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Mestizo = Spanish + Native American

“ I am the Maya prince…” “ I am the sword and flame of Cortes…” “ I was both tyrant and slave…”


Aztec  leader  -­‐  Cuauhtémoc  

Cuauhtémoc  killed  by  small  pox   brought  by  the  Spaniards.  


“I  am  the  eagle   and  serpent  of   the  Aztec   civiliza7on…”  


Spanish  +  Indian  Culture  =   Magical  Realism  


Chinampas or Irrigation canals used by the Aztecs


Fernando Cortes (1485-1547) Spanish  Conquistador  who  led  an  expedi7on  that  caused  the  fall  of   the  Aztec  Empire  and  brought  large  por7ons  of  mainland  Mexico   under  the  rule  of  Spain.


Moctezuma  was  the   Aztec  ruler  preceding   Cuauhtémoc.  

Spaniards dumping Moctezuma’s body into Lake Texcoco


Silver lured Spaniards further North


Tenochtitlan: Capital of Aztec Empire


Mayan Pyramid of Kukulcan


American attack on the Catedral Roja in Mexico City, Sept. 1847


Watercolor by an American soldier who fought in the Mexican-American War. “The Duel”


Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Mexico lost about 1/2 of its territory


Picking Peppers in California


Villa  and  his  supporters   fought  to  bring  democracy  to   Mexico  in  1910.  He  seized   hacienda  land  from  the   wealthy  for  distribu7on  to   peasants  and  soldiers.  

Pancho Villa: Populist Gaucho Rebel from Chihuahua


Emiliano Zapata was  a  leading  figure   in  the  Mexican  Revolu7on,  which   broke  out  in  1910,  ini7ally  against  the   president  Porfirio  Díaz  and  corrup7on.  

The  Zapa7stas  were  formed  in  1910  in   southern  Mexico.  The  Zapa7stas  were   mainly  poor  peasants  figh7ng  against   government  corrup7on  and  treatment  of   the  poor.  


Logo of the League of United Latin American Citizens


Cesar Chavez in 1960s organizing Chican@ Workers Cesar and the DeLano Grape Strike, protesting the conditions and treatment of farm workers.


Pvt. Felix Longoria died fighting for his country in the Vietnam War, but was refused burial in a Vets cemetery

Mexican-American Marines in Vietnam (ca. 1970-1972)


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