4 4FIRSTBIBLE

March 12-25

A MINISTRY OF FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF MILFORD

for more information call 513.575.1705 ext. 706


CHANGE:

Is it Time to Rethink and Redirect our Missions Emphasis? by Pastor Bill Duttry, First Baptist Church of Milford “Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said, It was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to you: but seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to the Gentiles.” (Acts 13:46)

Sometimes, as a defense against change, a man will quote Heb. 13:8 – “Jesus Christ the same yesterday and today and forever.” However, we know that verse refers to Christ’s being, not His behavior; to His character and not His conduct.

“And when they opposed themselves, and blasphemed, he shook his raiment, and said unto them, Your blood be upon your own heads; I am clean; from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles.” (Acts 18:6)

The same can be said for Mal. 3:6, which says, “For I am the Lord, I change not.” This refers to God’s essence, not His dealings with man.

“For though I be free from all men, yet have I made myself servant unto all, that I might gain the more. And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law; To them that are without law, as without law, (being not without law to God, but under the law to Christ,) that I might gain them that are without law. To the weak became I as weak, that I might gain the weak: I am made all things to all men, that I might by all means save some. And this I do for the gospel’s sake, that I might be partaker thereof with you.” (I Cor. 9:19-23)

God changed from Law to Grace, and from Israel to the Church, to name two examples. In Luke 22:3536 Jesus changed his method from no script to take script and no sword to take a sword. The New Testament church changed its approach to missions from Jerusalem’s nationalistic effort to Antioch’s intercontinental approach in sending the first foreign missionaries. Paul changed from Jewish evangelism to planting churches among the Gentiles, and in Acts 16 he changed course from an Asian to a European direction.

Change is often looked upon by fundamental Baptists as a bad thing, and often it is, but a scrutiny of Scriptures would help us to know all change is not bad, and in certain instances it is even necessary. For instance, the parable of the new wine in old wine skins (or a new patch on old garments) is instruction on how to effectively make change when it is needed without doing damage to those involved. The secret is in knowing what can never be changed, which is doctrine.

We see change being executed throughout the Bible.

Change in world evangelism is also evident in church history. William Carey led the church of his day to include the world in its ministry, and after a time they embraced this change and responded, evangelizing mostly the coastal area of other continents, mainly Asia. One hundred years after Carey, Hudson Taylor, the missionary to China, called for a change when he noted the cities inland from the coastal regions were not being reached with the Gospel. (He also called for UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 /

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Change: Is IT TIME TO RETHINK AND REDIRECT OUR MISSIONS EMPHASIS - Pastor Bill Duttry

a change in how missions was funded, changing from a cooperative funding to an individual faith program.) These changes were embraced by the church, resulting in millions of overlooked peoples being reached. Many agencies, such as the China Inland Mission, the Sudan Interior Mission, and African Inland Missions were founded and many churches engaged in penetrating that part of our unreached world. Perhaps the most important result in this change was a surge of thousands of new recruits Should we, like Paul, responding to this appeal to go inland. decide that the time Hudson Taylor’s emphasis to change has come for us to to inland missions rethink and redirect did not replace Carey’s coastal plan, our emphasis? but extended it. A century later Cameron Townsend called for another change in that tribal peoples as well as coastal and inland cities should be evangelized. We might call this change an emphasis on the Uttermost. May I emphasize that we are not calling on our churches to abandon what they are already doing, but rather to extend their Jerusalem/Judea/Samaria vision to include the Uttermost (Acts 1:8). Let me speak to the independent fundamental element of church life. We have had a degree of success in following Carey’s costal example and Taylor’s inland evangelism. Is it now time to rethink and redirect our emphasis to include a vision to reach the Uttermost? Fundamental independent Baptists have been involved in world evangelism for the better part of a century and the truth is we are not taking much, if any, new ground. Most of our missions work is “boasting in another man’s line of things made ready to our hand” instead of going to the “regions beyond” (II Cor. 10:16). In the life of Paul, we have a good example of responding to the need for change. He started out in Jewish evangelism in both the Hebrew and Hellenistic quarters, and then changed his emphasis, being sent by the church at Antioch, to the Gentile world. He

saw a need for change in his missionary efforts, as already noted in Acts 13:46. Paul was willing to change the location of ministry (Rom. 15:20-24, 28) as well as his approach. Should we, like Paul, decide that the time has come for us to rethink and redirect our emphasis? Should we not include the unreached peoples of this world as a dominant part of our worldview? They collectively represent one-half of the world’s population (3.7 billion), and we must recognize the emphasis Jesus put on reaching “every nation,” “every creature,” and “all the world,” while admitting that at present we are not impacting much of the world with the Gospel. Currently, the unreached receive few of our mission dollars, fewer of our missionaries and are almost certainly the focus of virtually none of our prayer. Research shows there are 65 countries where we (independent fundamental Baptists) have no missionary and, sadder still, very few of our candidates are in training to go. Perhaps saddest of all is the fact that there are very few places a candidate can go in fundamentalism to be trained if he is called to go.1 I believe the blessed Holy Spirit would like to go into dark parts of our world where the light of the Gospel is not known. I believe Jesus would like to reign over those for whom He died but have never heard about the cross and now worship at the altar of Prince of darkness. And I believe the church needs to hear a clear call from our pulpits (“Who will go for us and whom shall we send [to the ends of the earth]?”) with an equally clear response from some of its members (“Here am I, send me”). We need, yea must, call for a change in our thinking that results in a change of direction of our missions effort. I am afraid our mission conferences have become fundraisers instead of recruitment stations and our recruitment is more of a call to go and pastor in a foreign industrial country rather than the regions beyond. Before some think that a redirection of emphasis is a radical approach to world evangelism, I suggest we have an example in the ministry of Paul, who on more than one occasion said, “I turn to the Gentiles.”

