Mestizo = Spanish + Native American
“ I am the Maya prince…” “ I am the sword and flame of Cortes…” “ I was both tyrant and slave…”
Aztec leader -‐ Cuauhtémoc
Cuauhtémoc killed by small pox brought by the Spaniards.
“I am the eagle and serpent of the Aztec civiliza7on…”
Spanish + Indian Culture = Magical Realism
Chinampas or Irrigation canals used by the Aztecs
Fernando Cortes (1485-1547) Spanish Conquistador who led an expedi7on that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large por7ons of mainland Mexico under the rule of Spain.
Moctezuma was the Aztec ruler preceding Cuauhtémoc.
Spaniards dumping Moctezuma’s body into Lake Texcoco
Silver lured Spaniards further North
Tenochtitlan: Capital of Aztec Empire
Mayan Pyramid of Kukulcan
American attack on the Catedral Roja in Mexico City, Sept. 1847
Watercolor by an American soldier who fought in the Mexican-American War. “The Duel”
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Mexico lost about 1/2 of its territory
Picking Peppers in California
Villa and his supporters fought to bring democracy to Mexico in 1910. He seized hacienda land from the wealthy for distribu7on to peasants and soldiers.
Pancho Villa: Populist Gaucho Rebel from Chihuahua
Emiliano Zapata was a leading ﬁgure in the Mexican Revolu7on, which broke out in 1910, ini7ally against the president Porﬁrio Díaz and corrup7on.
The Zapa7stas were formed in 1910 in southern Mexico. The Zapa7stas were mainly poor peasants ﬁgh7ng against government corrup7on and treatment of the poor.
Logo of the League of United Latin American Citizens
Cesar Chavez in 1960s organizing Chican@ Workers Cesar and the DeLano Grape Strike, protesting the conditions and treatment of farm workers.
Pvt. Felix Longoria died fighting for his country in the Vietnam War, but was refused burial in a Vets cemetery
Mexican-American Marines in Vietnam (ca. 1970-1972)