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Preface It is amazing to see how the different events in history have influenced and changed the way people have dressed throughout time. How poeple dressed is not the same from era to era. Fashion change, that is what was taught in Fashion Phenomena class. From the class I know that what was worn in the past can be interpret and become a new trend. In this book we can see how fashion changes time after time. And on how lifestyle, people, sports even economical and political condition could give a big impact to fashion. This book has 11 chapters from Victorian & Second Empire, Late Victorian & Gilded Age, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, 1930’s, 1940’s, 1950’s, 1960’s, 1970’s, 1980’s and 1990’s. Overall, the goal of the book is to build awareness toward readers about fashion evolution. Fashion is always change and revolutionize from time to time. And because of learning Fashion Phenomena now I aware and understand on how past event affect present. And I was able to finish this book.


Table Of Contents 04. Preface 08. Introduction 10. Victorian & Second Empire 12. Late Victorian & Gilded Age 14. 1930’s

22. 1970’s 24. 1980’s 26. 1990’s 28. Summary 30. Bibliography

16. 1940’s 18. 1950’s 20. 1960’s 5



Introduction Victorian & Second Empire

Late Victorian & Gilded Age

Art Nouveau

Art Deco

The Early Victorian, Crinoline, or Second Empire costume is what you should envision. It is a narrow shoulder look, small waist, and extremely large hem sweep with a supporting hoop or crinoline underneath the dress. The clothing for men did not change very much during the last 50 years of the 19th century.

Late Victorian women preferred high necks and puffed sleeves. Also sportswear like bicycling dress, tennis dress were worn by women. The late Victorian women wore sharper tailored jackets which gave them an all together different posture and confidence. These simpler fashions became popular because men wanted women that were beautiful, but not too bright or sassy

Art nouveau design penetrated into all types of modern, luxury European decorative arts in the period from 1895 to 1905. Its undulating vegetal curves and graceful floral swirls were also a design gift to the Parisian couturiers and until about 1908 or 1909 art nouveau style was energetically appropriated for seasonal, high-fashion use.

Following the demise of art nouveau as fashion inspiration, the appropriation of art deco design by Paris couturiers informed the next fashion look. This had two phases. The first ran from about 1910 to 1924 and was built around neoclassical/oriental/ peasant styling. The second ran from 1924 to about 1930-a more minimalist style, with modernist design touches






1930s style was heavily influenced by the Great Depression, signified by the dropping of hemlines to the ankles, a softer feminine silhouette accentuating natural waists and an emphasis on the dramatic shoulder. Dresses were designed to show off the curves of women.

From the beginning of World War II in 1939 till the dawn of the New Look in 1947, women’s dresses were knee-length and featured padded shoulders - one of the few adornments in clothing that was otherwise simple, thanks to wartime rationing. Silhouettes were austere, but even in suits or factory overalls, curls and bright lipstick kept the look feminine.

Women’s fashions of the 1950s reflected a complicated mix of conservatism and glamor: a girlnext-door freshness as well as alluring femininity. Women who had lived through the privations of the Great Depression and World War II were now able to afford new styles and embraced them all, from the elegance of grand, sweeping skirts to shorts and trousers.

1960s fashion was bi-polar in just about every way. The early sixties were more reminiscent of the 1950s — conservative and restrained; certainly more classic in style and design. The late 1960s were the exact opposite. Bright, swirling colors. Psychedelic, tie-dye shirts and long hair and beards were commonplace.




Early 1970s fashion was a fun era. It culminated some of the best elements of the 60s and perfected and/or exaggerated them. Some of the best clothing produced in the 1970s perfectly blended the mods with the hippies. Just when it seemed pants couldn’t flare any more (bell bottoms, anyone?), the flare was almost gone. By the late 1970s the pant suit, leisure suit and track suit was what the average person was sporting.

1980s fashion can be commended for its creativity. Some fashion designers abandoned history, some borrowed from it, while others tried to design the future. Designers abandoned all convention — and their creations were interesting to say the least.