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Change: Is IT TIME TO RETHINK AND REDIRECT OUR MISSIONS EMPHASIS - Pastor Bill Duttry

This represented a massive shift, considering that the Jews had for two thousand years been the emphasis of God.

both the most overlooked place and the greatest need was in his day, and the same is true today.

Consider Rom. 15:19-21. “Through mighty signs and Paul’s change of direction was not because the Jewish wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from nation no longer needed the Gospel. As he wrote Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully in Rom. 3:9, “We have before proved both Jews and preached the gospel of Christ. Yea, so have I strived to Gentiles, that they are all under sin.” Nor had he preach the gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I ceased to love them; he expressed in Rom. 9:2-4, should build upon another man’s foundation: But as it “That I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in is written, To whom he was not spoken of, they shall my heart. For I could wish that myself were accursed see: and they that have not heard shall understand.” from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to In verse 24 of that chapter he revealed his destination: the flesh: Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the Spain. It was unreached and had a different language adoption, and the glory, and the than he had been ministering. He covenants, and the giving of the was fluent in Hebrew and Greek but law, and the service of God, and Why, then, did Paul have probably not in Latin. the promises.” He also wrote in a change of direction If we are going to get to the 6,000 Rom. 10:1, “Brethren, my heart’s in his mission emphasis “Spains” of our world, we must desire and prayer to God for Israel be challenged from our pulpits, and why should we is, that they might be saved.” surrender to go there and be willing consider it in our Great Why, then, did Paul have a to deal with the language issue. Commission effort? change of direction in his Learn their language if they have mission emphasis, and why one and translate the Bible into it should we consider it in our or help them to get one if they do Great Commission effort? not have a written language (as is the case with 2,000 Reaching the Gentiles was not a new thought to Paul. of the world’s languages that are currently without a In fact, he was given the assignment on the Damascus Bible). Road. The Lord said of him in Acts 9:15, “He is a The need and number of unreached people is such that chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the we must rethink and redirect our efforts toward them Gentiles.” In Acts 13:47, Paul and Barnabas pointed quickly and our participation must exceed tokenism out their mission with clarity: “For so hath the Lord but be accompanied with zeal, as demonstrated by commanded us, saying, I have set thee to be a light of the Apostle Paul: “So, as much as in me is, I am ready” the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto (Rom. 1:15). the ends of the earth.” But it took him quite some time to give himself to it. Some Bible scholars think it may have been as many as 14 years after his conversion before he made the change and directed his focus to the Gentiles. May I say that the church has had the Great Commission since her birth, as expressed in the alltoo-familiar words of Acts 1:8. “…ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.” Isn’t it time we made a meaningful change in our efforts and include the unreached people in our missions dollars, prayers, and personnel work?

1 BBTI. This school in Texas is lead by Rex Cobb and its goal is to train men and women in language-learning and cultural adaptation to reach the unreached.

Pastor Bill Duttry Senior Pastor

First Baptist Church of Milford

Paul turned to the unreached because that was where UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 /

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ORIGIN:

Where did the Hebrew Old Testament come from? by Jerry Rockwell, firstBible International

The New Testament gives ample evidence that there was a written Old Testament available early. Jesus was given the book of Isaiah1 and read from it. Timothy had a copy of the Scriptures as well. 2What Old Testament did they use? Most Bible students have heard the word Masoretic Text, yet do not know what it represents. Many consider it to be the Hebrew version of the Old Testament. That is correct in a sense, but not altogether accurate. There needs to be some understanding about the Hebrew Bible and where it came from. The Masoretic Text gets its name from the group of Jewish men, the Masoretes, who were committed to keeping the Hebrew Old Testament intact and without error. These men followed after the tradition of the scribes who were custodians of the Scripture.3 They were a meticulous group who majored on accuracy in copying the Hebrew scripture.4 These men worked between the 500 A.D. and 1000 A.D. and are considered to be responsible for the preservation of the Hebrew Old Testament and developing a vowel system called “vowel points.”5 History records that there were at least two groups (families) of Masoretes who worked on the Hebrew text. One was the family of ben Asher6 and the other was the ben Naphtali family. One writer indicates that with the Hebrew text they cared for there were only “minor textual differences.”7 In 1524-1525, a Hebrew Christian by the name of Jacob ben Chayyim developed the Second Rabbinic Bible.8 The First Rabbinic Bible was known as the Bomberg text because it was first printed by David Bomberg in 1516-1517.9 The ben Chayyim text became the standard Hebrew text up until the nineteenth century10 and was used by the Reformation translations.11 The first critical Hebrew text was developed in 1720 by J. H. Michaelis12 who drew from many manuscripts with variants from several texts. The ben Asher manuscripts were re-introduced and were supposedly the oldest existing Hebrew text;

this, coupled with the Leningrad Codex, B 19a.13 The notes in this manuscript indicated it was based on the ben Asher Hebrew text.14 It, along with the ben Asher Hebrew text was used in the development of the Biblia Hebraica,15 which is the current critical text of the Old Testament. The current status of the Bible in translation should be noted. The ben Chayyim text is the basis of the Authorized Version (KJV). All new translations16 are based on the critical text of the ben Asher tradition. It is worth noting that the critical Hebrew Bible follows the same argument as the Westcott-Hort critical text of the New Testament. They are based on the “oldest” manuscripts, allowing for the assumption that they are better. Another point to be made is that the Greek manuscripts used by the critical edition of the New Testament follows texts which have their origin in Egypt. There is a Cairo Codex of the Prophets which is considered the oldest existing Hebrew portion and it is used in the ben Asher Hebrew Bible. It seems that Egypt was a place that God did not want His people going due to the wrong influence found there. Perhaps this is a lesson for the careful student.

Luke 7:14 Timothy 3:15 3 Moses wrote: “the words of the law in a book” (Deuteronomy 31:24) and then gave instructions to the Levites to care for the “book of the law” (Deuteronomy 31:25). See other passages which verify the Levites custodianship of the scripture: Deuteronomy 33:10; 1 Chronicles 16:4 (scribes mentioned); Ezra 7:12; Malachi 2:4-7. 4 Until 1465 when Gutenberg invented movable type the scripture was copied by hand. The Masoretes 5 Prior to the Masoretes the Hebrew Bible did not have a vowel system because it was 1 2

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part of the oral tradition. Even Orthhodox Jews today use an un-pointed (no vowels identified) Hebrew text. 6 The Hebrew word ben has the meaning “son of ”. 7 R.K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1969, page 214. 8 According to most historians the First Rabbinic Bible has disappeared from history. Jacob ben Chayyim (sometimes spelled Hayyim) was like Erasmus in seeking evidence of the Hebrew text and developed the Second Rabbinic Bible which was a four volume edition. This is

an interesting element of history since the First Rabbinic Bible was supposedly printed in 1517 by Bomberg. The Second Rabbinic Bible became the Textus Receptus of the Hebrew and was used by the King James translators to translate the Old Testament of the Authorized Version. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid 11 These would be the AV 1611 and Luther’s German Bible just to name a couple. 12 Ibid 13 This text was dated 1008 and considered the oldest

Hebrew manuscript. 14 Rev. Professor Bleddyn J. Roberts, “The Old Testament: Manuscripts, Text and Versions,” pages 10-11 in The Cambridge History of the Bible, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1969, edited by G. W .H. Lampe. 15 This Hebrew Bible is also known as the “Kittle Text” named for the editor Rudolf Kittel. 16 The NIV, NASB, RSV, et al.

SUGGESTED READING ON MISSIONS

*The recommendation of these books by First Baptist Church, Milford, Ohio should not be construed as a “blanket” endorsement of the entire contents of the material or other works by the same author.

BOOK TITLE

AUTHOR

Acts: An Expositional Commentary

James M Boice

Operation World

Patrick Johnstone

Thinking Outside the Box

Charles Keen

Unreached People Groups (pamphlet, available by request from firstBible International)

Charles Keen

Let the Nations Be Glad

John Piper

Tally Ho the Fox!

Herb Hodges

Spiritual Warfare and Missions: The Battle for God’s Glory Among the Nations Jerry Rankin and Ed Stetzer Eternity in Their Hearts

Don Richardson

Peace Child

Don Richardson

The Message of Acts: The Bible Speaks Today

John Stott

A Reader: Perspectives on the World Christian

Ralph D. Winter and Steven C. Hawthorne

LIBRARIAN’S CHOICE As the book of choice for this issue, the Librarian recommends, Hebrews: Verse by Verse by William R. Newell (1865-1956). Because our involvement in world evangelism is in direct proportion to our estimation of the Lord Jesus, this work is certainly Christ-exalting! In my nearly 50 years of Gospel ministry, I have never read a book that so clearly addresses the person and work of Jesus as this book on Hebrews. Newell devotes special attention to the context of Christ as our once-and-for-all offering on Calvary and His high priesthood after the order of Melchizedek. I would move this book near the top of my “best books read” list. Though it is not an easy read, it will pay large dividends in spiritual currency to those willing to invest time and mental energy into its pages. I was first introduced to Newell at Midwestern Baptist College in 1962 where we used his book, Romans: Verse by Verse. He also authored, Revelation: Chapter by Chapter. UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 /

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THE

IDENTITY

OF THE TEXTUS RECEPTUS second of a four-article series

by Dr. Bill Patterson, Missionary/Bible Translator

In the first part of this article, we considered the editions of the Textus Receptus beginning with Erasmus and going through Simon de Colines. At the midpoint of the sixteenth century, the translation of the Bible into the common languages of the peoples of Europe had taken a strategic step forward. The availability of the text of the Bible in Greek and Hebrew gave way to renewed efforts to render God’s Word into the vernacular of that day. This birthed a spiritual revolution known as the Reformation. Robert Estienne, better known as Robert Stephanus or Robert Stephens, was born into a family famous for its ability in printing. His father, Henri Estienne, had died in Robert’s youth in 1520, and Henri’s able assistant Simon de Colines had taken over the family business. He also married Henri’s widow, furthering his relationship with the family. Upon Robert’s coming of age in 1526, the press was given over to him, and Simon de Colines began his own print shop. As was his father, Robert Stephanus was the printer to the King of France, for which he identified himself with the title “Royal Typographer” on the frontispiece. In 1546, the first of four editions of the Greek New Testament was published by Robert Stephanus. The introduction refers to the Complutensian Polyglot as the primary source of the Greek text. Stephanus’ text is more similar to that of Erasmus’ third edition and the Complutensian than the text of Simon de Colines, although the latter had become his step-father. This volume includes the Greek text, a short introduction

in Latin, a list of typographical errors, and the date November 7, 1546, as the date at which the printing was completed. Robert Stephanus printed a second edition in 1549. Other than making all the typographical corrections to the text of 1546, this volume is essentially the same as the first edition, to the extent that the text of this edition appears on the same page numbers as the previous edition. The third edition of Stephanus was printed in 1550. In addition to a new introduction in both Greek and Latin, we also find an explanation of the Gospels written by John Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople; a harmony of the Gospels; a list of Old Testament quotes found in the New Testament; a list of Old Testament incidents referred to in the New Testament; a short introduction to each book of the New Testament; and a brief list of typographical errors. This edition is divided into two parts in one volume: the Gospels and Acts in the first part, followed by the Epistles and Revelation in the second part. One final innovation is that Stephanus divided into verses the following text: Matthew 1 and 2, and John 1:1-19. This edition was known as the “Royal Edition,” and was the most used and reprinted of all the editions of the Textus Receptus. The fourth edition of Stephanus was printed in 1551. The edition was published in two volumes. The most important contribution of this edition is that all of the text of the New Testament was divided into verses. This edition has a very brief introduction in Latin