Fashion in the early 1990s was generally loose fitting and colorful. Unless you were going for the grunge look, then color was the enemy. We had to wear Air Jordans, too. Our t-shirts were big and our shorts were extra long. Boys and girls both wore baseball caps in many different ways. Mullets were stylish for a couple years and every sweater had a turtleneck under it. But then grunge happened. Suddenly every thrift store in town couldn’t keep a flannel shirt in stock to save their backs.


Victorian & Second Empire

e l b a t n r u T

Vinyl record player history dates back to 1877, when Thomas Edison announced his invention of a device that would record and replay sound. The phonograph, as it was called, functioned by inscribing and retrieving audio information on a sheet of heavy tin foil wrapped around a cardboard cylinder. Three years later, Alexander Graham Bell improved that technology with the development of the graphophone, a device that retained Edison’s cylinder but used wax instead of tin foil as the recording medium. Both devices were marketed in the late 1800s—often as office dictation machines or as coin-operated record players stationed in public arcades.

Similarty & Differences

• Turntable or phonograph were used for recording and reproduction of sound


• Alexander Graham Bell and his two associates took Edison’s tinfoil phonograph and modified it considerably to make it reproduce sound from wax instead of tinfoil. • Now there are portable turntable that is more compact and light to bring everywhere.


Late Victorian & Gilded Age

Tuxedo A dinner jacket (British English) or tuxedo (American English, also colloquially known as “tux”), dinner suit, or DJ is a formal evening suit distinguished primarily by satin or grosgrain facings on the jacket's lapels and buttons and a similar stripe along the outseam of the trousers. The suit is typically black or midnight blue and commonly worn with a formal shirt, shoes and other accessories, most traditionally in the form prescribed by the black tie dress code

Similarty The common tuxedo jackets were of the same black material as the dress coat with one, two or no buttons and a shawl collar faced in satin or ribbed silk.


Differences • The tuxedo’s accompaniments have also evolved over time. The most traditional interpretation of these elements – formal shirt, formal waistcoat or cummerbund, black bow tie, formal shoes. • Nowadays women also wear tuxedo for formal event


Art Nouveau Choker A choker is a close-fitting necklace worn on the neck. Historically, it was associated with high fashion, but could take on different meanings under different circumstances. Ballerinas and the upper class in the late 19th century commonly wore certain types of chokers. However, at that same time, a plain, thin, red or black ribbon choker had ties to prostitution in the late 19th century, as seen in Manet’s Olympia (1861).

Simalirties • Chokers can be made of a variety of materials, including velvet, plastic, beads, metal such as silver, gold or platinum, leather, etc. They can be adorned in a variety of ways, including with sequins, studs, or a pendant. • Common type of chokers include Victorian, vintage, open collar, Gothic, pendant, gemstones, or tattoo.


Differences • A plain black woven choker or ribbon could signify secret lesbianism in the Depression era. • It was also used as a form of bondage in the Middle Ages, where the slaves wore them to signify ownership over themselves • Now choker has been made from many types of material like silver, plastic, ribbon, etc.



Art Deco

Cloche Hat The cloche hat or simply cloche is a fitted, bell-shaped hat for women that was invented in 1908 by milliner Caroline Reboux, especially became popular from about 1922 to 1933. Its name is derived from cloche, the French word for “bell”. During the early twentieth century, the popularity and influence of cloche hats was at its peak. Couture houses like Lanvin and Molyneux opened ateliers to join milliners in manufacturing hats that precisely matched their clothing designs. The hats even shaped hairstyles: the Eton crop – the short, slicked-down cut worn by Josephine Baker – became popular because it was ideal to showcase the hats’ shape.