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The Identity of the textus receptus - Dr. Bill Patterson

prior to the text. The text is presented in three columns containing Erasmus’ translation into Latin, the Greek text, and the old Vulgate text. At the end of the second volume, Stephanus included over 260 pages that include a general index, a harmony of the Gospels, and a brief index of major events of the Gospels. Prior to the printing of the fourth edition, Robert Stephanus moved his press to Geneva. Increased persecution against Christians brought about by the Holy Inquisition from Spain was possibly a factor, but another was the freedom of religion in Geneva and the opportunity to work closely with some of the leaders of the Reformation. It is quite possible that Beza influenced Stephanus, or vice-versa, since the fourth edition of Stephanus is the model followed by Beza in all of his editions. Theodore Beza was one of the best-known faces of the Reformation. He assisted Olivetan in translating the Bible into French. His appointment as Professor of Greek at the academy in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1549, in addition to several published works, established him as a known academic and literary figure. He appears to have been chosen as Calvin’s successor in Geneva, although his greatest contribution to the Reformation may have been the preparation of Biblical text for publication. In 1560, Beza published his first edition of the Greek New Testament. It included Beza’s translation of the New Testament into Latin, previously published in 1556. Since it was not as complete as the quarto editions, that volume is not considered as one of the four major editions of the New Testament published by Beza. It was, however, Beza’s foray into the field of Biblical text. In 1565, Beza published the first of his famous four quarto editions. The printer was none other than Henri Stephanus, the son of Robert Stephanus. Surprisingly, given the anti-monarchical position espoused by Beza and other Reformers, Beza’s quarto editions were dedicated to Elizabeth, the Queen of England. One possible reason for this is that Beza had greatly benefitted from his association with Cambridge University, and even donated his celebrated Greek Codex to that university (Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis). In addition to the Greek text, Beza’s translation and the Old Vulgate are found in parallel columns. This is the first edition of the Greek New Testament that was annotated, giving commentary and occasional textual

information regarding the Greek text. Beza published his second quarto edition in 1582. The dedication to Queen Elizabeth is preceded by a short exhortation to the reader written by Beza in Latin, and followed by an exhortation to the reader written by Henri Stephanus in Greek in poetic meter. The text follows the pattern of the first edition, with cross references to Scripture verses in a fourth column. Beza’s annotations are found at the foot The most important of the page. At the end of the volume, contribution of this edition Beza prepared a is that all of the text of the comprehensive New Testament was index of the New divided into verses. Testament. Beza’s third quarto edition was published in 1588. The dedication to Queen Elizabeth of England is followed by Henri Stephanus’ exhortation to the reader. The text follows the pattern of the first and second editions, with cross references to Scripture verses in a fourth column, and the annotations at the foot of the page. At the end of the volume, there is a comprehensive index of the New Testament. In 1598, Beza published his fourth quarto edition. He once again dedicated this edition to Queen Elizabeth of England, followed by an exhortation to the reader written by Beza. Just before the text of the New Testament, Beza’s famous Index of the New Testament is included. The text is divided into three columns: the Greek text, Beza’s translation, the Old Vulgate text, and an additional column including cross references. The annotations are at the foot of the page. A final index and a list of typographical errors are at the conclusion of this edition. This edition was more closely followed by the translators of the Authorized Version than any other edition of the Textus Receptus. It should be noted that Beza’s works were reprinted numerous times. Other editions in 1559 (a reprint of Stephanus), 1560, 1567, 1580, 1589, 1590, 1604, and latter reprints from at least 1611 to 1708 disseminated Beza’s text throughout the Christian world. Despite the wide circulation of these texts, Beza’s text did not enjoy the distinction of being as distributed as that of Stephanus’ third edition. (Continued on page 16) UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 / 11


every creature.” Again, to a certain degree, this belief could serve as a genuine reason for the mission of the church. However, even this lofty motive falls short of an all-sacrificial yielding on the part of believers that is required to fulfill the Great Commission.

Theory #3 “The mission of the church is to live a separated life; as an end result, the lost will see Christ in the lives of believers.” While this is a valid part of a Christian’s life, it is not the mission of the church. These theories are both admirable and important to believers today; nevertheless, none of them will fully bring closure to the Great Commission.

The Local Church and Her Worldwide Mission by Tommy Thompson, Managing Editor

The local church is a body of believers confessing Jesus Christ as Lord. They organize under qualified leadership gathering regularly for worship, preaching, teaching, discipleship, and to observe the two biblical ordinances of baptism and communion. The local church’s primary function is to bring worship and honor to the LORD through missions. God has blessed the body of Christ with health, spiritual gifts, and financial resources in order to be His messenger. These amazing blessings come with responsibility and purpose. We have been blessed to be a blessing to all the nations of the world.

I. FIRST, WE MUST CLEARLY ESTABLISH THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH. There are many well-intentioned theories which could cause a believer to miss the true mission of God for the local church.

Theory #1 “The mission of the church is to evangelize the lost so they won’t go to hell.” When I accepted Christ as my Savior, this was my understanding. I wanted to miss hell. I think this is the case for many believers. Although evangelism is to be a natural byproduct of the church’s primary mission, it is not the mission itself.

Theory #2

The mission of the church is simple and clear; the end goal of everything we endeavor should be centered on bringing glory to God (I Corinthians 10:31; I Thessalonians 1:12). We live in a “me-first” manfocused society where God is a mere token element in people’s lives. Unfortunately, even seasoned believers only pull out God when it benefits them. God deserves more from the redeemed; He desires more from His church. He is entitled to be the central motive of everything we do (Romans 11:36; I Corinthians 1:31; Ephesians 3:21). If His glory is not the driving force behind all our mission effort, we have failed to accomplish the mandate given to the church.

II. SECOND, WE MUST DETERMINE HOW THE CHURCH CAN FULFILL ITS MISSION. The church needs four engines working simultaneously to fulfill her mission. These engines bring power to the church so its mission can be fulfilled. Consider the following illustration: the largest passenger plane in the world is the Airbus 380. At more than three stories high, its massive frame is able to carry up to 555 passengers. It has four Rolls Royce turbine engines attached to the wings to enable powerful efficient flying. Although it could fly on fewer engines, the designing engineers strategically placed the four engines on the wings, ensuring optimum performance as all four engines are running simultaneously and functioning at maximum efficiency. The church is similar in that there are four engines moving the church forward at her maximum efficiency. Let’s look at Acts 1:8 in order to better understand the worldwide mission of the church:

“The mission of the church is to preach the Gospel to 12 FIRSTBIBLE INTERNATIONAL

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The Local Church - Tommy Thompson

“But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.” -Acts 1:8

the surrounding communities first (Matthew 5:1316). Since the church’s goal is to see that God’s name is famous in all the earth, then every person reached within our own Judea potentially becomes the next generation of laborers to help reach the nations.

Each church must seek to get all four engines running at their maximum efficiency with the end goal of accomplishing God’s mission, His glory in all the earth. What a global impact the body of Christ will have on the world when believers truly become world Christians, turning their ministry focus to an All Peoples philosophy of mission!

Although there are many ways to accomplish reaching our Judea, two things must be constant to bring this to fruition. They are found in Matthew 22:37-40: first, to love the LORD God with all that is capable within us to love; and second, to love our neighbors as much as we love ourselves. When believers practice these two principles in their Judea, souls are added to the Lamb’s Book of Life.

ENGINE #1.

THE BODY OF BELIEVERS “OUR JERUSALEM” The plane will never go anywhere or come close to accomplishing its purpose if this first engine is not operating at capacity; there would be no need for the other engines. The other engines might as well not exist. When a local church ministers to its own, amazing things happen. A vibrant church is birthed capable of outreach in many areas. Why? Because a church must produce a healthy growing local body of believers reaching their Jerusalem in order to establish the foundation needed to then start the other engines.

ENGINE #2.

THE COMMUNITY AROUND US “OUR JUDEA” When a church exists only to minister to her own people, it ceases to be a church and has become a club. Our Judea is comprised of people who are similar to us and therefore, easiest to reach. We likely share a common language and culture, enabling us to build relationships. In order to share Christ, Christians are to be the salt and light in their own community and

ENGINE #3.

WHERE OTHERS HAVE BEEN “OUR SAMARIA” The church now makes a significant jump, entering a new arena of outreach, going where the Gospel exists, but is in dire need of expansion. Here, the social barriers of culture and language are progressively more obvious. While the differences are daunting, they are not insurmountable. The desired goal of the church should be to establish a church plant within the culture and to train qualified leadership in a timely manner. The missions mandate of the church continues as she accomplishes leadership training as seen in the fourgeneration spiritual genealogy of II Timothy 2:2. Now, the indigenous local church becomes national “Jerusalem” as they reach their own people with the Gospel. They are starting their first engine in The Great Commission.

ENGINE #4.

WHERE NO ONE IS NOW “THE UTTERMOST” Included in the missions mandate of the church is going

UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 / 13


The Local Church - Tommy Thompson

(Continued from page 13)

where Christ has not been named. The least-reached people of the world are decidedly the most difficult to reach. Though the distance is great and the cost can be substantial, we are reminded of the great missions example of our Savior. In obedience to the Father, He left His position in the heavenlies and adopted the culture of created beings. He spoke the language of humanity and dwelt in the society of mortals. It will be neither convenient nor comfortable for the church to extend ministry among the least-reached of the world. This has been God’s goal from the beginning; therefore, it needs to be our goal too. The level of difficulty does not excuse us from the responsibility. There are 6,000 people groups constituting the least-reached people of the world and 2,000 languages that have yet to call Him LORD. “Missions exists because worship doesn’t” (John Piper). Remember, we have been blessed and with that blessing we are called to be a blessing to all the nations of the earth. Sadly, this fourth engine is not operating in many fundamental churches. Statistics have revealed that only .02% of mission’s giving is for mission endeavors among the unreached people of the world. This is where a pioneer spirit of missions must be practiced, much like the Apostle Paul. We must come to the place in our ministry where we realize that although we have been successful in several areas evangelizing the world, we have overlooked a vitally important area. As we see in Mark 13:10, “And the gospel must first be published among all nations.” This gives us a specific

directive that all nations (people groups) must receive the Gospel. That is a clear directive. And in Revelation 7:9, “After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands.” God’s global plan is that there will be some from every people group present before His throne. To accomplish this, the church must get focused on its mission. When the Airbus 380 has all four engines fully functioning, it can taxi down the runway, take off and fly to its appointed destination with great efficiency, fulfilling the purpose for which it was designed. Likewise, the local church with its many components performs at its best when it reaches simultaneously into its Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria and the Uttermost. It is then that the church functions as the Master designed, fulfilling its God-given mission.