Simalirty • Cloche hats were usually made of felt so that they conformed to the head, and were typically designed to be worn low on the forehead, with the wearer’s eyes only slightly below the brim

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Differences • In later years, a summer cloche might be made from sisal or straw. Cloches could also be made of beads or lace for evening wear, for cocktails, dancing or even for bridal wear. • In the late 1980s, newly invented models of the cloche, such as Patrick Kelly’s version with a buttoned brim, made a minor resurgence


1940’s Snow White “Snow White” is nineteenth-century German fairy tale which is today known widely across the Western world. The Brothers Grimm published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection Grimms’ Fairy Tales. It was titled in German: Sneewittchen (in modern orthography Schneewittchen) and numbered as Tale 53. The Grimms completed their final revision of the story in 1854. The fairy tale features such elements as the magic mirror, the poisoned apple, the glass coffin, matricide, filicide, and the characters of the Evil Queen, Snow White’s evil stepmother, the huntsman, a beautiful princess named Snow White into a sleeping enchantment, a handsome prince and the seven dwarfs. The seven dwarfs were first given individual names in the 1912 Broadway play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and then given different names in Walt Disney’s 1937 film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.

Simalirty • Some the characters still remain the same even though there’s many version of Snow White


Differences • Snow White evolution has produce several versions of Snow White story each versions has a different story plot. For example “Snow White & Huntsman” & “Mirror Mirror” • Snow White has influenced many designers and film makers to interpreted the story into their masterpieces


1940’s LEGO Lego (stylized and trademarked as LEGO) is a line of plastic construction toys that are MANUFACTURED by The Lego Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark. The company’s flagship product, Lego, consists of colorful interlocking plastic bricks accompanying an array of gears, figurines called minifigures, and various other parts. Lego pieces can be assembled and connected in many ways, to construct objects; vehicles, buildings, and working robots. Anything constructed can then be taken apart again, and the pieces used to make other objects. The Lego Group began manucfacturing the interlocking toy bricks in 1949. Since then a global Lego subculture has developed.



• Lego pieces of all varieties constitute a universal system. Despite variation in the design and the purposes of individual pieces over the years, each piece remains compatible in some way with existing pieces. • Lego bricks from 1958 still interlock with those made in the current time, and Lego sets for young children are compatible with those made for teenagers. Six pieces of 2x4 bricks can be combined in 915,103,765 ways

Differences • Lego has licensed themes from numerous cartoon and film franchises and even some from video games. These include Batman, Indiana Jones, Star Wars, and Minecraft • Lego has expand their business into theme park, video game, clothing, films,etc.



Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy-company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration. Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over fifty years, and has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits, often involving parody of the doll and her lifestyle.

Simalirties • Barbie has been a global, cultural icon and a source of inspiration and imagination to millions of girls around the world • Barbie is world famous doll that is still popular untill now


Differences • Barbie physical appearance has been evoluted for several times, which will now come in a range of seven skin tones, 22 eye colors and 24 hair styles. • Barbie has become fashion phenomena many designers were being inspired by Barbie look. • Barbie now also produces movies, school supplieas, clothing, etc.



Pop Art

Pop art is now most associated with the work of New York artists of the early 1960s such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist, and Claes Oldenburg, but artists who drew on popular imagery were part of an international phenomenon in various cities from the mid-1950s onwards. Following the popularity of the Abstract Expressionists, Pop’s reintroduction of identifiable imagery (drawn from mass media and popular culture) was a major shift for the direction of modernism.

Simalirties • Pop art employs aspects of mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. One of its aims is to use images of popular (as opposed to elitist) culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture, most often through the use of irony. • Perhaps owing to the incorporation of commercial images, Pop art has become one of the most recognizable styles of modern art.