Tommy Thompson Managing Editor firstBible International

Letter from Adoniram Judson to Mr. Hasseltine Asking for his Daughter’s Hand in Marriage: “I have now to ask whether you can consent to part with your daughter early next spring, to see her no more in this world. Whether you can consent to her departure to a heathen land, and her subjection to the hardships and sufferings of a missionary life? Whether you can consent to her exposure to the dangers of the ocean; to

the fatal influence of the southern climate of India; to every kind of want and distress; to degradation, insult, persecution, and perhaps a violent death? Can you consent to all this for the sake of Him who left His heavenly home and died for her and for you; for the sake of perishing, immortal souls; for the sake of Zion and the glory of God? Can you consent to all this, in hope of soon meeting your daughter in the world of glory, with a crown of righteousness, brightened by the acclamations of praise which shall redound to her Saviour from heathens saved through her means, from eternal woe and despair?”

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firstBible chronicles the journey of the Nepali Bible from production to the delivery and dedication – 11:47

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firstBible Mongolia Project firstBible dedicates a printing press in Mongolia to publish God’s Word in the Uttermost. – 31:45

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The firstBible Story “that all the world may know…” The testimony of Dr. Charles Keen and God’s leading in the founding of firstBible International – 8:55

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Kimyal People Receive the Bible This is not our own project, but “Why not?” – 9:59

HIGHTLIGHED VIDEO

Heart to Heart - Nepal Video

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UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 / 15


The Identity of the textus receptus - Dr. Bill Patterson

(Continued from page 11)

In 1624, two Dutch brothers, Abraham and Bonaventure Elzevir, began yet another chapter in the history of the Textus Receptus. The main contribution was in the publication of a pocket-sized Greek New Testament, making it more practical and accessible to the average reader. By using cheaper paper and an innovative style of printing, this volume was far less expensive than any previous edition of the Greek New Testament. Other than a list of Old Testament quotes found in the New Testament, this volume contains the entire Greek New Testament without any exhortations, notes, or commentary. This edition was most likely based on one of Stephanus’ editions, although around one hundred emendations are made to the text.

edition, contains no other notes or commentary. At the end of the volume, there is a summary of each chapter of the New Testament in Greek. Each edition of the Textus Receptus made a significant contribution to the furtherance of the Scriptures. These volumes make up a family of texts that constitute God’s Word used by God’s people. We firmly believe that they represent God’s continuous promise when He commanded His Word “to a thousand generations.” (1 Chronicles 16:15 and Psalm 105:8) May we do our part in extending it faithfully to the next generation! 1 Clarke, Adam, Bibliographical Dictionary, London: Paternoster Row, 1804, vol. 4, pg. 245.

Nine years later, in 1633, the Elzevir brothers published their second volume of the Greek New Testament. The introduction, entitled “From the Typographer to the Reader,” contains the famous sentence from which the title Textus Receptus was coined. The introduction is followed by the list of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament and a tribute to the Bible written by Daniel Heinsius in Greek. The Greek text, as in the first

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Dr. Bill Patterson

Missionary/ Bible Translator

A MINISTRY OF FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF MILFORD


Dynamic Equivalence or Formal Equivalence by Rex Cobb, Director

Director, Baptist Bible Translators Institute

A Bible translation project requires at least three vital ingredients: the text, the technique, and the translator. For the New Testament, it is our conviction that the traditional (received) text is superior to the critical text. A skilled translator using the best technique while using the wrong text will at best produce a well-translated, corrupt Bible. The majority of Bible translations done around the world today (and for more than a half century) are done, in our opinion, using both the wrong text and the wrong technique. This wrong technique is commonly called “dynamic equivalence.” Other terms used for it are “meaning-based translation,” “cultural equivalence,” “functional equivalence,” and “thought for thought translation.” The dynamic equivalence (DE) method was developed by the late Eugene Nida (1914-2011), missionary/ translator and former president of the American Bible Society. Before his time, all Bible translation was done using a formal, word-for-word method. We believe this method, known as “formal equivalence” (FE), to be the proper technique. (A synonymous term used by some in recent days is “essentially literal translation.”) We do not question Mr. Nida’s love for the Word of God nor his sincere desire to see people read and understand the Bible. Neither do we doubt the dedication of his followers today, who are making great personal sacrifices to translate the Bible into the heart languages of the world. This is also our objective. Our disagreement concerns the text and the technique. By formal equivalence, we do not mean that a translation should follow the exact form (verb for verb, noun for noun, exact word order, etc.) as the original. One language may express an event as a verb, whereas

another language may express that same event in noun form. We define translation as moving words from one language into another. By “formal,” we mean the correct, proper or appropriate way of moving words from one language to another. Our view of Bible inspiration and preservation determines our view of Bible translation. If God inspired words (and we believe He did) and if He preserved words (and we believe He did) then what should we translate? Words! The DE translator attempts to discover what God meant by His words, or the message God intended for the original reader. Then he uses whatever words he thinks will deliver that same thought or message. This may sound noble and good, but upon closer examination, we find some very serious flaws in this method. The reader of the DE Bible may assume he is reading what God said, but in reality he is only reading what the translator thinks that God meant by what He said. What if the interpretation of the translator is wrong? What if there are various possible interpretations? To see this problem illustrated in English, read 1 Thessalonians 4:4. The translators of the Authorized Version, using the FE method, accurately translated the Greek word skeuos as “vessel,” so that the verse reads, “That every one of you should know how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honour.” “Vessel” is obviously a metaphor. It might be interpreted to refer to the body or maybe even a wife. (The wife is called “the weaker vessel” in 1 Peter 3:7.) But it can never be legitimately translated as wife or body. The Contemporary English Version says, “Respect and honor your wife.” Goodspeed’s translation reads, “…that each of you learn to take a wife for himself…” The NIV says, “that each of you should learn to control his own body…” The New Century Version says, “He wants each of you to learn to control your own body.” (Interestingly, in 1960 the revisers of the Spanish Bible, under the leadership of Nida, departed from the Reina Valera Bible and the FE technique and used the DE (Continued on page 21) UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 / 17


UNKNOWN - Dr. Charles Keen

AND THE UTTERMOST:

Realizing our full potential for reaching the lost by Dr. Charles Keen, firstBible International

There have been some huge fires recorded throughout history, some destroying thousands of acres of timber, others leveling hundreds of dwellings and killing thousands of people. Perhaps the most well-known fire in America, though not the largest, was the Chicago fire in 1871, supposedly caused by a cow kicking over a lantern. (D.L. Moody was holding a revival in Chicago, dismissing the service without an invitation.) Application to world evangelism from the Fire, the Fire Truck and the Firemen: The fire represents the condition of the world as being on fire. The fire truck represents the church, whose assignment is to go put out the fire. The firemen are the missionaries/soul winners who have made fire fighting their life’s call. Fire fighting has greatly improved since men started to fight fires. Hoses, hydrants and sprinkler systems replaced buckets. GPS replaced maps. Shiny red trucks with blaring horns and flashing lights replaced horse-drawn wagons. Skilled men replaced volunteers. Though the tools used may have changed, the goal and its urgency have not: put out the fire, save lives and property is still the purpose.

A PARABLE We see a four-story building on fire. The alarm is sounded; the fire trucks are dispatched, arriving with flashing lights and blaring horns. Brave men are working tirelessly to extinguish the fire and to rescue residents on the first three floors from the burning. (The best definition I have seen of a fireman or a policeman is that they are the ones rushing into danger when others are rushing out of it.) But the brave firemen leave the residents on the fourth floor to perish in the flames, despite the fact they were in the same danger. The firefighters have the same responsibility to them as to the others and there were as many people on the top floor as the other three combined. When asked why the fourth floor was not included as part of their efforts, the firemen responded, “Our truck was only equipped with three ladders.”

INTERPRETATION This parable is a picture of the church and its approach to world evangelism. The burning apartment building represents the world. The first three floors are Jerusalem, Judaea, and Samaria. The fourth floor is the Uttermost, stating our total responsibility as a church. The residents in the “building” number over 7 billion total that are in danger

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of eternal fire. The fire truck is the church, dispatched to go into the entire world with a message of deliverance. We, the church, like the men in the parable, have left the fourth story out of our rescue efforts and, pretty much, for the same reason. We are a three-ladder truck: we are a ladder short. This is where firstBible international (FBI) fits into the picture. We want to help the church measure up to its entire responsibility of reaching the whole world, including the 3.5 billion who live on the fourth floor (6,000 people groups) who have never heard the Gospel of redeeming grace. The Bible calls them the Uttermost. In other places in the Scriptures they are called nations, the regions beyond, or the ends of the earth etc. As the church responds to her command to “Go,” she must be prepared to reach the whole world with the Gospel message. Simply put, we are involved in helping you add a fourth ladder to your truck (church). This effort of adding a ladder is not to replace what you are already doing, but to extend it. We believe this ladder must have two side rails:

RAIL I - Local church revival, blended with RAIL 2 - Individual obedience.

(These side rails would have to be firmly planted in the Word of God with the top resting solidly on the arm rests of the throne of God.) This ladder needs only four rungs.

RUNG I - Awareness by the church family of the

existence and need of those in the Uttermost (top floor), which would cause us to pray, to go, and to give for the 6,000 people groups living on that fourth floor.

RUNG 2 - Bible translation, which among other things would tell those living on the fourth floor that God the Creator is not a slumlord but a landlord who loves them so much His son died as part of a plan of rescue, the Word also tells them where the fire escape is located- Calvary. RUNG 3 - National training, which we could see as

UTTERMOST

SAMARIA

JUDAEA JERUSALEM

RUNG 4 - Church-planting by the national among his own people with the Bible we have helped to translate for him.

Until we add the fourth ladder, we will not get to the fourth floor, where lives half of the world’s population for who Christ died and who are loved by God. And our firefighters (missionaries) will continually go to where the Gospel already is, never getting to where it is not. Obviously, we believe that reaching the first three floors is not wrong, but neither is it the sum total assignment. Hence, it is not enough... “Jerusalem, Judaea, Samaria, and the Uttermost.” P.S. It was just reported by above 500 brethren who saw Him at one time and the most of them remain alive unto this day. That the land lord’s Son who died in the fire, rose from the rubble and is now personally heading up the rescue effort, providing all His power, His personal presence and ample provision, equipping the church with ladders in order to reach every level including the fourth floor.

Dr. Charles Keen

Founder/ firstBible International

recruitment of additional firefighters who have their residence on the fourth floor. UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 / 19


ANSWER

THE CALL: by Pastor Rick Adams, Greater Portland Baptist Church

to the untold millions, but we would also strive together to finance a Bible translation project.

“The mark of a great church is not its seating capacity, but its sending capacity.” (Mike Stachura) Several years ago I became burdened that while Greater Portland Baptist Church was no doubt involved in reaching the lost with the Gospel, there were some things we simply were not doing right. In particular, one of those was the way we were targeting our missions’ projects and spending our missions’ dollars. Most pastors, me included, have allowed our mission’s program and conferences to be dictated by phone calls we receive. Due to no fault of the missionary, as pastors, we have been too busy with other matters to prayerfully and purposefully target the people groups who remain unreached. Standard procedure with pastors is simply to wait for missionaries to call, asking permission to come and present their burdens to our churches. We then check our calendars and missions’ conference schedules, confirm their coming and then, sadly, the best DVD and stellar presentation wins our attention and receives our funds. Though I was convinced there had to be a better way, it was just easier to wait for the next phone call and to funnel our funds in that direction. Oswald J. Smith said, “Any church that is not seriously involved in helping fulfill the Great Commission has forfeited its biblical right to exist.” The heartbeat of Greater Portland Baptist Church is to glorify Christ through worldwide evangelism. “And the gospel must first be published among all nations,” Mark 13:10. I was determined to find and do the will of God for Greater Portland Baptist Church in doing our part to reach all nations. With God’s help, I determined we would continue not only to send more missionaries and funds