• The revival of painting at the end of the 1970s and in the early 1980s, the art object came back into favor once again, and popular culture provided subject matter that was easy for viewers to identify and understand. One of the leading figures of the Neo-Pop movement was Jeff Koons • Pop Art is stille existed until now, many designers interpreted it as funritures or clothing. pop art was destined to become the most referred art movement in the fashion industry. 24


1970’s Afro Look Afro, sometimes shortened to ‘fro and also known as a “natural”, is a hairstyle worn naturally by people with lengthy kinky hair texture or specifically styled in such a fashion by individuals with naturally curly or straight hair. The hairstyle is created by combing the hair away from the scalp, allowing the hair to extend out from the head in a large, rounded shape, much like a cloud or ball. In persons with naturally curly or straight hair, the hairstyle is typically created with the help of creams, gels or other solidifying liquids to hold the hair in place. Particularly popular in the African-American community of the late 1960s, the hairstyle is often shaped and maintained with the assistance of a wide-toothed comb colloquially known as an afro pick.

Simalirties The Afro was adopted by both men and women and was a hairstyle that was easier to maintain by oneself, without requiring frequent and sometimes costly visits to the hairstylist as was often experienced by people who chose to braid, straighten or relax their hair.


Differences The Afro saw some resurgence in both the 1990s and 2000s.These Afros would take varied forms—some incorporating elements such as braids, beads or twists—as well as various sizes—from close-cropped natural hairstyles all the way to expansive Afro wigs.


1980’s High Waisted Jeans Mom jeans is a humorously pejorative term for a type of women's jeans worn in the 80's considered to be unfashionable and unflattering to the wearer's figure. This style usually consists of a high waist (rising above the belly button), making the buttocks appear disproportionately longer, larger, and flatter than they otherwise might. It also tends to have excess space in the zipper/crotch and leg areas.

Simalirties The jeans are usually in a solid, light-blue color, with no form of stone washing or fading. The style is often accompanied by a blouse or shirt that is tucked into the jeans.


Differences This style of jeans was popular with women in the United States until the mid-1990s, when lower rise jeans started to become fashionable. But now the jeans has becoming a trend again with several details like patches and torn up styles.


1990’s Kate Moss Kate Moss (born 16 January 1974) is an English model. Born in Croydon, Greater London, she was discovered in 1988 at age 14 by Sarah Doukas, founder of Storm Model Management, at JFK Airport in New York City. Moss rose to fame in the early 1990s as part of the heroin chic fashion trend. She is known for her waifish figure, and role in size zero fashion. She received an award at the 2013 British Fashion Awards to acknowledge her contribution to fashion over 25 years. Moss has had her own clothing range and has been involved in musical projects. She has won accolades for modelling. In 2007, TIME named her one of the world's 100 most influential people

Simalirties • Both are supermodels. • Both has little petit body for a model. • Both are hired for high fashion designers fashion show & has become cover of magazine for so many times. 30

Differences • Kate Moss was scouted at age 14, while Cara Delvigne was never scouted, her family has friend that workes for an agency that helped her. • While Kate Moss is mysterious with her persona, Cara Delevigne is more careless and active on social media.


SUMMARY This book is about fashion and lifestyle between 11 chapters from Victorian & Second Empire, Late Victorian & Gilded Age, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, 1930’s, 1940’s, 1950’s, 1960’s, 1970’s, 1980’s and 1990’s. Fashion is not defined solely by our clothing choices, but is alson conveyred through the way we carry ourselves,our personalities and our views of the world. Fashion is notjust stop in one era, but it will repeating and become a trend in nowadays. From this comparison we will find out, if fashion may change but the style is eternal. Although times change, but all remained repeated and repeated. Many things that now there is inspiration from the era is past. All the things I know and understand right now is because the class i took, which is Fashion Society class and that was taught by Mr. Ichwan Thoha. Thanks to sir Ichwan Thoha for supporting and giving me the oppurtunity to make comparison book as my final project. Hopefull this book is usefull and can add more information to us about fashion, style and history.


"How to wear, not what to wear" - Ichwan Thoha



Fitrina Anjani

Assignment 1  

No copyright intended. Assignment purpose.

Assignment 1  

No copyright intended. Assignment purpose.