Dr. Charles Keen, with firstBible International was already on the cutting edge of this thinking when I called him to discuss my burden and dilemma. Being no stranger to our church, he agreed to be the keynote speaker for our next missions conference. He came; and in addition to the conference, we hosted a Pastors’ luncheon with the expressed purpose of encouraging pastors to catch the vision for the Uttermost and to increase their effectiveness by partnering with other New Testament Baptist churches in this endeavor. The luncheon was a success! Dr. Charles Keen and firstBible International provided informative materials to every pastor that would fuel the passion to get involved. The Lord led us to team with Jason and Cherith Ottosen, missionaries to the Kamea people in Papua New Guinea. Their sending church is Faith Baptist Church, in Fairless Hills, PA, Pastor David Cashman. The Kamea are a primitive Bible-less people with an unwritten language. The Ottosens have begun the tedious process of first teaching literacy and then translating the Kamean language into a printable text. It will be a herculean effort, led by the Holy Spirit of God to produce a Kamean Bible. We are reminded in 1 Corinthians 3:9, “…We are labourers together with God.” Our church’s part is to join with Jason and Cherith in prayer, funding, personal mentoring and encouragement during this long process. God has already shown His endorsement and blessing. I am reminded of the words of Pat Morley; “If the Great Commission is true, our plans are not too big; they are too small.” I could not agree more! This is a spiritual adventure for Greater Portland Baptist Church. God has moved us from waiting for the next phone call to answering His call! May I encourage you to contact firstBible International to find out how you can do the same? “I believe that in each generation God has called enough men and women to evangelize all the yet unreached tribes

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Answer the call - Pastor Rick Adams

of the earth. It is not God who does not call. It is man who will not respond!” - Isobel Kuhn, missionary

Pictured Below - The home of Jason and Cherith Ottosen in Papua New Guinea is representative of how missions used to be and how it should be once again if we are to reach the Uttermost: every tribe, language, and nation. The Ottosens’ sending church is Faith Baptist Church in Fairless Hills, Pennsylvania, pastored by Reverend David Cashman. Both Cherith and Jason are graduates of Baptist Bible Translators Institute in Bowie, Texas, under the direction of Rex Cobb. Dr. Rick Adams, pastor of Greater

Portland Baptist Church leads his church in teaming up with the Ottosens in financial and prayer support.

Pastor Rick Adams Greater Portland Baptist Church

(Continued from page 17)

interpretation “wife” – esposa.) The reader of the DE Bible is going to assume that God said “wife” or “body.” The DE translator has forced his opinion on the reader and claimed that God said something that He did not say. The FE translator believes that he should give people God’s words, and they can then discern (perhaps with the help of teachers and commentators) the proper meaning of those words. The DE translator wants his translation to be immediately and easily understood by the reader, even the unsaved one, so he puts Bible symbolisms, figurative speech, or poetic language into easy to understand, colloquial speech. But we believe that the Bible can be translated in an understandable way and still retain its beautiful, elevated, and dignified language. The people of a Bibleless language need the Scriptures. Do we only give them the sense or general meaning of what God said, or do we give them the equivalent words that God originally gave by inspiration? When we hand the people a printed copy of our work, do we say, “This is the message of God”? Or do we say, “These are the words of God”?

Rex Cobb Director

Baptist Bible Translators Institute

UNPUBLISHED WORD JOURNAL / SPRING 2013 / 21


Title - Author

CRITICAL GREEK TESTAMENT

RETURNS TO THE TEXTUS RECEPTUS One of the pressing questions among people who have the responsibility of teaching and preaching the Word of God is which Greek text is the accurate one?1 Some say the Textus Receptus (TR) while others insist the critical text represented by the United Bible Society’s Greek Testament (UBS) which is built upon the text developed by Westcott and Hort. There is a forgotten text which was developed and based on the UBS text known as the Nestle/Aland Greek Testament. Of the Nestle-Aland text there are two major editions under consideration, the 25th and 26th. What is important about this discussion is that two men, Bobby Adams and Samuel C. Gipp,2 have brought to light the fact that the NA26 has returned many of the readings in their critical apparatus to Textus Receptus readings. Adams shows that in the Nestle-Aland 26th Edition “there are

765 daggers.3 And of the daggers, 554 of them are Textus Receptus readings, and of the 554 readings, there are 470 KJB readings. This is a 5 to 7 ratio which means 71% of the changes that Nestle has made are back to Textus Receptus readings” (Reintroductions, page iv). Does this indicate that the “scholars” are recognizing that the TR is not as bad a Greek text as some of them would have us believe?

1 It is acknowledged by firstBible International that the Textus Receptus, the Greek text, from which the King James New Testament was translated, is the accurate text. This is noteworthy because at least one of the Critical Greek Testaments has made a migration back to the TR readings. 2 The Reintroductions of Textus Receptus Readings in the 26th Edition & Beyond of the Nestle/Aland Novum Testamentum-Graece, Miamitown: Daystar Publishing, 2006). 3 Daggers are diacritical markers or “critical signs” present in the apparatus which indicates certain criteria used in the text. With the Nestle-Aland 26th the † (dagger or cross ) is described as “A cross marks a change in the text from the 25th edition, where the reading so marked stood in the text…These passages always represent very difficult textual decisions…” (Nestle-Aland 27th Edition, page 57*).

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